WorldWideScience

Sample records for skin irritation potential

  1. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Human in vivo cumulative irritation tests with low-grade irritants simulate real-life exposure to skin irritants. The test outcome depends not only on the substance tested but also on the design of the assay. More than one experimental irritant is usually used because chemicals...... have diverse mechanisms of action on the skin. We used sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON) in three different concentrations plus their vehicles, water and n-propanol, respectively, to validate our test models and to optimize test concentrations. METHODS: Healthy volunteer forearm skin....... Wash test: induction of irritation by three daily washings for 6 days and maintenance of the dermatitis by two daily washings for 12 days with SLS 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% or NON 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally (transepidermal water loss, colorimetry...

  2. Development of a standardized testing procedure for assessing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter; Seyfarth, Florian; Antonov, Dimitar; John, Swen Malte; Diepgen, Thomas; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Frequent skin cleaning fulfils the definition of occupational 'wet work'. Standardized methods are required to assess the irritation potential of workplace cleansers. To develop a standardized procedure for testing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers. In this single-blind, single-centre trial in 25 healthy volunteers, the irritation potential of five generic reference cleansers was tested by three-times-daily washing with an automated skin cleaning device for 4 days, and quantification of cumulative skin barrier damage was performed by visual scoring, chromametry, transepidermal water loss TEWL, and corneometry. For two cleansers, reproducibility of the irritancy assessment was assessed. Furthermore, the irritation induced by four commercial workplace skin cleansers was studied. Whereas no significant changes were observed for any of the tested cleansers by either visual scoring or chromametry, significant increases in TEWL and significant decreases in stratum corneum hydration were found for all cleansers. Cleansers differed significantly in their irritation potential. On retesting of two cleansers, the first results were confirmed. Among the four commercial cleansers, one that was claimed to be mild was found to be disproportionally irritant. The presented model for testing cleansing preparations allows a highly controlled, practically relevant and reproducible irritancy assessment of occupational skin cleansers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An overview of skin penetration enhancers: penetration enhancing activity, skin irritation potential and mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunyoo Songkro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery has attracted considerable attention over the past 2-3 decades in regard of its many potentialadvantages. However, the role of the skin as a protective barrier renders skin absorption of most drugs problematic. Therefore,skin penetration enhancers are frequently used in the field of transdermal drug delivery in order to reversibly reduce thebarrier function of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. To date, a wide range of chemical compounds havebeen shown to enhance the skin penetration of therapeutic drugs. This review presents a critical account of the most commonlyused chemical penetration enhancers (fatty acids and surfactants, and some newer classes of chemical enhancers (terpenes,polymers, monoolein, oxazolidinones, with emphasis on their efficacy, mechanism of action, and skin irritation potential. Thisreview also discusses the traditional and more recently developed methods for the screening and evaluation of chemical penetration enhancers, and addresses the continuing problems in the rational selection of a chemical penetration enhancer for a specific drug to be delivered via the transdermal route.

  4. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  5. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine, and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol. The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  6. Assessment of phototoxicity, skin irritation, and sensitization potential of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Yi, Sang Min; Hyeok Choi, Byeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, In-Kyoung; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Son, Sang Wook

    2011-07-01

    The human skin equivalent model (HSEM) is well known as an attractive alternative model for evaluation of dermal toxicity. However, only limited data are available on the usefulness of an HSEM for nanotoxicity testing. This study was designed to investigate cutaneous toxicity of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles using cultured keratinocytes, an HSEM, and an animal model. In addition, we also evaluated the skin sensitization potential of nanoparticles using a local lymph node assay with incorporation of BrdU. Findings from the present study indicate that polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles do not induce phototoxicity, acute cutaneous irritation, or skin sensitization. Results from evaluation of the HSEMs correspond well with those from animal models. Our findings suggest that the HSEM might be a useful alternative model for evaluation of dermal nanotoxicity.

  7. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  8. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  9. Irritant and sensitizing potential of eight surfactants commonly used in skin cleansers: an evaluation of 105 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Lauriola, Maria Michela; Bianchi, Anna; Zappaterra, Mario; Virgili, Annarosa

    2010-01-01

    Irritation from surfactants contained in detergents is a frequent adverse reaction to cosmetics. Sensitization to surfactants is also possible. In the literature, comparative studies about irritant and sensitizing potential of different surfactants are heterogeneous and inconclusive about the best molecules to use. We compared the irritant and sensitizing potential of some surfactants that are usual components in marketed synthetic detergents (syndets) to obtain practical information regarding commonly used detergents. We patch-tested eight surfactants of the different types (anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic) in 105 patients. Assessment of allergic reactions of tested surfactants was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group; assessment of irritant power followed the amended Draize classification. None of the eight surfactants in our series gave positive allergic reactions. Only cocamidopropyl betaine from the Italian standard (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica, Professionale e Ambientale [SIDAPA]) series gave five positive reactions among 105 patients. None of the eight studied surfactants induced skin irritation. The most tolerated are two new mild anionics (sodium cocoyl glutamate and sodium lauroyl oat amino acids) and an amphoteric agent (disodium cocoamphodiacetate). From this study, we deduce that cosmetic companies' efforts to search for and market new products with very mild surfactants have been generally successful.

  10. Assessment of the in vitro dermal irritation potential of cerium, silver, and titanium nanoparticles in a human skin equivalent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyani, Vivek A; Hughes, Michael F

    2017-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles can potentially contact human skin during their manufacture and use in commercial products. This study examined the potential of metal nanoparticles to elicit irritant contact dermatitis in a human skin equivalent model (HSEM) derived from keratinocytes. Ag (10-100 nm), TiO2 (22-214 nm), and CeO2 (15-40 nm) nanoparticles were studied. The Ag particles were either coated/shelled with silica or capped with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone and were in water. The TiO2 and CeO2 particles were suspended in media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The particles (1 mg/ml) were applied to the epidermal surface of the HSEM. Positive (5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and negative controls (saline or media) were included. After 1-h exposure at 37 °C, the HSEM was washed with saline to remove the nanoparticles. Following a 42-h incubation (37 °C), HSEM viability was assessed using the MTT assay. A test substance is considered a dermal irritant if the HSEM viability is < 50%. The mean viability for the SDS-treated HSEM was 7.8%. The viabilities of the nanoparticle-treated HSEM were 91% or greater. The Ag, TiO2, and CeO2 nanoparticles examined were not dermal irritants under the conditions used in this study. The stratum corneum of the HSEM may limit penetration of metal nanoparticles to induce toxicity.

  11. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  12. Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization due to vitacoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available The prediction of side-effects is a key issue in the REACH initiative on chemicals in the preclinical testing of drugs. The dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity potential of a new molecule, vitacoxib, were invested in rabbits and guinea pigs in compliance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline. To assess dermal irritation, rabbits were dermally attached to vitacoxib for 72 h or repeated application. The results showed that no adverse reactions such as erythema and edema were observed throughout the test. In skin sensitization test, guinea pigs were sensitized to vitaoxib, positive and negative article for 24 h. No sensitization reaction was shown in the vitacoxib and negative group whereas severe sensitization was observed in the positive group. Based on these findings, vitacoxib does not cause dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity, and seems to be safe for animal use. Keywords: Vitacoxib, Dermal irritation, Skin sensitization

  13. Measurement of cytotoxicity and irritancy potential of sugar-based surfactants on skin-related 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Miao, Yong; Vigneron, Pascale; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Pezron, Isabelle; Egles, Christophe; Vayssade, Muriel

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-based surfactants present surface-active properties and relatively low cytotoxicity. They are often considered as safe alternatives to currently used surfactants in cosmetic industries. In this study, four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or a maltose headgroup through an amide linkage, were synthesized and compared to two standard surfactants. The cytotoxic and irritant effects of surfactants were evaluated using two biologically relevant models: 3D dermal model (mouse fibroblasts embedded in collagen gel) and reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, multi-layered human keratinocytes). Results show that three synthesized surfactants possess lower cytotoxicity compared to standard surfactants as demonstrated in the 3D dermal model. Moreover, the IC50s of surfactants against the 3D dermal model are higher than IC50s obtained with the 2D dermal model (monolayer mouse fibroblasts). Both synthesized and standard surfactants show no irritant effects after 48h of topical application on RHE. Throughout the study, we demonstrate the difficulty to link the physico-chemical properties of surfactants and their cytotoxicity in complex models. More importantly, our data suggest that, prior to in vivo tests, a complete understanding of surfactant cytotoxicity or irritancy potential requires a combination of cellular and tissue models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin irritation testing of antimicrobial conjugated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Kristin N; Nguyen, Phuong A H; Whitten, David G; Canavan, Heather E

    2017-04-20

    Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity. However, before the PPE and OPE can be used with humans, skin irritation tests are required to ensure their safety. In this work, in vitro skin assays are used to predict in vivo irritation. Tissues were conditioned for 24 h, exposed to test substances for 1 h, and then tested for viability using colorimetric and cytokine assays. Concentrations up to 50 μg/ml were tested. Viability assays and cytokine (IL-1α) assays demonstrated that the two polymers, three symmetric oligomers, and three "end only" oligomers were nonirritants. In addition, electrospun mats consisting of several promising compounds, including poly(caprolactone), were evaluated. Therefore, all test substances are conservatively classified as nonirritants after a 1 h exposure time period.

  15. An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. J. L.; Lehé, C.; Cammans, K. D. A.; Das, P. K.; Elliott, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of human organotypic skin explant cultures (hOSECs) for screening skin irritants. Test chemicals were applied to the epidermis of the skin explants which were incubated for 4, 24 or 48 h in tissue culture medium. A decrease in epidermal RNA staining, visualised in frozen

  16. Dermal and ocular irritation and skin sensitization studies of fullerene C60 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-06-01

    Widespread production and use of nanomaterials have caused the release of increasing amounts of nanomaterials into the environment. The introduction of novel materials into industry requires safety evaluations as well as an understanding of the impact of the nanomaterials on human health, because the unique properties and size of nanomaterials may also result in unique health risks. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition to the superficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. However, information on the dermal and eye irritation and sensitization of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles is still lacking. This study was performed to examine the potential irritating and sensitizing effects of fullerenes on the skin and eyes. The dermal and eye irritation study was performed using rabbits according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines 404 and 405, respectively. The skin sensitization study was carried out in accordance to the OECD Guideline 406 using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the fullerenes in the test substances were the maximum allowable for administration. Fullerenes were applied at 50 mg in dermal irritation, 40 mg in skin sensitization, and 100 mg in eye irritation studies. No dermal responses, including erythema/eschar or edema, were found in rabbits treated with fullerenes. No rabbits exhibited corneal opacity, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis eye at any time point after the application of fullerenes. Fullerenes caused conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1 h, but not at 24 h. No erythema or edema was observed after the challenge with fullerenes in the fullerene-treated guinea pigs. Reversible minimal potential for acute irritation of the eyes was induced by fullerenes, but neither irritation nor sensitization was caused on the skin. Although the present study provided

  17. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  18. Skin irritation and exposure to diisocyanates in orthopedic nurses working with soft casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T H; Gregersen, P; Jemec, G B

    2001-12-01

    Diisocyanates are widely used in industry, for example at hospitals as a constituent of Scotch Cast soft casts (3M, Glostrup, Denmark). They are a cause of occupational asthma and have been described as causing cutaneous problems both as irritants and as sensitizers. The sensitizing potential of diisocyanates has previously only sporadically been described, predominantly in case reports. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate eventual work-related skin sensitization to diisocyanates in a regularly exposed population. The nursing staff of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic, consisting of 10 persons, were interviewed and subjected to patch testing using 5 types of diisocyanates and the TRUE Test (ECDRG Standard Series) to elucidate possible other type IV allergies with similar symptoms. Patch test results were evaluated according to the guidelines of the International Contact Dermatitis Group. We found no relationship between exposure time and severity of symptoms. Symptoms were mild, consisting of redness, itching, or both, lasting about 30 minutes. There was no suggestion that they result in any chronic skin problems. One nurse presented a doubtful reaction towards diaminophenylmethane (MDA) and isophorene diisocyanate (IPDI). Nine persons had no reactions to the 5 diisocyanates used in the patch test. Positive reactions were seen to nickel (4/10), thiomersal (2/10), and perfume mix (1/10). Our observations suggest that diisocyanates are primarily irritants rather than sensitizers in the professional setting studied. The skin symptoms of irritation were all mild and temporary. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  19. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  20. Barrier recovery and influence of irritant stimuli in skin treated with a moisturizing cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M

    1997-05-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of clinically and subjectively dry skin. Recent studies suggest that certain ingredients in creams may accelerate the recovery of a disrupted barrier and decrease the skin susceptibility to irritant stimuli. In the present single-blind study, a moisturizing cream was tested for its influence both on barrier recovery in surfactant-damaged skin and on the susceptibility of normal skin to exposure to the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Parameters measured were transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin corneometer values, indicating degree of hydration. Treatment of surfactant-damaged skin with the test cream for 14 days promoted barrier recovery, as observed as a decrease in TEWL. Skin corneometer values also normalized more rapidly during the treatment. In normal skin, use of the test cream significantly reduced TEWL after 14 days of treatment, and irritant reactions to SLS were significantly decreased. Skin corneometer values increased after only 1 application and remained elevated after 14 days. In conclusion, the accelerated rate of recovery of surfactant-damaged skin and the lower degree of SLS-induced irritation in normal skin treated with the test cream may be of clinical relevance in attempts to reduce contact dermatitis due to irritant stimuli.

  1. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contri, Renata V; Frank, Luiza A; Kaiser, Moacir; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC) was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP) did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP]) and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product]) and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product]) irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation.

  2. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  3. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfa...

  4. A hydroquinone formulation with increased stability and decreased potential for irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Kenneth A; Dong, Kelly K; Canning, Matthew T; Grimson, Roger; Walfield, Alan M; Yarosh, Daniel B

    2007-06-01

    Long-term treatment with a high-strength hydroquinone (HQ) cream (usually 4% HQ) is the mainstay therapy for hyperpigmentation disorders. Instability and high potential for irritancy hinders patient compliance. A new 4% HQ preparation has been designed with an innovative antioxidant for stability and a biomimetic of an herbal extract for skin calming. To investigate the activity, stability, and irritancy of a new HQ cream. To evaluate the new HQ cream in comparison with commercial 4% HQ creams for stability by temperature stress test, for irritancy by repeated-insult patch test on human subjects, and for lightening effect using the MelanoDerm B skin equivalent model. The new HQ is more resistant to browning and shows less irritancy than three commercially available 4% HQ products. It has comparable bleaching effect with faster onset than a 4% HQ product containing 0.05% tretinoin and 0.01% fluocinolone acetonide. Based on its improved stability, lower irritancy, and activity in skin lightening, the new approach to the formulation of 4% HQ may improve therapeutic outcomes by improving patient compliance to dosing.

  5. Topical antioxidants protect the skin from chemical-induced irritation in the repetitive washing test: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Christoph M; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Ferrari, Yvonne; Brecht, Thomas; Gehring, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species play an important role in the development of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. To assess the potential of topical antioxidants to prevent the development of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effect of a cream containing a combination of antioxidants on sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis in the repetitive washing test. As readout parameters for skin barrier function and cutaneous inflammation stratum corneum hydration, cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss were assessed in 25 volunteers with bioengineering methods. In comparison with the cream base and a frequently used barrier cream, the antioxidant cream had high radical scavenging activity and effectively protected the skin from chemical-induced irritation. The superiority of the cream with antioxidants to the cream base suggests that reactive oxygen species, at least in part, play a role in the development of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool.

  7. Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.

  8. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives.

  9. Protective creams fail to prevent solvent-induced cumulative skin irritation - results of a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Kleesz, Peter; Elsner, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Occupational skin contact with lipophilic substances is a risk factor for the development of irritant hand dermatitis. Skin protection creams form part of the personal protective equipment, and some are claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants. However, their benefit against solvents is under debate. To evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams claimed to protect against lipophilic irritants in a newly developed repetitive irritation model. Thirty-five healthy volunteers were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study, and six barrier creams were evaluated against irritation induced by two occupationally relevant model solvents, n-octane and cumene. Clinical scoring and bioengineering methods (capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements) were used to quantify the irritant reactions. None of the test products offered protection against n-octane-induced clinical irritation or stratum corneum dehydration. One test product significantly aggravated the skin irritation induced by both irritants, and a second one enhanced dehydration induced by n-octane only. The lack of efficacy and the aggravation of skin irritation induced by two of six test products stress the need for standardized efficacy testing of occupational skin protection products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Release of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in skin organ cultures as characteristics of in vitro skin irritancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Maas, W.J.M.; Doornink, P.C.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro techniques make a major contribution to the development of alternatives to the in vivo 'Draize' skin irritation test, and the development of sensitive and generally applicable in vitro endpoints of cutaneous toxicity is an area of intensive research. To investigate in vitro characteristics

  11. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached....

  12. In vitro assessment of eye irritancy using the Reconstructed Human Corneal Epithelial SkinEthic HCE model: application to 435 substances from consumer products industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovio, José; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Lelièvre, Damien; Bremond, Christelle; Amsellem, Carolle; Maloug, Saber; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Lee, Aline Van Der; Minondo, Anne-Marie; Capallere, Christophe; Bertino, Béatrice; Alépée, Nathalie; Tinois-Tessonneaud, Estelle; de Fraissinette, Anne De Brugerolle; Meunier, Jean-Roch; Leclaire, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The 7th amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive led to the ban of eye irritation testing for cosmetic ingredients in animals, effective from March 11th 2009. Over the last 20years, many efforts have been made to find reliable and relevant alternative methods. The SkinEthic HCE model was used to evaluate the in vitro eye irritancy potential of substances from a cosmetic industry portfolio. An optimized protocol based on a specific 1-h treatment and a 16-h post-treatment incubation period was first assessed on a set of 102 substances. The prediction model (PM) based on a 50% viability cut-off, allowed to draw up two classes (Irritants and Non-Irritants), with good associated sensitivity (86.2%) and specificity (83.5%). To check the robustness of the method, the evaluated set was expanded up to 435 substances. Final performances maintained a high level and were characterized by an overall accuracy value > 82% when using EU or GHS classification rules. Results showed that the SkinEthic HCE test method is a promising in vitro tool for the prediction of eye irritancy. Optimization datasets were shared with the COLIPA Eye Irritation Project Team and ECVAM experts, and reviewed as part of an ongoing progression to enter an ECVAM prospective validation study for eye irritation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Mila; Gledović, Ana; Lukić, Milica; Tasić-Kostov, Marija; Isailović, Tanja; Pantelić, Ivana; Vuleta, Gordana; Savić, Snežana

    2016-11-01

    Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC), transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index (EI) and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study) on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  14. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. Methods. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC, transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL, erythema index (EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. Results. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Conclusion. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  15. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  16. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant......, to a detergent and to an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately. The hardening effect in preirritated skin after a 4-week interval was also evaluated. Detergent, disinfectant and disinfectant/detergent alternately were applied daily every 15 min for 6 h for 2 days to the flexor upper arms and forearms...... evaluations, P = 0.001 and P = 0.001 and P = 0.006 and P = 0.009, respectively. No hardening effect in preirritated skin was found after a 4-week interval. In conclusion, hand disinfection with alcohol-based disinfectant or alternate use of disinfectant/detergent causes less skin irritation than hand...

  17. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  19. Short term study of human skin irritation by single application closed patch test: assessment of four multiple emulsion formulations loaded with botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of skin irritation potential is a major concern in safety assessment of cosmetics, when long-term use of these products are expected. Non-invasive bioengineering probes have been used previously to measure skin irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients. Experimentation carried out to weigh up the skin irritation potential of four multiple emulsion formulations via visual and non-invasive measurements. Immediate effects of formulations and comparison of two assessment techniques were also tried to establish. Four multiple emulsion formulations one control (without botanical active) and three containing the functional botanical actives plus additives were tested in this study using the following techniques: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), COLIPA visual scoring method (CVSM), Mexameter MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany) and capacitance [Corneometer MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany)]. Visual examination and non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and after 24 h. The formulations were applied on the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers of same sexes aged 20-25 years. We found that none of the formulation produced irritation both on visual and instrumental evaluation. However, formulations MeB and MeC have comparable immediate effects on dryness, erythema, melanin and TEWL. Formulation MeC produced more effective results on different parameters, may be due to synergistic effect of two extracts, while MeA failed to produce any immediate effects on skin parameters. Moreover results of both assessment methods are parallel to each other. None of the formulation produce irritant effects, barrier impairment effects or immediate effects except for the formulation MeC which produced appreciable results than other formulations but statistically these results were insignificant (p > 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that formulations may be implied safely as skin rejuvenating candidates.

  20. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (< 50%) and significantly higher interleukin-1α release compared with the solvent alone group, in the RhE tissue model and an intracutaneous response test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Confocal histopathology of irritant contact dermatitis in vivo and the impact of skin color (black vs white)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hicks, Shari P.; Swindells, Kirsty J.; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Sifakis, Martine A.; González, Ernesto; González, Salvador

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and its modulation according to skin color is not well understood. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables high-resolution, real-time, in-vivo imaging of human skin. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to use RCM to determine whether

  2. The in vitro skin irritation of chemicals: optimisation of the EPISKIN prediction model within the framework of the ECVAM validation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovio, Jose; Grandidier, Marie-Helene; Portes, Pascal; Roguet, Roland; Rubinstenn, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    demonstrating its usefulness as a "decision-making" tool. The optimised protocol proved, both by its higher performances and by its robustness, to be a good candidate for the validation process, as well as a potential alternative method for assessing acute skin irritation.

  3. Manufacturing Process Changes and Reduced Skin Irritations of an Adhesive Patch Used for Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisin, Vitaliy; Chan, Anna; Welsh, John B

    2017-10-01

    Adhesives used for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices can cause skin irritations, which sometimes lead to abandonment of the therapy. A previous sensor manufacturing process involved two separate adhesives-one applied to the skin-facing surface of the fabric patch, and a second, ethyl cyanoacrylate-based adhesive, which secured the plastic transmitter housing to the superficial side of the patch. Our current process for attaching the transmitter housing to the fabric patch uses heatstaking, wherein the housing is heated and pressed against the patch with a specialized assembly apparatus. Heatstaking simplifies the sensor assembly process and obviates the need for the second adhesive, which may lead to lower risk of skin irritation(s) in some patients.

  4. A double-blind, randomized, bilateral comparison of skin irritancy following application of the combination acne products clindamycin/tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide/adapalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreshi, Renato; Samrao, Aman; Ehst, Benjamin D

    2012-12-01

    The use of topical medications for acne vulgaris is often limited by their irritant properties. Newer combination preparations are available and offer convenience, but irritant potential may still be a hindrance, perhaps more so with the combination of 2 agents. Few studies have compared these formulations directly for tolerability. We sought to compare the tolerability of 2 combination topical acne products, clindamycin 1.2%-tretinoin 0.025% (CLIN/RA) gel and benzoyl peroxide 2.5%-adapalene 0.1% (BPO/ADA) gel. CLIN/RA and BPO/ADA were applied daily to opposite sides of a subject's face for 21 days in a double-blinded fashion. Investigators' Global Assessments and study subject self-assessments of burning/stinging, itching, erythema, and dryness/scaling were collected. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured as an objective measure of skin irritation. A mixed model analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare outcomes for both acne formulations. CLIN/RA produced significantly less burning/stinging than BPO/ADA (P<.001) as well as significantly less pruritus than BPO/ ADA (P<.001). BPO/ADA caused significantly more TEWL than CLIN/RA (P=.005). There was no significant difference in the amount of erythema or the amount of dryness/scaling caused by either formulation. CLIN/RA produced significantly less skin irritancy and TEWL than BPO/ADA.

  5. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  6. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruijl, Tanja D. de [Department of Dermatology Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: s.gibbs@acta.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  7. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  8. Novel isotretinoin microemulsion-based gel for targeted topical therapy of acne: formulation consideration, skin retention and skin irritation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Rashmin B.; Parikh, Jolly R.; Patel, Bharat G.

    2016-04-01

    Isotretinoin was formulated in novel microemulsion-based gel formulation with the aim of improving its solubility, skin tolerability, therapeutic efficacy, skin-targeting efficiency and patient compliance. Microemulsion was formulated by the spontaneous microemulsification method using 8 % isopropyl myristate, 24 % Labrasol, 8 % plurol oleique and 60 % water as an external phase. All plain and isotretinoin-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for the desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of isotretinoin through rat skin from selected microemulsion formulation followed zero-order kinetics. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971 in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of isotretinoin, indicating its potential in improving topical delivery of isotretinoin. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne.

  9. Irritancy potential of 17 detergents used commonly by the Indian household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austoria A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detergents are used by almost every household in the developed and developing world. Soap and most detergents are anionic surfactants and attack the horny layer of the skin and increase its permeability with little or no inflammatory change and may result in hand eczema, which is very distressing and incapacitating. Aim: To evaluate the irritant potential of common household detergents (laundry and dish wash used by the Indian population using a 24-hour patch test and to convincingly educate the patients on the detergents less likely to cause irritation in the particular individual. Methods: Seventeen commonly used detergents found in Indian market were included in the study, of which, 12 were laundry detergents (powders - seven, bar soap - five and five were dish wash detergents (powder - one, liquid - one, bar soap - three. The irritant potential of the 17 detergents were evaluated in 30 volunteers. Thirty microliters of each of the detergent bar solutions, distilled water (negative control, and 20% SDS (positive control were applied to Finn chambers with a micropipette and occluded for 24 hours. Erythema, scaling, and edema were graded in comparison to the reaction at the negative control site (distilled water for each volunteer separately. The scoring of erythema / dryness and wrinkling on a 0 - 4 point scale and edema on another 0 - 4 point scale was based on the Draize scale. The pH of each of the detergent solutions was determined using litmus papers (Indikrom papers from Qualigens fine chemicals. Results: The difference between detergents (F value was significant for erythema / dryness and wrinkling (F = 3.374; p = 0.000, but not significant for edema (F = 1.297; p = 0.194. [Table 2] lists the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling, and edema. The F value of the totals of the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling and edema was significant (F = 2.495; p = 0.001. The pH of all the detergents was found to be alkaline

  10. Biopharmaceutical Assessment and Irritation Potential of Microemulsions and Conventional Systems Containing Oil from Syagrus cearensis for Topical Delivery of Amphotericin B Using Alternative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Giovana D; Kishishita, Juliana; Aquino, Kátia A S; Presgrave, Octávio A F; Leal, Leila B; Santana, Davi P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biopharmaceutical characteristics and irritation potentials of microemulsions (MEs) and conventional systems (CSs) containing oil from Syagrus cearensis for topical delivery of Amphotericin B (AmB). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed using a water titration method to develop the MEs, and the CSs were prepared according to the classical technique of phase inversion. In the skin permeation and retention study, dermatomed pig skin without stratum corneum was used as an alternative disturbed skin model. The irritation potential was evaluated using three different methods, chorioallantoic membrane assays (HET-CAM and CAM-TBS), and bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test. The optimized formulation (ME1) consisting of 0.1% (w/w) Amphotericin B, 9.1% (w/w) catolé oil, 81% (w/w) Smix (1:1, Tween 20 and Kolliphor EL) possessed droplet size of 31.02 ± 0.9 nm, zeta potential of -23.4 mV, and viscosity 0.63 ± 0.1 Pa.s. ME1 exhibited greater retention of AmB in to skin layers (84.79 ± 2.08 μg cm(-2)) than all the others formulations. In general, MEs showed higher drug release and retention than CSs and all of the formulations showed greater retentivity than permeability. Only MEs developed using Labrasol/Plurol Oleique (L/PO) as the surfactant and co-surfactant exhibited a moderate irritation potential; all other MEs and CSs were classified as non-irritants or slight irritants. The results indicate that formulations containing oil from S. cearensis are promising alternatives for the delivery of AmB targeting the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  11. Pre-validation of an in vitro skin irritation test for medical devices using the reconstructed human tissue model EpiDerm™.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; De Jong, Wim H; Letasiova, Silvia; Milasova, Tatiana; Bachelor, Michael A; Breyfogle, Bridget; Handa, Yuki; De la Fonteyne, Liset; Coleman, Kelly P

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of dermal irritation is an essential component of the safety evaluation of medical devices. Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have replaced rabbit skin irritation testing for neat chemicals and their mixtures (OECD Test Guideline 439). However, this guideline cannot be directly

  12. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  13. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  14. Formulation of tretinoin-loaded topical proniosomes for treatment of acne: in-vitro characterization, skin irritation test and comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Salwa Abdel; Abdelmalak, Nevine Shawky; Badawi, Alia; Elbayoumy, Tahany; Sabry, Nermeen; El Ramly, Amany

    2015-01-01

    Tretinoin (TRT) is a widely used retinoid for the topical treatment of acne, photo-aged skin, psoriasis and skin cancer which makes it a good candidate for topical formulation. Yet side effects, like redness, swelling, peeling, blistering and, erythema, in addition to its high lipophilicity make this challenging. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of TRT-loaded proniosomes to improve the drug efficacy and to increase user acceptability and compliance by reducing its side effects. Nine formulae were prepared according to 3(2) factorial design and were evaluated for their morphology, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency (EE %), and% of drug released after 5 h. Hydrogel of the candidate formula, N8G (proniosomes prepared with 0.025% TRT, and Span60: cholesterol molar ratio of 3:1 and incorporated in 1% carbopol gel) was developed and evaluated for skin irritation test and clinical study in acne patients compared to marketed product. Candidate formula showed higher efficacy and very low irritation potential when compared to marketed product in human volunteers.

  15. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  16. Irritants and allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Irritants – in this article to be understood as being chemical irritants – are substances that may cause injuries to the skin, the eyes or the airways after a single exposure. These injuries may range from small, initially invisible injuries after exposure to weak irritants up to chemical burns

  17. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, K R; Fischer, A; Zöller, N N; Laubach, V; Bernd, A; Jacobs, A; van Rompay, A; Liebsch, M; Pirow, R; Petersohn, D

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new in vitro skin irritation test based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) with openly accessible protocols for tissue production and test performance. Due to structural, mechanistic and procedural similarity, a blinded catch-up validation study for skin irritation according to OECD Performance Standards (PS) was conducted in three laboratories to promote regulatory acceptance, with OS-REp models produced at a single production site only. While overall sensitivity and predictive capacity met the PS requirements, overall specificity was only 57%. A thorough analysis of the test results led to the assumption that some of the false-positive classifications could have been evoked by volatile skin-irritating chemicals tested in the same culture plate as the non-irritants falsely predicted as irritants. With GC/MS and biological approaches the cross-contamination effect was confirmed and the experimental set-up adapted accordingly. Retesting of the affected chemicals with the improved experimental set-up and otherwise identical protocol resulted in correct classifications as non-irritants. Taking these re-test results into account, 93% overall sensitivity, 70% specificity and 82% accuracy was achieved, which is in accordance with the OECD PS. A sufficient reliability of the method was indicated by a within-laboratory-reproducibility of 85-95% and a between-laboratory-reproducibility of 90%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The rat as a model to evaluate the gastric irritation potential of alkaline products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, L J; Maurer, J K; Reer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Animal models historically used to assess the acute gastric irritation potential of accidental ingestion of consumer products include the dog, pig, rabbit, and cat. In looking at alternative methods that are of shorter duration and more cost-effective, the rat is being evaluated as a potential model. Acute gastric irritation is known to increase as the reserve alkalinity of the formulation increases. In initial experiments to assess the rat as a potential model, animals were dosed via oral gavage with 1 of 4 formulations ranging in reserve alkalinity from 4.0 to 10.8. Necropsies were performed at 15 and 60 min after dosing. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the stomach revealed morphological differences in the various treatment groups that distinguish granular formulations having either a low (R.A. = 4.0), moderate (R.A. = 7.1), or higher (R.A. = 10.8) reserve alkalinity. Additionally, it was observed that the acute gastric changes in rats dosed with a liquid formulation having a low (R.A. = 4.2) reserve alkalinity were similar to those in rats dosed with a granular formulation having a moderate reserve alkalinity (R.A. = 7.1). This suggests that other factors such as types of ingredients, pH, and physical form influence the extent of acute gastric irritation and demonstrates that an evaluation of only reserve alkalinity is not sufficient to ensure the safety of these products. This preliminary work supports the rat as a potential model to assess the acute gastric irritation potential of alkaline formulations or substances.

  19. Changes in hydration of the stratum corneum are the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Shimotoyodome, Y; Nishijima, T; Sugata, K; Taguchi, H; Moriwaki, S

    2017-02-01

    Irritancy levels of surfactants on human skin have not been clarified completely. The relationships between skin damage and changes of skin properties caused by various surfactants were investigated using non-invasive measurements. Aqueous solutions of seven kinds of anionic, non-ionic, and amphoteric surfactants were exposed to the inside of forearm skin of 20 human subjects in two separate studies using the cup method. Hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin surface roughness, and contents of the SC were measured before and after one exposure and after five and nine consecutive exposures to various surfactants. The discontinuation ratio of subjects for testing in each surfactant was determined by skin irritation symptoms and was defined as the degree of skin damage. Significant changes were observed only in hydration, TEWL, and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) content in the SC following surfactant exposure. A significant correlation was observed between the discontinuation ratio of each surfactant and the changes of hydration, TEWL, and NMF. Especially, the change of SC hydration showed an excellent correlation with the discontinuation ratio both for single (r = 0.942, P surfactants, and therefore is the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  1. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Contri RV; Frank LA; Kaiser M; Pohlmann AR; Guterres SS

    2014-01-01

    Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In t...

  2. Relationships between Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pain, Skin Temperature Indices of Autonomic Dysregulation, and Sensitivity to Thermal Cutaneous Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated relationships between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS pain, sympathetic dysregulation, and thermal pain sensitivity. Eight female patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS and ten healthy female controls were tested for sensitivity to thermal stimulation of the left palm. A new method of response-dependent thermal stimulation was used to maintain pain intensity at a predetermined level (35% by adjusting thermal stimulus intensity as a function of pain ratings. Clinical pain levels were assessed prior to each testing session. Skin temperatures were recorded before and after pain sensitivity testing. The temperature of palmar skin dropped (1.5∘C when the corresponding location on the opposite hand of control subjects was subjected to prolonged thermal stimulation, but this response was absent for IBS pain patients. The patients also required significantly lower stimulus temperatures than controls to maintain a 35% pain rating. Baseline skin temperatures of patients were significantly correlated with thermode temperatures required to maintain 35% pain ratings. IBS pain intensity was not significantly correlated with skin temperature or pain sensitivity. The method of response-dependent stimulation revealed thermal hyperalgesia and increased sympathetic tone for chronic pain patients, relative to controls. Similarly, a significant correlation between resting skin temperatures and thermal pain sensitivity for IBS but not control subjects indicates that tonic sympathetic activation and a thermal hyperalgesia were generated by the chronic presence of visceral pain. However, lack of a significant relationship between sympathetic tone and ratings of IBS pain casts doubt on propositions that the magnitude of IBS pain is determined by psychological stress.

  3. [Diseases caused by diisocyanates. 1. Irritation of the respiratory system and skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, D

    1978-01-01

    Toluylene diisocyanate (TDI) has an uncommon importance in the production of irritation of respiratory system. In the last few years less volatile isocyanate compounds have been substituted for TDI. Commercial available diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PAPI) were analyzed in 1971. The analysis indicated the presence of 21% TDI in several samples. It is evident, with respect to the relatively high vapor pressure of TDI, that such impurities will be able to cause air concentrations in excess of the current threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.02 ppm. Liberation of TDI by heat from varnish insulinations is a difficult problem. This problem was described as "an old hazard in new guise". Especially, in a soldering process on polyurethane coated wire, excess of TLV is possible in unfavourable conditions. By the regulation that the concentration of TLV must not exceed 0.02 ppm and by the use of new non-volatile isocyanate the risk of acute and subacute intoxications has considerably subsided. Chronic irritations of respiratory system and asthma-like diseases, however represent still an unsolved problem.

