WorldWideScience

Sample records for skimming control system

  1. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  2. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  3. Effect of ewe’s (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow’s milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study inclu...

  4. Effect of ewe's (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow's milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe's than for cow's milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe's milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe's and cow's milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe's milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption.

  5. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements as...

  6. Effect of ewe’s (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow’s milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe’s than for cow’s milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe’s milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe’s and cow’s milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe’s milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption. PMID:29151833

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and primary clarifier skimmings for increased biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanya, S; Yilmazel, Y D; Park, C; Willis, J L; Keaney, J; Kohl, P M; Hunt, J A; Duran, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the impact of co-digesting clarifier skimmings on the overall methane generation from the treatment plant and additional energy value of the increased methane production. Biogas production from co-digesting clarifier skimmings and sewage sludge in pilot-scale fed-batch mesophilic anaerobic digesters has been evaluated. The digester was fed with increasing quantities of clarifier skimmings loads: 1.5, 2.6, 3.5 and 7.0 g COD equivalent/(L·d) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). Average volatile solids reduction of 65% was achieved in the scum-fed digester, compared with 51% in the control digester. Average 69% COD removal was achieved at highest scum loading (7 g COD eq/(L·d)) with approximate methane yield of 250 L CH(4)/kg COD fed (4 ft(3)/lb COD fed). The results show that scum as co-substrate in anaerobic digestion systems improves biogas yields while a 29% increase in specific CH(4) yield could be achieved when scum load is 7 g COD eq/(L·d). Based on the pilot-scale study results and full-scale data from South East Water Pollution Control Plant and Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant the expected annual energy recovery would be approximately 1.7 billion BTUs or nearly 0.5 million kWh.

  8. Cognitive Processes in Skimming Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    operating well below their optimal input rate. Sticht (1977) has presented a theory of reading literacy in which he has claimed that the optimal level of...appear to demand time and cognitive resources ( Kleiman , 1975; Levy, 1977), neither of which are abundant during skimming. A more efficient strategy would...Greenberg, G. The effect of increasing reading rate on comprettension. Journal of Psychology, 1974, 6, 251-259. Hochberg, J. Components of literacy

  9. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  10. Effects of substituting skimmed milk powder with modified starch in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality and consumer acceptability on the yoghurt product. Different formulations were made and their quality characteristics studied using the 3% skimmed milk powder sample as the control. The results showed that the modified corn starch addition did not affect the gelation process, texture, fermentation time and the ...

  11. Generalized plasma skimming model for cells and drug carriers in the microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Rin; Yoo, Sung Sic; Yang, Jiho

    2017-04-01

    In microvascular transport, where both blood and drug carriers are involved, plasma skimming has a key role on changing hematocrit level and drug carrier concentration in capillary beds after continuous vessel bifurcation in the microvasculature. While there have been numerous studies on modeling the plasma skimming of blood, previous works lacked in consideration of its interaction with drug carriers. In this paper, a generalized plasma skimming model is suggested to predict the redistributions of both the cells and drug carriers at each bifurcation. In order to examine its applicability, this new model was applied on a single bifurcation system to predict the redistribution of red blood cells and drug carriers. Furthermore, this model was tested at microvascular network level under different plasma skimming conditions for predicting the concentration of drug carriers. Based on these results, the applicability of this generalized plasma skimming model is fully discussed and future works along with the model's limitations are summarized.

  12. Effects of an iron or iron and vitamin D-fortified flavored skim milk on iron metabolism: a randomized controlled double-blind trial in iron-deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Wright, Ione; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency are considered global pandemics. The aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of a dairy product fortified with iron and vitamin D, compared to the equivalent with only added iron, exerts an additional effect on iron metabolism in iron-deficient menstruating women. The design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial of 16 weeks' duration. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 500 mL/day of an iron (n = 54) or iron- and vitamin D-fortified (n = 55) flavored skim milk. At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight, and hematological and iron metabolism biomarkers were determined. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was analyzed at baseline and weeks 8 and 16. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) of repeated measures for time and Time × Group interaction effects. A total of 109 volunteers completed the study. Calcium and iron intakes increased during the intervention (p Iron-fortified flavored skim milk does not improve iron status in iron-deficient menstruating women. However, vitamin D fortification slightly enhances erythropoiesis and iron status.

  13. Replacement of skimmed milk with hydrolyzed fish protein and Nixtamal in milk substitutes for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castañeda, M; Brisson, G J

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 3- to 5-d-old Holstein male calves. In Experiment 1, 15 calves were assigned to three dietary treatments. The control diet was based on sodium caseinate, lard, and cerelose. In the other diets, either 50% or all carbohydrates were replaced by lime-treated corn flour (Nixtamal). In Experiment 2, 35 calves were assigned to dietary treatments in which 0, 50, or 67% low heat skimmed milk protein was replaced by hydrolyzed fish protein; for the replacement diets, Nixtamal was incorporated at 25 or 35% of the dry matter. Control diet protein was entirely from skimmed milk. Milk substitutes provided the only feed during the 8-wk experiment. In Experiment 1, body weight gain and feed efficiency declined when Nixtamal completely replaced skimmed milk but remained unchanged at 50% substitution. Substitution of Nixtamal for skimmed milk powder decreased nitrogen and carbohydrate digestibility; but digestibility improved with age. In Experiment 2, replacing up to 67% of skimmed milk protein with partially hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate had no effect on body weight gain but decreased feed efficiency linearly at 8 wk and reduced dry matter, nitrogen, and fat digestibility. Nixtamal can replace up to 50% of skimmed milk carbohydrates without detrimental effect on growth rate, feed efficiency, and diarrhea, but digestibility might be reduced. Concurrent replacement of up to 67% of skimmed milk protein with partially hydrolysed fish protein concentrate would be feasible for newborn calves gaining 450 g/d, despite lower nitrogen digestibility.