  4. Influence of finishing textile materials on the reduction of skin irritations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strese, Helene; Kuck, Monika; Benken, Rainer; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina C; Beuthan, Jürgen; Benderoth, Christian; Frankowski, Gottfried; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    An increasing number of people is reported to have sensitive skin. Consequently, the development of textile materials with comfortable wearing properties has become a major interest. One method to create a pleasant sensation of textile materials on the skin is to coat them with silk proteins. This technologically complex procedure requires both optimization and control. The present study was aimed to characterize the subjective perception of different textiles and to objectively assess their influence on skin morphology with non-invasive optical techniques like optical coherence tomography (OCT), laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical surface profilometry (OP). Furthermore, optical methods were used to characterize surface properties of different textile fabrics. In the present study it could be shown that optical non-invasive methods, as applied in cosmetology and dermatology are suited to characterize the structural properties of fabrics and the effects that textile materials have on the skin. Here, both unfinished textile materials and fabrics finished with silk protein coating were investigated by OCT, LSM and OP. In addition, volunteers were interviewed about their subjective sensation when these fabrics were in contact with their skin. The study showed that optical methods could be applied to compare textile materials in vitro, which permit the wearing comfort to be predicted and in vivo perception on the skin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Using the Slug Mucosal Irritation Assay to Investigate the Tolerability of Tablet Excipients on Human Skin in the Context of the Use of a Nipple Shield Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Richard; Lenoir, Joke; Gerrard, Stephen; Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Slater, Nigel K H; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]. Slugs were exposed to blends slurried in human breast milk to assess their stinging, itching or burning potential, using objective values such as mucus production to categorize irritation potency RESULTS: Presently an in vivo assay, previously validated for prediction of ocular and nasal irritation, was used as an alternative to vertebrate models to anticipate the potential maternal dermatological tolerability issues to NSDS tablet components. The excipients did not elicit irritancy. However, mild irritancy was observed when zinc sulphate was present in blends. These promising good tolerability results support the continued investigation of these excipients within NSDS rapidly disintegrating tablet formulations. Topical local tolerance effects being almost entirely limited to irritation, the slug assay potentially adds to the existing preformulation toolbox, and may sit in between the in vitro and existing in vivo assays.

  6. Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, T; Brand, N; Tian, K; Saud, A; Carr, T; Stapleton, P; Lane, M E; Rawlings, A V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes in vitro together with their effects on skin condition and function. Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in vitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14 days in a clinical study. Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol > isopropanol > ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P alcohols and should be the active ingredient of choice. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Cosmetic Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Cosmetic Scientists and Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and irritation potential of benzoyl peroxide 4% cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl in acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawleshwarkar S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this multicenter, open, non-comparative study, the efficacy and irritation potential of 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl was evaluated for the treatment of acne vulgaris. All evaluable patients (n=567 received treatment with 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base for six weeks. The investigators evaluated the patients at baseline and at 1,2,4 & 6 weeks. Patients also rated their improvement and adverse effects. Doctor′s assessment showed that at the end of 6′h week 85.6% had good to very good effect of the treatment. The profile of side effects observed by doctors revealed that 53.8% of total patients did not have any irritation whereas only 11.6% had moderate to severe irritation. 53.8% of patients did not report any irritation: 41.4% had some irritation whereas only 4.8% patients reported troublesome irritation. A satisfactory response was reported as ear;y as two weeks and most of the patients had a very satisfactory response after six weeks and were willing to continue the treatment. This supports the theory that the hydrophase formulation in ′Brevoxyl helped to enhance efficacy and decrease the irritation associated with use of benzoyl peroxide.

  8. Correlation between symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome and the response to the food extract skin prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.S. Soares

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and food intolerance is not clear. We studied the cutaneous response to food antigens in 43 volunteers who were students and employees of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Federal Fluminense. Subjects were divided into 3 groups after evaluation for Roma II criteria for functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract: group I, 14 volunteers with IBS; group II, 15 volunteers with functional dyspepsia; group III, 14 volunteers without habitual gastrointestinal symptoms. The subjects were submitted to the skin prick test with 9 food antigen extracts, for a total of 387 skin tests (9 per volunteer. Of the 126 tests applied to group I, 24 (19.4% were positive (a 3-mm wider papule than the negative control and of the 135 tests applied to group II, 3 (2.3% were positive. Of the 126 tests applied to group III, 6 (4% were positive. The number of positive responses obtained in group I (IBS differed significantly from the other 2 groups (P < 0.01. None of the volunteers with IBS reported intolerance to any isolated food. The higher reactivity to food antigens in group I compared to groups II and III suggests that intestinal permeability may be increased in patients with IBS.

  9. Historical perspective on the use of visual grading scales in evaluating skin irritation and sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    Visual assessment of skin reactions has long been used to evaluate the safety of chemicals and preparations that contact the skin, and to meet regulatory requirements. This article reviews the history of visual grading scales, and the results of investigations into the reliability of the method...... quality in comparison with current testing methods that rely on visual assessment. In addition, such measuring techniques can add considerably to the complexity of testing protocols. When benefits and cost are weighed in the balance, the visual assessment scales popularized by Draize and others remain...

  10. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefit of alcohol-based disinfectant used on normal skin has been debated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant, a detergent and an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately for 10 d...

  12. Evaluation of EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) as an in vitro model for skin irritation: Studies on aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Ramya; Patlolla, Ram R.; Agarwal, Saurab; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Singh, Mandip S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9–C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5 µl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48 h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72 h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5 µl/tissue (≈4.1 µl/cm2) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48 h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24 h, but after 48 h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12–C16 HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of IL-1α in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48 h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24 h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9–C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9 ≤ C10 ≤ C11 ≤ C12 < C13 ≈ C14 ≈ C16 and that the tissue was an excellent in vitro model to predict in vivo irritation and to understand the structural activity

  13. Surgery-Related Contact Dermatitis: A Review of Potential Irritants and Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; Kelso, John M

    Surgical procedures utilize an increasing number of medical products including antiseptics, anesthetics, gloves, suture materials, tissue adhesives, topical antibiotics, and bandages. Many of these products have irritant potential. Allergic contact dermatitis has also been reported. This review covers preoperative, operative, and postoperative exposures that may result in contact dermatitis. Testing with standard patch panels such as T.R.U.E. Test and the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 65 allergen series does not evaluate for all relevant contactants. A thorough understanding of potential exposures is vital to effectively evaluate a patient with surgery-related contact dermatitis. A systematic approach is needed to ensure that standard patch panels and supplementary patches adequately address each encountered contactant. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the dermal and ocular irritation potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by using in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, A Sairam; Surekha, P; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2009-12-15

    In view of increase in the manufacture of various nanomaterials runs the risk of increased human exposure, in vitro screening will serve as a preliminary method to assess possible risk in animal studies. We attempted to know whether the validated in vitro alternative models established for chemicals, drugs, pesticides are suitable for nanomaterials, since these materials differ largely and may interfere with commonly used test systems. In vitro and in vivo studies on ocular and dermal irritation were carried out with two different sizes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The results of acute eye irritation toxicity studies with two different sizes of MWCNT in rabbits demonstrated reversible conjunctival redness and discharge and exhibited minimal concern while acute dermal irritation studies indicated that MWCNT of two sizes were non-irritant to the skin of rabbits. Both the sizes of MWCNT revealed non-irritant result in HE-CAM test. In vitro skin (EPISKIN) irritation studies revealed that two sizes of MWCNT are non-irritant to skin. In conclusion this work purports, the future of alternative research lies in the validation of the methodology for nanomaterials.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of polymeric microneedle arrays of varying geometries in combination with a high-velocity applicator on skin permeability and irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Hagino, Kei; Sato, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric microneedles offer the advantages of being both mass-producible and inexpensive. However, their weakness lies in the fact that they are not adequate for sharp fabrication of a needle tip, which is an important factor for effective penetration. We hypothesized that effective penetration can be achieved using a high-velocity application system. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of various polymeric microneedle array geometries on skin permeability and irritation using such a system. Volar forearms of 16 healthy volunteers were treated using the microneedle system with four different parameters: applicator velocity (4.3, 6, and 8.5 m/s), tip radius (10, 15, and 20 μm), length (100, 200, and 300 μm), and number of needles (189 and 305 on a 50-mm(2) area). A higher velocity of piercing clearly enhanced skin permeability and damage. A larger tip radius resulted in lower skin permeability and irritation at an applicator velocity of 4.3 m/s but did not have an effect at 6 m/s. Skin permeability was positively variable, ranging from 100 to 200 μm of needle length, and needle number showed no influence in the range investigated. In conclusion, a faster application speed could significantly enhance skin permeability and damage and compensate for insufficient penetration of the larger tip radius and shorter needles, which are also important factors for effective insertion.

  16. In vivo assessment of cytological changes by means of reflectance confocal microscopy - demonstration of the effect of topical vitamin E on skin irritation caused by sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Alice; Farnetani, Francesca; De Pace, Barbara; Losi, Amanda; Pittet, Jean-Christophe; Pellacani, Giovanni; Longo, Caterina

    2017-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by skin barrier damage. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is commonly used in cosmetics to prevent photo-damage. To show the usefulness of reflectance confocal microscopy in the assessment of irritant skin damage caused by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and of the protective action of vitamin E applied prior to skin irritation. Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled. Irritation was induced by the application of a patch test containing SLS 5% aq. for 24 h. Three sites were compared: one site on which a product with vitamin E was applied before SLS treatment, one site on which the same product was applied after SLS treatment, and one control site (SLS only). Each site was evaluated with reflectance confocal microscopy, providing in vivo tissue images at nearly histological resolution. We also performed a computerized analysis of the VivaStack® images. Reflectance confocal microscopy is able to identify signs of skin irritation and the preventive effect of vitamin E application. Reflectance confocal microscopy is useful in the objective assessment of irritative skin damage. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7440 Korean women during 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, S M; Ham, H; Choi, E J; Shin, M K; An, S S; Kim, H O; Koh, J S

    2014-02-01

    Cosmetics are products used over long periods by the public, and their safety is very important. Several types of human tests are used widely for the evaluation of cosmetics including single patch tests, in-use tests, human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). However, there is no clear and well-defined published objective and standardized criteria for primary skin irritation in regard to the large variety of cosmetic products. This study analysed human patch tests conducted from May 2001 to December 2012 with 4606 materials of prototype or finished cosmetic products on 7440 normal Korean women aged 18-60 years. The tested products were patched under occlusion for 24 or 48 h, and skin tolerance was assessed twice at 30 min and 24 h after patch removal using a 5-step scale according to the CTFA guidelines. Human patch tests for cosmetics were performed of 4606 cases, and 30-33 subjects participated in each case. The response in each case was calculated based on total subject number, skin reaction intensity and the number of respondents. The calculated response was standardized using the z-score, and a safety zone was provided in terms of human primary irritation in accordance with the human skin reaction evaluation criteria and usage or formula of cosmetics. This study established the safety criteria for irritation in the cosmetics field. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Irritancy of antiseptics tested by repeated open exposures on the human skin, evaluated by non-invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Schuur, J; Coenraads, PJ

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the irritancy of 6 antiseptics in an open exposure model. The following agents were tested in their normal use concentrations using open exposures, 2x daily for 4 days in 20 subjects: chlorhexidine 4% (CH), chlorhexidine 0.5% in ethanol 70% (CE), ethanol 70% (ET),

  20. Mucosal permeability and immune activation as potential therapeutic targets of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Zecchi, Lisa; Barbaro, Raffaella; Cremon, Cesare; Bellacosa, Lara; Marcellini, Marco; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    There is increasingly convincing evidence supporting the participation of the gut microenvironment in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Studies particularly suggest an interplay between luminal factors (eg, foods and bacteria residing in the intestine), the epithelial barrier, and the mucosal immune system. Decreased expression and structural rearrangement of tight junction proteins in the small bowel and colon leading to increased intestinal permeability have been observed, particularly in postinfectious IBS and in IBS with diarrhea. These abnormalities are thought to contribute to the outflow of antigens through the leaky epithelium, causing overstimulation of the mucosal immune system. Accordingly, subsets of patients with IBS show higher numbers and an increased activation of mucosal immunocytes, particularly mast cells. Immune factors, released by these cells, including proteases, histamine, and prostanoids, participate in the perpetuation of the permeability dysfunction and contribute to the activation of abnormal neural responses involved in abdominal pain perception and changes in bowel habits. All these mechanisms represent new targets for therapeutic approaches in IBS. Probiotics are an attractive therapeutic option in IBS given their recognized safety and by virtue of positive biological effects they can exert on the host. Of importance for the IBS pathophysiology is that preclinical studies have shown that selective probiotic strains exhibit potentially useful properties including anti-inflammatory effects, improvement of mucosal barrier homeostasis, beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota, and a reduction of visceral hypersensitivity. The effect of probiotics on IBS is positive in most randomized, controlled studies, although the gain over the placebo is small. Identifying tailored probiotic approaches for subgroups of IBS patients represents a challenge for the future.

  1. Skin irritation from a facial mask in Class III malocclusion: evaluation of individual silicone chin cups in a group of 100 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio

    2018-04-01

    Reverse headgear (a facial mask) is one of the most frequently used interceptive orthodontic devices in patients with Class III malocclusion. It is a simple device but may present some drawbacks related to pressure on the skin generated by the forehead and chin supports linked to the maxillary intraoral appliance by elastics. This can cause injury to the chin and lips. Patients between 7 and 8 years of age were selected from the Unit of Pediatric Dentistry. Orthopedic therapy with a rapid palatal expander and reverse headgear was prescribed for all subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: those who used a facial mask without a silicone chin cup and those who used a facial mask with a silicone chin cup. Two-hundred subjects including 90 male patients and 110 female patients were enrolled. The groups that used a facial mask with and without a silicone chin cup included 100 patients each. The percentage of subjects without irritation was significantly greater in the group with a silicone chin cup than in the group without a silicone chin cup. The authors propose a simple and effective solution to prevent skin irritation on the chin caused by a facial mask. A chin mask is a custom solution that can prevent injury to the chin during treatment when coupled with facial mask therapy.

  2. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  3. A three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating eye irritation potential of diverse chemicals in rabbit for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2016-06-01

    Experimental determination of the eye irritation potential (EIP) of chemicals is not only tedious, time and resource intensive, it involves cruelty to test animals. In this study, we have established a three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating the EIP of chemicals for the use of pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Accordingly, a qualitative (binary classification: irritating, non-irritating), semi-quantitative (four-category classification), and quantitative (regression) QSAR models employing the SDT, DTF, and DTB methods were developed for predicting the EIP of chemicals in accordance with the OECD guidelines. Structural features of chemicals responsible for eye irritation were extracted and used in QSAR analysis. The external predictive power of the developed QSAR models were evaluated through the internal and external validation procedures recommended in QSAR literature. In test data, the two and four category classification QSAR models (DTF, DTB) rendered accuracy of >93%, while the regression QSAR models (DTF, DTB) yielded correlation (R(2)) of >0.92 between the measured and predicted EIPs. Values of various statistical validation coefficients derived for the test data were above their respective threshold limits (except rm(2) in DTF), thus put a high confidence in this analysis. The applicability domain of the constructed QSAR models were defined using the descriptors range and leverage approaches. The QSAR models in this study performed better than any of the previous studies. The results suggest that the developed QSAR models can reliably predict the EIP of diverse chemicals and can be useful tools for screening of candidate molecules in the drug development process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Topical Corticosteroid and Tacrolimus on Ceramides and Irritancy to Sodium Lauryl Sulphate in Healthy Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema tre...

  5. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene K Wolfe

    Full Text Available To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC, and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI (range 0-360, signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking, and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl, and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl. Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1-33 and 4% (4/91 of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola

  6. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  7. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellegren, Lars I

    2011-01-01

    treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated...... twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography....... For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p¿=¿0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p¿=¿0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were...

  8. Somatosensory Event-related Potentials from Orofacial Skin Stretch Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takayuki; Ostry, David J; Gracco, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cortical processing associated with orofacial somatosensory function in speech has received limited experimental attention due to the difficulty of providing precise and controlled stimulation. This article introduces a technique for recording somatosensory event-related potentials (ERP) that uses a novel mechanical stimulation method involving skin deformation using a robotic device. Controlled deformation of the facial skin is used to modulate kinesthetic inputs thro...

  9. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  10. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, K; Prinsen, M K; McNamee, P M; Roggeband, R

    2009-08-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken eye test (ICE). This investigation focuses on assessing the ICE as a method to determine the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products, both for product safety assurance prior to marketing and for classification and labeling decisions. The ICE involves a single application of test substances onto the cornea of isolated chicken eyes. Endpoints are corneal swelling, corneal opacity and fluorescein retention. The ICE results were compared to historic LVET data in this study due to availability of such in vivo data and the ability to correlate LVET to human experience data on the outcome of accidental exposures to household cleaning products in general. The results of this study indicate that the ICE test is a useful in vitro method for evaluating the eye irritation/corrosion potential and establishing classification and labeling for household cleaning products. For new product formulations, it is best used as part of a weight-of-evidence approach and benchmarked against data from comparable formulations with known eye irritation/corrosion profiles and market experience.

  11. Predictive performance and inter-laboratory reproducibility in assessing eye irritation potential of water- and oil-soluble mixtures using the Short Time Exposure test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Takayuki; Hilberer, Allison; Behle-Wagner, Christine; Watanabe, Mika; Cameron, David; Kirst, Annette; Nukada, Yuko; Yuki, Takuo; Araki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-04

    The Short Time Exposure (STE) test method is an alternative method for assessing eye irritation potential using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cells and has been adopted as test guideline 491 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Its good predictive performance in identifying the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) No Category (NC) or Irritant Category has been demonstrated in evaluations of water-soluble substances, oil-soluble substances, and water-soluble mixtures. However, the predictive performance for oil-soluble mixtures was not evaluated. Twenty-four oil-soluble mixtures were evaluated using the STE test method. The GHS NC or Irritant Category of 22 oil-soluble mixtures were consistent with that of a Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was then confirmed using 20 water- and oil-soluble mixtures blind-coded. The concordance in GHS NC or Irritant Category among four laboratories was 90%-100%. In conclusion, the concordance in comparison with the results of RhCE test method using 24 oil-soluble mixtures and inter-laboratory reproducibility using 20 water- and oil-soluble mixtures blind-coded were good, indicating that the STE test method is a suitable alternative for predicting the eye irritation potential of both substances and mixtures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Classification and labeling of industrial products with extreme pH by making use of in vitro methods for the assessment of skin and eye irritation and corrosion in a weight of evidence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Julia; Heppenheimer, Andreas; Lehringer, Elke; Kreutz, Juergen; Poth, Albrecht; Ammann, Holger; Reisinger, Kerstin; Banduhn, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Classification and labeling of products with extreme pH values (≤ 2 or ≥ 11.5) is addressed in chemicals legislation. Following determination of pH and alkaline/acid reserve, additional in vitro tests are needed, especially to substantiate results less than corrosive. However, only limited experience with the practical application of in vitro methods to determine appropriate classifications for pH extreme products is available so far. Expert judgment and weight of evidence are given major roles under the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS) and should be performed on a sound data basis. We have used a tiered testing strategy to assess 20 industrial products (cleaning and metal pretreatment) regarding their corrosive and irritating properties towards human skin models in vitro in the EpiDerm skin corrosion and/or skin irritation test. Nine dilutions of individual compounds were additionally tested. Non-corrosive samples were tested in the Hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). We demonstrate how data is combined in a weight of evidence expert judgment, and give examples of classification decisions. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of industrial products with extreme pH values to determine irritating and corrosive properties by making use of in vitro methods in a weight of evidence approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin tumorigenic potential of benzanthrone: prevention by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neelam; Kumar, Sandeep; Ansari, Kausar M; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Liu, Han; Shen, Chuanbin; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Lai, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 μg/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders. © FASEB.

  15. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    of 4 alleged AI (nifedipine, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, canola oil and glycerol) was studied on experimentally induced acute irritation in healthy volunteers, and only glycerol showed dose-related response and effects potentially better than no treatment. The acute irritation model only allowed a small...

  16. Transdermal delivery of an anti-cancer drug via w/o emulsions based on alkyl polyglycosides and lecithin: design, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of the possible irritation potential in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMeshad, Aliaa Nabil; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop w/o emulsions that could be safely used to promote transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Two pseudo-ternary phase diagrams comprising oleoyl-macrogol glycerides, water, and a surfactant/co-surfactant (S/CoS) mixture of lecithin, ethanol, and either coco glucoside or decyl glucoside were investigated for their potential to develop promising 5-FU emulsions. Six systems were selected and subjected to thermodynamic stability tests; heat-cool cycles, centrifugation, and finally freeze-thaw cycles. All systems passed the challenges and were characterized for transmission electron microscopy, droplet size, rheological behavior, pH, and transdermal permeation through newly born mice skin in Franz diffusion cells. The systems had spherical droplets ranging in diameter from 1.81 to 2.97 μm, pH values ranging from 7.50 to 8.49 and possessed Newtonian flow. A significant (Pskin, this system was well tolerated with only moderate skin irritation that was recovered within 12 h. Indeed, minor histopathologic changes were observed after 5-day treatment. Further studies should be carried out, in the future, to investigate the potentiality of this promising system to promote transdermal delivery of 5-FU through human skin. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  17. Gelucire Based In Situ Gelling Emulsions: A Potential Carrier for Sustained Stomach Specific Delivery of Gastric Irritant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications to the geriatric patients for the treatment of arthritis and other painful disorders. The major side effects of NSAIDs are related to their effects on the stomach and bowels. The present study concerns assessment of the potential of liquid in situ gelling emulsion formulations (emulgels as patient compliant stomach specific sustained release carrier for the delivery of highly gastric irritant drug, Piroxicam. Emulgels were prepared, without using any emulgent, by mixing different concentrations of molten Gelucire 39/01 with low viscosity sodium alginate solution prepared in deionized water at 50°C. CaCO3 was used as buoyancy imparting as well as crosslinking agent. Emulgels so prepared were homogenous, physically stable, and rapidly formed into buoyant gelled mass when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2. Drug release studies carried out in SGF revealed significant retardation (P<0.05 of Piroxicam release from emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations prepared without Gelucire 39/01. Pharmacodynamic studies carried out in albino rats revealed significantly increased analgesic/anti-inflammatory response from in situ emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations. Further, in vivo toxicity studies carried out in albino rats revealed no signs of gastric ulceration upon prolonged dosing.

  18. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  19. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers.

  20. Tiered application of the neutral red release and EpiOcular™ assays for evaluating the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Corvaro, Marco; Visconti, Nicolo R; Kan, Lynn; Carney, Edward W; Boverhof, Darrell R; Gehen, Sean C

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemical formulations have been underrepresented in validation efforts for implementing alternative eye irritation approaches but represent a significant opportunity to reduce animal testing. This study assesses the utility of the neutral red release assay (NRR) and EpiOcular™ assay (EO) for predicting the eye irritation potential of 64 agrochemical formulations relative to Draize data. In the NRR, formulations with an NRR50 value ≤ 50 mg/mL were categorized as UN GHS Cat 1 and those >250 mg/mL were classified as UN GHS Non Classified (NC). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 78, 85 and 76% and 73, 85 and 61% for identifying UN GHS 1 and NC formulations, respectively. Specificity was poor for formulations with NRR50 > 50 to ≤250 mg/mL. The EO (ET-40 method) was explored to differentiate formulations that were UN GHS 1/2 and UN GHS NC. The EO resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 65%, 58% and 75% for identifying UN GHS NC formulations. To improve the overall performance, the assays were implemented using a tiered-approach where the NRR was run as a first-tier followed by the EO. The tiered-approach resulted in improved accuracy (75%) and balanced sensitivity (73%) and specificity (77%) for distinguishing between irritating and non-irritating agrochemical formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatosensory Event-related Potentials from Orofacial Skin Stretch Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Ostry, David J; Gracco, Vincent L

    2015-12-18

    Cortical processing associated with orofacial somatosensory function in speech has received limited experimental attention due to the difficulty of providing precise and controlled stimulation. This article introduces a technique for recording somatosensory event-related potentials (ERP) that uses a novel mechanical stimulation method involving skin deformation using a robotic device. Controlled deformation of the facial skin is used to modulate kinesthetic inputs through excitation of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. By combining somatosensory stimulation with electroencephalographic recording, somatosensory evoked responses can be successfully measured at the level of the cortex. Somatosensory stimulation can be combined with the stimulation of other sensory modalities to assess multisensory interactions. For speech, orofacial stimulation is combined with speech sound stimulation to assess the contribution of multi-sensory processing including the effects of timing differences. The ability to precisely control orofacial somatosensory stimulation during speech perception and speech production with ERP recording is an important tool that provides new insight into the neural organization and neural representations for speech.

  2. Protective effect of eugenol against restraint stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction: Potential use in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Shah, Ankit; Singh, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2015-07-01

    Eugenol, an essential constituent found in plants such as Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (Myrtaceae) is reported to possess neuroprotective and anti-stress activities. These activities can potentially be useful in the treatment of stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The protective effect of eugenol was assessed against restraint stress (RS)-induced IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats. Further, its centrally mediated effect was evaluated in this model. Eugenol (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg), ondansetron (4.0 mg/kg, p.o.), and vehicle were administered to rats for 7 consecutive days before exposure to 1 h RS. One control group was not exposed to RS-induction. The effect of eugenol (50 mg/kg) with and without RS exposure was evaluated for mechanism of action and per se effect, respectively. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA)-axis function was evaluated by estimating the plasma corticosterone level. The levels of brain monoamines, namely serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and their metabolites were estimated in stress-responsive regions such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, pre-frontal cortex (PFC), and amygdala. Oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses were also assessed in brain regions. Eugenol (50 mg/kg) reduced 80% of RS-induced increase in fecal pellets similar to that of ondansetron. Eugenol attenuated 80% of stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and modulated the serotonergic system in the PFC and amygdala. Eugenol attenuated stress-induced changes in norepinephrine and potentiated the antioxidant defense system in all brain regions. Eugenol protected against RS-induced development of IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction through modulation of HPA-axis and brain monoaminergic pathways apart from its antioxidant effect.

  3. Use of potentially harmful skin-lightening products among immigrant women in Rome, Italy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, A; D'Ilio, S; Gallinella, B; Mosca, A; Majorani, C; Violante, N; Senofonte, O; Morrone, A; Petrucci, F

    2013-01-01

    Skin-lightening products are increasingly common in European cities. These products may contain substances that are banned under EU regulations as they can induce adverse effects, including cutaneous and systemic reactions (e.g., mercury, hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids). To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women regarding skin-lightening products and to quantify the potentially harmful substances in the products used. We performed a cross-sectional study among 82 non-Italian women visiting an outpatient facility in Rome, Italy. The women completed a questionnaire on product use, side effects and risk awareness. We performed patch tests among a subgroup of 48 women who presented with contact dermatitis. We also quantified the allergenic and toxic substances in the 14 products reported, using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metals and high-performance liquid chromatography for hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids. Out of the 82 women, 33 used skin-lightening products; about one fourth of these women were aware of potential risks. Three cosmetic creams and two soaps contained high concentrations of metals (Cr, Ni and Pb); hydroquinone was found in three creams and one oil. The only topical corticosteroid detected was dexamethasone, in one product. More than half of the women in the clinical evaluation had irritant contact dermatitis (i.e., negative response to patch test). Among immigrant women in Rome, the use of skin-lightening products seems to be fairly common, and some of these products contain potentially hazardous substances. Consumers must be informed of the potential risks, and EU regulations must be more strictly enforced. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, I; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Gerberick, G F; Ryan, C A; Basketter, D A; Lea, L; House, R V; Ladics, G S; Loveless, S E; Hastings, K L

    1998-04-10

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the predictive identification of chemicals that have a potential to cause skin sensitization. Activity is measured as a function of lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative responses stimulated by topical application of test chemicals. Those chemicals that induce a threefold or greater increase in LNC proliferation compared with concurrent vehicle controls are classified as skin sensitizers. In the present investigations we have evaluated further the reliability and accuracy of the LLNA. In the context of an international interlaboratory trial the sensitization potentials of six materials with a history of use in topical medicaments have been evaluated: benzoyl peroxide, hydroquinone, penicillin G, streptomycin sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and methyl salicylate. Each chemical was analyzed in the LLNA by all five laboratories. Either the standard LLNA protocol or minor modifications of it were used. Benzoyl peroxide and hydroquinone, both human contact allergens, elicited strong LLNA responses in each laboratory. Penicillin G, another material shown previously to cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans, was also positive in all laboratories. Streptomycin sulfate induced equivocal responses, in that this material provoked a positive LLNA response in only one of the five laboratories, and then only at the highest concentration tested. Ethylenediamine dihydrochloride dissolved in a 3:1 mixture of acetone with water, or in 4:1 acetone:olive oil (one laboratory), was uniformly negative. However, limited further testing with the free base of ethylene diamine yielded a positive LLNA response when applied in acetone:olive oil (AOO). Finally, methyl salicylate, a nonsensitizing skin irritant, was negative at all test concentrations in each laboratory. Collectively these data serve to confirm that the local lymph node assay is sufficiently robust to yield equivalent results when performed independently in

  5. Review of natural compounds for potential skin cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Gerber, Minja; Hamman, Josias H; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-08-06

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  6. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  7. Culture of the primary corneal epithelium as a potential component of test batteries for eye irritancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladowski, D; Liberek, I; Lipski, K; Ozga, T; Olkowska-Truchanowicz, J; Szaflik, J

    2005-10-01

    One of the main goals for toxicologists working on the development of in vitro tests is to replace the animal-based eye irritation test. Inflammation is one of the mechanisms which have not been covered sufficiently by the existing in vitro ocular irritancy test systems. As there are major species differences between the human and rabbit eye inflammation mechanisms, the most relevant test system is the human eye itself. The current study focused on an evaluation of the practical availability of human corneal epithelial cells for routine eye irritancy testing. Human corneal epithelium cell cultures were used to assess the effects of lipopolysaccharide on IL-1 beta release. The findings indicated that cytokine release can be augmented by the presence of the complement system, which is normally found in tears. However, the corneal cells were found to be highly resistant to the complement system, which can be attributed to the very high expression of CD59, a powerful complement regulatory protein found in the corneal epithelium. It is estimated that discarded corneas from tissue banks could provide enough material for routine testing by this method.

  8. The critical review of methodologies and approaches to assess the inherent skin sensitization potential (skin allergies) of chemicals. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    To critically review currently available methods, or methods under development (in vivo, in vitro, in silico, etc.) used in the evaluation of skin sensitization potential and their applicability in the derivation of quantitative 'safety thresholds'.......To critically review currently available methods, or methods under development (in vivo, in vitro, in silico, etc.) used in the evaluation of skin sensitization potential and their applicability in the derivation of quantitative 'safety thresholds'....

  9. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-07-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  10. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  11. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Katta, Rajani; Brown, Danielle Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  12. Vesicles: Potential nano carriers for the delivery of skin cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Alka; Verma, Anurag

    2017-12-01

    In the present scenario, consumers are searching for personal care products that supply multiple benefits with minimal efforts. The outcome has been the introduction of nanotechnology-based cosmetic products that are safe to use and results driven. Some topical cosmetics can act efficaciously when they reach their target sites present in the deeper layers of the skin. The main problem with delivering active ingredients across the skin is the barrier function of the skin. Therefore, to get the maximum benefit from cosmetic products and to overcome the problems associated with their skin penetration, scientists are investigating various strategies to overcome these barrier properties. Vesicular carriers have been claimed to improve the topical delivery of active ingredients. This review offers a brief overview of current approaches in the research and development of vesicular carriers to improve the delivery and performance of active ingredients present in the cosmetics.

  13. Integrated Computational Solution for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential of Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Konda Leela Sarath Kumar; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R.; Aarti Desai; Singh, Vivek K.; Abhay Jere

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin sensitization forms a major toxicological endpoint for dermatology and cosmetic products. Recent ban on animal testing for cosmetics demands for alternative methods. We developed an integrated computational solution (SkinSense) that offers a robust solution and addresses the limitations of existing computational tools i.e. high false positive rate and/or limited coverage. Results The key components of our solution include: QSAR models selected from a combinatorial set, simil...

  14. Mast cell stabilizers as a potential treatment for Irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mast cells are believed to play a role in irritable bowel syndrome pathogenesis and symptom genesis due to their close neighborhood to gastrointestinal innervations. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered cromolyn for reduction of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Material and Methods s: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded 6×6 weeks cross-over study was performed in a private gastrointestinal clinic. 10 patients were allocated to group A and 6 patients to group B. Patients in group A received 150 mg cromolyn divided in three equal doses for the first 6 weeks and placebo for the next 6 weeks but patients in group B received placebo for the first 6 weeks and cromolyn in the next 6 weeks. Weekly evaluation was performed and visual analogue scale was used to determine severity of symptoms. Results: Sixteen patients completed the study. Mean age of the patients was 40.3 ± 10.9 years old [range: 24-57]. Eight patients had D-IBS (Diarrhea dominant and other 8 had C-IBS (Constipation dominant. Both cromolyn sodium and the placebo decreased the severity of bloating (Freidman test, p 0.001 and 0.006 respectively. The severity of the main symptom (diarrhea or constipation did not decrease in patients of group A and B who were treated with different sequences of the drug or placebo. The severity of pain decreased drastically after 6th week of treatment with cromolyn. Freidman test showed a significant difference between the pain levels of the former defined treatment spots (p 0.01, and 0.02 for patients in group A and B, respectively. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the study. Conclusion: In conclusion, long term administration of cromolyn seems to be partially effective for treatment of abdominal pain in patients with IBS while main symptoms (diarrhea or constipation might not decrease during this treatment.

  15. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory activities of colloidal oatmeal (Avena sativa) contribute to the effectiveness of oats in treatment of itch associated with dry, irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Garay, Michelle; Nebus, Judith; Chon, Suhyoun; Kaur, Simarna; Mahmood, Khalid; Kizoulis, Menas; Southall, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) in colloidal form is a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin conditions, including skin rashes, erythema, burns, itch, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the exact mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were made with various solvents and tested in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant assays. In addition, an investigator blind study was performed with twenty-nine healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral mild to moderate itch with moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal diminished pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and the colloidal oat skin protectant lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, scaling, roughness, and itch intensity. These results demonstrate that colloidal oat extracts exhibit direct anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may provide the mechanisms for observed dermatological benefits while using the colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion.

  17. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  18. Randomized, observer-blind, split-face study to compare the irritation potential of 2 topical acne formulations over a 14-day treatment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, William

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, split-face study assessed the irritation potential and likelihood of continued use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel once daily over a 14-day treatment period in 21 participants (11 males; 10 females) with acne who were 18 years or older. Investigator clinical assessment (erythema and dryness) and self-assessment (dryness and burning/stinging) were performed at baseline and each study visit (days 1-14) using a 4-point scale (O = none; 3 = severe). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry measurements were performed at baseline and days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Lesions were counted at baseline and on day 14. Participant satisfaction questionnaires were completed on days 7 and 14. At the end of the study, investigators reported none or only mild erythema in 86% (18/21) of participants treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel compared with 62% (13/21) of participants treated with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. No severe erythema was reported with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel was prematurely discontinued due to severe erythema in 1 participant on day 5 and a second participant on day 9. Additionally, 2 more participants reported severe erythema on day 14. Mean erythema scores were 0.9 (mean change from baseline, 0.7) with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and 1.4 (mean change from baseline, 1.3) with adapalene 0. 1%--BPO 2.5% gel on day 14 (P BPO 2.5% gel. Continued use and efficacy results for the treatment of acne were influenced by the potential of the product to cause irritation and the participant preferences. Irritation potential was more pronounced and severe with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. Undoubtedly, as a result more participants preferred treatment with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and were more likely to continue to use the product.

  19. Integrated Computational Solution for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential of Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Kumar, Konda Leela; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Desai, Aarti; Singh, Vivek K; Jere, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Skin sensitization forms a major toxicological endpoint for dermatology and cosmetic products. Recent ban on animal testing for cosmetics demands for alternative methods. We developed an integrated computational solution (SkinSense) that offers a robust solution and addresses the limitations of existing computational tools i.e. high false positive rate and/or limited coverage. The key components of our solution include: QSAR models selected from a combinatorial set, similarity information and literature-derived sub-structure patterns of known skin protein reactive groups. Its prediction performance on a challenge set of molecules showed accuracy = 75.32%, CCR = 74.36%, sensitivity = 70.00% and specificity = 78.72%, which is better than several existing tools including VEGA (accuracy = 45.00% and CCR = 54.17% with 'High' reliability scoring), DEREK (accuracy = 72.73% and CCR = 71.44%) and TOPKAT (accuracy = 60.00% and CCR = 61.67%). Although, TIMES-SS showed higher predictive power (accuracy = 90.00% and CCR = 92.86%), the coverage was very low (only 10 out of 77 molecules were predicted reliably). Owing to improved prediction performance and coverage, our solution can serve as a useful expert system towards Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment for skin sensitization. It would be invaluable to cosmetic/ dermatology industry for pre-screening their molecules, and reducing time, cost and animal testing.

  20. Integrated Computational Solution for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential of Molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Leela Sarath Kumar

    Full Text Available Skin sensitization forms a major toxicological endpoint for dermatology and cosmetic products. Recent ban on animal testing for cosmetics demands for alternative methods. We developed an integrated computational solution (SkinSense that offers a robust solution and addresses the limitations of existing computational tools i.e. high false positive rate and/or limited coverage.The key components of our solution include: QSAR models selected from a combinatorial set, similarity information and literature-derived sub-structure patterns of known skin protein reactive groups. Its prediction performance on a challenge set of molecules showed accuracy = 75.32%, CCR = 74.36%, sensitivity = 70.00% and specificity = 78.72%, which is better than several existing tools including VEGA (accuracy = 45.00% and CCR = 54.17% with 'High' reliability scoring, DEREK (accuracy = 72.73% and CCR = 71.44% and TOPKAT (accuracy = 60.00% and CCR = 61.67%. Although, TIMES-SS showed higher predictive power (accuracy = 90.00% and CCR = 92.86%, the coverage was very low (only 10 out of 77 molecules were predicted reliably.Owing to improved prediction performance and coverage, our solution can serve as a useful expert system towards Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment for skin sensitization. It would be invaluable to cosmetic/ dermatology industry for pre-screening their molecules, and reducing time, cost and animal testing.

  1. Features of Dolphin Skin with Potential Hydrodynamic Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    various theories [51. Conicerning the itdea that dolphins might activehý change their skin surface to reduce hydrodynamnic drag. he stated. "An...for histology (mnounting Iin paraffin. sectioning on a mnicrotoinic. and mounting on microscope slidest. ste took care that the sections were

  2. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Aiysha; Meah, Dilruba; Ahmed, Nadia; Conniff-Jenkins, Rebecca; Chileshe, Emma; Phillips, Chris O; Claypole, Tim C; Forman, Dan W; Row, Paula E

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small...

  3. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy.

  4. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The clinical potential of ramosetron in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder. Serotonin (5-HT) is known to play a physiological and pathophysiological role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function. In experimental studies, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been reported to slow colon transit, to blunt gastrocolonic reflex, and to reduce rectal sensitivity. Alosetron and cilansetron, potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, have proven efficacy in the treatment of IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). However, alosetron was voluntarily withdrawn due to postmarketing reports of ischemic colitis and complications of constipation, and cilansetron was never marketed. Currently alosetron is available under a risk management program for women with severe IBS-D. Ramosetron is another potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which has been marketed in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In animal studies, ramosetron reduced defecation induced by corticotrophin-releasing hormone and had inhibitory effects on colonic nociception. In two randomized controlled studies including 957 patients with IBS-D, ramosetron increased monthly responder rates of patient-reported global assessment of IBS symptom relief compared with placebo. Ramosetron was also as effective as mebeverine in male patients with IBS-D. In a recent randomized controlled trial with 343 male patients with IBS-D, ramosetron has proved effective in improving stool consistency, relieving abdominal pain/discomfort, and improving health-related quality of life. Regarding safety, ramosetron is associated with a lower incidence of constipation compared with other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and has not been associated with ischemic colitis. Although further large prospective studies are needed to assess whether ramosetron is effective for female patients with IBS-D and to evaluate its long-term safety, ramosetron appears to be one of the most promising agents for patients with IBS-D. PMID:25949526

  6. Review of natural compounds for potential skin cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Du Plessis, Lissinda H; Gerber, Minja; Hamman, Josias H; Du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-01-01

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melano...

  7. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  8. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Sun, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  9. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Corinne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  10. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-07-25

    Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  11. Antipruritic effect of cold-induced and transient receptor potential-agonist-induced counter-irritation on histaminergic itch in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Melholt, Camilla; Hilborg, Sigurd D.

    2017-01-01

    (measured by laser-speckle perfusion-imaging). Homotopic thermal counter-irritation was performed with 6 temperatures, ranging from 4°C to 37°C, using a 3 × 3-cm thermal stimulator. Chemical “cold-like” counter-irritation was conducted with 40% L-menthol and 10% trans-cinnamaldehyde, while 5% doxepin...

  12. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Prinsen, M.K.; McNamee, P.M.; Roggeband, R.

    2009-01-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken

  13. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  14. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Orchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman’s literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils.

  15. Potential use of ascorbic acid-based surfactants as skin penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, S D; Maletto, B; Lo Nostro, P; Manzo, R H; Pistoresi-Palencia, M C; Allemandi, D A

    2006-08-01

    6-O-Ascorbic acid alkanoates (ASCn) are amphiphilic molecules having physical-chemical properties that depend on the alkyl chain length. The derivatives of low molecular weight (n CMT), ASCn aqueous suspensions turn into either micellar solutions or gel phases, depending on the length of the hydrophobic chain. On cooling, coagels are produced, which possess a lamellar structure that exhibit sharp X-ray diffraction patterns and optical birefringence. The semisolid consistency of such coagels is an interesting property to formulate dermatological pharmaceutical dosage forms able to solubilize and stabilize different drugs. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the enhancing permeation effect of ASCn with different chain lengths and to correlate permeability changes with histological effects. With this purpose, ASCn coagels containing anthralin (antipsoriasic drug) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, hydrophobic fluorescent marker) were assayed on rat skin (ex vivo) and mice skin (in vivo), respectively. Also, histological studies were performed aimed at detecting some possible side effects of ASCn. No inflammatory cellular response was observed in the skin when ASCn coagels were applied, suggesting non-irritating properties. Light microscopy indicated slight disruption and fragmentation of stratum corneum. The penetration of ASCn through rat skin epidermis was very fast and quantitatively significant. The permeation of anthralin was significantly increased when the drug was vehiculized in ASCn coagels, compared to other pharmaceutical systems. The results indicated that ASC12 seems to have the highest enhancing effect on FITC permeation. ASC12 appears to be the compound that possesses the highest capacity to enhance the penetration of the drugs. Furthermore, it has the highest permeation of the serie.

  16. Evaluation of ocular irritancy of coal-tar dyes used in cosmetics employing reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium and short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miri; Nam, Ki Taek; Kim, Jungah; Lim, Song E; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Buhyun; Lee, Joo Young; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-10-01

    Coal-tar dyes in cosmetics may elicit adverse effects in the skin and eyes. Countries, like the US, have banned the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics for the eye area due to the potential for ocular irritation. We evaluated the eye irritation potential of 15 coal-tar dyes permitted as cosmetic ingredients in reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCEs [EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™]) tests and the short time exposure (STE) test. Eosin YS, phloxine B, tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein, and tetrabromofluorescein were identified as irritants in RhCEs; dibromofluorescein and uranine yielded discrepant results. STE enabled further classification in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, as follows: eosin YS as Cat 2; phloxine B, Cat 1; and tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein and tetrabromofluorescein, Cat 1/2. STE indicated dibromofluorescein (irritant in EpiOcular™) and uranine (irritant in MCTT HCE™) as No Cat, resulting in the classification of "No prediction can be made." based on bottom-up approach with each model. These results demonstrated that in vitro eye irritation tests can be utilized to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of cosmetic ingredients and provide significant evidence with which to determine whether precautions should be given for the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics or other substances applied to the eye area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Aged skin and skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, E

    2015-06-01

    Aged skin is the sum of chronological und UV-induced aging. Light-exposed skin is unattractive, with irregular pigmentation, roughness und scaliness. The skin is often dry and itches. The present paper provides an overview of diseases of aging skin and describes how to prevent or reduce disease by prophylactic and therapeutic skin care. Aged skin can develop into several skin diseases, e.g., different types of eczema and skin cancer. In the body folds we often find an irritant contact eczema caused by friction from skin to skin, sweating, and urinary and fecal incontinence. In the bedridden, bed sores can also develop. Furthermore, there is a delay in wound healing owing to old age. Use of adequate creams and ointments is very helpful in preventing and improving most skin diseases of mature skin. However, the knowledge of aged people and healthcare professionals about the importance of skin care is low. Older people are often unable to care for their skin because they are lacking the physical and mental ability. Healthcare professionals are not sufficiently trained about the value of proper skin care. Adequate studies on the role of skin care and selection of the correct preparation in various aged-related diseases are lacking.

  18. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Działo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  19. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  20. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract. PMID:26901191

  1. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...

  2. Membrane potential plays a dual role for chloride transport across toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1983-01-01

    The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time-dependent...

  3. The potential benefits of using aloe vera in stoma patient skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Mark; Perrin, Angie; Darwood, Richard; Ousey, Karen

    2017-03-09

    Individuals living with an ostomy may suffer from a variety of peri-stomal skin complications related to the use of their stoma appliance or accessories. These conditions can be serious enough to significantly impact on a patient's quality of life and may result in severe clinical complications (such as infection). This article is a review of the literature with the objective of investigating and presenting evidence for the well-documented use of aloe vera in the prevention of skin conditions similar to those seen in peri-stomal skin complications. An exploration for the potential use of aloe vera directly or indirectly (as an adjunct to medical devices such as wafers) in stoma patients is presented with the view that this use may be beneficial in the prevention of such peri-stomal skin complications.

  4. Cocoa bioactive compounds: significance and potential for the maintenance of skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2014-08-11

    Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.

  5. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  6. Potential Application of Nanoemulsions for Skin Delivery of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2017-11-01

    Pomegranate peel and seeds have demonstrated to possess antioxidant compounds with potential application to protect the skin against the ultraviolet radiation damage. However, the photoprotection activity is dependent on the amount of these compounds that reach the viable skin layers. In this paper, we describe the in vitro skin permeation and retention of the major pomegranate peel polyphenols using Franz diffusion cells, after entrapping a ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Punica granatum peel extract into nanoemulsions (NEs) prepared with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) or medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT). The in vitro skin permeation of gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and punicalagin (PC) was evaluated using a HPLC-DAD validated method. After 8 h of skin permeation, all polyphenol compounds were mostly retained in the skin and did not reach the receptor compartment. However, a 2.2-fold enhancement of the retained amount of gallic acid in the stratum corneum was verified after EAF-loaded NEs are applied, when compared with the free EAF. GA and EA were delivered to the viable epidermis and dermis only when nanoemulsions were applied onto the skin. The mean retained amounts of GA and EA in the EP and DE after applying the EAF-loaded PSO-NE were 1.78 and 1.36 μg cm(-2) and 1.10 and 0.97 μg cm(-2), respectively. Similar values were obtained after applying the EAF-loaded MCT-NE. The skin permeation results were supported by the confocal microscopy images. These results evidenced the promising application of nanoemulsions to deliver the pomegranate polyphenols into the deeper skin layers.

  7. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  8. [Incidence of irritant dermatosis among employees of the shipbuilding industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H; Kühne, G; Kröger, D

    1983-10-01

    Irritant dermatosis is a non-specific reactive change on the skin. In most cases it represents the summated effects induced by various agents. Not only the shortened recovery phases of the skin but also a dispositional factor are important. Such changes, which are relatively common in some vocations but are usually only slight, cannot, as a rule, be regarded as signs of illness. Nevertheless, attention should be drawn to the necessity of intensive skin care and observation of the recovery phases because the frequency of irritant dermatosis can increase with increasing length of employment.

  9. Multicatheter hybrid breast brachytherapy: a potential alternative for patients with inadequate skin distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriwal, Sushil; Coon, Devin; Kim, Hayeon; Haley, Marsha; Patel, Rakesh; Das, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ClearPath (CP) multicatheter hybrid device was able to achieve acceptable dosimetry in patients in whom the proximity of the breast surgical cavity to the skin precluded treatment with intracavitary MammoSite (MS) brachytherapy. The study consisted of 11 patients who had the MS catheter placed and who were subsequently not treated due to inadequate skin distance. A phantom scan of the CP multicatheter hybrid device was superimposed on the MS CT scan and a dosimetric comparison was performed. The median MS balloon size, diameter, and minimum skin distance were 40 cc, 4.1cm, and 5mm, respectively. The D(90), V(100), V(150), and V(200) with MS vs. CP were 95.29% vs. 97.06%, 88.8% vs. 91.3%, 35.7% vs. 38.0%, and 9.4% vs. 9.6%, respectively. The median maximum skin dose was 5.5 Gy vs. 3.9 Gy (p skin dose significantly without compromising the planning target volume coverage, DHI, or dose to other critical organs. The use of this device has the potential to increase the applicability of accelerated partial breast brachytherapy (APBI) in patients with a surgical cavity close to skin compared with balloon brachytherapy.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects of Drugs . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:488-494. Canavan C, West J, Card ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:722-725. Ford AC, Talley NJ. Irritable ...

  11. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P antioxidant parameters (GSH, GPx, SOD, catalase, and vitamin C) exhibited a significant (P skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced after FSO administration. The results of the present study demonstrate that the oral administration of FSO has the potential to modulate the levels of LPO, antioxidants, and detoxification enzymes in the DMBA-croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B; Walters, Edgar T; Carlton, Susan M; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-09-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity.

  13. Biological response modifiers and their potential use in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Louise S; Skov, Lone; Baadsgaard, Ole

    2003-01-01

    and fewer side-effects than the current systemic therapies now used for severe psoriasis, contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. In the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, the immune system plays a pivotal role, and this is where biological response modifiers such as monoclonal antibodies......In recent years, a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin diseases, combined with the developments within biotechnology, has made it possible to design more selective response modifiers. Biological response modifiers hold the potential for greater effectiveness......, recombinant cytokines, or fusion proteins may be effective. Several biological response modifiers have already shown positive results in phase II/III clinical trials in skin diseases, and many new biological response modifiers are in progress....

  14. In vitro and in vivo germ line potential of stem cells derived from newborn mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Dyce

    Full Text Available We previously reported that fetal porcine skin-derived stem cells were capable of differentiation into oocyte-like cells (OLCs. Here we report that newborn mice skin-derived stem cells are also capable of differentiating into early OLCs. Using stem cells from mice that are transgenic for Oct4 germline distal enhancer-GFP, germ cells resulting from their differentiation are expected to be GFP(+. After differentiation, some GFP(+ OLCs reached 40-45 µM and expressed oocyte markers. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that ∼ 0.3% of the freshly isolated skin cells were GFP(+. The GFP-positive cells increased to ∼ 7% after differentiation, suggesting that the GFP(+ cells could be of in vivo origin, but are more likely induced upon being cultured in vitro. To study the in vivo germ cell potential of skin-derived cells, they were aggregated with newborn ovarian cells, and transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized mice. GFP(+ oocytes were identified within a subpopulation of follicles in the resulting growth. Our finding that early oocytes can be differentiated from mice skin-derived cells in defined medium may offer a new in vitro model to study germ cell formation and oogenesis.

  15. Race/skin color differentials in potential years of life lost due to external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Edna Maria de; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Hogan, Vijaya K; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Deaths by external causes represent one of the most important challenges for public health and are the second cause of death in Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze differentials in mortality by external causes according to race/skin color. A descriptive study was carried out in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, using 9,626 cases of deaths by external causes between 1998 and 2003. Data were obtained from the Forensic Medicine Institute and from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The indicator 'potential years of life lost' was utilized to identify the existence of differences among age groups, sex groups and race/skin color groups. Deaths by external causes provoked the loss of 339,220 potential years of life, of which 210,000 were due to homicides. Nonwhite individuals died at earlier ages and lost 12.2 times as much potential years of life due to deaths by homicidies than white individuals. Although the nonwhite (black and mixed) population was three times larger than the white population, its number of potential years of life lost was 30 times higher. The population of blacks was 11.4 % smaller than the white population, but its loss of potential years of life was almost three times higher. Even after the adjustment for age, the differences observed in the indicator potential years of life lost/100,000 inhabitants and in the ratios between strata according to race/skin color were maintained. The results showed differentials in mortality by external causes according to race/skin color in Salvador. The nonwhite population had greater loss of potential years of life, higher average number of years not lived and, on average, they died at an earlier age due to homicides, traffic accidents an all other external causes.

  16. IL-6, VEGF, KC and RANTES Are a Major Cause of a High Irritant Dermatitis to Phthalic Anhydride in C57BL/6 Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Joon Bae

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.

  17. The Potential of Frog Skin-Derived Peptides for Development into Therapeutically-Valuable Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena M. Pantic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the immunoregulatory actions of frog skin-derived peptides in order to assess their potential as candidates for immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory therapy. Frog skin peptides with demonstrable immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from skin secretions of a range of species belonging to the families Alytidae, Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Pipidae and Ranidae. Their effects upon production of inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines by target cells have been evaluated ex vivo and effects upon cytokine expression and immune cell activity have been studied in vivo by flow cytometry after injection into mice. The naturally-occurring peptides and/or their synthetic analogues show complex and variable actions on the production of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-23, IL-8, IFN-γ and IL-17, pleiotropic (IL-4 and IL-6 and immunosuppressive (IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines by peripheral and spleen cells, peritoneal cells and/or isolated macrophages. The effects of frenatin 2.1S include enhancement of the activation state and homing capacity of Th1-type lymphocytes and NK cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as well as the promotion of their tumoricidal capacities. Overall, the diverse effects of frog skin-derived peptides on the immune system indicate their potential for development into therapeutic agents.

  18. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant finding. High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive real-time three-dimensional imaging technique with cellular resolution for which an adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis discriminating inflammatory skin diseases has been proposed. The aim of this study was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test application according to ECDRG guidelines. Selected HD-OCT features correlated well with clinical severity scores. HD-OCT assessment improved the visual patch test scoring although not significantly. Increased epidermal thickness observed in ICD at first reading was a significant finding useful in differentiating doubtful (+?) ACD from irritant (IR) ICD reactions. In conclusion, HD-OCT might be a unique tool for in vivo non-invasive real-time three-dimensional epidermal thickness measurements helping to differentiate IR from doubtful (+?) reactions in patch testing. Selected HD-OCT features corresponded well with severity of visual scoring. These features might help to quantify the degree of inflammation in inflammatory skin conditions. HD-OCT might help in optimizing visual patch

  19. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils

  20. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiysha; Meah, Dilruba; Ahmed, Nadia; Conniff-Jenkins, Rebecca; Chileshe, Emma; Phillips, Chris O; Claypole, Tim C; Forman, Dan W; Row, Paula E

    2013-11-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the

  1. Communicating the location of potential skin neoplasms for excision between the referring and the operating doctor--an audit of skin lesion referrals in Whanganui, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Fraser; Bullen, Naomi; Aiono, Semisi

    2013-08-30

    The importance of correctly defining the location of potential skin cancer when surgical treatment may be required is self-evident. Clear communication is essential if the professional diagnosing potential skin cancer is not the same professional providing treatment. We aimed to assess the nature of the localising information provided in referrals to the local anaesthetic skin lesion theatre in our institution. Information localising target lesions for new patients seen in our local anaesthetic skin excision theatre was recorded during a 2-month period April to May 2012 inclusive 100 patients were seen in our skin excision theatre during the study period; 16 patients were not able to identify the target skin lesion at the time they entered the operating theatre. The target lesion could not be determined from the referral text in 30/100 cases. Diagrams were provided in 19/100 cases. Photographs were provided in 3/100 cases. Pictorial and photographic means of communicating the location of suspicious lesions are under-utilised in our service. Relying on the patient or the referral text to correctly identify the lesion leaves considerable room for error. We suggest that photographic information for skin lesion referrals is adopted as a minimum standard.

  2. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  3. In Vitro Differentiation Potential of Human Placenta Derived Cells into Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin autografting is the most viable and aesthetic technique for treatment of extensive burns; however, this practice has potential limitations. Harvesting cells from neonatal sources (such as placental tissue is a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive procedure. In the current study authors sought to evaluate in vitro potential of human placenta derived stem cells to develop into skin-like cells. After extensive washing, amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissue were separated to harvest amniotic epithelial cells (AECs and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs, respectively. Both types of cells were characterized for the expression of embryonic lineage markers and their growth characteristics were determined. AECs and UC-MSCs were induced to differentiate into keratinocytes-like and dermal fibroblasts-like cells, respectively. After induction, morphological changes were detected by microscopy. The differentiation potential was further assessed using immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses. AECs were positive for cytokeratins and E-Cadherin while UC-MSCs were positive for fibroblast specific makers. AECs differentiated into keratinocytes-like cells showed positive expression of keratinocyte specific cytokeratins, involucrin, and loricrin. UC-MSCs differentiated into dermal fibroblast-like cells indicated expression of collagen type 3, desmin, FGF-7, fibroblast activation protein alpha, procollagen-1, and vimentin. In conclusion, placenta is a potential source of cells to develop into skin-like cells.

  4. Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavita; Butterfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse and neglect remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Over the last few decades, there has been growing research in the field of Child Abuse Pediatrics with greater recognition and research into potential diagnostic mimics of inflicted injury. This paper reviews some common skin findings and bleeding disorders that have features in common with child abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  6. Nail cosmetics: allergies and irritations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent precise figures are not available for the number of adverse reactions related to the use of nail care products. Reactions to nail cosmetic procedures may be divided into reactions at the site of application to the nail itself and ectopic reactions, when the hand transfers a small amount of nail cosmetic to other areas of the skin. Fingernail coatings encompass two types: coatings that harden upon evaporation (nail enamel, base coat, top coat); and coatings that polymerize (sculptured nails, light-curing gels, preformed artificial nails, nail mending and nail wrapping). The test battery enables us to distinguish allergic reactions from irritant reactions. Interestingly, some reactions, such as distant allergic contact dermatitis, are more frequent with nail enamel than with coatings that polymerize. On the other hand, the latter are greater offenders in the nail area. Nail hardeners may just be modified nail enamels containing nylon fibers, acrylate resin and hydrolyzed proteins. Others may contain up to 5% formaldehyde tissue fixative (which can have adverse effects on the nail), but are designed in the US to be applied only to the free edge of the nail while the skin is shielded. Caution is necessary in interpreting formaldehyde patch testing reactions.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  8. CON4EI: Development of serious eye damage and eye irritation testing strategies with respect to the requirements of the UN GHS/EU CLP hazard categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-06-16

    The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation). Project management decided to not include the ICE data in this project since the execution showed relevant, and not predictable, deviations from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 438 and Guidance Document 160. At this stage, the outcome of these deviations has not been fully assessed. In addition to these alternative test methods, the computational models Toxtree and Case Ultra were taken into account. This project assessed the relevance of these test methods, their applicability domains and limitations in terms of 'drivers of classification', and their strengths and weaknesses. In this way, methods were identified that fit into a tiered-testing strategy for serious eye damage/eye irritation assessment to distinguish United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) Category 1 (Cat 1) chemicals from non-Cat 1 chemicals and address the gap namely distinguish between Category 2 (Cat 2) and Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Inhaled formaldehyde: Evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The critical health effects of formaldehyde exposure include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumours in the upper respiratory tract. In literature, a concentration as low as 0.24 ppm has been reported to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans. Nasal

  10. Imaging mitochondrial dynamics in human skin reveals depth-dependent hypoxia and malignant potential for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Dimitra; Balu, Mihaela; Alonzo, Carlo A; Liu, Zhiyi; Quinn, Kyle P; Rius-Diaz, Francisca; Harris, Ronald M; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2016-11-30

    Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We established the sensitivity of this approach with in vivo, fast temporal studies of arterial occlusion-reperfusion, which revealed acute changes in the mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics of the lower human epidermal layers. In vitro hypoxic-reperfusion studies validated that the in vivo outcomes were a result of NADH fluorescence changes. To demonstrate the diagnostic potential of this approach, we evaluated healthy and cancerous human skin epithelia. Healthy tissues displayed consistent, depth-dependent morphological and mitochondrial organization patterns that varied with histological stratification and intraepithelial mitochondrial protein expression. In contrast, these consistent patterns were absent in cancerous skin lesions. We exploited these differences to successfully differentiate healthy from cancerous tissues using a predictive classification approach. Collectively, these results demonstrate that our label-free, automated, near real-time assessments of mitochondrial organization-relying solely on endogenous contrast-could be useful for accurate, noninvasive in vivo diagnosis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  12. Management of irritant contact dermatitis: continuously a problem for patients and dermatologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    Skin irritants may induce irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in various ways but the end result remains the same: a clinical picture which in most cases is practically indistinguishable from allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A treatment that works for ACD does not necessarily work for ICD. Manage...

  13. Skin Biomarkers for Cystic Fibrosis: A Potential Non-Invasive Approach for Patient Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Zanardi Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCystic fibrosis (CF is a disabling genetic disease with an increased prevalence in European heritage populations. Currently, the most used technique for collection of CF samples and diagnosis is provided through uncomfortable tests, with uncertain results, mostly based on chloride concentration in sweat. Since CF mutation induces many metabolic changes in patients, exploring these alterations might be an alternative to visualize potential biomarkers that could be used as interesting tools for further diagnostic upgrade, prioritizing simplicity, low cost, and quickness.MethodsThis contribution describes an accurate strategy to provide potential biomarkers related to CF, which may be understood as a potential tool for new diagnostic approaches and/or for monitoring disease evolution. Therefore, the present proposal consists of using skin imprints on silica plates as a way of sample collection, followed by direct-infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis, intending to identify metabolic changes in skin composition of CF patients.ResultsMetabolomics analysis allowed identifying chemical markers that can be traced back to CF in patients’ skin imprints, differently from control subjects. Seven chemical markers from several molecular classes were elected, represented by bile acids, a glutaric acid derivative, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, an inflammatory mediator, a phosphatidic acid, and diacylglycerol isomers, all reflecting metabolic disturbances that occur due to of CF.ConclusionThe comfortable method of sample collection combined with the identified set of biomarkers represent potential tools that open the range of possibilities to manage CF and follow the disease evolution. This exploratory approach points to new perspectives about the development of diagnostic assay using biomarkers and the management CF.

  14. The effect of irritant dermatitis on cutaneous bioavailability of a metronidazole formulation, investigated by microdialysis and dermatopharmacokinetic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P.G.; Hansen, S.H.; Shah, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers. Samples were collected in a study of the penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation (Flagyl (R) 1%) applied to forearm skin in both areas with irritant dermatitis and normal skin. Barrier perturbation and the depth of microdialysis probes were quantified by non-invasive bioengineering......Background: Determination of drug penetration in diseased skin represents a challenge. Objective: To compare dermal microdialysis and tape-strip sampling of drug penetration in normal skin and skin with irritant dermatitis. Methods: The two methodologies were employed simultaneously in 16 healthy...... methods. Results: Microdialysis showed a significant threefold increase in metronidazole penetration in skin with irritant dermatitis compared with unmodified skin. Conversely, the concentration of metronidazole in tape-strip samples was significantly decreased in irritant dermatitis. Conclusion...

  15. Potential role of tedizolid phosphate in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbina O

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Olatz Urbina,1 Olivia Ferrández,1 Mercè Espona,1 Esther Salas,1 Irene Ferrández,2 Santiago Grau1 1Services of Hospital Pharmacy, Hospital Universitari del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments, Pharmacy Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701, a prodrug of tedizolid (TR-700, is a next-generation oxazolidinone that has shown favorable results in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in its first Phase III clinical trial. Tedizolid has high bioavailability, penetration, and tissue distribution when administered orally or intravenously. The activity of tedizolid was greater than linezolid against strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. in vitro studies, including strains resistant to linezolid and those not susceptible to vancomycin or daptomycin. Its pharmacokinetic characteristics allow for a once-daily administration that leads to a more predictable efficacy and safety profile than those of linezolid. No hematological adverse effects have been reported associated with tedizolid when used at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg in Phase I, II, or III clinical trials of up to 3 weeks of tedizolid administration. Given that the clinical and microbiological efficacy are similar for the 200, 300, and 400 mg doses, the lowest effective dose of 200 mg once daily for 6 days was selected for Phase III studies in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections, providing a safe dosing regimen with low potential for development of myelosuppression. Unlike linezolid, tedizolid does not inhibit monoamine oxidase in vivo, therefore interactions with adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic drugs are not to be expected. In conclusion, tedizolid is a novel antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive microorganisms responsible for skin and soft tissue infections, including strains resistant to

  16. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Conlon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa, caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF, and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 μM against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored.

  17. Potential of IL-1, IL-18 and Inflammasome Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Fenini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs. Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components. Moreover, the importance of IL-1 has been reported for an increasing number of autoinflammatory skin diseases including but not limited to deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist, mevalonate kinase deficiency and PAPA syndrome. Recent findings have revealed that excessive IL-1 release induced by harmful stimuli likely contributes to the pathogenesis of common dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. A key pathogenic feature of these diseases is IL-1β-induced neutrophil recruitment to the skin. IL-1β blockade may therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach. Several case reports and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of IL-1 inhibition in the treatment of these skin disorders. Next to the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra Anakinra and the soluble decoy Rilonacept, the anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody MABp1 and anti-IL-1β Canakinumab but also Gevokizumab, LY2189102 and P2D7KK, offer valid alternatives to target IL-1. Although less thoroughly investigated, an involvement of IL-18 in the development of cutaneous inflammatory disorders is also suspected. The present review describes the role of IL-1 in diseases with skin involvement and gives an overview of the relevant studies discussing the therapeutic potential of modulating the secretion and activity of IL-1 and IL-18 in such diseases.

  18. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Marc E

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia. This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of

  19. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  20. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  1. Evaluation of Phototoxic and Skin Sensitization Potentials of PLA2-Free Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwi Heo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom (BV from honey bee (Apis mellifera L. has been used in oriental medicine and cosmetic ingredients because of its diverse pharmacological activities. In many studies, among BV components, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 is known as a major player in BV-induced allergic reaction. Therefore, we removed PLA2 from BV using ultrafiltration and then investigated in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo skin sensitization of PLA2-free BV (PBV in comparison with regular BV. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity assay can be appropriated to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance upon the exposure of ultraviolet A. Chlorpromazine, a positive control, showed high levels of photoirritation factor and mean photo effect values, while BV and PBV had less of these values. Local lymph node assay is an alternative method to evaluate skin sensitization potential of chemicals. BALB/c mice were treated with p-phenylenediamine (PPD, positive control, BV, or PBV. In all of PPD concentrations, stimulation indexes (SI as sensitizing potential of chemicals were ≥1.6, determined to be sensitizer, while SI levels of BV and PBV were below 1.6. Thus, based on these findings, we propose that both BV and PBV are nonphototoxic compounds and nonsensitizers.

  2. Evaluation of Phototoxic and Skin Sensitization Potentials of PLA 2 -Free Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yunwi; Pyo, Min-Jung; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kwon, Young Chul; Kim, Je Hein; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Choul Goo; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has been used in oriental medicine and cosmetic ingredients because of its diverse pharmacological activities. In many studies, among BV components, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is known as a major player in BV-induced allergic reaction. Therefore, we removed PLA2 from BV using ultrafiltration and then investigated in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo skin sensitization of PLA2-free BV (PBV) in comparison with regular BV. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity assay can be appropriated to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance upon the exposure of ultraviolet A. Chlorpromazine, a positive control, showed high levels of photoirritation factor and mean photo effect values, while BV and PBV had less of these values. Local lymph node assay is an alternative method to evaluate skin sensitization potential of chemicals. BALB/c mice were treated with p-phenylenediamine (PPD, positive control), BV, or PBV. In all of PPD concentrations, stimulation indexes (SI) as sensitizing potential of chemicals were ≥1.6, determined to be sensitizer, while SI levels of BV and PBV were below 1.6. Thus, based on these findings, we propose that both BV and PBV are nonphototoxic compounds and nonsensitizers.

  3. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization potential and potency? Refuting the notion of a LogKow threshold for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW < 500, are assumed and widely accepted as self-evident truths. Objective...

  4. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  5. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Fernblock, a Nutriceutical with Photoprotective Properties and Potential Preventive Agent for Skin Photoaging and Photoinduced Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Juarranz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock. Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin.

  7. Effectiveness of Barrier Creams against Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostosi, Christian; Simonart, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Skin tissue is frequently exposed to various irritant substances in the workplace, particularly in wet work, which can lead to the development of occupational contact dermatitis. 'Barrier' creams (BCs) are well known, and their applications are still the subject of many studies and controversies. We searched all controlled trials investigating BCs against cutaneous irritants in humans published between 1956 and December 2014 from MEDLINE, PubMed, reference lists and existing reviews. Thirty-nine studies about the effects of BCs against skin irritants in humans were selected. Among these, 27 trials in healthy volunteers were found to show many differences with regard to BCs and irritants used, their quantities, test locations, procedures and assessment methods. Finally, 14 patch test trials assessed by clinical scoring and evaporimetry emerged. Although the findings were generally positive, only few findings could be cross-checked from all the data, and vehicles seem to be as effective as BCs. Although this review highlights the poor quality and the lack of standardization of most studies, BCs seem to have protective effects against irritants. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials with clinical and biophysical assessments are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively weak allergen, although it may rarely cause immunological contact urticaria and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. Octenidine is considered a safe and efficient antiseptic when used for superficial skin infections, however, aseptic tissue necrosis and chronic inflammation have been reported following irrigation of penetrating hand wounds. Polihexanide is an uncommon contact allergen as regards irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis but cases of anaphylaxis have been reported. Considering the data available comparing the irritant and allergenic properties of major antiseptics currently in use, it should be acknowledged that all antiseptics may induce cutaneous side-effects. The present article reviews the most recent safety data that can guide consumers' choice.

  9. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  10. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, dietary intake, fibre, fructose. Food avoidance in .... energy intake for protein, fat and carbohydrates was compared to ..... groups. A potential relationship exists between overweight/obesity.