  14. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  15. EXPLOITING A BENEFIT OF COCONUT MILK SKIM IN COCONUT OIL PROCESS AS NATA DE COCO SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Setiaji, Bambang; Setyopratiwi, Ani; Cahyandaru, Nahar

    2010-01-01

    A research to know influence of mixing concentration of coconut water and sucrose concentration to coconut milk skim as nata de coco substrate has been conducted. The variation was taken from mixing coconut water (0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and 100% as control) and the sucrose concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). Coconut milk skim boiled before used as substrat, yielded a coconut protein (blondo). The result of research showed that coconut milk skim can be used as nata de coco substrate with mixi...

  16. Effect of transmembrane pressure control on energy efficiency during skim milk concentration by ultrafiltration at 10 and 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot-Hains, S; Benoit, S; Bouchard, C; Doyen, A; Bazinet, L; Pouliot, Y

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of the ultrafiltration process during skim milk concentration was studied using both dynamic and constant (465 or 672kPa) transmembrane pressure experiments at refrigerated temperature (10°C) and high temperature (50°C). The pilot-scale module was equipped with a 10-kDa polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane element with a surface area of 2.04m 2 . Permeation flux, resistance-in-series model, mineral and protein rejection, and energy consumption were studied as a function of temperature and transmembrane pressure applied. Higher permeation flux values were systematically obtained at 50°C. Also, a significant temperature effect was found for calcium rejection, which was lower at 10°C compared with 50°C. Total hydraulic resistance and reversible fouling resistance were higher at 50°C than at 10°C. No change in protein rejection was observed, depending on the operating mode studied. Permeation flux, which was higher at 50°C, had lower pumping energy consumption compared with ultrafiltration at the colder temperature. Also, the low ultrafiltration temperature required a higher total energy consumption to reach the 3.6× retentate compared with ultrafiltration at 50°C. Overall, our study shows that the operating parameters and temperature can be optimized using an energy efficiency ratio. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical characterization of calcium-supplemented skim milk

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe , Marine; Gaucheron , Frédéric; Le Graet , Yvon; Michel , Françoise; Garem , Anita

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Addition of CaCl$_2$ to skim milk, from 0 to 13.5 mmol$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$, leads to significant physicochemical changes in milk salts equilibrium. Indeed, acidification, insolubilizations of calcium, inorganic phosphate and citrate are observed. Calculation of ion equilibria in the resulting milk ultrafiltrates indicates that the observed ion migrations, controlled by solubilities of calcium-phosphate and calcium-citrate, do not cause change in ion activity products of di...

  18. EXPLOITING A BENEFIT OF COCONUT MILK SKIM IN COCONUT OIL PROCESS AS NATA DE COCO SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A research to know influence of mixing concentration of coconut water and sucrose concentration to coconut milk skim as nata de coco substrate has been conducted. The variation was taken from mixing coconut water (0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and 100% as control and the sucrose concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. Coconut milk skim boiled before used as substrat, yielded a coconut protein (blondo. The result of research showed that coconut milk skim can be used as nata de coco substrate with mixing coconut water and sucrose addition, mixing 50 % concentration coconut water representing optimum concentration. The content of crude fibre nata was yielded by higher concentration of sucrose, while mixing concentration coconut water do not influence crude fibre content.   Keyword: Coconut milk skim, substrate, nata de coco

  19. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added thereto. Harmless artificial... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for...

  20. CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  1. Heat stability of concentrated skim milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijse, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Heat-induced coagulation of concentrated skim milk was studied. Heat-induced changes in partition between serum and colloidal particles of calcium and phosphate and of the various proteins were investigated as a function of heating time and conditions like pH, addition of phosphate and

  2. PENERAPAN TEKNIK SKIMMING YANG DIBERIKAN DI AWAL PEMBELAJARAN FISIKA PADA SISWA SMP SUB POKOK BAHASAN MATA DAN CACAT MATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aji, Sugianto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ilmu fisika merupakan salah satu ilmu pengetahuan yang erat kaitannya dengan kehidupan sehari-hari. Teknik skimmingmerupakan teknik membaca secara efisien untuk mendapatkan gambaran secara umum dari bahan ajar yang dibaca. Penelitianini bertujuan untuk (1 mengetahui pengaruhnya penerapan teknik skimming yang diberikan di awal pembelajaran fisika padasiswa SMP subpokok bahasan mata dan cacat mata; (2 mengetahui besarnya pengaruh penerapan teknik skimming di awalpembelajaran fisika; (3 serta mengetahui tanggapan siswa setelah pembelajaran. Penelitian bersifat eksperimen denganmenggunakan kelompok kontrol dan kelompok eksperimen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis uji t data hasil belajar dapat disimpulkanbahwa penerapan teknik skimming yang diberikan di awal pembelajaran berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar siswa SMPsubpokokbahasan mata dan cacat mata. Besarnya pengaruh penerapan teknik skimming yang diberikan di awal pembelajaran 1,49%. Hasilangket tanggapan siswa terhadap pembelajaran menunjukkan bahwa siswa lebih mudah memahami materi setelah melakukanpembelajaran. Physics is one of science having close relation to daily life. Skimming is an efficient reading technique to find general view of thereading material. This research aimed to know (1 influence and (2 the value of the influence of skimming technique given in thebeginning of physics lesson of eyes and eye deffect sub topic to learning achievement of the student and (3 students' commentafter the lesson. In this research control and experiment groups were used. Based on the analysis result of the t-test data of learningachievement, it was concluded that the application of skimming technique given in the beginning of physics lesson of eyes and eyedeffect sub topic gave effect to learning achievement of the student with the value of 1.49%. The result of comment questionaireshowed that the student understand the learning material easier after having the lesson.Keywords: eyes and eye deffect