  11. Skin disorders in Parkinson’s disease: potential biomarkers and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravn A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Astrid-Helene Ravn, Jacob P Thyssen, Alexander Egeberg Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by a symptom triad comprising resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia. In addition, non-motor symptoms of PD are well recognized and often precede the overt motor manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations as markers of PD have long been discussed, and cumulative evidence shows an increased prevalence of certain dermatological disorders in PD. Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to occur as a premotor feature of PD referable to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Also, an increased risk of melanoma has been observed in PD. Light hair color is a known risk factor for melanoma, and interestingly the risk of PD is found to be significantly higher in individuals with light hair color and particularly with red hair. Furthermore, several studies have reported a high prevalence of PD in patients with bullous pemphigoid. Moreover, a 2-fold increase in risk of new-onset PD has been observed in patients with rosacea. Besides the association between PD and various dermatological disorders, the skin may be useful in the diagnosis of PD. Early PD pathology is found not only in the brain but also in extra-neuronal tissues. Thus, the protein α-synuclein, which is genetically associated with PD, is present not only in the CNS but also in the skin. Hence, higher values of α-synuclein have been observed in the skin of patients with PD. Furthermore, an increased risk of PD has been found in the Cys/Cys genotype, which is associated with red hair color. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of the association between PD and dermatological disorders, the cutaneous adverse effects of neurological medications, and describe the potential of skin protein expression and

  12. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  13. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  14. The Skinned Fiber Technique as a Potential Method for Study of Muscle as a Food

    OpenAIRE

    Cassens, R. G.; Eddinger, T. J.; MOSS R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle cells can be skinned by physical means or a variety of chemical techniques. The skinned fibers have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of contraction and the regulation of contraction by ca++. Skinned fiber preparations are also useful for study of muscle as a food. For example, it is now possible to determine fiber type of skinned fibers following study of their physical properties.

  15. [Irritant contact dermatitis caused by direct contact with oleander (Nerium oleander)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, G; Masson-Regnault, M; Beylot-Barry, M; Labadie, M

    2015-01-01

    Although the oleander plant is practically ubiquitous throughout the Mediterranean area, very few publications refer to its cutaneous toxicity. Herein, we report two cases of irritant contact dermatitis caused by oleander. The patients in question were twins who had oleander leaves applied directly to their face for 20minutes. The initial lesions consisted of periorbital erythema, followed by the emergence of papules and macules. Vesicles and crusts appeared over the ensuing 24hours. Treatment included withdrawal of the toxic agent, prescription of oral antihistamines, and the topical application of dermocorticoids to the lesions for two weeks. The outcome on the 9th day was slightly hypochromic and atrophic. Complete restitutio ad integrum of the skin was observed after 30 days. In our patients, a joint effect of ultraviolet radiation (phytophotodermatitis) and chlorine from the swimming pool cannot be ruled out. Although the substances present in oleanders (irritant saponins and glycosides) can cause chemical irritant dermatitis, immunological reactions cannot be excluded. The lack of signs of systemic toxicity observed is the result of the factors governing transdermal diffusion of the toxic glycosides found in oleander. These two cases provide a timely reminder, both for the general public and for healthcare professionals, of the potential biohazards of oleander, not only because of its systemic toxicity but also because of the risks associated with cutaneous exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  17. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment. PMID:24177482

  18. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  19. Potential Surgical and Oncologic Consequences Related to Skin Tattoos in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Foiato, Tariane; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Jacob, Anna Elena; Mölgg, Andrea; Hagemann, Ingke; Favero, Giovanni

    Skin tattoos on the feet, legs, and lower abdominal wall are progressively gaining popularity. Consequently, the number of tattooed women with cervical cancer has significantly increased in the last decade. However, pigments of tattoo ink can be transported to regional lymph nodes and potentially clog lymphatic pathways that might also be used by sentinel labeling substances. Therefore, here we report whether the presence of tattoo ink affected pelvic lymph nodes in women with early cervical cancer and discuss its potential oncologic and surgical consequences. Prospective observational study. University Hospital in Hamburg, Germany (Canadian Task Force classification II2). Women affected by cervical cancer. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 267 laparoscopic oncologic operations, including at least a pelvic sentinel or complete lymphadenectomy, were performed in the Department of Advanced Surgical and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. Among these, 191 patients were affected by cervical cancer. Data of patients in whom dyed lymph nodes without the use of patent blue as a sentinel marker or different from blue-colored pelvic lymph nodes in the case of sentinel procedure were identified and prospectively collected. In 9 patients, skin tattoos localized in the lower extremities caused discoloration of at least 1 pelvic lymph node. This effect was observed in 40% of women (9/23) with tattoos in this area of the body. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 27-56). All women had cutaneous tattoos on their feet or legs, and in 1 woman an additional tattoo situated on the inferior abdominal wall was observed. The stage of cervical cancer was FIGO IB1 in all cases. One woman was at the 16th week of gestation at the time of cancer diagnosis. On average, 26 pelvic lymph nodes (range, 11-51) were harvested from both pelvic basin sides. None of the removed lymph nodes was tumor involved. Three patients (33%) developed postoperatively infected

  20. Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes

  1. Chemical reactivity and skin sensitization potential for benzaldehydes: can Schiff base formation explain everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Gfeller, Hans; Haupt, Tina; Brunner, Gerhard

    2012-10-15

    Skin sensitizers chemically modify skin proteins rendering them immunogenic. Sensitizing chemicals have been divided into applicability domains according to their suspected reaction mechanism. The widely accepted Schiff base applicability domain covers aldehydes and ketones, and detailed structure-activity-modeling for this chemical group was presented. While Schiff base formation is the obvious reaction pathway for these chemicals, the in silico work was followed up by limited experimental work. It remains unclear whether hydrolytically labile Schiff bases can form sufficiently stable epitopes to trigger an immune response in the living organism with an excess of water being present. Here, we performed experimental studies on benzaldehydes of highly differing skin sensitization potential. Schiff base formation toward butylamine was evaluated in acetonitrile, and a detailed SAR study is presented. o-Hydroxybenzaldehydes such as salicylaldehyde and the oakmoss allergens atranol and chloratranol have a high propensity to form Schiff bases. The reactivity is highly reduced in p-hydroxy benzaldehydes such as the nonsensitizing vanillin with an intermediate reactivity for p-alkyl and p-methoxy-benzaldehydes. The work was followed up under more physiological conditions in the peptide reactivity assay with a lysine-containing heptapeptide. Under these conditions, Schiff base formation was only observable for the strong sensitizers atranol and chloratranol and for salicylaldehyde. Trapping experiments with NaBH₃CN showed that Schiff base formation occurred under these conditions also for some less sensitizing aldehydes, but the reaction is not favored in the absence of in situ reduction. Surprisingly, the Schiff bases of some weaker sensitizers apparently may react further to form stable peptide adducts. These were identified as the amides between the lysine residues and the corresponding acids. Adduct formation was paralleled by oxidative deamination of the parent

  2. Modeling skin sensitization potential of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol compounds with quantum mechanistic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Wang, Lirong; Mu, Ying; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2014-12-24

    Advanced structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling can be used as an alternative tool for identification of skin sensitizers and in improvement of the medical diagnosis and more effective practical measures to reduce the causative chemical exposures. It can also circumvent ethical concern of using animals in toxicological tests, and reduce time and cost. Compounds with aniline or phenol moieties represent two large classes of frequently skin sensitizing chemicals but exhibiting very variable, and difficult to predict, potency. The mechanisms of action are not well-understood. A group of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol chemicals were collected. An in silico model was established by statistical analysis of quantum descriptors for the determination of the relationship between their chemical structures and skin sensitization potential. The sensitization mechanisms were investigated based on the features of the established model. Then the model was utilized to analyze a subset of FDA approved drugs containing aniline and/or phenol groups for prediction of their skin sensitization potential. A linear discriminant model using the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (ϵHOMO) as the descriptor yielded high prediction accuracy. The contribution of ϵHOMO as a major determinant may suggest that autoxidation or free radical binding could be involved. The model was further applied to predict allergic potential of a subset of FDA approved drugs containing aniline and/or phenol moiety. The predictions imply that similar mechanisms (autoxidation or free radical binding) may also play a role in the skin sensitization caused by these drugs. An accurate and simple quantum mechanistic model has been developed to predict the skin sensitization potential of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol chemicals. The model could be useful for the skin sensitization potential predictions of a subset of FDA approved drugs.

  3. Profile of tedizolid phosphate and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RG 2nd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ronald G Hall 2nd, Heidi N Michaels Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Tedizolid phosphate is the first once-daily oxazolidinone approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI. It is more potent in vitro than linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and other gram-positive pathogens causing ABSSSI, even retaining activity against some linezolid-resistant strains. Tedizolid is approximately 90% protein bound, leading to lower free-drug concentrations than linezolid. The impact of the effect of food, renal or hepatic insufficiency, or hemodialysis on tedizolid's pharmacokinetic have been evaluated, and no dosage adjustment is needed in these populations. In animal and clinical studies, tedizolid's effect on bacterial killing is optimized by the free-drug area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (fAUC/MIC. The 200 mg once-daily dose is able to achieve the target fAUC/MIC ratio in 98% of simulated patients. Two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the noninferiority of tedizolid 200 mg once daily for 6 days to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days. In vitro, animal, and clinical studies have failed to demonstrate that tedizolid inhibits monoamine oxidase to a clinically relevant extent. Tedizolid has several key advantages over linezolid including once daily dosing, decreased treatment duration, minimal interaction with serotonergic agents, possibly associated with less adverse events associated with the impairment of mitochondrial protein synthesis (eg, myelosuppression, lactic acidosis, and peripheral/optic neuropathies, and retains in vitro activity against linezolid-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Economic analyses with tedizolid are needed to describe the cost-effectiveness of this agent compared with other options used for ABSSSI, particularly treatment

  4. Predictive performance for human skin sensitizing potential of the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukada, Yuko; Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Sono, Sakiko; Mugita, Nanae; Hirota, Morihiko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Sasa, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent changes in regulatory restrictions and social opposition to animal toxicology experiments have driven the need for reliable in vitro tests for predicting the skin sensitizing potentials of a wide variety of industrial chemicals. Previously, we developed the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) as a cell-based assay to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals, and showed the correspondence between the h-CLAT and the murine local lymph node assay results. This study was conducted to investigate the predictive performance of the h-CLAT for human skin sensitizing potential. We selected a total of 66 test chemicals with known human sensitizing potential, and tested all chemicals with the h-CLAT. We then evaluated the performance of the h-CLAT in predicting human sensitizing potential. Forty-five of 51 tested sensitizers were positive in the h-CLAT, indicating relatively high sensitivity. Also, 10 of 15 non-sensitizers were correctly detected as negative. The overall agreement between human data and h-CLAT outcome was 83%. Furthermore, the h-CLAT could accurately predict the human sensitizing potential of 23 tested chemicals that were amines, heterocyclic compounds, or sulfur compounds. Our data indicate the utility of the h-CLAT for predicting the human skin sensitizing potential of a variety of chemicals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  6. S1 guideline on occupational skin products: protective creams, skin cleansers, skin care products (ICD 10: L23, L24)--short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas L; Drexler, Hans; Elsner, Peter; John, Swen Malte; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Job-related hand dermatitis heads up the list of reported occupational diseases. So-called skin products - understood to mean protective creams, skin cleansers and skin care products - are used for the primary and secondary prevention of job- related hand dermatitis. In the interests of evidence-based medicine, the only preventive measures and/or occupational skin products that should be used are those whose potential uses and efficacy are underpinned by scientific research. To this end, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Berufs- und Umweltdermatologie e.V. (Working Group for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, ABD) of the DDG (German Dermatological Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin (German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DGAUM) have summed up the latest scientific findings and recommendations in the updated guideline. The benefit of the combined application of protective creams and skin care products in the primary and secondary prevention of work-related contact dermatitis has been widely confirmed by recent clinical-epidemiological studies. The guideline clearly explains the necessity of demonstrating the efficacy of protective creams and cleansing products by means of in vivo methods in the sense of repetitive applications. Transferable standardised testing systems designed to examine the irritation potential and thus the compatibility of occupational skin cleansers and the reduction of irritation by protective skin creams have now been developed and validated by multicentre studies for skin protection creams and cleansers. The status of the current assessment of the safety of occupational skin products is also summarised. © 2015 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  7. Clinical potential for vitamin D as a neoadjuvant for photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprising basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common form of human cancer worldwide. Effective therapies include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and ionizing radiation, but all of these cause scarring. ALA-based PDT is a non-scarring modality used routinely for NMSC in Europe but not in the USA, primarily due to lingering uncertainties about efficacy. We have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can be used as neoadjuvants, i.e., can be given as a pretreatment prior to ALA-PDT, to improve the efficacy of tumor killing in mouse models of NMSC. Vitamin D (VD3) is the most recent neoadjuvant on this list. In this presentation we make the case that VD3 may be superior to the other agents to improve results of ALA-PDT skin cancer treatment. The active form of VD3 (calcitriol) is available topically as a pharmaceutical grade cream or ointment (FDA-approved for psoriasis), and works well for boosting ALA-PDT tumor treatment in mouse models. For deep tumors not reachable by a topical route, calcitriol can be given systemically and is very effective, but carries a risk of causing hypercalcemia as a side effect. To circumvent this risk, we have conducted experiments with the natural dietary form of VD3 (cholecalciferol), and showed that this improves ALA-PDT efficacy almost to the same extent as calcitriol. Because cholecalciferol does not increase serum calcium levels, this represents a potentially extremely safe approach. Data in mouse models of BCC and SCC will be presented.

  8. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I; Lee, Tim K

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  9. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  10. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique ag...

  11. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep: significantly increased penetration through slightly damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-11-01

    The OECD guideline for studies on percutaneous penetration to be used in hazard and risk evaluations prescribes experimental conditions with optimal barrier integrity of the skin, which in many occupational settings probably is not true. Thus, workers may have compromised skin due to chemical or mechanical damage, due to different medical conditions (eczema, dermatitis, skin irritation) or related to occupational scenarios involving prolonged wet work. The present study used the OECD guideline procedures to study the in vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of a number of model substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most lipophilic) have low penetration rates through intact skin. The present experiment not only confirms the proportionality between lipophilicity and potential for percutaneous penetration, but also illustrates that at a certain degree of lipophilicity of a model compound, the different skin compartments become more attractive for temporary deposition of model compounds. Moreover, a clear change from epidermal deposition towards a dominating dermis deposition of chemicals temporarily deposited within the skin is seen following damage to the skin barrier. Thus, the distribution of chemicals within the skin compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating

  12. Skin symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis using enzyme-containing detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Hundevadt; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Mosbech, H

    1998-01-01

    Detergent enzymes may cause skin irritation and occasionally hypersensitivity reactions. The potential hazards of these enzymes have led some physicians to advise atopic dermatitis patients against the use of enzyme-enriched detergents. A three-phased randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment...... differences in any of the primary or secondary parameters comparing treatment and placebo periods. Our data therefore seem to exclude that atopic dermatitis may exacerbate during 1 month's exposure to enzyme-enriched detergents. Since no significant irritant capacity was detected in atopic dermatitis patients...

  13. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The in vivo developmental potential of porcine skin-derived progenitors and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Teson, Jennifer M; Whitworth, Kristin M; Samuel, Melissa S; Spate, Lee D; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2012-09-20

    Multipotent skin-derived progenitors (SKPs) can be traced back to embryonic neural crest cells and are able to differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny in vitro. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewing and can contribute to neuron and glia in the nervous system. Recently, we derived porcine SKPs and NSCs from the same enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic fetuses and demonstrated that SKPs could contribute to neural and mesodermal lineages in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether porcine SKPs and NSCs can generate ectoderm and mesoderm lineages or other germ layers in vivo. Embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for investigating cell lineage determination and cell potency through normal embryonic development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo developmental potential of porcine SKPs and fetal brain-derived NSCs by chimera production. Porcine SKPs, NSCs, and fibroblasts were injected into precompact in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF) and then transferred into corresponding surrogates 24 h postinjection. We found that porcine SKPs could incorporate into the early embryos and contribute to various somatic tissues of the 3 germ layers in postnatal chimera, and especially have an endodermal potency. However, this developmental potential is compromised when they differentiate into fibroblasts. In addition, porcine NSCs fail to incorporate into host embryos and contribute to chimeric piglets. Therefore, neural crest-derived SKPs may represent a more primitive state than their counterpart neural stem cells in terms of their contributions to multiple cell lineages.

  15. Tissue Kallikrein Inhibitors Based on the Sunflower Trypsin Inhibitor Scaffold - A Potential Therapeutic Intervention for Skin Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Kinsler, Veronica A; Macmillan, Derek; Di, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Tissue kallikreins (KLKs), in particular KLK5, 7 and 14 are the major serine proteases in the skin responsible for skin shedding and activation of inflammatory cell signaling. In the normal skin, their activities are controlled by an endogenous protein protease inhibitor encoded by the SPINK5 gene. Loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 leads to enhanced skin kallikrein activities and cause the skin disease Netherton Syndrome (NS). We have been developing inhibitors based on the Sunflower Trypsin Inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) scaffold, a 14 amino acids head-to-tail bicyclic peptide with a disulfide bond. To optimize a previously reported SFTI-1 analogue (I10H), we made five analogues with additional substitutions, two of which showed improved inhibition. We then combined those substitutions and discovered a variant (Analogue 6) that displayed dual inhibition of KLK5 (tryptic) and KLK7 (chymotryptic). Analogue 6 attained a tenfold increase in KLK5 inhibition potency with an Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) Kd of 20nM. Furthermore, it selectively inhibits KLK5 and KLK14 over seven other serine proteases. Its biological function was ascertained by full suppression of KLK5-induced Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2) dependent intracellular calcium mobilization and postponement of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in cell model. Moreover, Analogue 6 permeates through the cornified layer of in vitro organotypic skin equivalent culture and inhibits protease activities therein, providing a potential drug lead for the treatment of NS.

  16. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  17. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil as a topical traditional remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Djaalab, Hdria; Riachi, Foulla; Serakta, Mennouba; Chettoum, Aziez; Maameri, Zineb; Boutobza, Badaoui; Hamdi-Pacha, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal toxicity study was performed on 18 NZW rabbits to evaluate possible adverse effect following application of PLFO for 28 days. Based on the results of the current study, PLFO is classified as slightly irritating to the skin and the eye of rabbits (Primary Irritation Index (P.I.I.) = 1.037; Ocular Irritation Index (O.I.I.) = 5.33 at 1 h). In the sub-acute toxicity test, PLFO produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between control group and treated rabbits. However, a reversible irritant contact dermatitis was observed in the treated areas from the end of the second week of application until the end of experiment. This local phenomenon was accompanied by a significant skin thickening (P≤0.01) since the 12(th) day (ANOVA, F = 11, 07143, P = 0, 00765) which is confirmed with an inflammatory granuloma in histological study. Haematological analysis and blood chemistry values of the 2 groups showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. In summary, PLFO is minimally irritating to the eye and skin after a single exposure, but it may cause irritant contact dermatitis and a reversible thickening of skin after prolonged use.

  18. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C Inamadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  19. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  20. Influence of two different IR radiators on the antioxidative potential of the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Patzelt, A.; Meinke, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2009-03-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the fast in vivo detection of the concentration of carotenoid antioxidant substances such as beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin and for the measurement of their degradation dynamics, subsequent to infrared (IR) irradiation emitted by two different IR radiators applied at the same power density. One of the radiators was equipped with a water filter in front of the radiation source (WIRA) and the other was a usual broadband system without a water filter (standard IR radiator - SIR). It was found that the SIR exerted a higher influence on the degradation of carotenoids in the skin than the WIRA. Furthermore, all twelve volunteers who participated in the study felt that the irradiation with the SIR was disagreeably warmer on the skin surface compared to the WIRA, in spite of the same power density values for both radiators on the skin surface. The average degradation magnitude of the carotenoids in the skin of all volunteers after an IR irradiation was determined at 23% for WIRA and 33% for the SIR. A correlation (R2 ~ 0.6) was found between the individual level of carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers and the magnitude of degradation of the carotenoids for both IR radiators. Taking the previous investigations into consideration, which clearly showed production of free radicals in the skin subsequent to IR irradiation, it can be concluded that during the application of WIRA irradiation on the skin, fewer radicals are produced in comparison to the SIR.

  1. A new potential biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies: Skin nerve α-synuclein deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Rizzo, Giovanni; Capellari, Sabina; Pantieri, Roberta; Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Devigili, Grazia; Eleopra, Roberto; Defazio, Giovanni; Montini, Federico; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco

    2017-07-25

    To investigate whether (1) phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) deposits in skin nerves could be useful in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from different forms of dementia and (2) small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is associated with DLB. We studied 18 well-characterized patients with DLB (11 with autonomic dysfunction), 23 patients with nonsynucleinopathy dementia (NSD; 13 with young-onset Alzheimer disease dementia, 6 frontotemporal dementia, and 4 vascular dementia), and 25 healthy controls. All participants underwent skin biopsies from proximal (i.e., cervical) and distal (i.e., thigh and distal leg) sites to study small nerve fibers and deposits of p-syn, considered the pathologic form of α-synuclein. No p-syn was detected in any skin sample in patients with NSD and controls but was found in all patients with DLB. SFN was found in patients with DLB and the autonomic denervation of skin was more severe in patients with autonomic dysfunctions. (1) In autonomic skin nerves, p-syn is a sensitive biomarker for DLB diagnosis, helping to differentiate DLB from other forms of dementia, although this needs to be confirmed in a larger, more representative sample; and (2) skin autonomic neuropathy is part of the DLB pathology and may contribute to autonomic symptoms. This study provides Class III evidence that p-syn in skin nerve fibers on skin biopsy accurately distinguishes DLB from other forms of dementia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. "The fairer the better?" Use of potentially toxic skin bleaching products.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin bleaching products include creams, ointments, soaps, capsules/pills, and injections. The most com- monly used products contain hydroquinone, corticos- teroids or mercury4. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production of melanin, the pigment which gives human.

  3. Reinforcement of irritability during therapy with benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    Often, long-term treatment with benzodiazepines is a subject of discussion due to potential side effects, with dependence on benzodiazepines as the most serous one. After longer period of benzodiazepines tolerance on their anxiolytic effects develops. Discontinuation is usually beneficial as it is followed by improved psychomotor and cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. Previous studies confirmed occurrence of physical dependence in high percentage of patients in long term treatment with benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages. Benzodiazepines are relatively well-tolerated medicines but can induce serious problems of addiction and that is why their use is regulated. The aim of this article is to report a case of a patient who was taking 15 tablets of oxazepam daily for a period of time, during which reinforcement of irritability occurred. It is necessary to warn patients who take benzodiazepines in therapy that reinforcement of irritability may occur in case of higher dosage of benzodiazepines, which may be misinterpreted as worsening in mental condition.

  4. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  5. Behavioral and neural responses of toads to salt solutions correlate with basolateral membrane potential of epidermal cells of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Baula, Victor; Tuttle, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    low, V(b) transiently hyperpolarized to values near the equilibrium potential for K(+) and corresponded with the reduced neural response. These results support the hypothesis that chemosensory function of the skin is analogous to that of mammalian taste cells but utilizes paracellular ion transport...

  6. The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Chen, M; Liu, J; Huang, X; Chen, J; Zhou, L; Ma, J; Sextius, P; Pena, A-M; Cai, Z; Jeulin, S

    2016-10-01

    The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Paeonia lactiflora root extract (containing 53.25% of paeoniflorin) and paeoniflorin (97% purity) were applied topically on reconstructed pigmented human epidermis model, a three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent, showing morphological and functional characteristics similar to those of in vivo human skin. Two specific methods were used for quantifying melanin inside the reconstructed pigmented epidermis: Fontana-Masson staining (2D quantification) and multiphoton microscopy (3D quantification). Compared to vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO), a significant decrease in 2D and 3D melanin content was observed after topical application on reconstructed pigmented epidermis of Paeonia lactiflora extract at 300 μg mL(-1) (-28% and -27%, respectively) and paeoniflorin at 120 μg mL(-1) /250 μM (-30% and -23%, respectively), which is in the same order of magnitude as the positive reference 4-n-butylresorcinol at 83 μg mL(-1) /500 μM (-26% and -40%, respectively). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the depigmenting potential of paeoniflorin and thus the potential interest of using Paeonia lactiflora root extracts containing paeoniflorin in cosmetic or dermatological applications for reducing the severity of some hyperpigmented skin disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Evaluating skin care problems in people with stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Gwillam, Brandon; Sutherland, Norma; Matten, Jane; Hemmingway, Julie; Ilsey, Helen; Somerville, Mary; Vujnovich, Angela; Day, Stephanie; Redmond, Caroline; Cowin, Caroline; Fox, Kathy; Parker, Theresa

    This study aimed to identify actual and potential peristomal skin problems in relation to the use of different types of stoma appliances and accessories. It also compared ostomists' perceptions of their peristomal skin condition with those of stoma care nurse specialists. Maintaining skin integrity is a basic skill that ensures good stoma management. It is widely accepted that from time to time a patient with a stoma will seek clinical advice about a peristomal skin problem. Little is known about how often patients present with these problems, the clinical course of peristomal skin problems, and how patients manage them. A multi-centred descriptive study was conducted among 80 ostomists. Fieldwork took place over 13 months. The sample was drawn from a UK home care delivery database. Using structured questionnaires, ostomists were interviewed by a stoma care nurse specialist. A digital photograph was taken of their peristomal skin and their answers compared with nurse assessment using the Stoma Care Ostomy Research index scoring system. Of the interviewees 32% had healthy peristomal skin both via questionnaire and at observation. At observation, 68% were observed to have peristomal skin problems, of whom 44% had irritated skin, 12% had ulcerated skin, 9% had an apparent allergy and 3% had macerated/eroded skin. In addition, 21% had an ill-fitting appliance at observation. Half (50%) were observed to have a parastomal hernia, although only 24% reported having one. These findings demonstrate significant differences between the perception of skin problems among ostomists and actual skin problems observed by stoma care nurse specialists. Peristomal skin problems are common among ostomists. The difference between ostomists' and nurses' perceptions of peristomal skin condition led to the identification of educational needs for the new ostomist. Education and regular follow-up by the stoma care nurse specialist is imperative.

  8. Assessing Antibacterial Potential of Components of Phyllomedusa distincta Skin and its Associated Dermal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito de Assis, Ananda; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Dutra, Flávia Pereira; de Oliveira Motta, Ailla; Costa, Flávio Silva; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Barreto, Cristine Chaves

    2016-02-01

    The granular glands of anuran skin secrete an array of bioactive molecules that protect a frog against pathogens and predators. The skin also harbors a microbial community. Although there is evidence to suggest that the microbiota complement the innate immune defense systems against pathogen infection, the effect of the frog bioactive molecules on its resident microbiota has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, the skin microbiota of Phyllomedusa distincta obtained from two different geographical areas was evaluated with molecular and culture-based approaches. The antagonistic effects exhibited by the host's microbiota and by a novel dermaseptin peptide isolated from P. distincta skin were investigated. Four isolated bacterial colonies displayed antimicrobial activity against known frog pathogens. Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that microbiota from P. distincta may interact with pathogenic microorganisms to protect a frog's health. On the other hand, the novel dermaseptin peptide exhibited an antimicrobial effect on pathogens as well as on some of the bacteria obtained from the skin microbiota. The richness of bacteria on P. distincta skin was further investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which revealed that the family Enterobacteriaceae was prevalent, but a high variability at the species level was observed among individual frogs. Differences observed on the microbiota of frogs from contrasting habitats indicated an influence of the environment on the structure of the skin microbiota of P. distincta.

  9. Photoprotective potential in some medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napagoda, Mayuri Tharanga; Malkanthi, Benthota Malavi Arachchige Shamila; Abayawardana, Subasinghe Appuhamillage Kaumudi; Qader, Mohomed Mallique; Jayasinghe, Lalith

    2016-11-24

    The constant exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Although synthetic sunscreen products have been introduced as a preventive/therapeutic strategy, with the realization of their adverse side effects, the recent trend is to search for human friendly alternative formulations especially of plant origin. Therefore, the present study focuses on evaluation of photoprotective activity of aqueous extracts (1 mg/ml) of eleven medicinal plants in Sri Lanka that have been widely employed in traditional medicine as treatment options for various skin diseases and to improve the complexion. For the determination of UV filtering potential of the extracts, UV absorption was measured and the sun protection factor (SPF) was calculated according the Mansur equation. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. Among the extracts, Atalantia ceylanica, Hibiscus furcatus, Leucas zeylanica, Mollugo cerviana, Olax zeylanica and Ophiorrhiza mungos have displayed SPF value ≥ 25, which are even higher than two commercial photoprotective creams used as reference compounds. L. zeylanica and O. mungos have displayed a high UV absorbance in 260-350 nm range indicating their potential of being broad spectrum sunscreens. In addition, the extract of O. mungos was found to be photostable, without any significant reduction in the SPF after exposure to direct solar radiation for 21 days. DPPH assay and the ABTS assay revealed that the extracts possess high antioxidant activity. The results of the present study suggest that the presence of secondary metabolites with antioxidant property could be responsible for the high UV absorbance. Our findings would offer an exciting avenue for further research towards the development of herbal cosmetics.

  10. Exploring the potentials of nurture: 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation explant human skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Mogbekeloluwa O; van Drongelen, Vincent; Mulder, Aat; Gooris, Gert; van Smeden, Jeroen; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2015-02-01

    Explant human skin equivalents (Ex-HSEs) can be generated by placing a 4mm skin biopsy onto a dermal equivalent. The keratinocytes migrate from the biopsy onto the dermal equivalent, differentiate and form the epidermis of 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs. This is especially suitable for the expansion of skin material from which only small fragments of skin can be harvested e.g. diseased skin. We evaluated whether 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs can also be generated from a single skin biopsy whilst maintaining the epidermal properties of 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs and native human skin. 2(nd) generation Ex-HSEs were produced by placing a biopsy from the 1(st) generation Ex-HSE onto a new dermal equivalent. Likewise, the 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs were generated from a 2(nd) generation Ex-HSE biopsy. We show for the first time that Ex-HSEs can be passaged to the 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation and display similar epidermal morphology and expression of differentiation markers as in native human skin and 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs except for involucrin. The 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs also show many similarities with 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs in lipid properties e.g. presence of all lipid classes, similar fatty acid chain length distribution and lamellar lipid organization. However, some differences arise in increased level of hexagonal lateral packing and a change in ceramide profiling. The changes in specific lipid classes were also accompanied by changes in the expression of the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. The expansion of skin biopsies to the 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs could be a promising method to expand valuable epidermal tissue to analyze morphological and differentiation parameters in the native epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of sensitive skin among the general population in industrialized countries is reported to be over 50%. Sensitive skin subjects often report significant reactions to contact with cosmetics, soaps and other consumer products. This paper describes the overall skin compatibility and mildness program for a newly developed, lightly fragranced, colorant free laundry product (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent), specially formulated for individuals with sensitive skin. The skin mildness of the product was compared to Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear liquid laundry detergent with no fragrance or colorant, and an established history of safe use by sensitive skin consumers. The test material was a liquid laundry product with a light scent formulated for sensitive skin consumers (Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent). The product was compared to commercially marketed products for sensitive skin with a history of skin safety in the marketplace, including: a very similar product formulation (Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear with no fragrance), and several selected competitors' products. Studies were conducted among individuals with self-assessed sensitive skin (based on a questionnaire) using standard protocols for the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT), 10-Day Cumulative Irritation, the Wrist Band Wear test, and the Safety In-Use testing. Responses in all protocols were evaluated by visual scoring of potential dermatologic reactions, and recording any sensory effects at the time of the examination. In addition, sensory effects collected from panelists' daily diaries were also evaluated. The HRIPT confirmed that neither the fragrance alone, nor the product formulation with fragrance, induced contact sensitization in sensitive skin subjects. The 10-Day cumulative irritation study conducted using sensitive skin subjects showed highly favorable skin compatibility, and the test product was comparable to the control

  12. Mercury content in skin-lightening creams and potential hazards to the health of Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, I; al-Doush, I

    1997-06-06

    It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that mercury is toxic. Because of the nature of the Saudi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are widely available. In this study, 38 skin-lightening cream samples were collected and analyzed for mercury by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after an acid digestion procedure. About 45% of the tested skin-lightening cream samples contained mercury at levels well above the FDA's acceptable limit of 1 ppm. These findings are alarming and have wide legal and educational implications for Saudi Arabia in particular and developing countries in general. Further investigation for possible adverse health effects is also needed.

  13. Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2015-04-05

    Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (Pnanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Aiysha; Meah, Dilruba; Ahmed, Nadia; Conniff-Jenkins, Rebecca; Chileshe, Emma; Phillips, Chris O; Claypole, Tim C; Forman, Dan W; Row, Paula E

    2013-01-01

    .... To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary...

  15. Intralaboratory validation of four in vitro assays for the prediction of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Caroline; Kolle, Susanne N; Fabian, Eric; Pachel, Christina; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Wiench, Benjamin; Wruck, Christoph J; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is induced by repeated skin contact with an allergen. Assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals, agrochemicals, and especially cosmetic ingredients is currently performed with the use of animals. Animal welfare and EU legislation demand animal-free alternatives reflected in a testing and marketing ban for cosmetic ingredients beginning in 2013. The underlying mechanisms of induction and elicitation of skin sensitization are complex and a chemical needs to comply several properties being skin sensitizing. To account for the multitude of events in the induction of skin sensitization an in vitro test system will consist of a battery of various tests. Currently, we performed intralaboratory validations of four assays addressing three different events during induction of skin sensitization. (1) The Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) according to Gerberick and co-workers (Gerberick et al., 2004) using synthetic peptides and HPLC analysis. (2) Two dendritic cell activation assays based on the dendritic cell like cell lines U-937 and THP-1 and flow cytometric detection of the maturation markers CD54 and/or CD86 (Ashikaga et al., 2006; Python et al., 2007; Sakaguchi et al., 2006). (3) Antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene activity in a HaCaT reporter gene cell line (Emter et al., 2010). We present the results of our intralaboratory validation of these assays with 23 substances of known sensitizing potential. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the individual tests were obtained by comparison to human epidemiological data as well as to data from animal tests such as the local lymph node assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2006-01-01

    either 10% isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: In HLGP, irritant dermatitis was induced with 30 min daily exposure for 4 days to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. (SLS). In HVs, irritant...... tolerated locally in humans. RESULTS: All formulations worsened the skin irritation in HLGP: the glycerol cream the least, the canola oil cream the most, while the bisabolol cream and the carbomer cream were indistinguishable. In humans, the glycerol cream was better than 'No Treatment' after cumulative...

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mendoza-Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP, among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs, which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%, flavonols (42.89% and dihydrochalcones (11.60%. In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (−-epicatechin and 3% (+-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (−-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects.

  18. The potential utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Hwan; Koh, Young-Il; Kim, Joo-Hee; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Hong, Ga-Na; Jin, U-Ram; Choi, Byung-Joo; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2015-03-01

    Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are relatively common. However, there are few data to determine the clinical utility of immunologic evaluation of ICM. To evaluate the utility of ICM skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity, 23 patients (17 immediate and 6 delayed reactions) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. With 6 commonly used ICM including iopromide, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iodixanol, skin prick (SPT), intradermal (IDT) and patch tests were performed. Of 10 patients with anaphylaxis, 3 (30.0%) and 6 (60.0%) were positive respectively on SPTs and IDTs with the culprit ICM. Three of 6 patients with urticaria showed positive IDTs. In total, 11 (64.7%) had positive on either SPT or IDT. Three of 6 patients with delayed rashes had positive response to patch test and/or delayed IDT. Among 5 patients (3 anaphylaxis, 1 urticaria and 1 delayed rash) taken subsequent radiological examinations, 3 patients administered safe alternatives according to the results of skin testing had no adverse reaction. However, anaphylaxis developed in the other 2 patients administered the culprit ICM again. With 64.7% (11/17) and 50% (3/6) of the sensitivities of corresponding allergic skin tests with culprit ICM for immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the present study suggests that skin tests is useful for the diagnosis of ICM hypersensitivity and for selecting safe ICM and preventing a recurrence of anaphylaxis caused by the same ICM.

  19. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-12-24

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide's concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide's impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression.

  20. Cyclooxygenases: mediators of UV-induced skin cancer and potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmets, Craig A; Ledet, Johnathan J; Athar, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are among the most common human malignancies. Current methods for their prevention include avoidance of natural and artificial sources of UV radiation and using photoprotective clothing and sunscreens. However, these methods have proven to be inadequate in stemming the rise in skin cancer incidence over the past several years. There is accumulating evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme involved in prostaglandin synthesis, may be involved in the pathogenesis of NMSC. In preclinical studies, animals genetically deficient in the COX-2 enzyme or that have been treated with pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2 develop significantly fewer tumors when subjected to a UV-induced skin carcinogenesis protocol compared with control mice. Several epidemiological studies in humans support the concept that this enzyme is intimately involved in UV-induced skin cancer development, and UV radiation is known to augment COX-2 expression in human skin. Recent studies suggest that drugs that block COX-2 expression may prevent the development of NMSCs. Thus, pharmacologic agents that inhibit the enzyme COX-2 may be effective chemopreventive agents for NMSCs.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Inflammatory Skin Diseases: Clinical Potential and Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Soon Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-01-25

    Inflammatory skin disorders that cause serious deterioration of the quality of life have become one of the major public concerns. Despite their significance, there is no fundamental cure to date. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess unique immunomodulatory properties which make them a promising tool for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Our recent preclinical and clinical studies have shown that MSCs can be successfully used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), one of the major inflammatory skin diseases. This observation along with similar reports from other groups revealed the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MSCs in inflammatory dermatosis. In addition, it has been proposed that cell priming or gene transduction can be novel strategies for the development of next-generation high-efficacy MSCs for treating inflammatory skin diseases. We discuss here existing evidence that demonstrates the regulatory properties of MSCs on immune responses under inflammatory conditions.

  2. Chemical Composition and the Potential of Lavandula angustifolia L. Oil as a Skin Depigmentant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Andrei

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding non-invasive skin depigmenting agentsrepresent an important goal of cosmetic research and industry. It is now admited that Tyrosinase inhibitor substances could be the most efficient molecules in this field because Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in the melanogenesis process. In the pathology of macular skin hyperpigmentations it can mention aesthetic problems such as: melasma gravidarum, pigmentation of aged skin, photosensibilisation, hepatic disfunctions and post-inflammatory residual pigmentation. The aim of the study was to find out if the Lavandula essential oil has depigmenting properties on human skin, having as theoretical premise its tyrosinase-blocking effect, previously reported in literature for some plant species. By using gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (GC/MS, a pharmaceutical cream preparation, a protocol of exploration on volunteers (including criteria and a mexameter, we have highlighted the composition of a sample of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LEO and its depigmenting effect on skin melanic macula. The results highlightes that the main compounds identified were linalool ( 26.783%, terpinen-4-ol (22.143% and 3-carene (21.668%, Terpinen-4-ol is represented as the possible active compound in tyrosinase inhibition. Our dermocosmetic assay shows that the depigmenting effect of Lavandula angustifolia oil is effective after 2 months of daily topical treatement, when the melanine average value (measured by the mexameter decreases more than a third from the innitial value. The study remarks that Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LEO in daily cutaneous pharmaceutical form application, during two month, reduces the intensity of spot skin melanin, exprimed through mexametric values.

  3. The potential applications of fibrin-coated electrospun polylactide nanofibers in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa; Musilkova, Jana; Riedel, Tomas; Stranska, Denisa; Brynda, Eduard; Zaloudkova, Margit; Bacakova, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Fibrin plays an important role during wound healing and skin regeneration. It is often applied in clinical practice for treatment of skin injuries or as a component of skin substitutes. We prepared electrospun nanofibrous membranes made from poly(l-lactide) modified with a thin fibrin nanocoating. Fibrin surrounded the individual fibers in the membrane and also formed a thin fibrous mesh on several places on the membrane surface. The cell-free fibrin nanocoating remained stable in the cell culture medium for 14 days and did not change its morphology. On membranes populated with human dermal fibroblasts, the rate of fibrin degradation correlated with the degree of cell proliferation. The cell spreading, mitochondrial activity, and cell population density were significantly higher on membranes coated with fibrin than on nonmodified membranes, and this cell performance was further improved by the addition of ascorbic acid in the cell culture medium. Similarly, fibrin stimulated the expression and synthesis of collagen I in human dermal fibroblasts, and this effect was further enhanced by ascorbic acid. The expression of beta1-integrins was also improved by fibrin, and on pure polylactide membranes, it was slightly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, ascorbic acid promoted deposition of collagen I in the form of a fibrous extracellular matrix. Thus, the combination of nanofibrous membranes with a fibrin nanocoating and ascorbic acid seems to be particularly advantageous for skin tissue engineering.

  4. Preventing irritant contact dermatitis with protective creams: influence of the application dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Petri, Maximilian; Elsner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Skin protection creams (PC)s are used in the occupational setting to help prevent irritant hand dermatitis. The actual amounts of PC applied and the resulting dose per unit area on hands at work are lower than recommended. To assess the influence of the applied dose on the efficacy of PCs in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis. Experimental cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced by twice daily application of 0.5% NaOH or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for 4 days on the backs of 20 healthy volunteers. Test areas were left unprotected or were pretreated with three different PCs applied at a low dose (2 mg/cm(2) ) or a high dose (20 mg/cm(2) ) before irritation. Irritant responses were assessed by visual scoring and measurement of transepidermal water loss, chromametry, and corneometry. Although cumulative irritant dermatitis developed in all unprotected test sites, irritation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner on PC-protected sites. The higher doses of all PCs provided significant protection against irritation. However, the lower dose of one product did not significantly protect against SLS-induced irritation. The protective efficacy of PCs depends on the amount of product applied per unit skin surface area. Some products may show no protective efficacy when used at doses close to those practically applied at workplaces. Future efficacy studies of PCs should be performed with doses not higher than 2 mg/cm(2) , to avoid overestimation of their protective efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Irritation of ocular tissue by irreversible hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moergeli, J R; Fraleigh, E M; Ostrowski, J S; Pelleu, G B

    1985-08-01

    Two ophthalmic and two dental irreversible hydrocolloid materials were tested on rabbit conjunctivae to determine histologically their potential to irritate these tissues. Each of the four impression materials elicited nearly the same amount of inflammatory response. The differences between the response of the controls and the response to Ophthalmic Mold-Eye, Jelset Special Formula, and Kerr Alignate Type II were significant. These results indicate that certain dental irreversible hydrocolloids may be used for ocular prostheses but that they should be used with caution because of the inflammation caused by irreversible hydrocolloids.

  6. Skin permeation enhancement potential of Aloe Vera and a proposed mechanism of action based upon size exclusion and pull effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Louise; Heard, Charles

    2007-03-21

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the potential of Aloe Vera juice as a skin permeation enhancer; a secondary aim was to probe the extent to which Aloe Vera itself permeates the skin. Saturated solutions of caffeine, colchicine, mefenamic acid, oxybutynin, and quinine were prepared at 32 degrees C in Aloe Vera juice and water (control) and used to dose porcine ear skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells with water as receptor phase. Receptor phase samples were taken over a 48 h period and permeants determined by reverse-phase HPLC. For caffeine and mefenamic acid no significant enhancements occurred between Aloe Vera and water as vehicles (p>0.05). However, for colchicine, oxybutynin and quinine the presence of Aloe Vera within the formulation provided enhancements (p Aloe Vera. Colchicine, with a molecular weight of 399.44, achieved the best enhancement with an enhancement ratio of 10.97. No correlation with lipophilicity was apparent. In a further experiment, where freeze-dried Aloe Vera was reconstituted at 200% residue level, permeation of quinine was 2.8 x that from normal Aloe Vera, providing further evidence for the presence of an enhancing factor within Aloe Vera. Certain, although unidentified, components of Aloe Vera readily permeated skin and the relative amount by which they permeated skin was inversely related to the molecular weight of the drug in solution, thus enhancement ratio. A new mechanistic rationale is proposed whereby larger drug solutes inhibit the permeation of Aloe Vera components, but also are then able to interact more effectively with the enhancing factor and be subject to the pull effect.

  7. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, J M

    1986-03-01

    Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis is commonly observed in many factories. Examples of airborne irritants include fibres (such as fibreglass or rockwool), various kinds of dust particles (such as cement, slag, sludge, insulating foam, wood chips), acids and alkalis, gasses and vapours. Airborne contact allergens are unequivocally numerous. The clinical symptoms of both irritant and allergic airborne contact dermatitis are reviewed.

  9. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes maximal approximately 30 min after administration. Injection of chymase without histamine does not evoke wheal formation. The chymase potentiation of histamine-induced skin responses is prevented completely by pretreatment with the H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine, and is prevented by inactivation of chymase with soybean trypsin inhibitor, suggesting that both histamine and preserved catalytic activity are required for the effects of chymase. To examine the effects of histamine and chymase released in situ in further experiments, we measured wheal size following local degranulation of mast cells by intradermal injection of ragweed antigen or compound 48/80. We found that pretreatment with either soybean trypsin inhibitor or pyrilamine markedly reduces ragweed antigen- or 48/80-induced wheal formation, supporting the results obtained by injection of exogenous chymase and histamine. These findings suggest a novel and important proinflammatory role for chymase in modulating the effects of histamine on vascular permeability during mast cell activation. PMID:2384602

  10. Development and characterization of coaxially electrospun gelatin coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) thin films as potential scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagiah, Naveen [Bioproducts Lab, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai (India); Madhavi, Lakshmi; Anitha, R. [CavinKare Research Centre, Ekkattuthangal, Chennai (India); Anandan, C. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Banglore (India); Srinivasan, Natarajan Tirupattur, E-mail: naveen.nagiah@gmail.com [Conducting Polymers Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Sivagnanam, Uma Tirichurapalli, E-mail: suma67@gmail.com [Bioproducts Lab, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai (India)

    2013-10-01

    The morphology of fibers synthesized through electrospinning has been found to mimic extracellular matrix. Coaxially electrospun fibers of gelatin (sheath) coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) (core) was developed using 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol(TFE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol(HFIP) as solvents respectively. The coaxial structure and coating of gelatin with PHB fibers was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal stability of the coaxially electrospun fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and differential thermogravimetric analysis(DTA). Complete evaporation of solvent and gelatin grafting over PHB fibers was confirmed through attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The coaxially electrospun fibers exhibited competent tensile properties for skin regeneration with high surface area and porosity. In vitro degradation studies proved the stability of fibers and its potential applications in tissue engineering. The fibers supported the growth of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with normal morphology indicating its potential as a scaffold for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • Coaxial electrospinning was employed to develop core-shell fibers of PHB and gelatin. • The scaffold has competent physicochemical properties. • Developed scaffold will have high impact as a dermal substitute in skin regeneration.

  11. Porphyrin Metabolisms in Human Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes Bacteria: Potential Application to Monitor Human Radiation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, M.; Kuo, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, Y.-T.; Gallo, R.L.; Huang, C.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood’s lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk. PMID:23231351

  12. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Homer S.; Rhodes, Lesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor ...

  13. Thiol modification by bioactivated polyphenols and its potential role in skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Ishii, Takeshi; Abe, Naomi; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the modifying behavior of simple phenolic compounds on the sulfhydryl groups of glutathione and proteins. The catechol-type polyphenols, including protocatechuic acid, but neither the monophenols nor O-methylated catechol, can modify the sulfhydryl groups in a phenol oxidase-dependent manner. The possible involvement of polyphenol bioactivation in the enhancement of skin inflammation was also suggested.

  14. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (pmuricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  16. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  17. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  18. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2016-02-04

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  19. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homer S. Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  20. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antitumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone. Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 µg, 35 µg, and 52.5 µg per animal were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. Keywords: Leiurus quinquestriatus, skin cancer, apoptosis, immunosuppression

  1. Cognitive control associated with irritability induction: an autobiographical recall fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Carlos T; Almeida, Jorge R C; Sato, João R; Gorenstein, Clarice; Gentil, Valentim; Leite, Claudia C; Amaro, Edson; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2010-06-01

    Despite the relevance of irritability emotions to the treatment, prognosis and classification of psychiatric disorders, the neurobiological basis of this emotional state has been rarely investigated to date. We assessed the brain circuitry underlying personal script-driven irritability in healthy subjects (n = 11) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes were recorded during auditory presentation of personal scripts of irritability in contrast to scripts of happiness or neutral emotional content. Self-rated emotional measurements and skin conductance recordings were also obtained. Images were acquired using a 1,5T magnetic resonance scanner. Brain activation maps were constructed from individual images, and between-condition differences in the mean power of experimental response were identified by using cluster-wise nonparametric tests. Compared to neutral scripts, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal during irritability scripts was detected in the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and in the left medial, anterolateral and posterolateral dorsal prefrontal cortex (cluster-wise p-value < 0.05). While the involvement of the subgenual cingulate and dorsal anterolateral prefrontal cortices was unique to the irritability state, increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in dorsomedial and dorsal posterolateral prefrontal regions were also present during happiness induction. Irritability induction is associated with functional changes in a limited set of brain regions previously implicated in the mediation of emotional states. Changes in prefrontal and cingulate areas may be related to effortful cognitive control aspects that gain salience during the emergence of irritability.

  2. Review article: intestinal serotonin signalling in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawe, G M; Coates, M D; Moses, P L

    2006-04-15

    Alterations in motility, secretion and visceral sensation are hallmarks of irritable bowel syndrome. As all of these aspects of gastrointestinal function involve serotonin signalling between enterochromaffin cells and sensory nerve fibres in the mucosal layer of the gut, potential alterations in mucosal serotonin signalling have been explored as a possible mechanism of altered function and sensation in irritable bowel syndrome. Literature related to intestinal serotonin signalling in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been searched and summarized. Elements of serotonin signalling that are altered in irritable bowel syndrome include: enterochromaffin cell numbers, serotonin content, tryptophan hydroxylase message levels, 5-hydroxyindoleacedic acid levels, serum serotonin levels and expression of the serotonin-selective reuptake transporter. Both genetic and epigenetic factors could contribute to decreased serotonin-selective reuptake transporter in irritable bowel syndrome. A serotonin-selective reuptake transporter gene promoter polymorphism may cause a genetic predisposition, and inflammatory mediators can induce serotonin-selective reuptake transporter downregulation. While a psychiatric co-morbidity exists with IBS, changes in mucosal serotonin handling support the concept that there is a gastrointestinal component to the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Additional studies will be required to gain a more complete understanding of changes in serotonin signalling that are occurring, their cause and effect relationship, and which of these changes have pathophysiological consequences.

  3. Vitamin D as a potential enhancer of aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Atanaskova, Natasha; Wilson, Clara

    2010-02-01

    Vitamin D3 (Vit D3) is a hormone essential for normal bone and cardiovascular health, and may participate in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyD3) is the active form of the hormone. We showed previously that calcitriol is a potent inducer of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in skin keratinocytes grown in organotypic cultures. Here, we investigated the ability of Vit D3 to enhance PpIX levels within skin tumors in vivo. Squamous tumors, generated by chemical carcinogenesis in mice, were pretreated for 3 days with topical calcitriol. Then 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied topically, and PpIX levels were measured by noninvasive fluorimetry and in biopsied tissue. Calcitriol pretreatment resulted in a 3 to 4-fold elevation of PpIX in tumors, relative to no pretreatmen, providing significantly more photosensitizer available for tumor destruction. For deep tumors, topical calcitriol may not penetrate sufficiently. Therefore we explored whether systemic Vit D3, given short-term (3 days), might elevate PpIX within NMSC in a deep tumor model (subcutaneously-implanted A431 human squamous carcinoma cells). Defined amounts of calcitriol were injected into the mice for 3 d, followed by systemic 5-ALA, tissue biopsy, and confocal microscopic measurement of PpIX in frozen tissues. PpIX was clearly elevated after systemically delivered calcitriol. More work is needed, but if the amount of calcitriol required to elevate PpIX levels proves to be small, then the approach may ultimately prove attractive. Since most Americans are currently Vitamin D deficient, a small increase in calcitriol might be possible without risk of hypercalcemia.

  4. Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres Potentiate Ischemia-Induced Skin Flap Necrosis in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Chen, Bin; Aherrera, Andrew S; Guo, Lifei

    2017-01-01

    Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres are an increasingly used adjunctive measure for obtaining operative field hemostasis. However, the impact of these agents on survival of vascularly challenged tissues is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect, if any, of microporous hemospheres on tissue survival in a murine model. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent creation of two flanking dorsal, modified McFarlane-style flaps using a length-to-width ratio of 4:1. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres were applied to the underside of only one flap in each animal. In a subset of five rats, tissue malondialdehyde activity was measured at 24 hours. The remaining 13 animals were killed after 7 days, and the area of flap necrosis was measured photographically. Histopathologic analysis was also performed on the margins of the necrotic area. Size comparison showed a significantly larger area of necrosis in the microporous polysaccharide hemosphere-treated flaps relative to controls (1.69 ± 1.21 cm versus 0.28 ± 0.28 cm; p = 0.00135). Higher malondialdehyde levels were also found in the microporous polysaccharide hemosphere-treated flaps at 24 hours (0.462 ± 0.098 versus 0.315 ± 0.065; p = 0.047). The areas of skin necrosis were noted to be partial thickness on histologic examination. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres are associated with an increased incidence of distal tip necrosis in dorsal rat skin flaps. Despite their efficacy in surgical hemostasis, their use should be judicious, especially with marginally perfused tissues such as mastectomy skin flaps.

  5. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The potential applications of fibrin-coated electrospun polylactide nanofibers in skin tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačáková, Markéta; Musílková, Jana; Riedel, Tomáš; Stránská, D.; Brynda, Eduard; Žaloudková, Margit; Bačáková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2016 (2016), s. 771-789 E-ISSN 1178-2013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : electrospun nanofibers * nanocoating * skin tissue engineering * fibroblasts * fibrin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V); JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B) Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  7. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  8. Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seawright Alan A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of recreational waterbodies throughout the world; some cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton and form blooms, many of which are toxic. Numerous reports in the literature describe pruritic skin rashes after recreational or occupational exposure to cyanobacteria, but there has been little research conducted on the cutaneous effects of cyanobacteria. Using the mouse ear swelling test (MEST, we sought to determine whether three toxin-producing cyanobacteria isolates and the purified cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin produced delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions. Methods Between 8 and 10 female Balb/c mice in each experiment had test material applied to depilated abdominal skin during the induction phase and 10 or 11 control mice had vehicle only applied to abdominal skin. For challenge (day 10 and rechallenge (day 17, test material was applied to a randomly-allocated test ear; vehicle was applied to the other ear as a control. Ear thickness in anaesthetised mice was measured with a micrometer gauge at 24 and 48 hours after challenge and rechallenge. Ear swelling greater than 20% in one or more test mice is considered a positive response. Histopathology examination of ear tissues was conducted by independent examiners. Results Purified cylindrospermopsin (2 of 9 test mice vs. 0 of 5 control mice; p = 0.51 and the cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (8 of 10 test mice vs. 0 of 10 control mice; p = 0.001 were both shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions. Irritant reactions were seen on abdominal skin at induction. Two other toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis did not generate any responses using this model. Histopathology examinations to determine positive and negative reactions in ear tissues showed excellent agreement beyond chance between both examiners (κ = 0.83. Conclusion The irritant properties and cutaneous

  9. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  10. The potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2006-01-01

    In toto, there is strong circumstantial evidence from both experimental and clinical studies to support a role for omega-3 FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In experimental animal studies there is direct evidence that dietary omega-3 FA inhibits ultraviolet radiation (UVR) carcinogenic expression, with regard to both increased tumor latent period and reduced tumor multiplicity. Equivalent levels of omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression. Dietary omega-3 FA dramatically reduces the plasma and cutaneous pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive PGE(2) levels in mice. Dietary omega-6 FA increases prostaglandin E synthase type 2 (PGE(2)) level. Dietary omega-3 FA significantly reduces the inflammatory response and sustains, or enhances, the delayed type hypersensitivity immune response in mice when compared to an equivalent dietary level of omega-6 FA. Supplementary omega-3 FA significantly increases the UVR-mediated erythema threshold in humans. Supplementary omega-3 FA significantly reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive PGE(2) levels in Ultraviolet B-irradiated human skin.

  11. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Jridi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%. CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9, during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of irritable bowel syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent, costly, and potentially disabling gastrointestinal disorder. Medical education is among the most challenging and the most stressful education, and this may predispose to high rates of IBS. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of IBS among medical ...

  13. Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Vivian Y

    2017-07-13

    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).

  14. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  15. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Canavan, Joe West, Timothy Card Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional condition of the bowel that is diagnosed using clinical criteria. This paper discusses the nature of the diagnostic process for IBS and how this impacts epidemiological measurements. Depending on the diagnostic criteria employed, IBS affects around 11% of the population globally. Around 30% of people who experience the symptoms of IBS will consult physicians for their IBS symptoms. These people do not have significantly different abdominal symptoms to those who do not consult, but they do have greater levels of anxiety and lower quality of life. Internationally, there is a female predominance in the prevalence of IBS. There is 25% less IBS diagnosed in those over 50 years and there is no association with socioeconomic status. IBS aggregates within families and the genetic and sociological factors potentially underlying this are reviewed. Patients diagnosed with IBS are highly likely to have other functional disease and have more surgery than the general population. There is no evidence that IBS is associated with an increased mortality risk. The epidemiological evidence surrounding these aspects of the natural history is discussed. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, epidemiology, prevalence, mortality, natural history

  16. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  17. Skin protection in nursing work : promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, FHW; van der Harst, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Coenraads, PJ

    Nursing has been identified as a wet-work occupation, with a high prevalence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. Reduction of exposure to skin irritants contributes to the prevention of occupational skin disease in nurses. The role of the use of soap and water, hand alcohol and gloves in

  18. Pleomorphic fibroma of the skin with MDM2 immunoreactivity: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakori, Mehrnoosh; Pimentel, Jason; Howitt, Brooke E; Sanchez, Jessica; Michalowski, Susan; Chitale, Dhananjay; Ormsby, Adrian H; Williamson, Sean R

    2017-10-05

    Pleomorphic fibroma is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm characterized by spindle-shaped cells and multinucleated giant cells scattered throughout collagenous stroma. These morphologic features can lead to diagnostic confusion, including atypical lipomatous tumor as one consideration. In contrast to atypical lipomatous tumor, previous studies have found pleomorphic fibroma to be negative for MDM2 immunohistochemical staining and MDM2 gene amplification. Here, we present a case of pleomorphic fibroma of skin with nuclear MDM2 immunoreactivity in the absence of MDM2 gene amplification, underscoring the superiority of fluorescence in situ hybridization as a diagnostic test in this differential diagnosis. The RB1 locus is also explored for differential diagnosis with pleomorphic / spindle cell lipoma and related entities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. THE SKIN TOLERANCE OF SHEA FAT EMPLOYED AS EXCIPIENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this survey was to pool and analyze information on any subliminal or incidental skin irritation or sensitivity to the products gathered from both long-term and recent users of the products. High concentrations (45%, 75%) of Nigerian shea fat in preparations employed in the pilot study were neither irritant nor ...

  1. Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Sun Young; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.

  2. [Treatment by non-physicians of skin diseases--including potentially malignant diseases with lasers and intense pulsed light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Wulf, Hans Christian O; Stender, Ida-Marie; Haedersdal, Merete

    2006-11-06

    Laser and IPL treatment by non-physicians raises professional concern. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate laser and IPL treatment carried out by non-physicians and to assess the level of pre-treatment information given to patients. Approached clinics were found by internet-searches and from advertisements in telephone directories and national newspapers. The target group was clinics in Zealand that offer laser or IPL treatment of pigmented lesions, pigmented nevi, sun-damaged skin, acne and/or unwanted hair growth. The investigation did not include specialised clinics run by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. By means of anonymous telephone calls the clinics were presented for standardized questions under the pretext of being a potential client. Of 28 clinics investigated, 93% offered treatment for unwanted hair growth, 75% for pigmented lesions, 50% for acne, 36% for possible actinic keratoses and 29% for pigmented nevi. Medical examination was an exception (11%). In none of the clinics were medical examinations performed by specialists in dermatology or plastic surgery. Cosmeticians or nurses generally gave the laser and IPL treatments. In 57% of the clinics patients were informed that the treatment did not have any risks. In June treatment was offered in 79% of the clinics, 18% of which mentioned that no special precautions were necessary when treating in sunny periods. Laser and IPL treatment of skin diseases, including potential malignant diseases, is carried out by non-physicians and pre-treatment information contains major errors and shortcomings.

  3. Standardization of skin cleansing in vivo: part I. Development of an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsmann, F K; Strunk, M; Gediga, K; John, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Elsner, P; Diepgen, T L; Kutz, G; John, S M

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no legally binding requirements concerning product testing in cosmetics. This leads to various manufacturer-specific test methods and absent transparent information on skin cleansing products. A standardized in vivo test procedure for assessment of cleansing efficacy and corresponding barrier impairment by the cleaning process is needed, especially in the occupational context where repeated hand washing procedures may be performed at short intervals. For the standardization of the cleansing procedure, an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD) was designed and evaluated. Different smooth washing surfaces of the equipment for ACiD (incl. goat hair, felt, felt covered with nitrile caps) were evaluated regarding their skin compatibility. ACiD allows an automated, fully standardized skin washing procedure. Felt covered with nitrile as washing surface of the rotating washing units leads to a homogenous cleansing result and does not cause detectable skin irritation, neither clinically nor as assessed by skin bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss, chromametry). Automated Cleansing Device may be useful for standardized evaluation of the cleansing effectiveness and parallel assessment of the corresponding irritancy potential of industrial skin cleansers. This will allow objectifying efficacy and safety of industrial skin cleansers, thus enabling market transparency and facilitating rational choice of products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & Practice Blog Health Communication Programs FAQs ... Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Related Topics Section Navigation Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( ...

  5. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  6. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer symptoms to appear.Things to considerThe Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires workplaces to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Each MSDS lists a chemical and its known risks for skin irritations, allergies, or cancer. Be sure to read and reference ...

  7. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  8. Identification of potential biomarkers of hepatitis B-induced acute liver failure using hepatic cells derived from human skin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Sachinidis, Agapios; De Boe, Veerle; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; De Kock, Joery

    2015-09-01

    Besides their role in the elucidation of pathogenic processes of medical and pharmacological nature, biomarkers can also be used to document specific toxicological events. Hepatic cells generated from human skin-derived precursors (hSKP-HPC) were previously shown to be a promising in vitro tool for the evaluation of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, their capacity to identify potential liver-specific biomarkers at the gene expression level was investigated with particular emphasis on acute liver failure (ALF). To this end, a set of potential ALF-specific biomarkers was established using clinically relevant liver samples obtained from patients suffering from hepatitis B-associated ALF. Subsequently, this data was compared to data obtained from primary human hepatocyte cultures and hSKP-HPC, both exposed to the ALF-inducing reference compound acetaminophen. It was found that both in vitro systems revealed a set of molecules that was previously identified in the ALF liver samples. Yet, only a limited number of molecules was common between both in vitro systems and the ALF liver samples. Each of the in vitro systems could be used independently to identify potential toxicity biomarkers related to ALF. It seems therefore more appropriate to combine primary human hepatocyte cultures with complementary in vitro models to efficiently screen out potential hepatotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of surgery on sensory threshold and somatosensory evoked potentials after skin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of surgical injury on cutaneous sensitivity and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to dermatomal electrical stimulation in 10 patients undergoing hysterectomy. Forty-eight hours after surgery, sensory threshold increased from 2.2 (SEM 0.3) mA to 4.4 (1.1) mA (P less...

  10. Pain Processing and Vegetative Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia: A Study by Sympathetic Skin Response and Laser Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A dysfunction of pain processing at central and peripheral levels was reported in fibromyalgia (FM. We aimed to correlate laser evoked potentials (LEPs, Sympathetic Skin Response (SSR, and clinical features in FM patients. Methods. Fifty FM patients and 30 age-matched controls underwent LEPs and SSR by the right hand and foot. The clinical evaluation included FM disability (FIQ and severity scores (WPI, anxiety (SAS and depression (SDS scales, and questionnaires for neuropathic pain (DN4. Results. The LEP P2 latency and amplitude and the SSR latency were increased in FM group. This latter feature was more evident in anxious patients. The LEPs habituation was reduced in FM patients and correlated to pain severity scores. In a significant number of patients (32% with higher DN4 and FIQ scores, SSR or LEP responses were absent. Conclusions. LEPs and SSR might contribute to clarifying the peripheral and central nervous system involvement in FM patients.

  11. Filaggrin and skin reactivity to irritants - Epidemiological and Experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    9.2 Summary in Danish (dansk resume) Det yderste lag af huden, overhuden, fungerer som en selvfornyende barriere, som beskytter vores indre kropslige miljø mod vandtab og samtidig beskytter os mod ydre miljømæssige påvirkninger. Detergenter findes i mange af vores dagligdagsprodukter og er samtidig...... kendt forat kunne irritere huden. Ved kontakt med detergenter, vil nogle individer være mere modtagelige overfor at udvikle en hudirritation end andre. Dette gælder særligt personer med børneeksem. Mutationer i det gen, der koder for hudproteinet filaggrin, er for nylig blevet identificeret som værende....... Det inflammatoriske beredskab var dog mest udtalt blandt personer med samtidig børneeksem. Hudirriterende stoffer såsom detergenter kan forårsage irritativt kontakteksem og ligeledes påvirke niveauet af filaggrin protein i huden. Øget bevidsthed om hudbeskyttelse samt undgåelse af irritanter og derved...

  12. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  13. Topical ROR Inverse Agonists Suppress Inflammation in Mouse Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Acute Irritant Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Jin Mo; Fisher, David E

    2017-12-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors RORα and RORγ are critical for the functions of specific subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells, which are key drivers of inflammatory disease in barrier tissues. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of SR1001, a synthetic RORα/γ inverse agonist, in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and acute irritant dermatitis. Topical treatment with SR1001 reduces epidermal and dermal features of MC903-induced atopic dermatitis-like disease and suppresses the production of type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in lesional skin. In the epidermis, SR1001 treatment blocks MC903-induced expression of TSLP and reverses impaired keratinocyte differentiation. SR1001 is also effective in alleviating acute dermatitis triggered by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Overall, our results suggest that RORα/γ are important therapeutic targets for cutaneous inflammation and suggest topical usage of inhibitory ligands as an approach to treating skin diseases of inflammatory etiology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a novel pro-inflammatory human skin-homing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell subset with a potential role in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAGGNER, Ute; DI MEGLIO, Paola; PERERA, Gayathri K.; HUNDHAUSEN, Christian; LACY, Katie E.; ALI, Niwa; SMITH, Catherine H.; HAYDAY, Adrian C.; NICKOLOFF, Brian J.; NESTLE, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells mediate rapid tissue responses in murine skin and participate in cutaneous immune regulation including protection against cancer. The role of human γδ cells in cutaneous homeostasis and pathology is poorly characterized. In this study we show in vivo evidence that human blood contains a distinct subset of pro-inflammatory cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 positive Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which is rapidly recruited into perturbed human skin. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produced an array of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-17A and activated keratinocytes in a TNF-α and IFN-γ dependent manner. Examination of the common inflammatory skin disease psoriasis revealed a striking reduction of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls and atopic dermatitis patients. Decreased numbers of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells normalized after successful treatment with psoriasis-targeted therapy. Together with the increased presence of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriatic skin, this data indicates redistribution of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from the blood to the skin compartment in psoriasis. In summary, we report a novel human pro-inflammatory γδ T cell involved in skin immune surveillance with immediate response characteristics and with potential clinical relevance in inflammatory skin disease. PMID:21813772

  15. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  16. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(3):284–292. Wu JC. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths? Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010;6(11):705–711. Yoon ...

  18. Microvasculature and healing potential of the inner versus outer preputial skin: preliminary immunohistochemical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakry, Adel; Matar, Adel; Zalata, Khaled; Zakaria, Ahmed; Al Atrash, Gamal

    2015-02-01

    To assess healing potential of the inner and the outer layers of the prepuce and to determine which layer is better for hypospadias neourethral reconstruction. The study has been carried out to assess the microvessels density and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) concentration in the inner and the outer preputial layers. Specimens from the outer and the inner prepuce were harvested during hypospadias repair in 26 children. Control specimens were collected during elective circumcision of 10 normal and age-matched children. Sections were prepared, and immunohistochemical staining was done using monoclonal antibodies of CD34 (vascular marker) and of the EGFR. CD34-positive microvessels were assessed under the outer and the inner layers of the prepuce and were counted in five high-power fields under each layer. Expression of EGFR in both layers was assessed using H-score system. The density of microvessels and EGFR expression are significantly higher in control group either for inner or for outer preputial layers (p 0.05). In hypospadias patients, the healing potential of both inner and outer prepuce is nearly similar. However, it is markedly reduced than that of normal prepuce. It seems that both layers can be used for hypospadias repair without obvious preference to either of them. The usual tradition to use inner prepuce in hypospadias repair has no scientific evidence.