  3. Preservation of Malassezia pachydermatis using skimmed milk as cryoprotective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Sergent, F A; Acosta-Hernández, B; Raduán Jaber, J; Rosario Medina, I; Ferrer Quintana, O; Real Valcárcel, F; Padilla Castillo, D; Déniz Suárez, S

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of skimmed milk as a cryoprotectant for the maintenance and long-term preservation of 70 Malassezia pachydermatis strains. An initial suspension of each strain was prepared in sterile distilled water with skimmed milk. The most effective method was cryopreservation that ensured 100% viability for 2years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used. (c) For the purposes of this section: (1) The word “milk” means cow's milk or goat's milk or..., concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk; (in the case of goat's milk) the corresponding products from goat's.... They are made from partly skimmed milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by the...

  5. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  6. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  7. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    3 feeds below the LF. As the fluxes approached the LF, SP removal factors decreased due to fouling. Feeding a MF system with MPC instead of skim milk will reduce the required membrane surface area, but the permeate protein composition will be slightly higher in casein content. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  9. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  10. Impact of source and level of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, H K; Tong, P S

    2004-05-01

    Calcium enrichment of food and dairy products has gained interest with the increased awareness about the importance of higher calcium intake. Calcium plays many important roles in the human body. Dairy products are an excellent source of dietary calcium, which can be further fortified with calcium salts to achieve higher calcium intake per serving. However, the addition of calcium salts can destabilize food systems unless conditions are carefully controlled. The effect of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk was evaluated, using reconstituted skim milks with 2 protein levels: 1.75 and 3.5% (wt/wt) prepared using low and high heat powders. Calcium carbonate, phosphate, lactate, and citrate were used for fortification at 0.15, 0.18, and 0.24% (wt/wt). Each sample was analyzed for solubility, heat stability, and pH. The addition of phosphate and lactate salts lowered the pH of milk, citrate did not have any major effect, and carbonate for the 1.75% protein samples increased the pH. In general, changes in solubility and heat stability were associated with changes in pH. Calcium addition decreased the solubility and heat stability. However, interestingly, the presence of carbonate salt greatly increased the heat stability for 1.75% protein samples. This is due to the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate when it goes into solution. The results suggested that the heat stability of milk can be affected by the type of calcium salt used. This may be applied to the development of milk-based calcium enriched beverages.

  11. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  12. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  13. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  14. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  15. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. Part-skim...

  16. Distributed System Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berea, James

    1997-01-01

    Global control in distributed systems had not been well researched. Control had only been addressed in a limited manner, such as for data-update consistency in distributed, redundant databases or for confidentiality controls...

  17. FINANCIAL CONTROL SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kurmaeva

    2012-01-01

    Forms and methods of external and internal financial control are discussed. The system of the state and municipal financial control in Russia is described. Changes to organization of internal financial control and audit are proposed.

  18. Dynamics of control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, V. I.

    Papers are presented on mathematical methods for the analysis of control systems for technical plants and manufacturing processes. Particular attention is given to the mechanics of controlled space flight, the design of automatic control systems, flexible automated complexes, control applications in biomedical research, and chemical technology for the production of new types of materials.

  19. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  1. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-04-23

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk ( p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing ( p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds ( p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  2. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  4. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  5. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  6. Did pterosaurs feed by skimming? Physical modelling and anatomical evaluation of an unusual feeding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Humphries

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarities between the anatomies of living organisms are often used to draw conclusions regarding the ecology and behaviour of extinct animals. Several pterosaur taxa are postulated to have been skim-feeders based largely on supposed convergences of their jaw anatomy with that of the modern skimming bird, Rynchops spp. Using physical and mathematical models of Rynchops bills and pterosaur jaws, we show that skimming is considerably more energetically costly than previously thought for Rynchops and that pterosaurs weighing more than one kilogram would not have been able to skim at all. Furthermore, anatomical comparisons between the highly specialised skull of Rynchops and those of postulated skimming pterosaurs suggest that even smaller forms were poorly adapted for skim-feeding. Our results refute the hypothesis that some pterosaurs commonly used skimming as a foraging method and illustrate the pitfalls involved in extrapolating from limited morphological convergence.

  7. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  8. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  9. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments. PMID:28234317

  10. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  11. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  12. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  13. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  14. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  15. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  16. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  17. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  18. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SKIMMING TECHNIQUE TOWARDS STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifudin Latif Darmawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is to find out whether skimming technique enhance students’ reading comprehension at English Department of Muhammadiyah University of Metro, Academic Year 2015/2016. This research is conducted at English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Metro. The population of the research is the students of English department, while the sample of the research is the students at fourth semester of English department Muhammadiyah University of Metro. To determine the sample, the researcher employs purposive technique sampling. Then, To collect the data, the researcher used documentation, Observation, Interview and questionnaire. Furthermore, to analyze the data, the researcher apply some steps: (1 data reduction, (2 data display and (3 data conclusion. The result of research indicates that the skimming technique has significant contribution to students’ reading comprehension at fourth semester of English Study Program, Muhammadiyah University of Metro.