  19. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  20. Potential effect of compounds isolated from Coffea arabica against UV-B induced skin damage by protecting fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-In; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Yu, Jae-Myo; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Jang, Jae-Yoon; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Park, Geun-Hye; Kwon, O-Jun; Cho, Young Je; An, Jeong Yeon; Jo, Cheorun; Kang, Sun Chul; An, Bong-Jeun

    2017-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has adverse effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, leading to formation of wrinkles a hallmark of premature skin aging. The adverse effects of UV radiation are associated with induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and degradation of collagen and elastin. The present study investigated anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (TCQ), isolated from beans of Coffea arabica, against UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells (CCRF) by measuring expression levels of MMP-1, 3, 9, and type-I procollagen. The three compounds were isolated and purified from coffee grounds using column chromatography and structural examination was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Among the three isolated compounds, CGA effectively suppressed the expression of the MMP-1, 3, and 9 and increased synthesis of type-I procollagen as compared UV-B-stimulated CCRF cells. In addition, CGA dose-dependently inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in CCRF cells stimulated by UV radiation. Moreover, CGA displayed a good sun protection factor (SPF) and in vitro DNA damage protection together with inhibition of enzyme xanthine oxidase. The enzyme inhibitory kinetic behavior of CGA was determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot, displayed a mixed type enzyme inhibition with 260.3±4.5μM, Ki value. The results indicate that CGA has potential to be used as a preventive agent against premature skin aging induced by UV radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  2. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  3. Nanocarriers for Delivery of Antioxidants on the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Vinardell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It has been described that free radicals and other reactive species can cause severe damage to cells and cell components of the skin, which results in skin aging and cancer. To prevent these actions on skin, the use of topical antioxidant supplementation is a strategy used in the cosmetics industry and these antioxidants act on quenching free radicals. There are many studies that demonstrated the antioxidant activity of many phytochemicals or bioactive compounds by free radical scavenging. However, many bioactive substances are unstable when exposed to light or lose activity during storage. The potential sensitivity of these substances to light exposure is of importance in cosmetic formulations applied to skin because photo-degradation might occur, reducing their activity. One strategy to reduce this effect on the skin is the preparation of different types of nanomaterials that allow the encapsulation of the antioxidant substances. Another problem related to some antioxidants is their inefficient percutaneous penetration, which limits the amount of the active ingredient able to reach the site of action in viable epidermis and dermis. In this sense, the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance the permeation of these substances. Nanocarriers offers several advantages over conventional passive delivery, such as increased surface area, higher solubility, improved stability, controlled release, reduced skin irritancy, and protection from degradation. The different nanocarrier systems used in cosmetics include nanolipid delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC, nanoemulsions (NEs, nanoparticles (NP

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential for therapy and treatment of chronic non-healing skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfia, Giovanni; Navone, Stefania Elena; Di Vito, Clara; Ughi, Nicola; Tabano, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tremolada, Carlo; Bolla, Gianni; Crotti, Chiara; Ingegnoli, Francesca; Rampini, Paolo; Riboni, Laura; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Campanella, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process including overlapping phases (hemostatic/inflammatory, proliferating and remodeling phases). Every alteration in this mechanism might lead to pathological conditions of different medical relevance. Treatments for chronic non-healing wounds are expensive because reiterative treatments are needed. Regenerative medicine and in particular mesenchymal stem cells approach is emerging as new potential clinical application in wound healing. In the past decades, advance in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing process has led to extensive topical administration of growth factors as part of wound care. Currently, no definitive treatment is available and the research on optimal wound care depends upon the efficacy and cost-benefit of emerging therapies. Here we provide an overview on the novel approaches through stem cell therapy to improve cutaneous wound healing, with a focus on diabetic wounds and Systemic Sclerosis-associated ulcers, which are particularly challenging. Current and future treatment approaches are discussed with an emphasis on recent advances.

  5. The role of oncogenic Ras in human skin tumorigenesis depends on the clonogenic potential of the founding keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Riccardo; Tinaburri, Lavinia; Gangi, Fabio; Bondanza, Sergio; Severi, Anna Lisa; Scarponi, Claudia; Albanesi, Cristina; Mesiti, Giuseppe; Guerra, Liliana; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Dellambra, Elena

    2016-03-01

    The role of Ras in human skin tumorigenesis induction is still ambiguous. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras causes premature senescence in cultured human cells and hyperplasia in transgenic mice. Here, we investigated whether the oncogenic insult outcome might depend on the nature of the founding keratinocyte. We demonstrate that overexpression of the constitutively active Ras-V12 induces senescence in primary human keratinocyte cultures, but that some cells escape senescence and proliferate indefinitely. Ras overexpression in transient-amplifying- or stem-cell-enriched cultures shows that p16 (encoded by CDKN2A) levels are crucial for the final result. Indeed, transient-amplifying keratinocytes expressing high levels of p16 are sensitive to Ras-V12-induced senescence, whereas cells with high proliferative potential, but that do not display p16, are resistant. The subpopulation that sustains the indefinite culture growth exhibits stem cell features. Bypass of senescence correlates with inhibition of the pRb (also known as RB1) pathway and resumption of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity. Immortalization is also sustained by activation of the ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1) and Akt pathways. Moreover, only transduced cultures originating from cultures bearing stem cells induce tumors in nude mice. Our findings demonstrate that the Ras overexpression outcome depends on the clonogenic potential of the recipient keratinocyte and that only the stem cell compartment is competent to initiate tumorigenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Detection of potentially skin sensitizing hydroperoxides of linalool in fragranced products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Dkhil, Hafida; Hendarsa, Prisca; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    On prolonged exposure to air, linalool can form sensitizing hydroperoxides. Positive hydroperoxide patch tests in dermatitis patients have frequently been reported, but their relevance has not been established. Owing to a lack of analytical methods and data, it is unclear from which sources the public might be exposed to sufficient quantities of hydroperoxides for induction of sensitization to occur. To address this knowledge gap, we developed analytical methods and performed stability studies for fine fragrances and deodorants/antiperspirants. In parallel, products recalled from consumers were analysed to investigate exposure to products used in everyday life. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with high mass resolution was found to be optimal for the selective and sensitive detection of the organic hydroperoxide in the complex product matrix. Linalool hydroperoxide was detected in natural linalool, but the amount was not elevated by storage in a perfume formulation exposed to air. No indication of hydroperoxide formation in fine fragrances was found in stability studies. Aged fine fragrances recalled from consumers contained a geometric mean linalool concentration of 1,888 μg/g and, corrected for matrix effects, linalool hydroperoxide at a concentration of around 14 μg/g. In antiperspirants, we detected no oxidation products. In conclusion, very low levels of linalool hydroperoxide in fragranced products may originate from raw materials, but we found no evidence for oxidation during storage of products. The levels detected are orders of magnitude below the levels inducing sensitization in experimental animals, and these results therefore do not substantiate a causal link between potential hydroperoxide formation in cosmetics and positive results of patch tests.

  7. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jung Kwon; Yoon-Jung Park; Sang-Ho Jun; Jin-Soo Ahn; In-Bog Lee; Byeong-Hoon Cho; Ho-Hyun Son; Deog-Gyu Seo

    2013-01-01

    While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-s...

  8. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  9. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  10. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S

    2001-02-01

    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  11. The effect of high-frequency conditioning stimulation of human skin on reported pain intensity and event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Ceelen, L.A.J.M.; Rijn, C.M. van; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency conditioning electrical stimulation (HFS) of human skin induces an increased pain sensitivity to mechanical stimuli in the surrounding nonconditioned skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFS on reported pain sensitivity to single electrical stimuli applied

  12. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel dihydrostilbene derivatives as potential anti-melanogenic skin-protecting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Pan, Wen-Hui; Ku, Chuen Fai; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Tsang, Siu Wai

    2018-01-01

    The stems of Dendrobium orchids (Orchidaceae), also known as Shi Hu, have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries in oriental countries. In fact, the health benefits of Shi Hu have been evidenced by its modern pharmacological actions on conquering oxidative stress in pathological conditions. From the extracts of two commonly used Dendrobium species, we obtained discernible amounts of stilbenoids, explicitly trans-resveratrol (1) and dihydro-resveratrol (2), which are prototypical antioxidants. When applied to cultured melanocytes, these stilbenoids, dihydro-resveratrol (2) in particular, significantly reduced melanin formation via inhibiting tyrosinase activity and expression of tyrosinase-related proteins. By utilizing dihydro-resveratrol (2) as the basic structural unit, we synthesized 11 novel dihydrostilbene derivatives (3-13) in good yields and purity, with manipulative steps. In addition to their anti-melanogenic activity, some of the novel derivatives are indeed potential antioxidants as they quenched intracellular oxidative radicals in a manner more efficient than Trolox, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, and thus premeditated beneficial to skin protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  15. [Irritable bowel syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, N; Villata, L; Santini, B; Fantino, N; Robazza, V; Ciervo, T; Barbera, C; Elia, G; Oderda, G

    1987-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic functional gastroenterological disorder both in adults and in children. In this study we evaluate the different aspects of this syndrome, comparing our observations on 332 children with other studies. Epidemiological data (frequency, sex, age) are examined so as the family histories of gastroenterological disorders. We take in account several pathogenic hypotheses, especially with reference to the alterations of gastrointestinal motility, which could be caused by several factors (psychological, prostaglandins, bile acids, etc.). The clinical picture is very variable, variations depending on the age of children and on the time of onset of IBS. The colic of neonate, caused by retention of air, is the main symptom in the first months of life, followed by chronic diarrhoea, also defined as toddler's diarrhoea, sometime alternating with constipation. In later childhood, recurrent abdominal pain represents a common complaint, in association with diarrhoea or constipation. The principal steps for a proper diagnosis so as the main differential diagnosis are defined. We explain the most important features of management (reassuring parents, free diet), excluding prescription of drugs, that produce only a transitory and symptomatic relief, so as elimination diets, that cause only a failure to thrive without any improvement of symptoms.

  16. Effect of postmortem time interval on in vitro culture potential of goat skin tissues stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Ma, Xiaoling; Sharma, Anil

    2012-09-01

    Animal cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has renewed the interest in postmortem tissue storage, since these tissues can be used to reintroduce the lost genes back into the breeding pool in animal agriculture, preserve the genetic diversity, and revive the endangered species. However, for successful cloning of animals, integrity of nuclear DNA is essential. Cell viability and their potential to in vitro culture ensure nuclear integrity. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of postmortem time interval within which live cells can be recovered from goat skin tissues. To test the postmortem tissue storage limits, we cultured 2-3 mm(2) skin pieces (n = 70) from the ears of three breeds of goats (n = 7) after 0, 2, 4, and 6 days of postmortem storage at 24°C. After 10 days of culture, outgrowth of fibroblast-like cells (>50 cells) around the explants was scored. All the explants irrespective of breed displayed outgrowth of cells on the dish containing fresh tissues (i.e., day 0 of storage). However, the number of explants exhibiting outgrowth reduced with increasing time interval. Only 53.85 % explants displayed outgrowth after 2 days of tissue storage. The number of explants displaying outgrowth was much smaller after 4 (16.67 %) and 6 days (13.3 %) of storage. In general, the number of outgrowing cells per explant, on a given day, also decreased with increasing postmortem storage time interval. To test the differences between cell cultures, we established secondary cultures from one of the goats exhibiting outgrowth of cells after 6 days of tissue storage and compared them to similar cells from fresh tissues. Comparison of both the cell lines revealed similar cell morphology and growth curves and had doubling times of 23.04 and 22.56 h, respectively. These results suggest that live cells can be recovered from goat (and perhaps other animal) tissues stored at room temperature even after 6 days of their death with comparable growth

  17. Pathophysiology of Small-Fiber Sensory System in Parkinson's Disease: Skin Innervation and Contact Heat Evoked Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Chao, Chi-Chao; Wu, Shao-Wei; Hsieh, Paul-Chen; Feng, Fang-Ping; Lin, Yea-Huey; Chen, Ya-Mei; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

    2016-03-01

    Sensory symptoms are frequent nonmotor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few investigations integrally explored the physiology and pathology of the thermonociceptive pathway in PD. We aim to investigate the involvement of the thermonociceptive pathway in PD.Twenty-eight PD patients (16 men, with a mean age and standard deviation of 65.6 ± 10.7 years) free of neuropathic symptoms and systemic disorders were recruited for the study and compared to 23 age- and gender-matched control subjects (12 men, with a mean age and standard deviation of 65.1 ± 9.9 years). We performed skin biopsy, contact heat-evoked potential (CHEP), and quantitative sensory tests (QST) to study the involvement of the thermonociceptive pathway in PD.The duration of PD was 7.1 ± 3.2 (range 2-17 years) years and the UPDRS part III score was 25.6 ± 9.7 (range 10-48) during the off period. Compared to control subjects, PD patients had reduced intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density (2.48 ± 1.65 vs 6.36 ± 3.19 fibers/mm, P < 0.001) and CHEP amplitude (18.02 ± 10.23 vs 33.28 ± 10.48 μV, P < 0.001). Twenty-three patients (82.1%) had abnormal IENF densities and 18 (64.3%) had abnormal CHEP. Nine patients (32.1%) had abnormal thermal thresholds in the feet. In total 27 patients (96.4%) had at least 1 abnormality in IENF, CHEP, or thermal thresholds of the foot, indicating dysfunctions in the small-fiber nerve system. In control subjects, CHEP amplitude linearly correlated with IENF density (P < 0.001). In contrast, this relationship disappeared in PD (P = 0.312) and CHEP amplitude was negatively correlated with motor severity of PD independent of age, gender, and anti-PD medication dose (P = 0.036), suggesting the influences of central components on thermonociceptive systems in addition to peripheral small-fiber nerves in PD.The present study suggested impairment of small-fiber sensory system at both

  18. Risk of Irritability With Psychostimulant Treatment in Children With ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckelman, Zachary D; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Cohen, Stephanie C; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Irritability is listed as a common side effect of psychostimulant medications. However, psychostimulants have been demonstrated as an effective treatment in reducing irritability and aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to quantify the risk of irritability as a side effect of psychostimulant treatment for ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted on August 18, 2013, to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in English examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with ADHD. Trials were excluded if (1) they required additional psychiatric or medical comorbidity in addition to ADHD, (2) they involved fewer than 20 subjects (parallel group trials), or (3) children received psychostimulant medication for less than 1 week. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to examine the risk ratio of irritability reported as a side effect in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to examine the effects of stimulant type, dosage, duration of use, and trial design on the measured risk of irritability. From 92 potentially eligible trials, the meta-analysis identified 32 trials involving 3,664 children with ADHD that reported data on irritability as a side effect. The relative risk of irritability significantly differed between psychostimulant classes (test for subgroup differences χ²₁ = 7.6, P = .006). Methylphenidate derivatives were associated with a significantly decreased risk of irritability compared to placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96], z = -2.87, P = .004, k = 32, I² = 50%), whereas amphetamine derivatives were associated with a significantly increased risk of irritability (RR = 2.90 [95% CI, 1.26 to 6.71], z = 2.5, P = .01, k = 5, I² = 0%). This meta-analysis suggests an increased risk of irritability may be confined to amphetamine

  19. Non-Invasive Assessment of Skin Barrier Properties: Investigating Emerging Tools for In Vitro and In Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer Duffy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the development of non-invasive tools for studying the properties of skin, due to the potential for non-destructive sampling, reduced ethical concerns and the potential comparability of results in vivo and in vitro. The present research focuses on the use of a range of non-invasive approaches for studying skin and skin barrier properties in human skin and human skin equivalents (HSE. Analytical methods used include pH measurements, electrical sensing of the epidermis and detection of volatile metabolic skin products. Standard probe based measurements of pH and the tissue dielectric constant (TDC are used. Two other more novel approaches that utilise wearable platforms are also demonstrated here that can assess the electrical properties of skin and to profile skin volatile species. The potential utility of these wearable tools that permit repeatability of testing and comparability of results is considered through application of our recently reported impedance-based tattoo sensors and volatile samplers on both human participants and HSEs. The HSE exhibited a higher pH (6.5 and TDC (56 than human skin (pH 4.9–5.6, TDC 29–36, and the tattoo sensor revealed a lower impedance signal for HSEs, suggesting the model could maintain homeostasis, but in a different manner to human skin, which demonstrated a more highly resistive barrier. Characterisation of volatiles showed a variety of compound classes emanating from skin, with 16 and 27 compounds identified in HSEs and participants respectively. The continuing development of these tools offers potential for improved quality and relevance of data, and potential for detection of changes that are undetectable in traditional palpable and visual assessments, permitting early detection of irritant reactions.

  20. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...... to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  1. Diagnosis and therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Stanghellini, V; Cremon, C; Salvioli, B; De Ponti, F; Corinaldesi, R

    2004-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gut functional diseases, affecting 10-20% of people worldwide. Although most patients do not seek medical help, the disease accounts for huge costs for both patients and health-care systems and worsens significantly patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based on the identification of symptoms according to Manning, Rome I and Rome II criteria and exclusion of alarm indicators. IBS symptoms overlap with those of coeliac disease, lactose intolerance, food allergies and bile salt malabsorption. The treatment of IBS is centred on an excellent doctor-patient relationship along with drugs targeting the predominant symptom, especially during exacerbations. Current pharmacological remedies are unsatisfactory due to the high number of patients complaining of lack of response and/or symptom recurrence. Although useful in some IBS patients, the validity of psychotherapy deserves further investigation. A wide array of potentially useful drugs are currently under consideration in pre-clinical trials. A better understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying IBS may help to develop more effective drugs for this disease.

  2. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  3. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...... was excluded by patch testing. An attempt to reproduce the follicular reaction in man, rabbit and guinea pig was unsuccessful....

  4. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  6. Adjusting of processes of microgemodynamics at sportsmen in the conditions of vestibular irritations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syshko D.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the functional being of the regulator systems of microgemodynamics is conducted in a skin at the sportswomen of specialized in the running types of track-and-field before and after vestibular irritations. 10 highly skilled athletes of specialized in at run on middle and long distances are explored. It is shown, that the vestibular irritation for certain causes the changes of processes of microgemodynamics in a skin, showing up not only in the change of size of perfusion but also spectrum of components of mechanisms of adjusting. It is got, that high-frequency respiratory and pulse vibrations at sportswomen occupied considerably a less stake in a general spectrum and were 9,8% and 8,3% accordingly, that specifies on an optimum influx outflow of peripheral blood. Structure of vibrations of skin blood stream after the vestibular irritations at sportswomen, consists of increase of deposit of respiratory component from 9,8% to 11,4%, that is conditioned by the change of dynamics of vein pressure at pulmonary mechanical activity, attracting action of «respiratory pump».

  7. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini J. Haar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. Methods We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015. We reviewed injuries to different body systems, injury severity, and potential risk factors for injury severity. We also assessed region, context and quality of each included article. Results We identified 31 studies from 11 countries. These reported on 5131 people who suffered injuries, two of whom died and 58 of whom suffered permanent disabilities. Out of 9261 total injuries, 8.7% were severe and required professional medical management, while 17% were moderate and 74.3% were minor. Severe injuries occurred to all body systems, with the majority of injuries impacting the skin and eyes. Projectile munition trauma caused 231 projectile injuries, with 63 (27% severe injuries, including major head injury and vision loss. Potentiating factors for more severe injury included environmental conditions, prolonged exposure time, and higher quantities of chemical agent in enclosed spaces. Conclusions Although chemical weapons may have a limited role in crowd control, our findings demonstrate that they have significant potential for misuse, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. A nuanced understanding of the health impacts of chemical weapons and mitigating factors is imperative to avoiding indiscriminate use of chemical weapons and associated health consequences.

  8. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Rohini J; Iacopino, Vincent; Ranadive, Nikhil; Weiser, Sheri D; Dandu, Madhavi

    2017-10-19

    Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015. We reviewed injuries to different body systems, injury severity, and potential risk factors for injury severity. We also assessed region, context and quality of each included article. We identified 31 studies from 11 countries. These reported on 5131 people who suffered injuries, two of whom died and 58 of whom suffered permanent disabilities. Out of 9261 total injuries, 8.7% were severe and required professional medical management, while 17% were moderate and 74.3% were minor. Severe injuries occurred to all body systems, with the majority of injuries impacting the skin and eyes. Projectile munition trauma caused 231 projectile injuries, with 63 (27%) severe injuries, including major head injury and vision loss. Potentiating factors for more severe injury included environmental conditions, prolonged exposure time, and higher quantities of chemical agent in enclosed spaces. Although chemical weapons may have a limited role in crowd control, our findings demonstrate that they have significant potential for misuse, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. A nuanced understanding of the health impacts of chemical weapons and mitigating factors is imperative to avoiding indiscriminate use of chemical weapons and associated health consequences.

  9. The occlusion effects in capacitive contact imaging for in vivo skin damage assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W; Zhang, X; Lane, M; Xiao, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occlusion effects in capacitive contact imaging, and to develop a new quantitative methodology for in vivo skin assessments using capacitive contact imaging and condenser-TEWL (transepidermal water loss) method. Two measurement technologies were used in this study, i.e., capacitive contact imaging and condenser-TEWL method. Three types of skin damages were studied, intensive washes, tape stripping and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation. The test skin sites were chosen on the volar forearms of healthy volunteers (aged 25-45); the measurements were taken both before and periodically after the damages. The results show that the time-dependent occlusion curves of the capacitive contact imaging can reflect the types of damages, and by analysing the shapes of the curves, we can get information about the skin surface water content level and stratum corneum thickness. The results also show that the combination of capacitive contact imaging and condenser-TEWL method gives extra information about the skin damages, such as the types of the damages and status of the damages. We have developed a potential new quantitative methodology for skin damage assessments using capacitive contact imaging and condenser-TEWL method. The combination of the two technologies can provide useful information for skin damage assessments. We have also developed a mathematical model for analysing the occlusion curves. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  11. Additional comments to "Potential health consequences of applying mercury-containing skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation periods".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G

    2016-11-01

    Exposure through human skin from application of skin lightening creams and soaps (SLCS) based on mercury salts has often escaped attention of environmental scientists. The skin absorption of Hg from an adult on a daily basis in this type of exposure, depending on the product used, can be higher than Hg originated from dental amalgam filling, Thimerosal-containing flu vaccine, and fish-methylmercury. Hg from SLCS is retained more in brain of albino than pigmented animals. Therefore, environmental Hg scientists should be aware of this important but often neglected source of low-dose Hg exposure during pregnancy and lactation when measuring adverse health effects on child growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. IL-6, VEGF, KC and RANTES are a major cause of a high irritant dermatitis to phthalic anhydride in C57BL/6 inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Joon; Shim, Sun-Bo; Jee, Seung-Wan; Lee, Su-Hae; Kim, Mi-Ran; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2010-12-01

    In previous studies, several strains of mice were used as chemical-induced skin irritation models to identify immunological hazards and elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which irritant dermatitis disease occur. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice have been used for most of these experiments. Although there are some differences in the immune response to chemical allergens between these strains, few studies have been conducted to determine what regulatory factors contribute to these variations. To investigate the cause of high responses to skin irritation in C57BL/6 mice that are widely used to study atopic dermatitis, changes in various immune-related factors such as ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity, lymph node weight, IgE concentration and cytokine concentration were measured in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice following phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment. Based on analysis of the skin irritation, C57BL/6 mice showed a greater skin irritation to PA than BALB/c mice, although the IgE concentration and auricular lymph node weight did not contribute to this difference in the response. However, the concentration of several cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], keratinocyte-derived chemokine [KC] and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]) were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than BALB/c mice following treatment with PA. Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.

  13. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  14. Isolation and characterization of two kinds of stem cells from the same human skin back sample with therapeutic potential in spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury remains to be a challenge to clinicians and it is attractive to employ autologous adult stem cell transplantation in its treatment, however, how to harvest cells with therapeutic potential easily and how to get enough number of cells for transplantation are challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to isolate skin-derived precursors (SKPs and dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs simultaneously from single human skin samples from patients with paraplegia. METHODS: Dissociated cells were initially generated from the dermal layer of skin samples from patients with paraplegia and cultured in SKPs proliferation medium. Four hours later, many cells adhered to the base of the flask. The suspended cells were then transferred to another flask for further culture as SKPs, while the adherent cells were cultured in dMSCs proliferation medium. Twenty-four hours later, the adherent cells were harvested and single-cell colonies were generated using serial dilution method. [(3H]thymidine incorporation assay, microchemotaxis Transwell chambers assay, RT-PCR and fluorescent immunocytochemistry were employed to examine the characterizations of the isolated cells. RESULTS: SKPs and dMSCs were isolated simultaneously from a single skin sample. SKPs and dMSCs differed in several respects, including in terms of intermediate protein expression, proliferation capacities, and differentiation tendencies towards mesodermal and neural progenies. However, both SKPs and dMSCs showed high rates of differentiation into neurons and Schwann cells under appropriate inducing conditions. dMSCs isolated by this method showed no overt differences from dMSCs isolated by routine methods. CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of stem cells, namely SKPs and dMSCs, can be isolated simultaneously from individual human skin sample from paraplegia patients. Both of them show ability to differentiate into neural cells under proper inducing conditions

  15. The potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of skin cell viability by Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. herbal tea extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcwebeba, Tandeka Unathi; Riedel, Sylvia; Swanevelder, Sonja; Swart, Pieter; De Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Andreas Gelderblom, Wentzel Christoffel

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between polyphenol constituents, antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), the herbal teas, rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.), against skin cell viability was investigated in vitro. The effect of extracts, characterised in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant properties, on cell viability of premalignant, normal and malignant skin cells was determined. Phenolic composition, particularly high levels of potent antioxidants, of rooibos and green tea methanol extracts was associated with a strong reduction in cell viability specifically targeting premalignant cells. In contrast, the aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. were more effective in reducing cell viability. This correlated with a relatively high flavanol/proanthocyanidin content and ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity. The major green tea flavanol (epigallocatechin gallate) and rooibos dihydrochalcone (aspalathin) exhibited differential effects against cell viability, while the major honeybush xanthone (mangiferin) and flavanone (hesperidin) lacked any effect presumably due to a cytoprotective effect. The underlying mechanisms against skin cell viability are likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from polyphenol-iron interactions. The polyphenol constituents and antioxidant parameters of herbal tea extracts are useful tools to predict their activity against skin cell survival in vitro and potential chemopreventive effects in vivo. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Potential health consequences of applying mercury-containing skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have highlighted the widespread use of skin-lightening creams containing mercury by women during and after pregnancy to remove dark spots. Women, especially pregnant and lactating mothers using these products are at risk of mercury poisoning because sometimes it has no clinical symptoms, particularly during early exposure. Studies have shown that prenatal and postnatal mercury exposure can cause permanent neurological damage in children. Furthermore, mercury can cause women infertility and birth defects. Even though several studies have examined the reproductive and/or developmental consequences of gestational and lactational mercury exposure from fish consumption and/or dental amalgam, no studies have assessed the possible effects of the long-term use of mercury-containing skin-lightening products by women of childbearing age on their pregnancy outcome and children's health. This commentary aims to collate information on the popular use of mercury-containing skin-lightening creams and sheds the light to the readers about the limitations of the available data on its impact during a prenatal and/or postnatal period. There is an urgent need to assess the adverse health effects of applying these products during pregnancy or lactation on child growth and development through birth cohort studies. Until data from these studies are available, women should be advised not to use topical skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors associated with sensitive skin and potential role of lifestyle habits: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, D.; Richters, R.J.H.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive skin (SS) is a widespread condition, but still not completely understood. To identify risk factors that increase the likelihood of SS, 258 women aged between 20 and 65 years old and resident in the Netherlands were surveyed by questionnaire, which included questions on sociodemographic

  18. Keratinocyte gene expression profiles discriminate sensitizing and irritating compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, R.J. van de; Pennings, J.L.A.; Baken, K.A.; Pronk, T.E.; Boorsma, A.; Gottschalk, R.; Loveren, H. van

    2010-01-01

    Many chemicals can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Because evaluation of skin sensitizing potential by animal testing is prohibited for cosmetics, and screening of many chemicals is required within Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, urgent need exists for

  19. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    OpenAIRE

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  20. Anti-irritants agents for the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis: clinical and patent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-09-01

    This overview defines whether anti-irritant agents, in fact, inhibit, prevent or treat irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in man. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus via the library at University of California San Francisco, and a hand search of relevant text books to investigate chemicals that can be considered anti-irritants in either prevention or treatment. Emphasis was placed on data that included quantitative and qualitative results and that followed evidence-based dermatological guidelines. Related patents were summarized. Conflicting observations summarized here suggest well controlled, but often arduous, field type studies are required for confirmation.

  1. Biochemical investigation and gene analysis of equol: a plant and soy-derived isoflavonoid with antiaging and antioxidant properties with potential human skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Remona; Knaggs, Helen E; Lephart, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of equol, a plant and intestinal flora derived isoflavonoid molecule on the expression of skin genes and proteins using human dermal models. As equol has been shown to mimic 17β-estradiol and bind specifically to 5α-dihydrotestostone (5α-DHT), these agents were used (in addition to equol) to determine whether equol may play important and beneficial roles in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Equol at 0.3 or 1.2% in qPCR experiments using a human skin barrier model examined ECM gene expression. Equol, 5α-DHT, and 17β-estradiol at 10 nM were studied in human monolayer fibroblasts cultures (hMFC) for ECM protein expression. Human fibroblast three-dimensional organotypic cultures revealed equol's influence (@ 10 nM) on ECM proteins via fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. In qPCR experiments, equol significantly increased collagen, elastin (ELN), and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease and decreased metalloproteinases (MMPs) gene expression and caused significant positive changes in skin antioxidant and antiaging genes. In hMFC, equol significantly increased collagen type I (COL1A1), whereas, 5α-DHT significantly decreased cell viability that was blocked by equol. FACS analysis showed equol and 17β-estradiol significantly stimulated COL1A1, collagen type III (COL3A1), and ELN while MMPs were significantly decreased compared with control values. Finally, tamoxifen blocked the positive influences of equol on ECM proteins via FACS analysis. These findings suggest that equol has the potential to be used topically for the treatment and prevention of skin aging, by enhancing ECM components in human skin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhankar; Swanson, Benjamin J; Bonthu, Neelima; Batra, Surinder K

    2010-07-01

    Mucins comprise a family of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin, has recently emerged as a novel marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in several malignancies. However, its role in skin pathologies remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of MUC4 in cutaneous pathologies by immunohistochemistry for potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. A total of 330 tissue spots representing the normal skin, and benign and malignant cutaneous diseases, were analysed after staining with the monoclonal antibody to human MUC4 (clone 8G7). While the normal epidermis showed a negative to weak-positive expression of MUC4, its expression was significantly upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) where the intensity of staining correlated negatively with tumour grade and positively with age. A moderately strong MUC4 expression was also noted in 2/20 cancer adjacent normal skin and 2/21 chronically inflamed skin tissues, while 10/19 cases of vulval condyloma acuminate, 3/12 of vulval hyperplasia and 2 cases of verruca vulgaris also showed strong MUC4 positivity. Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous cysts were negative. The results indicate that MUC4 expression is aberrantly upregulated in cutaneous SCCs, vulval condylomas and verruca vulgaris. Further, it appears that MUC4 expression in the skin may be modulated by chronic inflammation and the presence of an adjacent cutaneous malignancy in certain cases. These observations suggest a novel role for MUC4 mucin in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC and a possible application as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in cutaneous pathologies.

  3. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Procedure Safety Results en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would ... skin infections, such as staph diseases, such as cancer other medical problems that may affect the skin, ...

  4. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  5. Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Forsman-Grönholm, L; Estlander, T; Pfäffli, P; Juntunen, J; Kanerva, L

    1993-09-01

    A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards and for evaluation of skin protection. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work. 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders. 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis. 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust from finishing work on the skin. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild and only 3 patients had been on sick leave because of occupational skin disease.

  6. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofori M. R. R. Nastiti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME and nanoemulsions (NE offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation. This review discusses nanosystems with utility in skin delivery and focuses on the composition and characterization of ME and NE for topical and transdermal delivery. The mechanism of skin delivery across the stratum corneum and via hair follicles is reviewed with particular focus on the influence of formulation.

  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Stress-Related Psychiatric Co-morbidities: Focus on Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with stress playing a major role in onset and exacerbation of symptoms such as abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression often precede the development of irritable bowel syndrome and vice versa. Stressor exposure during early life has the potential to increase an individual's susceptibility to both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease indicating that there may be a common origin for these disorders. Moreover, adverse early life events significantly impact upon many of the communication pathways within the brain-gut-microbiota axis, which allows bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. This axis is proposed to be perturbed in irritable bowel syndrome and studies now indicate that dysfunction of this axis is also seen in psychiatric disease. Here we review the co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease with their common origin in mind in relation to the impact of early life stress on the developing brain-gut-microbiota axis. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis in these diseases.

  8. Smoke Composition to Disseminate Capsaicinoids in Atmosphere as Sensory Irritant

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; U. G. Phapale; N. G. Swarge; M. R. Somayajulu

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of sensory irritants in the atmosphere with the help of an evaporating mixtureis adopted. Experiments were carried out to find an alternative sensory irritant which is moreirritating and less toxic than the existing sensory irritating agents and originating from a naturalsource. Extract of red pepper, the oleoresin, is less toxic than the existing sensory irritants andis analysed for its constituents. Thermal studies of capsaicin and the composition indicate thatthe composition ...

  9. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  10. Methods for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for diagnosing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in a test sample by determining the level of several bacterial taxa in the test sample, comparing this level with the levels of those bacterial taxa in a control sample, and relating the level to a diagnosis of

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its

  12. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, L. R.; Engsbro, A. L.; Jones, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to explore the natural history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Denmark over 3 years by studying development of IBS symptoms and associated factors. Methods: A cohort study was carried out using a web panel representative of the Danish general population 18-50 years...

  13. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  14. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  15. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  16. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R. L. N.; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G. K. R.; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  17. Generation of an artificial skin construct containing a non-degradable fiber mesh: a potential transcutaneous interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Frederick [Biomedical Strategies Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kyriakides, Themis R [Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06536-9812 (United States)], E-mail: themis.kyriakides@yale.edu

    2008-09-01

    Generation of a stable interface between soft tissues and biomaterials could improve the function of transcutaneous prostheses, primarily by minimizing chronic infections. We hypothesized that inclusion of non-biodegradable biomaterials in an artificial skin substrate would improve integration of the neodermis. In the present study, we compared the biocompatibility of an experimental substrate, consisting of collagen and glycosylaminoglycans, with commercially available artificial skin of similar composition. By utilizing a mouse excisional wound model, we found that the source of collagen (bovine tendon versus hide), extent of injury and wound contraction were critical determinants of inflammation and neodermis formation. Reducing the extent of injury to underlying muscle reduced inflammation and improved remodeling; the improved conditions allowed the detection of a pro-inflammatory effect of hide-derived collagen. To eliminate the complication of wound contraction, subsequent grafts were performed in guinea pigs and showed that inclusion of carbon fibers or non-degradable sutures resulted in increased foreign body response (FBR) and altered remodeling. On the other hand, inclusion of a polyester multi-stranded mesh induced a mild FBR and allowed normal neodermis formation. Taken together, our observations suggest that non-degradable biomaterials can be embedded in an artificial skin construct without compromising its ability to induce neodermis formation.

  18. Characterization of fetal keratinocytes, showing enhanced stem cell-like properties: a potential source of cells for skin reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kenneth K B; Salgado, Giorgiana; Connolly, John E; Chan, Jerry K Y; Lane, E Birgitte

    2014-08-12

    Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence of perlite sand on the skin in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracheva, E E; Iatsyna, I V; Lapina, N E; Ianin, V A; Antoshina, L I; Zhadan, I Iu; Krasavina, E K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work influence of perlite sand has been studied on a skin of Sprague-Dawley male rat (300-350 g). The biopsy of intact rat skin has been used as control. Contact of the perlite sand with animals' skin causes the reaction of an inflammation amplifying with increase of duration of the influence of substance. Therefore, despite an inert chemical compound, long contact with perlite sand in conditions of production can promote development of skin diseases. From the result of this investigation it is concluded that perlite sand causes irritating action on the skin and it is necessary to apply additional protective means to workers contacting to this substance.

  20. What can be done to keep babies' skin healthy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, David; Mills, Kathryn

    2004-07-01

    Establishing a skincare routine that keeps babies' skin healthy remains a challenge for midwives and parents, since up to 50% of babies suffer from at least one episode of nappy rash at some time. Nappy rash is an irritant contact dermatitis caused by the interaction of several factors, particularly the prolonged contact of the skin with urine and faeces, which makes the skin more prone to disruption through friction with the nappy. Infection is not a primary cause of nappy rash, though secondary infection by Candida albicans can occur. Prevention of nappy rash is the ultimate goal, but if the condition does develop, treatment should aim to reverse the skin damage and prevent recurrence. We propose that routine baby skincare should comprise gentle cleansing whenever the nappy is soiled (using warm water or alcohol-free baby wipes), the use of good-quality super-absorbent nappies, and the application of a barrier preparation at every nappy change. Ideally, a barrier preparation should be clinically proven to be effective in babies and mimic the skin's natural function by forming a long-lasting barrier to maintain optimum moisture levels. It should not contain any unnecessary ingredients, including antiseptic, preservative or perfume (or other potential sensitisers), or any ingredients that are toxic or have undocumented safety. Treatment of nappy rash should comprise essentially the same actions as its prevention. Application of a barrier ointment at every nappy change can help to both prevent and treat this condition. Topical steroid therapy should be reserved for use where the condition has failed to respond to other approaches, and antifungal treatment should only be employed where Candida infection is established or suspected. Implementing these measures would form a simple skincare routine that could help keep babies' skin healthy.