  19. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to growing population of Pakistan, there is a tremendous pressure on our agriculture sector to increase its production to meet the food and fiber requirement. Water is a basic need to increase the agriculture production and to bring more areas under cultivation. The exploitation of groundwater resources is increasing because of limited surface water availability. Statistics indicated that number of public and private tube-wells have increased to more than 5 lacs. Over exploitations of groundwater caused a number of environmental problems including salt water intrusion and increase in the soil and groundwater salinity. A large number of fresh water tube-wells have started pumping saline groundwater in various parts of Pakistan indicating up-coning of saline groundwater in the relatively fresh water aquifers. Use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the areas of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the groundwater of marginal quality through skimming fresh water overlain by saline groundwater can not be helpful in the long run. It can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduction of crops yield. Mona Reclamation Experimental Project (MREP) is conducting a collaborative research study on 'Root Zone Salinity Management using Fractional Skimming Wells with Pressurized Irrigation' under a research and studies portfolio of the country wide National Drainage Programme (NDP) MREP, IWMI Pakistan and Water Resources Research Institute of PARC are collaborators in this joint research effort. MREP is responsible to specifically address the objective of the study to identify and test a limited number of promising skimming well techniques in the shallow fresh water aquifers which could control the saline water up-coning phenomenon as a consequence of groundwater pumping. Detailed investigations have been done at various locations in the north-central part of Chaj Doab (Sargodha Region) in the

  20. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  1. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Systems and Control Engineering. 1. Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan and J R Vengateswaran. To control an object means to influence its behaviour so as to achieve a desired goal. To implement this influence, engineers build various devices that incorporate several mathematical techniques. The study of these devices ...

  2. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  3. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  4. Statistically defining optimal conditions of coagulation time of skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, M.; Ozdemir, Z.O.; Eroglu, E.; Guney, I

    2014-01-01

    Milk consist huge amount of largely water and different proteins. Kappa-kazein of these milk proteins can be coagulated by Mucor miehei rennet enzyme, is an aspartic protease which cleavege 105 (phenly alanine)-106 (methionine) peptide bond. It is commonly used clotting milk proteins for cheese production in dairy industry. The aim of this study to measure milk clotting times of skim milk by using Mucor Miehei rennet and determination of optimal conditions of milk clotting time by mathematical modelling. In this research, milk clotting times of skim milk were measured at different pHs (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0) and temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 degree C). It was used statistical approach for defining best pH and temperature for milk clotting time of skim milk. Milk clotting activity was increase at acidic pHs and high temperatures. (author)

  5. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig

  6. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  7. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  8. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  9. System control and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindner, H.; Oestergaard, J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid and ongoing development in the energy sector has consequences for system control at all levels. In relation to system control and communication the control system is challenged in five important ways: 1) Expectations for security of supply, robustness and vulnerability are becoming more stringent, and the control system plays a big part in meeting these expectations. 2) Services are becoming increasingly based on markets that involve the transmission system operators (TSOs), generators and distribution companies. Timely, accurate and secure communication is essential to the smooth running of the markets. 3) Adding large amounts of renewable energy (RE) to the mix is a challenge for control systems because of the intermittent availability of many RE sources. 4) Increasing the number of active components in the system, such as small CHP plants, micro-CHP and intelligent loads, means that the system control will be much more complex. 5) In the future it is likely that power, heat, gas, transport and communication systems will be tighter coupled and interact much more. (au)

  10. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  11. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  12. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  13. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  14. The Epicure Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambik, E.; Kline, D.; West, R.

    1993-09-01

    The Epicure Control System supports the Fermilab fixed target physics program. The system is distributed across a network of many different types of components. The use of multiple layers on interfaces for communication between logical tasks fits the client-server model. Physical devices are read and controlled using symbolic references entered into a database with an editor utility. The database system consists of a central portion containing all device information and optimized portions distributed among many nodes. Updates to the database are available throughout the system within minutes after being requested

  15. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  16. Control and Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Zahradnik; Karol Rastocny; Juraj Spalek

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  17. Control and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zahradnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  18. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  19. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  20. Lighting Control System (ILCS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. An Intelligent Lighting Control System (I ergonomic setting and energy efficiency. T and National Instrument Laboratory V. LabVIEW) 2012 as a platform to design an as integrating components within the sy controller programmed in NI LabVIEW pr of the light-emitting diode (LED conducted ...

  1. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 9. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems - Basic Ideas of Adaptive Control. N Ananthkrishnan Rashi Bansal.

  2. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsuddin, Yanna; Meilina, Hesti; Septavia, Friday; Darmawan, Rahmad

    2013-01-01

    Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk ...

  4. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  5. Lighting Control System (ILCS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... advanced control system for reducing the energy consumption of public street lighting systems, research by [20] analyzed ... This is accomplished by generating a square wave. The duty cycle of the .... luminosity sensor is an advanced digital light sensor, which ideal for use in a wide range of light situations.