  1. The Hen's Egg Test on Chorioallantoic Membrane: An Alternative Assay for the Assessment of the Irritating Effect of Vaccine Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Jorge Murillo, Gisela; Pérez, Ulpiano Marqués; Tur, Enieyis Naranjo; Portuondo, Deivys Fuentes; Martínez, Bruno Téllez; Téllez-Martínez, Damiana; Betancourt, Juan E; Pérez, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Local reactions are the most frequent adverse event associated with vaccines. Adjuvants are major constituents of many vaccines and they are frequently involved in these reactions, associated with their irritating effect and the stimulation of local inflammation. The hen's egg test on chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) is an alternative toxicological method widely used to determine ocular irritation potential, but very few studies have demonstrated the utility of this method for assessing the irritant properties of vaccine adjuvants. In this work, known/experimental adjuvants were evaluated by both HET-CAM and an in vivo local toxicity study in mice to compare irritation scores to determine whether there was a correlation (Pearson test). Based on these data (r = 0.9034; P alternate method for the prediction of the local toxicity potential of adjuvant candidates to be used in vaccines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Skin compatibility and efficacy of a cosmetic skin care regimen with licochalcone A and 4-t-butylcyclohexanol in patients with rosacea subtype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelermann, A M; Weber, T M; Arrowitz, C; Rizer, R L; Qian, K; Babcock, M

    2016-02-01

    Patients with rosacea often show facial sensitivity to cosmetics or skin care products that can influence the severity of symptoms and exacerbate erythema and inflammation. Nevertheless, special skin care is necessary to address cosmetic concerns and reduce the potential side-effects of topical or oral treatment of the disease. Appropriate skin care should comprise gentle cleansing, effective moisturization, soothing actives, UV protection and concealing pigments to help neutralize the appearance of redness. To determine the compatibility and efficacy of a skin care regimen (consisting of a cleanser, a day care with SPF25 and a night care) containing licochalcone A (Lic A), an anti-irritant from the licorice plant Glycyrrhiza inflata, and 4-t-butylcyclohexanol (SymSitive(®) ), a substance which acts as a sensitivity regulator, in female subjects with clinically determined subtype I rosacea. Thirty-two test subjects with mild to moderate rosacea used the skin care regimen daily for 8 weeks. Clinical assessment of erythema, subjective irritation and clinical photography were performed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. Additionally, a quality-of-life questionnaire was filled out by the test subjects at baseline and week 8. The subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire on product properties after 4 and 8 weeks of product use. Clinical assessments and subject response confirmed very good tolerability of the regimen, a statistically significant improvement in clinical grading for erythema and tactile roughness at weeks 4 and 8 and on telangiectasia at week 8 when compared to baseline scores. A statistically significant improvement in facial redness (a*) values, based on the L*a*b* colorimetric system, was determined at week 4 and 8 in comparison to baseline. No difference in corneometric measurement was detected at week 4 and 8 compared to baseline. The skin care regimen was found to be highly compatible with the sensitive facial skin of patients with

  3. [Experimental study on preclinical quality control, urgent poison and irritation of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, a class I new drug against diabetic cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yan-Qun; Yang, Qiao-Hong; Su, Jun-Fang; Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Chen, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2013-04-01

    To establish a quality control method of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, in order to evaluate acute toxicity, irritation and irritability and lay a foundation for its development and utilization in the future. The content of gigantol and SA in D. aurantiacum eye drops were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The linear ranges of gigantol and SA were 0.040 8-1.530 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9) and 0.100 8-0.504 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9), with the average recoveries being 100.8%, 99.84%, and RSD being 1.4%, 1.8% (n = 9) respectively. The sample solution was stable at room temperature within 72 h. The acute toxicity test showed no toxic reaction of D. aurantiacum eye drops in mice. The irritating test for single-dose and multiple-dose administrations of D. aurantiacum eye drops and physiological saline in rabbit eyes and skin, as well as the allergic test in guinea pigs showed no eye irritation and skin irritation and irritability. These findings indicated that D. aurantiacum eye drops are safe and stable, with a good druggability.

  4. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O

    2008-03-20

    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  5. Comparative studies on proliferation, molecular markers and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells from various tissues (adipose, bone marrow, ear skin, abdominal skin, and lung) and maintenance of multipotency during serial passages in miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Keum Sil; Lee, So-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Byeong Chun; Koo, Ok Jae; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multi-lineage cells, which confers great promise for use in regenerative medicine. In this study, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, ear skin, lung, and abdominal skin of miniature pigs (mpMSCs), and the optimal medium (DMEM/F12-Glutamax) was selected for the culturing of mpMSCs. As a result, proliferation of the mpMSCs derived from all tissues was steadily increased when cultured with DMEM/F12-Glutamax during 14 consecutive passages. The cells harbored MSC surface markers (CD34-, CD45-, CD29+, CD44+, CD90+, and CD105+), whose levels of expression differed among the tissue sources and declined over sub-passaging. In addition, the expression of stemness markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and differentiation into mesoderm (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) were clearly represented at early passage; however, expression of stemness markers decreased, and differentiation potential was lost over sequential sub-passaging, which should be considered in the selection of mpMSC for MSC-based application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psoriasis: 'the badge of shame'. A case report of a psychological intervention to reduce and potentially clear chronic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R; Bewley, A

    2014-07-01

    The psychological effects of skin disorders have long been established. Most research on psychological interventions for people with skin disorders has focused predominantly on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); however, CBT is not appropriate for everyone. We assessed the benefits of a psychological intervention, using the principles of systemic family therapy (SFT). The key to SFT is the understanding of problems in the context of family and social relationships, and how reciprocal dynamics influence problems. Problems thus have a dual construction; they do not exist only within individuals but rather are a product of the interactions between people and wider systems, such as communities and cultures. This report focuses on the importance of practice-based evidence and the need for more research. A 46-year-old female with a 40-year history of psoriasis was referred for psychological therapy for feelings of shame and low self-esteem. Many medications, including biologics, had been tried previously with no success. Initially, the patient attended therapy alone; later, her husband and other family members joined her. Issues around her past, relationships, and personal beliefs/assumptions were explored. Over ten 50-min sessions, she was able to view her dynamics and relationships in a more helpful way. Her psoriasis cleared, reinforcing that it may have been caused by underlying psychological difficulties. Dermatologists need to work in a more holistic way to provide quality care to patients, meeting their psychological and dermatological needs. There is also a need to develop a broader evidence base and interventions for people with skin disorders. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suihko, C.; Serup, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fibre-optic fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a novel non-invasive technique for in vivo imaging of skin. The cellular structure of the epidermis can be studied. A fluorophore, e.g. fluorescein sodium, is introduced by an intradermal injection or applied...... dermatitis reactions caused by established model irritants, e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and pelargonic acid (PA). Methods: Twelve healthy individuals volunteered. The flexor aspect of the right and the left forearm was exposed to SLS in water and PA in isopropanol and occluded under Finn Chambers...... for 24 h. The reactions were rated clinically and, following epicutaneous and intra-dermal application of fluorescein sodium, studied by fluorescence CLSM, magnification x 1000. Results: Both irritants disturbed the epidermal intercellular borders, which became blurred, thickened and variably altered...

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential and Nutritional Values of White Skinned Sweet Potato-Unripe Plantain Composite Flour Blends

    OpenAIRE

    S. O. Salawu; Boligon, A. A. [UNESP; Athayde,M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary. The present investigation sought to evaluate the antioxidant properties, phenolic composition, nutrient composition of Unripe Plantain (UP) -White Skinned Sweet potato (WSP) flour blends. The flour were mixed in various proportions (UP: WSP); 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. HPLC/DAD phenolic analyses revealed the presence of some phenolic acids and flavonoids. The result of the antioxidant indices showed a progressive increase with respect to sweet potato inclusion and t...

  9. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayyaz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Fayyaz, Jeffrey M LacknerDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory reflexes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program.Keywords: serotonin, irritable bowel syndrome, tegaserod

  10. An alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Snezana; Lukic, Milica; Jaksic, Ivana; Reichl, Stephan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Müller-Goymann, Christel

    2011-06-01

    To be considered as a suitable vehicle for drugs/cosmetic actives, an emulsion system should have a number of desirable properties mainly dependent on surfactant used for its stabilization. In the current study, C(12-14) alkyl polyglucoside (APG)-mixed emulsifier of natural origin has been investigated in a series of binary (emulsifier concentration 10-25% (w/w)) and ternary systems with fixed emulsifier content (15% (w/w)) with or without glycerol. To elucidate the systems' colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were employed: polarization and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (WAXD and SAXD), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), complex rheological, pH, and conductivity measurements. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion. In a series of binary systems with fixed emulsifier/water ratios ranging from 10/90 to 25/75 the predominance of a lamellar mesophase was found, changing its character from a liquid crystalline to a gel crystalline type. The same was observed in gel emulsions containing equal amounts of emulsifier and oil (15% (w/w)), but varying in glycerol content (0-25%). Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  12. Evaluation of anti-infective potential of a tribal folklore Odina wodier Roxb against some selected microbes and herpes simplex virus associated with skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, D; Mukherjee, H; Ghosh, S; Bag, P; Mondal, S; Chandra, N S; Mondal, K C; Samanta, A; Chakrabarti, S; Chattopadhyay, D

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Odina wodier bark (OWB), a folk medicine, against representative bacteria, fungi and herpes simplex virus (HSV) associated with skin infections. The OWB extract(s) was found to inhibit the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli at an MIC of 256-5000 μg ml(-1) and Candida albicans at and above 4000 μg ml(-1) by agar and broth dilution assays. The growth curve of Staph. aureus revealed the highest activity within 2-6 h of methanol extract (ME) exposure. Interestingly, the MTT and plaque reduction assay showed that the extracts can inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 at EC50 of 22·4 and 28·8 μg ml(-1) , with Selectivity index of 11·7-15. While the time kinetic and binding assays demonstrated that the ME at 50 μg ml(-1) prevents viral attachment into Vero cells. Phytochemical and HPLC analysis of ME revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, saponins and tannins including the pseudotannin chlorogenic acid. The traditional use of OWB for the management of skin infections has scientific basis. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of OWB on selected isolates of bacteria, fungi and HSV, associated with skin infections. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Mercury and hydroquinone content of skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, and the potential risks to the health of Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorku, Eric Selorm; Kwaansa-Ansah, Edward Ebow; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Amegbletor, Pamela; Opoku, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sixty-two (62) skin-lightening creams and soaps were analysed for total mercury and hydroquinone levels. Total mercury was determined by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry using an automatic mercury analyser and hydroquinone by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mean concentration of total mercury in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps were 0.098 ± 0.082 and 0.152 ± 0.126 μg/g, respectively. The mean concentration of hydroquinone was 0.243 ± 0.385 and 0.035 ± 0.021 % in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, respectively. All the creams and soaps analysed had mercury and hydroquinone levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's acceptable limit of 1 μg/g and 2 %, respectively. The low levels of mercury and hydroquinone in the creams and soaps analysed in this study therefore do not pose any potential risk to consumers who are mostly women in Ghana.

  14. An oral TRPV1 antagonist attenuates laser radiant-heat-evoked potentials and pain ratings from UV(B)-inflamed and normal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Klaus; Reeh, Peter; Duan, W Rachel; Best, Andrea E; Othman, Ahmed A; Faltynek, Connie R; Locke, Charles; Nothaft, Wolfram

    2013-02-01

    Laser (radiant-heat) evoked potentials (LEPs) from vertex-EEG peak-to-peak (PtP) amplitude were used to determine acute antinociceptive/antihyperalgesic efficacy of ABT-102, a novel TRPV1 antagonist efficacious in preclinical pain models, compared with active controls and placebo in normal and UV(B)-inflamed skin. This was a randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, double-blind, intra-individual, crossover trial. Twenty-four healthy subjects received six sequences of single doses of ABT-102 (0.5, 2, 6 mg), etoricoxib 90 mg, tramadol 100 mg and placebo. Painful stimuli were induced by CO(2) -laser on normal and UV(B) -inflamed skin. LEPs and visual analogue scale (VAS-pain) ratings were taken at baseline and hourly up to 8 h post-dose from both skin types. Compared with placebo, significant mean decreases in the primary variable of LEP PtP-amplitude from UV(B)-inflamed skin were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P < 0.001), ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002), tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.001), and etoricoxib 90 mg (P = 0.001) over the 8 h period; ABT-102 0.5 mg was similar to placebo. ABT-102 6 mg was superior to active controls over the 8 h period (P < 0.05) whereas ABT-102 2 mg was comparable. Improvements in VAS scores compared with placebo were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P < 0.001) and ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002). ABT-102 average plasma concentrations were 1.3, 4.4 and 9.4 ng ml(-1) for the 0.5, 2 and 6 mg doses, respectively. There were no clinically significant safety findings. TRPV-1 antagonism appears promising in the management of clinical pain, but requires further investigation. © 2012 Abbott. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one’s potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15 common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS. The results obtained were compared to global standards and previous research. Results. Fourteen (14 of the fifteen samples analysed contained Mercury in the range of 0.473 μg/g to 0.766 μg/g. One sample had a Mercury content of 14,507.74±490.75 μg/g which was over 14,000 times higher than the USFDA limit for mercury in cosmetics of 1 μg/g. All samples contained Arsenic in the range 1.016 μg/g to 6.612 μg/g, which exceeds the EU limit for cosmetics of 0 μg/g. Conclusions. All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered safe for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA limit contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0 μg/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.

  16. The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Terry; Mohammed, Elisabeth; Bascombe, Shermel

    2017-12-13

    Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one's potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15) common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS). The results obtained were compared to global standards and previous research. Results. Fourteen (14) of the fifteen samples analysed contained Mercury in the range of 0.473 μg/g to 0.766 μg/g. One sample had a Mercury content of 14,507.74±490.75 μg/g which was over 14,000 times higher than the USFDA limit for mercury in cosmetics of 1 μg/g. All samples contained Arsenic in the range 1.016 μg/g to 6.612 μg/g, which exceeds the EU limit for cosmetics of 0 μg/g. Conclusions. All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered safe for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA limit contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0 μg/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.

  17. Prolonged skin retention of clobetasol propionate by bio-based microemulsions: a potential tool for scalp psoriasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langasco, Rita; Tanrıverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Özer, Özgen; Roldo, Marta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2017-11-08

    Novel effective and cosmetically acceptable formulations are needed for the treatment of scalp psoriasis, due to the poor efficacy of the current products. The challenge in developing safe, efficient, and convenient delivery systems for this drug was addressed in the present work by formulating clobetasol propionate-loaded W/O microemulsions (MEs). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by using a combination of biocompatible and biodegradable excipients. Characterization studies demonstrated that selected MEs had suitable technological features such as being Newtonian fluids, possessing low viscosity, and high thermodynamic stability. Photomicrographs showed a significant alteration of the skin structure after treatment with MEs, and a preferential concentration of these in the stratum corneum and epidermis. These data, together with ex vivo permeation results, suggested an enhanced topical targeted effect due to an increased drug retention efficacy in the upper skin layers, as desired. Moreover, the bio-based excipients selected could contribute to the healing of the psoriatic scalp. In this way, the improvement of clobetasol efficacy is combined with the useful properties of the microemulsion components and with environmental safety.

  18. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  19. Characterizing Soldier Responses to Irritant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-16

    success, the performance decrement from various drugs in terms of alcohol dosage. in the second (O’Hanlon et &l., 1986), a benzodiazepine ( Lorazepam ...in this case alcohol , are f*irst calikrated agF-nst that agent. Then decrements in performance in the presence of irritant gases can bt calibrated in...terms of their dose equivalence relative to the effects of alcohol . Tr quantify the human mental acuity functions which are related to military 0’r

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  1. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  3. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Kwon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues during restorative and endodontic procedures. This review article provides an overview of studies measuring temperature increases in tooth structures during several restorative and endodontic procedures, and proposes clinical guidelines for reducing potential thermal hazards to the pulp and supporting tissues.

  4. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyaluk Limsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of −34.19±0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  5. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, Tunyaluk; Boonme, Prapaporn; Khongkow, Pasarat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn

    2017-01-01

    Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR) were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of -34.19 ± 0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  6. Years of potential life lost and indirect costs of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Gery P; Ekwueme, Donatus U

    2011-10-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the US, and an important public health concern both in the US and throughout the world. Given high incidence rates among young adults and the large number of deaths, skin cancer has the potential to result in significant years of potential life lost (YPLL) and lost productivity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the published literature on the YPLL and the value of productivity loss from morbidity and premature mortality resulting from melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Employing pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria, systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Econlit. We selected studies that measured the societal burden of melanoma and NMSC - through estimating either the YPLL and/or the indirect costs. We identified 16 relevant studies meeting our criteria, six were from the US and ten were from other industrialized countries; ten of the studies reported results on YPLL, eight on mortality costs and five on morbidity costs. Some studies reported results in more than one category. From each eligible article and report, we extracted detailed information on the study population/country, study design, data analysis methods and study results. Data abstracted for each eligible study included estimated number of YPLL, YPLL per death and morbidity and mortality costs. The average number of YPLL per death was approximately 15 for melanoma and 10 for NMSC. We found the costs attributable to melanoma and NMSC ranged from $US39.2 million to $US28.9 million for morbidity and $US3.3 billion to $US1.0 billion for mortality, respectively. It is clear from the published literature that skin cancer leads to significant YPLL and indirect costs associated with premature mortality and morbidity. Prevention and early detection efforts are important in helping reduce the incidence of melanoma and NMSC, and the related deaths and productivity losses.

  7. Ultraviolet A photosensitivity profile of dexchlorpheniramine maleate and promethazine-based creams: Anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and skin barrier protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Gustavo; Eberlin, Samara; Clerici, Stefano Piatto; Alves Pinheiro, Ana Lucia Tabarini; Costa, Adilson

    2017-12-01

    Unwanted side effects such as dryness, hypersensitivity, and cutaneous photosensitivity are challenge for adherence and therapeutical success for patients using treatments for inflammatory and allergic skin response. In this study, we compared the effects of two dermatological formulations, which are used in inflammatory and/or allergic skin conditions: dexchlorpheniramine maleate (DCP; 10 mg/g) and promethazine (PTZ; 20 mg/g). We evaluated both formulations for phototoxicity potential, skin irritation, anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic abilities, and skin barrier repair in vitro and ex vivo using the standard OECD test guideline n° 432, the ECVAM protocol n° 78, and cultured skin explants from a healthy patient. Ultraviolet A was chosen as exogenous agent to induce allergic and inflammatory response. Both PTZ and DCP promoted increases in interleukin-1 (IL-1) synthesis in response to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation compared to control. However, the increase observed with PTZ was significantly greater than the DCP, indicating that the latter has a lower irritant potential. DCP also demonstrated a protective effect on UVA-induced leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) synthesis. Conversely, PTZ demonstrates more robust UVA antihistaminic activity. Likewise, PTZ promoted a significantly greater increase in the production of involucrin and keratin 14, both associated with protective skin barrier property. In conclusion, these data suggest possible diverging UVA response mechanisms of DCP and PTZ, which gives greater insight into the contrasting photosensitizing potential between DCP and PTZ observed in the patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Medical adhesive-related skin injuries associated with vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jan; Savine, Louise

    2017-04-27

    Establishing vascular access and preventing infection, both at insertion and during ongoing care is generally the top priority; the maintenance of optimal skin integrity is often a distant secondary consideration. Skin can react to different types of dressings or adhesives, or problems can arise relating to the securement of lines or the development of sensitivities to cleaning solutions. Clearly, these scenarios are not limited to the securement of vascular access devices; however, a patient with a long-term vascular access device may not have other options for vascular access, which makes this a very important and yet largely unrecognised area. A review of the limited literature that existed up to March 2015 showed it was typically concerned with skin tears connected with dressings and removal, and contact irritant dermatitis. The tissue viability team and vascular access team reviewed the current products associated with a typical vascular access dressing to ensure it was fit for purpose and where at all possible had good scientific literature for validation. The team worked proactively to recognise those patients at risk with the early identification of potential medical adhesive-related skin injuries (MARSI). To facilitate this an algorithm was developed that offers a step-by-step approach, clearly outlining what to do to prevent MARSI and its treatment should it develop. These reactions can result from other factors than the dressing alone, and an increase in these kinds of skin reaction in patients who are on chemotherapy regimens is being explored further. Through the implementation of an algorithm, education for both staff and patients and collaborative working between vascular access and tissue viability teams, a reduction in these phenomena has been seen despite an increasing number of at-risk patients.

  9. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  11. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  12. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  13. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Skin Pigment By Shinjita Das, MD, Instructor in Dermatology; ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Mineral intake independent from gastric irritation or pica by cell-dehydrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancio, Juliana; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-10-24

    Gavage of 2 M NaCl (IG 2 M NaCl), a procedure to induce cell-dehydration-and water and 0.15 M NaCl intake in a two-bottle choice test-is also a potential gastric irritant. In this study, we assessed whether mineral intake induced by IG 2 M NaCl is associated with gastric irritation or production of pica in the rat. We first determined the amount of mineral solution (0.15 M NaCl, 0.15 M NaHCO3, 0.01 M KCl and 0.05 mM CaCl2) and water ingested in response to IG 2 M NaCl in a five-bottle test. Then, we used mineral solutions (0.01 M KCl and 0.15 M NaHCO3), whose intakes were significantly increased compared to controls, and water in three-bottle tests to test the gastric irritation hypothesis. The IG 2 M NaCl induced KCl and NaHCO3 intake that was not inhibited by gavage with gastric protectors Al(OH)3 or NaHCO3. IG 2 M NaCl or gavage of 0.6 N acetic acid induced mild irritation, hyperemia, of the glandular part of the stomach. A gavage of 50% ethanol induced strong irritation seen as pinpoint ulcerations. Neither ethanol nor acetic acid induced any fluid intake. Neither IG 2 M NaCl nor acetic acid induced kaolin intake, a marker of pica in laboratory rats. Ethanol did induce kaolin intake. These results suggest that IG 2 M NaCl induced a mineral fluid intake not selective for sodium and independent from gastric irritation or pica. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    ), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  17. Unilateral Palmar Callus and Irritant Hand Eczema – Underreported Signs of Dependency on Crutches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg amputees who can’t use prostheses and patients with arthritis are often dependent on crutches. Their chronic use can exert significant friction forces. The palmar skin will respond by forming a hyperkeratotic callus. We report for the first time unilateral palmar callus formation caused by friction from using crutches. Another possible adverse effect is the triggering of irritant contact dermatitis by the handholes of crutches. We report two cases with hand dermatitis due to the chronic dependence on crutches and discuss treatment options.

  18. Skin decontamination of G, V, H L agents by Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bide, R.W.; Sawyer, T.W.; DiNinno, V.L.; Armour, S.J.; Risk, D.J.

    1993-05-13

    The Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) is a reactive solution designed to be applied directly to skin for the decontamination and destruction of the classical chemical warfare agents. The solvent of the RSDL is very effective in dissolving liquid agents from the skin surface and the differential solubility of agents in the RSDL and the skin strongly favors retention of agents in the lotion. The active ingredient in the RSDL reacts rapidly and completely with G-agents, V-agents, mustard Lewisite producing relatively nontoxic products. The RSDL will dissolve and destroy agent thickened with acrylate polymers. The lotion is water soluble and readily removed from the skin. Since the RSDL is water soluble, it is active against water soluble agents even at high dilutions. For water insoluble agents, the activity is reduced as the water content rises above abrasive 50% due to insolubility of the agents. Skin and eye irritancy trials indicate that the RSDL is only a mild irritant to the eyes (equivalent to a chlorinated swimming pool) and to abraded skin. Acute toxicity trials showed that large oral and intraperitoneal doses were essentially non-toxic. The RSDL was fielded by the Canadian Forces for the Gulf Conflict. The RSDL may be used in open wounds for short periods. Wound decontamination and irrigation with RSDL diluted 1:1 with isotonic saline was recommended for the Gulf conflict.

  19. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a little waterproofing. previous continue Skin Can Warm and Cool You Your skin can help if you're feeling too hot or too cold. Your blood ... you're ice-skating or sledding? When you're cold, your blood vessels keep your ... and keeping the warm blood away from the skin's surface. You might ...

  20. Safety evaluation of highly purified fullerenes (HPFs): based on screening of eye and skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Ito, Shinobu; Yamana, Shuichi; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    The safety of highly purified fullerenes (HPFs) for utilization as antioxidants in the cosmetic industry was evaluated by studying the toxicity and effects on laboratory animals, human epidermal keratinocytes, and human fibroblasts. The HPFs did not induce primary or cumulative skin irritation, skin sensitization, skin photosensitization or contact phototoxicity. No skin reaction was observed in the patch test on human skin. In the primary eye-irritation test on rabbits, conjunctival redness and corneal epithelial defects were observed in all animals of the eye-unwashed group at 1 and 24 hr after application, but disappeared by 48 hr after application. The irritation may have been caused by administration of insoluble fullerene powder. Therefore, the HPFs were assessed as "minimally irritating" in the eye-irritation test. By comparing these results with previously published data, we concluded that HPFs can be safely used in cosmetic ingredients for human skin application. This is the first study performing all the toxicity tests on the same fullerene material for approval as an additive in quasi-drugs.

  1. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  2. Vertebrate hosts as islands: dynamics of selection, immigration, loss, persistence and potential function of bacteria on salamander skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Howard Loudon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin bacterial communities can protect amphibians from a fungal pathogen; however, little is known about how these communities are maintained. We used a neutral model of community ecology to identify bacteria that are maintained on salamanders by selection or by dispersal from a bacterial reservoir (soil and ecological drift. We found that 75% (9/12 of bacteria that were consistent with positive selection, < 1% of bacteria that were consistent with random dispersal and none of the bacteria that were consistent under negative selection had a 97% or greater match to antifungal isolates. Additionally we performed an experiment where salamanders were either provided or denied a bacterial reservoir and estimated immigration and loss (emigration and local extinction rates of bacteria on salamanders in both treatments. Loss was strongly related to bacterial richness, suggesting competition is important for structuring the community. Bacteria closely related to antifungal isolates were more likely to persist on salamanders with or without a bacterial reservoir, suggesting they had a competitive advantage. Furthermore, over-represented and under-represented OTUs had similar persistence on salamanders when a bacterial reservoir was present. However, under-represented OTUs were less likely to persist in the absence of a bacterial reservoir, suggesting that the over-represented and under-represented bacteria are selected for or against on salamanders through time. Our findings from the neutral model, migration and persistence analyses show that bacteria that exhibit a high similarity to antifungal isolates persist on salamanders, which likely protect hosts against pathogens and improve fitness. This research is one of the first to apply ecological theory to investigate assembly of host associated-bacterial communities, which can provide insights for probiotic bioaugmentation as a conservation strategy against disease.

  3. Skin diseases during floods in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Busaracome, Ploysyne; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Puavilai, Siripen

    2008-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that occur occasionally in Thailand. The most common form skin diseases due to floods are infectious dermatoses especially superficial fungal infection. However the microbiologic evidences have not been evaluated. To evaluate the most common skin diseases during floods and identify the organism that causes skin maceration at web space(s) of toes (Hong Kong foot). Patients who complained of skin problems were evaluated at the temporary outpatient clinic during October 2006. Skin specimens from all patients who had itches and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes were cultured. Ninety-six patients were evaluated (38 males and 58 females). Eczema was the most prevalent dermatosis, which accounted for 34.5% of the total skin problems and the great majority of these cases were irritant contact dermatitis. Sixteen cases presented with itch and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes. All of them were colonized with various microorganisms. Gram-negative bacilli were the most prevalent ones and were found in 14 out of 16 specimens. Fungal culture was positive in only two specimens. Eczema is the most common dermatosis during floods. Skin maceration at web space(s) of toes, which were thought to be fungal infection, are chronic irritant dermatitis with secondary bacterial colonization. Only a few cases were fungal infection. Microbiologic investigation should be done in these patients. Unfortunately, it is not practical in such a situation. Topical medications that have the combination of antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties are the most suitable medications.

  4. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed...

  5. The effects of culture, skin color, and other nonclinical issues on acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hilary E; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Mancini, Anthony J; Yan, Albert C

    2011-09-01

    The effective and safe treatment of acne vulgaris often is affected by individual patient characteristics, including skin color and cultural background. Skin of color is especially prone to hyperpigmentation, both from lesions and from irritating therapy. Clinicians also should be aware of cultural attitudes and folk remedies that may adversely affect dermatologic conditions such as acne. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biocompatible Nanoemulsions for Improved Aceclofenac Skin Delivery: Formulation Approach Using Combined Mixture-Process Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailović, Tanja; Ðorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranđelović, Danijela; Cekić, Nebojša; Lukić, Milica; Pantelić, Ivana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for effective aceclofenac (ACF) skin delivery utilizing sucrose esters [sucrose palmitate (SP) and sucrose stearate (SS)] as additional stabilizers and penetration enhancers. To find the suitable surfactant mixtures and levels of process variables (homogenization pressure and number of cycles - high pressure homogenization manufacturing method) that result in drug-loaded nanoemulsions with minimal droplet size and narrow size distribution, a combined mixture-process experimental design was employed. Based on optimization data, selected nanoemulsions were evaluated regarding morphology, surface charge, drug-excipient interactions, physical stability, and in vivo skin performances (skin penetration and irritation potential). The predicted physicochemical properties and storage stability were proved satisfying for ACF-loaded nanoemulsions containing 2% of SP in the blend with 0%-1% of SS and 1%-2% of egg lecithin (produced at 50°C/20 cycles/800 bar). Additionally, the in vivo tape stripping demonstrated superior ACF skin absorption from these nanoemulsions, particularly from those containing 2% of SP, 0.5% of SS, and 1.5% of egg lecithin, when comparing with the sample costabilized by conventional surfactant - polysorbate 80. In summary, the combined mixture-process experimental design was shown as a feasible tool for formulation development of multisurfactant-based nanosized delivery systems with potentially improved overall product performances.

  7. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  8. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  9. Gating of the vertex somatosensory and auditory evoked potential P50 and the correlation to skin conductance orienting response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S M; Eder, D N; Hemmingsen, R P

    2001-01-01

    A defect in auditory evoked potential (AEP) P50 gating supports the theory of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship between gating of the mid-latency evoked potentials (EP) in the somatosensory and the auditory modalities has not been studied together before. In schiz......A defect in auditory evoked potential (AEP) P50 gating supports the theory of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship between gating of the mid-latency evoked potentials (EP) in the somatosensory and the auditory modalities has not been studied together before....... In schizophrenia, we might expect the processing deficits to act on multiple modalities. We have examined the gating of median nerve somatosensory EP (SEP) following paired stimulation identical to the AEP P50 gating paradigm using interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 500, 750 and 1000 ms and the correlation of gating...... to the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in 20 healthy men. We measured mid-latency vertex components (SEP: P50, N65, P85 and N100; AEP: P30, N45, P50 and N80). The gating was most pronounced at ISI 500 ms where the SEP P50 and N100 gating were 0.59 and 0.37, respectively, as compared to a gating...

  10. Natural considerations for skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Rodriguez, David; Taylor, Susan C; Wu, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    Changing US demographics indicate that dermatologists will treat an increasing number of individuals of color. Early research on cutaneous anatomy and physiology was performed mostly in white populations. However, new research is elucidating similarities and differences in skin of color and white skin with regard to skin barrier, pigmentation, and sensitivity. Two of the most important issues are skin lightening and brightening. Products for use on skin of color typically should be gentle because of the proclivity of more deeply pigmented skin to develop pigmentary abnormalities in response to skin irritation or trauma. Increasing patient interest in natural remedies has been matched by research on the use of natural ingredients in dermatology. The relative gentleness of many of these products, coupled with excellent efficacy, makes natural ingredients such as soy and licorice excellent choices in the treatment of disorders such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and melasma. For daily skin care, ingredients such as oatmeal and feverfew are good choices for gentle cleansing and moisturizing of dry, sensitive, or ashy skin. Sun protection is an increasing concern due to rising rates of melanoma. Several botanical products are useful in augmenting photoprotection with conventional sunscreens.

  11. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L.

    2016-01-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavorings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavorings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognized as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavors, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential in...

  12. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  13. The bedside diagnostic accuracy of a novice reflectance confocal microscopy reader for skin cancer detection in vivo in real-time: understanding challenges and potential pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manu; Pulijal, Sri Varsha; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-02-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive device that images skin lesions in vivo at a cellular resolution to guide management of patient care. While previous studies have demonstrated high accuracy of RCM in diagnosing skin cancers, most of these studies were performed by experts as a blinded analysis off-site and does not reflect true clinical scenario. We assessed the diagnostic potential of a novice RCM reader, in clinical settings, at the bedside. Over a period of 15 months (August 2015- November 2016), 168 lesions (from 128 cases) were imaged with RCM to determine BCC and or melanoma in dermoscopically equivocal lesions. To evaluate the learning curve of the novice reader, diagnostic accuracy was evaluated at the end of 15 months, as well as during the first half (8 months) and latter half (seven months) of the study. Histopathological diagnosis was available in 95/168 lesions, including 38 melanocytic lesions (ML: 13 melanomas and 25 nevi) and 57 non-melanocytic lesions (NML: 26 BCCs, 4 SCCs and 27 benign). The remaining 73/168 lesions (43.45%) were not biopsied (received topical treatment, monitoring). On RCM, 22/26 (84.61%) BCCs and 11/13 (84.61%) melanomas were correctly diagnosed. BCC was missed in 3/26 (11.53%) lesions and melanoma in 2/13 (15.38%) lesions; these lesions were diagnosed mostly as superficial BCCs and focal epidermal changes overlying deeply situated melanoma nodule on histopathology, respectively. False positive diagnosis of BCC was obtained in 7/23 (30.4%) lesions and of melanoma in 2/22 (4.5%) lesions; these were diagnosed mostly as benign inflamed keratosis and moderately atypical dysplastic nevus on histopathology, respectively. In 7 lesions BCC or melanoma could not be ruled out. A marked increase in the sensitivity and specificity was noticed between the two halves of the study. An overall high diagnostic accuracy of 80.28% with high sensitivity and specificity of 80.68% and 80.8%, respectively in diagnosing skin

  14. Hypersensitivity Events, Including Potentially Hypersensitivity-Related Skin Events, with Dapagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Annika; Billger, Martin; Johnsson, Eva; Träff, Anna Karin; Yoshida, Shigeru; Johnsson, Kristina

    2016-11-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dapagliflozin improves glycemic control and has a safety profile typically related to its mechanism of action. Hypersensitivity adverse events (AEs) have been reported in some patients with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including a recent report of dermatological AEs in Japan. We investigated the frequency and characteristics of hypersensitivity AEs, including potentially hypersensitivity-related skin AEs, across 21 phase IIb/III trials of dapagliflozin (N = 5936) versus active or placebo comparators (N = 3403), including the subpopulation of Asian patients (N = 1563). Overall, AEs and serious AEs (SAEs) of hypersensitivity were infrequent and were reported in a similar proportion of patients with dapagliflozin versus active or placebo comparators (AEs: 4.5 vs. 4.3 %; SAEs: 0.2 vs. 0.1 %, respectively). The most common events affected the skin or subcutaneous tissue: rash (dapagliflozin: 1.1 %, comparator: 1.1 %), eczema (0.6, 0.8 %), dermatitis (0.5, 0.4 %), and urticaria (0.5, 0.2 %). Few patients discontinued as a result of hypersensitivity AEs (≤0.2 %). In patients of Asian descent, a lower frequency of hypersensitivity AEs was observed with dapagliflozin versus comparators (2.0 vs. 4.5 %). In the subset of placebo-controlled trials, hypersensitivity AEs were slightly more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo across the overall population (4.7 vs. 3.8 %), and less frequent with dapagliflozin in Asian patients (1.5 vs. 5.0 %). The findings of this post hoc analysis indicate that dapagliflozin does not lead to an increased risk of serious hypersensitivity reactions or potentially hypersensitivity-related skin events among patients with T2DM, including Asian patients. Long-term outcome studies and postmarketing surveillance will provide further information on hypersensitivity reactions with SGLT2 inhibitors. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01042977, NCT01031680, NCT00855166, NCT

  15. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  16. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  17. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  18. [Immunological profile of coeliac disease in a subgroup of patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Hela; El Assoued, Youssef; Ghédira, Ibtissem; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Yacoobi, Mohamed T; Ajmi, Salem

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if authentic cases of irritable bowel syndrome could be secondary in a latent or potential coeliac disease. All new patients who consulted for irritable bowel syndrome fulfilling Rome II criteria between 01/04/2003 and 30/03/2004 were included. All patients had upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy and colonoscopy or enema. Then they were investigated for celiac disease by analysis of serum IgA antigliadin, IgG antigliadin, and endomysial antibodies. One hundred patients with irritable bowel syndrome were included. They had an average age of 45,5 +/- 0,98 and they were 61 women. Clinical signs were dominated by abdominal pains associated to constipation (69% of the cases). Five patients had positive antigliadin antibody (IgG for 2 patients and IgA for 3 patients). None of them had endomysial antibodies nor abnormal duodenal biopsy. This study didn't provide a relation between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome when it is associated to constipation.