  6. FMIT facility control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, R.M.; Machen, D.R.; Johnson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, under construction at Richland, Washington, uses current techniques in distributed processing to achieve responsiveness, maintainability and reliability. Developmental experience with the system on the FMIT Prototype Accelerator (FPA) being designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described as a function of the system's design goals and details. The functional requirements of the FMIT control system dictated the use of a highly operator-responsive, display-oriented structure, using state-of-the-art console devices for man-machine communications. Further, current technology has allowed the movement of device-dependent tasks into the area traditionally occupied by remote input-output equipment; the system's dual central process computers communicate with remote communications nodes containing microcomputers that are architecturally similar to the top-level machines. The system has been designed to take advantage of commercially available hardware and software

  7. TMX magnet control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    A control system utilizing a microcomputer has been developed that controls the power supplies driving the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) magnet set and monitors magnet coil operation. The magnet set consists of 18 magnet coils that are driven by 26 dc power supplies. There are two possible modes of operation with this system: a pulse mode where the coils are pulsed on for several seconds with a dc power consumption of 16 MW; and a continuous mode where the coils can run steady state at 10 percent of maximum current ratings. The processor has been given an active control role and serves as an interface between the operator and electronic circuitry that controls the magnet power supplies. This microcomputer also collects and processes data from many analog singal monitors in the coil circuits and numerous status signals from the supplies. Placing the microcomputer in an active control role has yielded a compact, cost effective system that simplifies the magnet system operation and has proven to be very reliable. This paper will describe the TMX magnet control sytem and discuss its development

  8. Neural Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  9. System control and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1977-01-01

    The system described was designed, developed, and installed on short time scales and primarily utilized of-the-shelf military and commercial hardware. The system was designed to provide security-in-depth and multiple security options with several stages of redundancy. Under normal operating conditions, the system is computer controlled with manual backup during abnormal conditions. Sensor alarm data are processed in conjunction with weather data to reduce nuisance alarms. A structured approach is used to order alarmed sectors for assessment. Alarm and video information is presented to security personnel in an interactive mode. Historical operational data are recorded for system evaluation

  10. The TRISTAN control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shinichi; Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawamoto, Takashi; Kikutani, Eiji; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Koiso, Haruyo; Komada, Ichitaka; Kudo, Kikuo; Naito, Takashi; Oide, Katsunobu; Takeda, Shigeru; Uchino, Kenji; Urakawa, Junji; Shinomoto, Manabu; Kurihara, Michio; Abe, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    The 8 GeV accumulation ring and the 30 GeV main ring of TRISTAN, an accelerator-storage ring complex at KEK, are controlled by a highly computerized control system. Twenty-four minicomputers are linked by optical fiber cables to form an N-to-N token ring network. The transmission speed on the cables is 10 Mbps. From each minicomputer, a CAMAC serial highway extends to the controlled equipment. At present, twenty minicomputers are connected to the network and are used to control the accumulation ring. The software system is based on the NODAL language devised at the CERN SPS. The KEK NODAL system retains main features of the original NODAL: the interpretive scheme, the multi-computer programming facility, and the data-module concept. In addition, it has the following features: (1) fast execution due to the compiler-interpreter method, (2) a multi-computer file system (3), a full-screen editing facility, and (4) a dynamic linkage scheme for data modules and NODAL functions. The accelerators are operated through five operator consoles, each of which is mangaged by one minicomputer in the network. An operator console contains two 20-inch high-resolution color graphic displays, a pair of touch-panels, and ten small TV monitors. One touch-panel is used to select a program and a piece of equipment to be controlled; the other is used mainly to perform the console actions. (orig.)

  11. neural control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, A.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic power stabilization control is the desired objective for any reactor operation , especially, nuclear power plants. A major problem in this area is inevitable gap between a real plant ant the theory of conventional analysis and the synthesis of linear time invariant systems. in particular, the trajectory tracking control of a nonlinear plant is a class of problems in which the classical linear transfer function methods break down because no transfer function can represent the system over the entire operating region . there is a considerable amount of research on the model-inverse approach using feedback linearization technique. however, this method requires a prices plant model to implement the exact linearizing feedback, for nuclear reactor systems, this approach is not an easy task because of the uncertainty in the plant parameters and un-measurable state variables . therefore, artificial neural network (ANN) is used either in self-tuning control or in improving the conventional rule-based exper system.the main objective of this thesis is to suggest an ANN, based self-learning controller structure . this method is capable of on-line reinforcement learning and control for a nuclear reactor with a totally unknown dynamics model. previously, researches are based on back- propagation algorithm . back -propagation (BP), fast back -propagation (FBP), and levenberg-marquardt (LM), algorithms are discussed and compared for reinforcement learning. it is found that, LM algorithm is quite superior

  12. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  13. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  14. The effect of linear velocity and flux on performance of ceramic graded permeability membranes when processing skim milk at 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk (about 500 kg) was cold (4°C) separated and then the skim milk was pasteurized at 72°C and a holding time of 16s. The milk was cooled to 4°C and stored at ≤ 4°C until processing. The skim milk was microfiltered using a pilot-scale ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfilter system equipped with 0.1-µm nominal pore diameter ceramic Membralox membranes. First, about 155 kg of pasteurized skim milk was flushed through the system to push the water out of the system. Then, additional pasteurized skim milk (about 320 kg) was microfiltered (stage 1) in a continuous feed-and-bleed 3× process using the same membranes. The retentate from stage 1 was diluted with pasteurized reverse osmosis water in a 1:2 ratio and microfiltered (stage 2) with a GP system. This was repeated 3 times, with total of 3 stages in the process (stage 1 = microfiltration; stages 2 and 3 = diafiltration). The results from first 3 stages of the experiment were compared with previous data when processing skim milk at 50°C using ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) membranes. Microfiltration of skim milk using ceramic UTP and GP membranes resulted in similar final retentate in terms of serum proteins (SP) removed. The SP removal rate (expressed by kilogram of SP removed per meter-squared of membrane area) was higher for GP membranes for each stage compared with UTP membranes. A higher passage of SP and SP removal rate for GP than UTP membranes was achieved by using a higher cross-flow velocity when processing skim milk. Increasing flux in subsequent stages did not affect membrane permeability and fouling. We operated under conditions that produced partial membrane fouling, due to using a flux that was less than limiting flux but higher than critical flux. Because the critical flux is a function of the cross-flow velocity, the difference in critical flux between UTP and GP membranes resulted only from operating under different cross-flow velocities (6.6 vs 7.12 for UTP and GP

  15. Nonlinear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Jesur

    2000-01-01

    and features are added such a way that it can be also used for design of nonlinear control systems to achieve desired performance. It is very simple to learn this tool. One can easily use it with preliminary knowledge of DF and PPT methods.