  19. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Programme: effect of space conditions on skin metabolic activity and vascularization and potential impact of radiations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusgens, Betty; Lambert, Charles; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Colige, Alain

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of prolonged microgravity on skin physiology in mice and to identify potentially altered metabolic and vascular parameters. Osteoporosis-induced microgravity is a well documented space flight problem in Man and animals.We have previously demonstrated that fibroblasts from the dermis also sense and react to mechanical forces issued from the surrounding extracellular matrix. Conversely, fibroblasts are able to remodel their environment by a dynamic process of synthesis and degradation. Fibroblasts and cells of the vascular network also react to soluble mediators secreted by the keratinocytes such as IL-1, IL-6, VEGF, .... Skin fibroblasts upon relaxation of mechanical tension adopt a catabolic phenotype and produce significant amount of IL-1 and IL-6, of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) while the collagen synthesis is reduced. In microgravity, we have shown that the expression of MMP-1 and IL-6 by dermal fibroblasts is increased indicating that cell might interpret micro-gravity as a mechanical relaxation. This concept is supported by a reduction of the actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in fibroblasts in microgravity. Altogether, microgravity might alter metabolic equilibrium of the skin and perhaps of other soft connective tissues such as tendons or interstitial matrix of internal organs. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions by providing living space, food, water, ventilation and light-ing. Details on the mission that took place from August 28, 2009 to November 27, 2009, can be found at the URL indicated below. A similar ground control mission has been performed using the same wild type and transgenic mice overexpressing OSF-1. Upon receiving mice at KSC, the team has collected pieces of skin that were handled for histological, transcriptomic and biochemical analyses. The

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  1. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome in black Kenyans. ... The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male ... Conclusion: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to Irritable Bowel Syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns.

  3. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  4. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  5. Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Michela; Silvani, Simonetta; Vincenzi, Colombina; Nino, Massimiliano; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. We examined the labels and the product information of 291 liquid household washing and cleaning products, including 43 washing-up liquids, 63 laundry detergents, 61 fabric conditioners, 47 spray detergents, and 77 hard surface cleaning products. We obtained the data from the product information found on the websites for 263 products and directly on the product packages for 28 products. For each product we specifically recorded the presence of surfactants, preservatives, and fragrances listed in Annex III of Directive 76/768/EEC. The websites of two Italian brands do not respect EU regulations as they provide product information only with bar codes of the products. Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. Surfactants were listed in 16.5% of the studied products. Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. For consumers, at least in Italy, it may not be easy to retrieve product information from the website for two widely sold brands. The information had to be taken from the actual package.

  6. Alterations in the antibacterial potential of Synechococcus spp. PCC7942 under the influence of UV-B radiations on skin pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are seen as a source of novel drugs and the discovery of new pharmaceutical is increasingly in demand. Cyanobacteria are regarded as a potential target for this as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, algicide and cytotoxic activities have been reported in these organisms. They have been identified as a new and rich source of bioactive compounds belonging to diversified groups. Radiation in the UV-B range interferes with various metabolic reactions by generating free radicals and active oxygen species. These deleterious compounds are inactivated by antioxidants. Among them are the carotenoids and phycocyanin which protect against photodynamic action in different ways. Stress plays an important role in the production of bioactive metabolites from organisms. Synechococcus spp. PCC7942 was studied for antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacteria resistant to a number of available antibiotics after being exposed to UV-B radiation. The antibacterial activity of Synechococcus spp. PCC7942 was studied on five potent skin pathogens. The highest antibacterial activity was seen the methanol extracts of 24 h UV-B exposed cultures of Synechococcus spp. PCC7942. It can be concluded that there was moderate antibacterial activity. Results showed stress, solvent and dose-dependent activity. This antibacterial activity might be due to the enhanced synthesis of carotenoids and phycocyanin under UV-B stress. The purpose of the present study was to relate the inhibitory effects of the cyanobacterial compounds specifically on skin pathogens with exposure to UV-B radiation as UV protecting compounds are already reported in these organisms.

  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  8. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  10. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  11. Psychoemotional Features in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoş, D; Ionescu, O; Ojog, DG; Tănăsescu, MD

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To delineate the psychological profile of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Method. A triple questionnaire of 614 items (including psychological and medical ones) was given to 10192 respondents and the results were analyzed by means of Cronbach alpha and Chi square test, together with an ad-hoc designed method that implied ranking and outliers detecting. Results and conclusions. Anxiety and depression are general psychological tendencies unspecifcally linked with IBS. Among the features with a relatively more specific correlation with IBS, tension has the strongest association, followed by the inclination to endure unacceptable situations, preoccupation for health, and susceptibility, and then by fear of failure and sense of demanding profession. IBS individuals readily accept a subordinate position, which may be connected to their history of tyrannical parents, and also to their preoccupation for authority factors. The sense of being treated unfairly by the authority persons during the school years nuances this last feature. Some features that bring some nuances to this psychological portrait are: contemplative nature and analyzing tendency, preoccupation with health issues, a reserved, unsociable, and precautious nature, clinging to known circumstances. Abbreviations: ChiSq = chi-square; OdRa = odds ratio; OdRaCL = OdRa confidence limits; ErrProb = probability of error; SS = statistically significant; CrA = Cronbach alpha; a / m = the calculations were done by taking into account the average/ maximal score; P / M = psychological / medical category; PaMm / PmMa / PmMm / PaMa = the calculations were done by taking into account the average score for the PsyCt and the maximal score for the MedCt / the maximal score for PsyCt and the average score for the MedCt / and the maximal score for both / and the average score for both; FD = functional dyspepsia; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; IBSCt = IBS category; MedCt = medical category; Psy

  12. Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, N J; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    , but was independent of whether the external bath was NaCl-Ringer's, NaCl-Ringer's with amiloride, KCl-Ringer's or choline Cl-Ringer's. To partition the routes of the conductive Cl- ion flow, we measured in the isolated epithelium with double-barrelled microelectrodes apical membrane potential. Va, and intracellular......M in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation...... and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance (GCl) by voltage clamping the transepithelial potential (V) at 40 mV (mucosa positive) and -100 mV. At V = 40 mV; i.e. when GCl was deactivated, Va was -70.1 +/- 5.0 mV (n = 15, eight preparations) and acCl was 40.0 +/- 3.8 mM. The fractional apical membrane...

  13. Evaluation of a topical treatment for the relief of sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinicke IR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid R Heinicke,1 Damian H Adams,2 Tanya M Barnes,1 Kerryn A Greive1 1Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, VIC, Australia; 2Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia Background: Approximately, 50% of the population claim to have sensitive skin, which has created an important challenge for dermatologists and the cosmetic industry. This study evaluates the properties of QV Face Rescue Gel (Rescue Gel that contains a combination of moisturizing and anti-irritant ingredients, and which is used to relieve the symptoms of sensitive facial skin. Methods: The ability of Rescue Gel to induce collagen types I and III in cultured neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts compared to transforming growth factor beta 1, a known potent inducer of collagen types I and III, was measured using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the potential for Rescue Gel to reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation on the skin compared to 0.5% hydrocortisone cream (positive control as well as it's ability to decrease transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. In addition, the formulation was tested for its potential to be 1 nonstinging using a facial sting/discomfort assay performed on volunteers who reacted positively to lactic acid, 2 nonirritating as determined by repeat insult patch tests, and 3 noncomedogenic. Results: Rescue Gel significantly induced collagen types I and III in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts similarly to transforming growth factor beta 1. In volunteers, Rescue Gel was shown to significantly reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation similarly to 0.5% hydrocortisone, and to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. Further, the formulation was found to be nonstinging, nonirritating, and noncomedogenic. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion: In this study, Rescue Gel has been shown

  14. Screening survey of ocular, nasal, respiratory and skin symptoms in manicurists in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manicurists are exposed to various chemicals in nail and skin care products and may develop ocular, nasal, respiratory or skin adverse reactions to them. To investigate the occurrence of ocular, nasal, respiratory and skin problems among manicurists and to identify their causal factors, particularly allergic etiology and occupational origin. Material and Methods: Manicurists employed in beauty salons in the central region of Poland were invited to fill in the questionnaire and undergo medical examination, skin prick tests with common aeroallergens, patch tests with European Baseline Series and (MethAcrylates Series-Nails and spirometry. Results: In the questionnaire adverse nasal symptoms were reported by 70%, ocular – by 58%, respiratory – by 42%, hand eczema – by 43% of manicurists. In the medical interview, the frequency of those complaints was lower: nasal ones – 41%, ocular – 24%, cough – 18%, hand skin dryness – 20%, hand eczema – 6%. Cough and hand skin dryness occurred significantly more frequently than in the case of controls. Contact allergy was found for 41% of manicurists and 35% of controls. The prevalence of nickel sensitization was high in both groups (38% and 27%, respectively. Only 3 manicurists reacted to (methacrylates. The frequency of atopic diseases was similar in compared groups. Irritant nasal and respiratory reactions were significantly more prevalent among manicurists (nasal – 18% vs. 2%, p < 0.01; respiratory – 18% vs. 1%, p < 0.001. Work-related nasal irritant reactions were finally diagnosed for 19%, ocular ones – for 13%, respiratory – for 18% and within hand skin – for 23% of manicurists. Conclusions: The frequency of workattributed irritant mucosal and skin symptoms among manicurists is high. Exposure to acrylates is an important source of mucosal irritant reactions while occlusive gloves cause irritation of hand skin. The prevalence of nickel allergy among Polish females is

  15. Cosmeceutical effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Kombucha tea by intradermal administration in the skin of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Mahmoudi, Elaheh; Hashemi, Seyed-Ali; Kamali, Jamal; Hajiaghayi, Reza; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Mahmoodi, Vajiheh

    2017-11-19

    Natural ingredients have been always an interesting approach to prolong youthful appearance of skin. One of the natural compounds is Kombucha tea (KT), which has been mainly used as an energy drink in Asian countries for a long time. Previous reports indicated that it has pharmaceutical and favorable wound repairing effects. The beneficial properties of KT are thought to be mainly due to the presence of fermentation products such as flavonoids and other polyphenols with inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects. These properties prompted us to study the anti-aging potential of KT and investigate its effective fraction in aged mice, METHODS: Kombucha tea was fractionated into chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate, and flavonoid content was determined. Young and old mice were used as control. KT ethyl acetate fraction (KEAf), which had the highest flavonoid content, was intradermally administered to old mice. Administration of KEAf significantly increased the collagen content, NAD + /NADH level, and concomitantly improved skin connective tissue abnormalities in the aged skin. No sensitivity or irritation was observed. This finding suggested that KEAf can be a suitable candidate as a cosmetic product to improve aging-related skin abnormalities and regeneration of aged skin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  17. Skin-targeted inhibition of PPAR β/δ by selective antagonists to treat PPAR β/δ-mediated psoriasis-like skin disease in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hack

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator activating receptor ß/δ (PPAR β/δ is overexpressed in psoriasis. PPAR β/δ is not present in adult epidermis of mice. Targeted expression of PPAR β/δ and activation by a selective synthetic agonist is sufficient to induce an inflammatory skin disease resembling psoriasis. Several signalling pathways dysregulated in psoriasis are replicated in this model, suggesting that PPAR β/δ activation contributes to psoriasis pathogenesis. Thus, inhibition of PPAR β/δ might harbour therapeutical potential. Since PPAR β/δ has pleiotropic functions in metabolism, skin-targeted inhibition offer the potential of reducing systemic adverse effects. Here, we report that three selective PPAR β/δ antagonists, GSK0660, compound 3 h, and GSK3787 can be formulated for topical application to the skin and that their skin concentration can be accurately quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/mass spectrometry. These antagonists show efficacy in our transgenic mouse model in reducing psoriasis-like changes triggered by activation of PPAR β/δ. PPAR β/δ antagonists GSK0660 and compound 3 do not exhibit systemic drug accumulation after prolonged application to the skin, nor do they induce inflammatory or irritant changes. Significantly, the irreversible PPAR β/δ antagonist (GSK3787 retains efficacy when applied topically only three times per week which could be of practical clinical usefulness. Our data suggest that topical inhibition of PPAR β/δ to treat psoriasis may warrant further exploration.

  18. Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M L; Ogura, T; Soffchi, L

    2001-02-01

    It was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. It is confirmed that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the worker's skin in the course of their work.

  19. Differential expression of toll-like receptors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brint, Elizabeth K

    2011-02-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. One contributory factor may be low-grade mucosal inflammation, perhaps initiated by the microbiota. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pathogen-recognition receptors of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of TLRs in IBS to further understand the involvement of the innate immune system in this complex disorder.

  20. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autonomic function at rest and in response to emotional and rectal stimuli in women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B

    2008-06-01

    Our aim was to study autonomic function in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) without constipation and psychiatric comorbidity. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) (representing cardiac vagal activity), skin conductance (representing sympathetic activity) and heart rate were measured at baseline and as a response to emotional stress and rectal discomfort in 33 women with IBS and 21 healthy women. Baseline heart rate was higher in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. Both groups had decreased RSA and increased heart rate and skin conductance level when exposed to emotional stress, but the autonomic responses did not differ significantly between the groups. At discomfort threshold the patients had increased heart rate response and skin conductance amplitude when compared to the healthy volunteers. Correlations between autonomic responses and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) score differed markedly between the diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and the IBS patients with alternating stool habits.

  2. Skin Protective Effects of Nannochloropsis gaditana Extract on H2O2-Stressed Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Letsiou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is huge interest in natural products obtained from marine organisms that can promote a state of health and well-being for humans. Microalgae represent a primary source of bioactive compounds that could be used as functional ingredients in cosmetic formulations. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, the effects of Nannochloropsis gaditana extract against oxidative stress in human primary fibroblasts so as to investigate the potential applications of it in cosmetics. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of N. gaditana bioactivity, we developed a new RT-qPCR platform for studying transcript accumulation for an array of selected genes (up to 100 involved in many skin-related processes including anti-aging, hydration, oxidative stress response, and DNA damage. For the oxidative stress evaluation, H2O2 was used as a stressor. The study of the transcript accumulation of genes revealed that N. gaditana extract exhibits skin protection properties by mediating oxidative responses and apoptosis (including SOD1, GPX1, BID, positively regulates genes involves in skin texture and hydration (including AQP3, Col6A1, FBN1 and modulates the expression of genes involved in skin irritation, DNA damage and aging (including IL1R, PCNA, FOXO3. These findings indicate that the specific N. gaditana extract possesses significant in vitro skin protection activity against induced oxidative stress, and provide new insights into the beneficial role of microalgae bioactive compounds in cosmetic formulations protecting skin from oxidative stress.

  3. Characteristics of the Aging Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-02-01

    Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic.

  4. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  5. Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166391.html Climate Change May Up Asthma Irritant, Study Says Researchers warn ... 8, 2017 THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change may increase people's exposure to an outdoor fungus ...

  6. Sensory dysfunction and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L A

    1999-10-01

    Dysfunction of the sensory system of the gut is now generally believed to be important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This disturbance may well account for some of the symptoms of the disorder, such as abdominal pain, by virtue of the fact that intra-lumenal events (e.g. contractions) may be 'sensed' more easily. It can be assessed in the laboratory by a variety of techniques, but usually involves measuring the patient's response to distension of any site of the gut, most commonly the rectum. Hypersensitivity is the most frequent finding, but hyposensitivity can also occur--hypersensitivity does not appear to be specific to any particular pattern of bowel habit, but hyposensitivity does tend to be generally only seen in patients with constipation, especially those with the 'no urge' type. Although there is some evidence to support hypersensitivity being related to enhanced vigilance in some patients, other data suggest that there may be a true alteration in sensory processing. The mechanisms underlying this sensory dysfunction remain to be elucidated, but could involve changes in either the enteric, spinal and/or central nervous systems. Finally, factors such as gender, stress, emotion and infection can all influence the sensitivity of the gut and may therefore play a role in IBS.

  7. Probiotics use to treat irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Asieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorder with significant disability and a considerable financial burden to health service due to the consumption of resources including investigations, physician time, and cost of treatment. Despite availability of multiple treatment options, there is still poor functional recovery. Probiotics has been investigated as a promising treatment for IBS, and have demonstrated beneficial effects in some patients. There are many clinical trials investigating the therapeutic benefits of probiotics in IBS but most of them are heterogenic in terms of dose or species used and clinical endpoints. However, recent major meta-analyses revealed benefits of probiotics in patients with IBS. Inhibition of binding of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells, enhancing barrier function of intestinal epithelial, acidification of the colon, suppression of the growth of pathogens, modulation of immunity, inhibition of visceral hypersensitivity, alteration in mucosal response to stress, and improvement of bowel dysmotility are among mechanisms that probiotics may act. Most commonly used probiotics come from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus but other species are in trial. Although further studies are still needed, current evidences are almost enough to convince experts that probiotics are efficient in the treatment of IBS.

  8. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Biopsychosocial Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is in the class of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and results from dysregulation of central and enteric nervous system interactions. Psychosocial factors are closely related to their gut physiology, associated cognitions, symptom manifestations and illness behavior. Therefore, it is important for the physician to recognize the psychosocial issues of patients with IBS and in addition to build a good patient-physician relationship in order to optimize treatment. This review focuses on the interaction between psychological and physiological factors associated with IBS by using a biopsychosocial model. In this article, we describe (1) the predisposing psychological features seen in early life; (2) the psychological factors associated with life stress, the symptom presentation, and their associated coping patterns; (3) gut pathophysiology with emphasis on disturbances in motility, visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interactions; and finally (4) the clinical outcomes and effective treatments including psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:21602989

  10. Avoiding analgesic escalation and excessive healthcare utilization in severe irritable bowel syndrome: a role for intramuscular anticholinergics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James S; Pollard, Christine; Whorwell, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    In patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal pain can be the predominant symptom impacting on all aspects of their lives and resulting in excessive healthcare utilization. Furthermore, the use of analgesics can become excessive in this group of patients, sometimes leading to opiate dependency. Typically, the pain is often described as spastic in nature and we have speculated that parenteral anticholinergics might provide effective relief when all other measures have failed. For several years, we have therefore been asking general practitioners to consider teaching such patients to administer intramuscular hyoscine butylbromide for pain episodes and this study is an audit of this approach. Patients in whom the use of intramuscular hyoscine butylbromide had been recommended to their general practitioner in the last three years were interviewed over the telephone in order to document the efficacy of this approach as well as any potential disadvantages. A total of 122 general practitioners were advised to try this approach, with 58 agreeing to teach the technique and prescribe the medication. Of the 58 patients who used the medication, 50 (86%) found it gave them pain relief, which was complete in six (10%), substantial in 36 (62%) and mild in eight (14%), with 15 (26%) decreasing the use of analgesics and 13 (32%) of the 41 taking opiates able to reduce or stop them completely. Side effects were few and largely consisted of those associated with anticholinergics. Only four patients stopped medication because of side effects and no major skin reactions were reported. The use of intramuscular hyoscine butylbromide shows promise in the management of IBS when severe unmanageable abdominal pain is a major problem. This approach appears to be safe and has the potential to reduce analgesic escalation, opiate dependency and attendances at accident and emergency departments.

  11. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to char...

  12. Emerging role of aripiprazole for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Joan; Gabay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a largely misunderstood and difficult to treat neurodevelopmental disorder. Three core domains of functioning are affected by autistic disorder, ie, socialization, communication, and behavior. Signs of autistic disorder may be present early, but are frequently overlooked, resulting in a delay in its diagnosis and a subsequent delay in treatment. No one definitive therapy is available, and treatment consists of early educational and behavioral interventions, as well as drug therapy. Atypical antipsychotics have often been used in the treatment of autistic disorder to target irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, all of which can interfere with other aspects of treatment. One atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, has recently been approved for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. Based on the results from two randomized, controlled trials, with efficacy data from nearly 300 patients, treatment with aripiprazole was associated with reductions in irritability, global improvements in behavior, and improvements in quality of life from both the patient and caregiver perspectives. Dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 mg to 15 mg per day. Aripiprazole was well tolerated during clinical trials, with most adverse events considered mild or moderate. Clinically relevant weight gain occurred in about 30% of patients given aripiprazole, although when compared with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to have fewer metabolic effects and a lower risk of weight gain. However, pediatric patients taking any atypical antipsychotic should be carefully monitored for potential adverse events, because the long-term effects of antipsychotic therapy in this population are not well known. When used appropriately, aripiprazole has the potential to be an effective treatment for children with autistic disorder to improve irritability and aggressive behavior and improve quality of life.

  13. Ethosomal Hydrogel of Raloxifene HCl: Statistical Optimization & Ex Vivo Permeability Evaluation Across Microporated Pig Ear Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Hetal P; Savsani, Hitesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of Raloxifene hydrochloride, an FDA approved selective estrogen receptor modulator, is severely limited due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. The Present work focuses on the development of ethosomal hydrogel for transdermal delivery of Raloxifene HCl as an alternate way to solve aforementioned problem. The physical breaching of stratum corneum, the principal barrier, by microneedle treatment was also employed to potentiate its transdermal permeation. The influence of lipid and ethanol concentration on vesicle size and entrapment efficiency was extensively investigated using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The software based optimization was done and validated using check point analysis. Optimized batch was extensively evaluated for its safety, efficacy and stability. The optimized ethosomal batch possessed 403 nm size and 74.25% drug entrapment. Its zeta potential and in vitro drug release were also found favorable for transdermal permeation. The ex vivo skin permeation study revealed a transdermal flux of 4.621 μg/cm2/h through the intact pig ear skin which was further enhanced through the microporated skin (transdermal flux, 6.194 μg/cm2/h) with a 3.87 fold rise when compared to drug permeation from plain solution applied over intact skin (transdermal flux, 1.6 μg/cm2/h). Histopathological skin sections showed the non-irritant nature of the ethosomal hydrogel and microneedle treatment. The formulation was found stable under both refrigeration and room temperature conditions for 6 weeks. In a nutshell, the developed system was found efficient, safe and stable and seems promising for transdermal use.

  14. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized

  15. Skin biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplastic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nathan Tobias; Chan, Jonathan; Wood, Benjamin Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Biopsy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is a central component in the management of neoplastic skin conditions. While the technical aspects of performing biopsies are familiar to most clinicians, a number of other aspects of the skin biopsy pathway are equally important. The objectives of this article are to provide general principles related to the biopsy of neoplastic skin conditions and offer practical advice on the approach to some common skin neoplasms. Careful attention to the selection of biopsy site and type, and communication of appropriate clinical details will ensure optimal patient care, minimising the chance of diagnostic errors with potentially serious medical and medico-legal consequences.

  16. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  18. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  20. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Sjors A; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-05-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed on patients with previously positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate (Cr), nickel sulfate (Ni), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), or p-phenylenediamine. Moreover, a control (pet.) patch and an irritant (SLS) patch were applied. After 3 days, the stratum corneum from tested sites was collected, and NMF levels and corneocyte morphology, expressed as the amount of circular nanosize objects, quantified according to the Dermal Texture Index (DTI), were determined. Among allergens, only MCI/MI reduced NMF levels significantly, as did SLS. Furthermore, only MCI/MI caused remarkable changes at the microscopic level; the corneocytes were hexagonal-shaped with pronounced cell borders and a smoother surface. The DTI was increased after SLS exposure but not after allergen exposure. MCI/MI significantly decreased NMF levels, similarly to SLS. The altered corneocyte morphology suggests that skin barrier damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of MCI/MI contact allergy. The DTI seems to differentiate reactions to SLS from those to the allergens tested, as SLS was the only agent that caused a DTI increase. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analogues of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogues against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogues, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analogue designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogues displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogues when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogues displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic towards mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogues that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant

  2. Analogs of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogs against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogs, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analog designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogs displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogs when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogs displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic toward mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogs that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant bacteria.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome: patients' attitudes, concerns and level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, B E; Weiser, K; Noddin, L; Robertson, D J; Crowell, M D; Parratt-Engstrom, C; Grau, M V

    2007-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that reduces patients' quality-of-life. Although highly prevalent, little is known about patients' understanding of this disorder. To evaluate the knowledge, fears and concerns of IBS patients. Seven hundred thirty-six IBS patients (Rome II criteria) were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Each patient received a validated questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and fears regarding IBS. A total of 261 of 664 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (39.3%). 83% of respondents were women, with a mean age of 53.7 years, and mean duration of symptoms of 14.2 years. Patients frequently believed that IBS develops because of anxiety (80.5%), dietary factors (75.1%) and depression (63.2%). Few respondents (28.7%) recognized that abdominal pain is the cardinal symptom of IBS, and 40.6% stated that colonoscopy can diagnose IBS. One in seven patients stated that IBS turns into cancer, and 29.9% noted that IBS increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Many IBS patients have significant misconceptions regarding the nature of their disease and its prognosis. An overwhelming majority of IBS patients believe that anxiety, dietary factors and depression cause IBS. These findings are discordant with physicians' views and practices and highlight the need for patient-oriented educational programs.

  4. The genetics of the serotonin transporter and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Rocchina; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo; Ghisu, Narcisa; Tonini, Marcello; Del Tacca, Mario

    2008-07-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates the intracellular reuptake of released serotonin, thus regulating its biological functions. Abnormalities in serotonin reuptake can alter enteric serotonergic signalling, leading to sensory, motor and secretory gut dysfunctions, which contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This relationship has fostered the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of IBS. Current data on the efficacy of SSRIs in IBS, association of the SERT gene promoter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR with IBS and the expression pattern of SERT in the intestinal mucosa of IBS patients are conflicting. Recent molecular studies have raised critical questions about multiple SERT mRNA transcripts in the human gut, the role of polymorphic SERT promoter in the regulation of enteric SERT expression and the ability of 5-HTTLPR to affect human SERT gene transcription. The present review highlights recent advances in SERT genetics, discusses their implications for potential therapeutic applications of SSRIs in IBS and presents original suggestions for future investigations.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Role of gut pathogens in development of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: role of food in pathogenesis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, Ashraf

    2009-11-01

    Patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) commonly report the precipitation of symptoms on food ingestion. Though the role of dietary constituents in IBS has not been extensively studied, food could contribute to symptom onset or even the causation of IBS through a number of mechanisms. First, the physiological response of the intestine to food ingestion could precipitate symptoms in predisposed individuals; second, there is some evidence that allergy or intolerance to a particular food can produce IBS-like symptoms, third, certain foods may alter the composition of the luminal milieu, either directly or indirectly through effects on bacterial metabolism, and thus induce symptoms and, finally, IBS may develop following exposure to food-borne pathogens. Anticipatory, psychological factors generated by previous negative experiences with food ingestion or other factors may also contribute though their contribution has been scarcely quantified. Not surprisingly, there is considerable interest in the potential roles of diet and food supplements in the therapy of IBS; for the most part, the evidence base for such recommendations remains slim though certain probiotics show considerable promise.

  8. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  9. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey de Castro, Nicolas G; Miller, Vivien; Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally divided into subtypes depending on the bowel habit abnormality, but there is little clarity in the literature about whether these subtypes differ symptomatically or psychologically. Furthermore, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between symptom severity and psychological status. The aim of this study was to address these issues in a large cohort of patients defined by bowel habit. One thousand IBS patients were divided into diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), and mixed (IBS-M) bowel habit subtypes and completed a series of validated questionnaires capturing symptom severity, non-colonic symptomatology (somatization), quality of life, and anxiety or depression levels. Comparisons were made using SPSS version 20. There were no significant differences between the three subtypes with respect to symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity, non-colonic symptomatology, quality of life, and anxiety or depression scores (all Ps > 0.05). In addition, there was only a small but statistically significant correlation between IBS symptom severity and both anxiety or depression, as well as quality of life (highest r = 0.34), while the relationship between somatization and disease severity was moderate (r = 0.42). This study suggests that there are no differences in the symptom profiles and anxiety or depression scores between different subtypes of IBS. In addition, anxiety and depression do not appear to be strongly associated with symptom severity, although this does not exclude the possible interplay between these and other psychological drivers of severity, such as poor coping skills. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. [Irritating effect and dermal toxicity of virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, B; Stetkiewicz, J; Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the threshold irritating effect of Virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland, on the rabbit's skin and eye, and its dermal toxicity in single exposure. The studies were carried out according to the OECD guidelines, modified by Krysiak. A 10% aqueous solution of Virkon in the conditions of multiple open exposure was defined as the threshold concentration evoking small inflammatory reaction. After a single administration of Virkon in aqueous solutions into the rabbit's eye, the value of sensitising effect index was 1.5 for 1% solution of the disinfectant in question which indicates weak inflammatory reaction. The study of dermal toxicity in a single exposure revealed neither animal death nor morphological changes in internal organs which suggests non-cutaneous absorption of Virkon. The present study may provide the basis for assessing dermatological changes in people exposed to disinfectants.

  13. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  14. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Rubbing test responses of the skin to man-made mineral fibres of different diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam-Westerveld, E B; Coenraads, P J; van der Valk, P G; de Jong, M C; Fidler, V

    1994-07-01

    The irritant potency of 5 types of insulation wools (2 types of rockwool and 3 types of glasswool) were studied on the basis of their differences in diameter by a standardized rubbing test. Assessment was done by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and erythema scores. Insulation wools show a wide distribution of the diameter around the mean. Of the rockwool material, 30% consisted of small grains, called "shot". The control test site did not change over time; thus, the rubbing procedure itself does not seem to contribute to the skin reactions. All fibre types proved to be irritant to the skin. The irritant reactions did not correspond with the mean diameter, although the fibre type with the smallest diameter was the least irritant and the fibre type with the largest diameter the strongest. The presence of "shot" had a significant effect on the LDF responses. "Shot" and the distribution around the mean diameter may play a role in eliciting the skin irritation by insulation wools.

  16. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry skin: Symptoms Dry skin: Causes Dry skin: Treatment Dry skin: Tips Tips Dry skin: Tips for managing Here are tips that can prevent dry skin or keep it from getting worse. Do not use hot water . Hot water removes your natural skin oils more ...

  17. Skin - clammy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the clammy skin may be due to heat exhaustion and the person is awake and can swallow: Have the person drink plenty of (non-alcoholic) fluids Move the person to a cool, shaded place When to Contact a Medical Professional Seek immediate medical help if the person has ...

  18. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  19. An interlaboratory study of the reproducibility and relevance of Episkin, a reconstructed human epidermis, in the assessment of cosmetics irritancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguet, R; Cohen, C; Robles, C; Courtellemont, P; Tolle, M; Guillot, J P; Pouradier Duteil, X

    1998-06-01

    Reconstructed epidermal models are particularly suited to assessing the tolerance of cosmetic and dermatological products in vitro. Their production in kit form makes them available for screening both raw ingredients and finished products since a large amount of material can be tested whatever their physicochemical properties. However, two conditions must first be fulfilled: they must give reproducible results and be relevant to data obtained in vivo. We tested the reproducibility of data obtained using the Episkin(R) model [cytotoxicity evaluated by the MTT conversion and the release of one of the most active proinflammatory mediator, interleukin 1alpha(ILalpha)] on different batches and in various research laboratories. After topical application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) the overall variability of the IC(50) results was 14% of the mean value. Within a given centre and a given batch, the coefficient of variation attributable to the dispersion between kits was 6% for the SDS IC(50) determination and 7% for IL1alpha release measurement. The results obtained with Episkin were then compared with data from primary human skin irritancy testing (48-hr occlusion test and clinical assessment) and rabbit irritancy evaluation (Draize cutaneous test). Analysis of the results obtained with 38 cosmetic products (oils, gels, emulsions, mascaras and shaving foam, including 19 irritants) revealed good concordance with data obtained in humans. Considering the release of IL1alpha as in vitro parameter, the test sensitivity, specificity and concordance were 68, 79 and 74%, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of pH of bathing soaps and shampoos for skin and hair care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  2. Self-powered implantable electronic-skin for in situ analysis of urea/uric-acid in body fluids and the potential applications in real-time kidney-disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Han, Wuxiao; Gao, Huiling; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-01-25

    As the concentration of different biomarkers in human body fluids are an important parameter of chronic disease, wearable biosensors for in situ analysis of body fluids with high sensitivity, real-time detection, flexibility and biocompatibility have significant potential therapeutic applications. In this paper, a flexible self-powered implantable electronic-skin (e-skin) for in situ body fluids analysis (urea/uric-acid) as a real-time kidney-disease diagnoser has been proposed based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling process of ZnO nanowire arrays. It can convert the mechanical energy of body movements into a piezoelectric impulse, and the outputting piezoelectric signal contains the urea/uric-acid concentration information in body fluids. This piezoelectric-biosensing process does not need an external electricity supply or battery. The e-skin was implanted under the abdominal skin of a mouse and provided in situ analysis of the kidney-disease parameters. These results provide a new approach for developing a self-powered in situ body fluids-analysis technique for chronic-disease diagnosis.

  3. Skin reaction and regeneration after single sodium lauryl sulfate exposure stratified by filaggrin genotype and atopic dermatitis phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Carlsen, B.C.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filaggrin is key for the integrity of the stratum corneum. Mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLGnull) play a prominent role in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis. People with AD have increased susceptibility to irritants. However, little is known about the effect of filaggrin genotype...... and AD phenotype on irritant response and skin regeneration. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of FLGnull and AD groups for skin reaction and recovery after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation. METHODS: This is a case-control study comprising 67 subjects, including healthy contr