  16. HESYRL control system status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chihyuan

    1992-01-01

    HESYRL synchrotron radiation storage ring was completed in 1989 and has been in commissioning since then. Now it has met its design specification and is ready for synchrotron light experiments. Control system of the project was completed in 1989 and some modifications were made during commissioning. This paper describes its present configuration, status and upgrading plan. (author)

  17. PEP computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of the computer system that will be used to control and monitor the PEP storage ring. Since the design is essentially complete and much of the system is operational, the system is described as it is expected to 1979. Section 1 of the paper describes the system hardware which includes the computer network, the CAMAC data I/O system, and the operator control consoles. Section 2 describes a collection of routines that provide general services to applications programs. These services include a graphics package, data base and data I/O programs, and a director programm for use in operator communication. Section 3 describes a collection of automatic and semi-automatic control programs, known as SCORE, that contain mathematical models of the ring lattice and are used to determine in real-time stable paths for changing beam configuration and energy and for orbit correction. Section 4 describes a collection of programs, known as CALI, that are used for calibration of ring elements

  18. Text Skimming: The Process and Effectiveness of Foraging through Text under Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Payne, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Is Skim reading effective? How do readers allocate their attention selectively? The authors report 3 experiments that use expository texts and allow readers only enough time to read half of each document. Experiment 1 found that, relative to reading half the text, skimming improved memory for important ideas from a text but did not improve memory…

  19. Effect of fructose addition in skim milk based extender on semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is designed to study the effect of fructose addition as energy source in skim milk extender on the quality fertility of white leghorn's spermatozoa stored at 4 °C. The treatments (T) in semen quality experiment were Tl (0% fructose + Modified Ringers Solution (MRS), T2 (5mM fructose + 1 % (w/v) skim milk ...

  20. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  1. Access control system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

  2. MEGARA Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Pascual, S.; Villar, V.; Marino, R. A.; Cardiel, N.; Morales, I.; González, E.; Cedazo, R.; Serena, F.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Sánchez, F. M.; Gil de Paz, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; The Megara Team

    2013-05-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) designed for the GTC 10.4 m telescope in La Palma. The MEGARA Control System will provide the capabilities to move the different mechanisms of the instrument, to readout the data from the detector controller and the necessary routines for the Inspector Panels, the MEGARA Observing Preparation Software Suite, the Data Factory and the Sequencer strategies.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Feng Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagulans TQ33 was determined. The results of partial characterization of the antifungal compound indicated that its activity is likely to be due to the production of a proteinaceous substance together with other substances. The greenhouse trials suggest that B. coagulans TQ33 has a great potential for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  4. The UNK control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, V.N.; Brook, V.L.; Dunaitsev, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The IHEP proton Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) includes in its first stage a 400 GeV conventional and a 3000 GeV superconducting ring placed in the same underground tunnel of 20.7 km circumference. The beam will be injected into UNK from the existing 70 GeV accelerator U-70. The experimental programme which is planned to start in 1995, will include 3000 GeV fixed target and 400 + 3000 GeV colliding beams physics. The size and complexity of the UNK dictate a distributed multiprocessor architecture of the control system. About 4000 of 8/16 bit controllers, directly attached to the UNK equipment will perform low level control and data acquisition tasks. The equipment controllers will be connected via the MIL-1553 field bus to VME based 32-bit front end computers. The TCP/IP network will interconnect front end computers in the UNK equipment buildings with UNIX workstations and servers in the Main Control Room. The report presents the general architecture and current status of the UNK control. (author)

  5. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in skim milk by pulsed electric fields and nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Miranda, M L; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Swanson, B G

    1999-10-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is an emerging nonthermal processing technology used to inactivate microorganisms in liquid foods such as milk. PEF results in loss of cell membrane functionality that leads to inactivation of the microorganism. There are many processes that aid in the stability and safety of foods. The combination of different preservation factors, such as nisin and PEF, to control microorganisms should be explored. The objective of this research was to study the inactivation of Listeria innocua suspended in skim milk by PEF as well as the sensitization of PEF treated L. innocua to nisin. The selected electric field intensity was 30, 40 and 50 kV/cm and the number of pulses applied was 10.6, 21.3 and 32. The sensitization exhibited by PEF treated L. innocua to nisin was assessed for 10 or 100 IU nisin/ml. A progressive decrease in the population of L. innocua was observed for the selected field intensities, with the greatest reduction being 2 1/2 log cycles (U). The exposure of L. innocua to nisin after PEF had an additive effect on the inactivation of the microorganism as that exhibited by the PEF alone. As the electric field, number of pulses and nisin concentration increased, synergism was observed in the inactivation of L. innocua as a result of exposure to nisin after PEF. The reduction of L. innocua accomplished by exposure to 10 IU nisin/ml after 32 pulsed electric fields was 2, 2.7, and 3.4 U for an electric field intensity of 30, 40, and 50 kV/cm, respectively. Population of L. innocua subjected to 100 IU nisin/ml after PEF was 2.8-3.8 U for the selected electric field intensities and 32 pulses. The designed model for the inactivation of L. innocua as a result of the PEF followed by exposure to nisin proved to be accurate in the prediction of the inactivation of L. innocua in skim milk containing 1.2 or 37 IU nisin/ml. Inactivation of L. innocua in skim milk containing 37 IU nisin/ml resulted in a decrease in population of 3.7 U.

  6. Intelligent Lighting Control System

    OpenAIRE

    García, Elena; Rodríguez González, Sara; de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Bajo Pérez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive architecture that allows centralized control of public lighting and intelligent management, in order to economise on lighting and maintain maximum comfort status of the illuminated areas. To carry out this management, architecture merges various techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) and statistics such as artificial neural networks (ANN), multi-agent systems (MAS), EM algorithm, methods based on ANOVA and a Service Oriented Aproach (SOA). It performs optim...

  7. OAJ control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, J. L.; Yanes-Díaz, A.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Bello, R.; Jiménez, D.; Suárez, O.; Guillén, L.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez, M. A.; de Castro, S.; Nevot, C.; Sánchez-Artigot, J.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; López-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Abril, J.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Maicas, N.; Rodríguez, S.; Tilve, V.; Civera, T.; Muniesa, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys leveraging two unprecedented telescopes with unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55 m telescope with a 3 deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83 cm telescope with a 2 deg field of view. The immediate objective of these telescopes for the next years is carrying out two unique photometric surveys covering several thousands square degrees: J-PAS and J-PLUS, each of them with a wide range of scientific applications, like e.g. large structure cosmology and Dark Energy, galaxy evolution, supernovae, Milky Way structure and exoplanets. JST and JAST will be equipped with panoramic cameras being developed within the J-PAS collaboration, JPCam and T80Cam respectively, which make use of large format (˜10{k}×10{k}) CCDs covering the entire focal plane. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and service the observatory systems, not only astronomical but also infrastructure and other facilities. We will give an overview of OAJ's control system from an engineering point of view.

  8. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  9. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, Susila; Tang, Y.N.

    1994-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans. ((orig.))

  10. NSLS control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-12-31

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans.

  11. Radiation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Mitsuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly and suitably performing planning and designation by radiation-working control systems in the radiation controlled area of nuclear power plant. Method: Various informations regarding radiation exposure are arranged and actual exposure data are statistically stored, to thereby perform forecasting calculation for the radiation exposure upon workings in the plurality of working regions in the radiation controlled area. Based on the forecast values and the registered workers' exposure dose in the past workings are alocated successively such that the total exposure does upon conducting the workings is less than the limited value, to prepare working plans in the areas. Further, procedures for preparing a series of documents regarding the workings in the radiation area are automated to rapidly and properly provide the informations serving to the planning and designation for the radiation workings. As a result, the radiation managers' burnden can be mitigated and an efficient working management system can be provided, in view of the exposure management and personal management. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Crawling the Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrieu, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google 'mini' search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  13. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  14. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  15. Feedwater control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Excessive swing of the feedwater in nuclear reactor power supply apparatus on the occurrence of a transient is suppressed by injecting an anticipatory compensating signal (δWsub(fw)) into the control for the feedwater. Typical overshoot occurs on removal of a large part of the load, the steam flow is reduced so that the conventional control system reduces the flow of feedwater. At the same time there is a reduction of feedwater level in the steam generator because of the collapse of the bubbles under increased steam pressure. By the time the control responds to the drop in level, the apparatus has begun to stabilize so that there is overshoot. The anticipatory signal is derived from the boiling power (BP) which is a function of the nuclear power (Qsub(N)) developed, the enthalpy of saturated water (hsub(s)) and the enthalpy of the feedwater injected into the steam generator (hsub(fw)). From the boiling power (BP) and the increment in steam pressure resulting from the transient an anticipatory increment of feedwater flow is derived. This increment is added to the other parameters controlling the feedwater. (author)

  16. Support schemes and vertical integration - who skims the cream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jensen, Stine Grenaa

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs for distributed generators, producing renewable electricity, depends on industry structure, i.e., vertical integration vs. unbundling. A stylized analytical model with a monopolist and a competitive fringe (distributed generators......) will be developed to analyze the impact of feed-in tariffs on renewable power production. The vertically integrated monopolist maximizes profits by setting the electricity price for residual demand and a network access charge incurred by the fringe. The fringe receives a fixed feed-in tariff per unit of electricity...... produced. Under vertical integration, a rise in the feed-in tariff induces the monopolist to raise access charges for fringe firms and skim part of their additional income. This partially offsets the supply increase of the fringe firms stimulated by the feed-in tariff. However, in the case of effective...

  17. Adaptive control for chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Changchun E-mail: cch@ysu.edu.cn; Guan Xinping

    2004-10-01

    Control problem of chaotic system is investigated via adaptive method. A fairly simple adaptive controller is constructed, which can control chaotic systems to unstable fixed points. The precise mathematical models of chaotic systems need not be known and only the fixed points and the dimensions of chaotic systems are required to be known. Simulations on controlling different chaotic systems are investigated and the results show the validity and feasibility of the proposed controller.

  18. BLTC control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  19. PEP instrumentation and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems.

  20. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  1. Automatically controlled training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milashenko, A.; Afanasiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  2. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF

  3. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  4. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  5. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  6. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  7. Characterization of gradient control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; van der Schaft, Arjan; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  8. Infusion pasteurization of skim milk: Effects of different time-temperature combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hougaard, A.B.; Hammershøj, M.; Ipsen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Infusion pasteurization technology was used in different time-temperature combinations for heat treatment of skim milk and compared to untreated skim milk and a standard pasteurization treatment. Aerobic count of microorganisms and activity of alkaline phosphatase showed that all infusion-pasteurized samples had received proper pasteurization. There were no difference in the size of casein micelles, but differences were seen in activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. The results indicate pos...

  9. Heat stability of reconstituted, protein-standardized skim milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J

    2010-12-01

    We determined the effects of standardization material, protein content, and pH on the heat stability of reconstituted milk made from low-heat (LH) and medium-heat (MH) nonfat dry milk (NDM). Low-heat and MH NDM were standardized downward from 35.5% to 34, 32, and 30% protein by adding either edible lactose powder (ELP) or permeate powder (PP) from skim milk ultrafiltration. These powders were called standardized skim milk powders (SSMP). The LH and MH NDM and SSMP were reconstituted to 9% total solids. Furthermore, subsamples of reconstituted NDM and SSMP samples were set aside to measure heat stability at native (unadjusted) pH, and the rest were adjusted to pH 6.3 to 7.0. Heat stability is defined as heat coagulation time at 140°C of the reconstituted LH or MH NDM and SSMP samples. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times at unadjusted pH values and 2 times at adjusted pH values. At an unadjusted pH, powder type, standardization material, and protein content influenced the heat stability of the samples. Heat stability for reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP was higher than reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP. Generally, decreased heat stability was observed in reconstituted LH or MH SSMP as protein content was decreased by standardization. However, adding ELP to MH SSMP did not significantly change its heat stability. When pH was adjusted to values between 6.3 and 7.0, powder type, standardization material, and pH had a significant effect on heat stability, whereas protein content did not. Maximum heat stability was noted at pH 6.7 for both reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP samples, and at pH 6.6 for both reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP samples. Furthermore, for samples with adjusted pH, higher heat stability was observed for reconstituted LH SSMP containing PP compared with reconstituted milk from LH SSMP containing ELP. However, no statistical difference was observed in the heat stability of reconstituted milk from MH NDM and MH SSMP samples. We conclude that powder type

  10. Rapid quantification of casein in skim milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic perturbation, and multiway partial least squares: Monitoring chymosin at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, P. W.; Nørgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydroly......, and cream. This method can be used at different stages in the dairy production chain to ensure the quality of the delivered milk. In particular, the cheese-making industry can benefit from such methods to optimize production control....

  11. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  12. System for controlling apnea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  13. Distributed systems status and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  14. Support schemes and vertical integration. Who skims the cream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jensen, Stine Grenaa

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs for distributed generators, producing renewable electricity, depends on industry structure, i.e., vertical integration vs. unbundling. A stylized analytical model with a monopolist and a competitive fringe (distributed generators) will be developed to analyze the impact of feed-in tariffs on renewable power production. The vertically integrated monopolist maximizes profits by setting the electricity price for residual demand and a network access charge incurred by the fringe. The fringe receives a fixed feed-in tariff per unit of electricity produced. Under vertical integration, a rise in the feed-in tariff induces the monopolist to raise access charges for fringe firms and skim part of their additional income. This partially offsets the supply increase of the fringe firms stimulated by the feed-in tariff. However, in the case of effective unbundling with an externally set access charge, there is no possibility for the monopolist to extract part of the fringe's profit. Then, the feed-in tariff fully accrues to the competitive fringe, and its supply will further increase. This setting will be extended to horizontal expansion when the monopolist also enters the renewable production segment. The effects on prices and output will be derived and compared. (author)

  15. Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Nicholas J; Mángano, M Gabriela; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-04-22

    The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelte, one of the rarest Burgess Shale animals, is over twice the size of all other benthic arthropods known from this locality, and only its sister taxon, Saperion, from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, approaches a similar size. Biomechanical trackway analysis demonstrates that tegopeltids were capable of rapidly skimming across the seafloor and, in conjunction with the identification of gut diverticulae in Tegopelte, supports previous hypotheses on the locomotory capabilities and carnivorous mode of life of such arthropods. The trackways occur in the oldest part (Kicking Horse Shale Member) of the Burgess Shale Formation, which is also known for its scarce assemblage of soft-bodied organisms, and indicate at least intermittent oxygenated bottom waters and low sedimentation rates.

  16. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  17. Diagnostic, reliablility and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leondes

    2014-01-01

    1. Explicit-Model-Based Fault Detection Method in Industrial Plants 2. Soft Sensor: An Effective Approach to Improve Control 3. Techniques in Soft Computing and Their Utilization in Mechatronic Products 4. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants 5. A Mechatronic Systems Approach to Controlling Robotic Systems with Actuator Dynamics 6. Process and Control Design for Fast Coordinate Measuring Machines 7. Techniques in the Stability of Mechatronic Systems with Sensor or Actuator Failure.

  18. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Iterative method; optimal control theory; diatomic systems; quantum control. Abstract. Controlling molecular energetics using laser pulses is exemplified for nuclear motion in two different diatomic systems. The problem of finding the optimized field for maximizing a desired quantum dynamical target is formulated ...

  19. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzsch, K; Braun, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Kersten, S; Arfaoui, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Schlenker, S; Tsarouchas, C A; Mindur, B; Hartert, J; Zimmermann, S; Talyshev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Poblaguev, A; Martin, T; Thompson, P D; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Hoffmann, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  20. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  1. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  2. Minicomputer controlled test system for process control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, L.D.

    A minicomputer controlled test system for testing process control and monitoring systems is described. This system, in service for over one year, has demonstrated that computerized control of such testing has a real potential for expanding the scope of the testing, improving accuracy of testing, and significantly reducing the time required to do the testing. The test system is built around a 16-bit minicomputer with 12K of memory. The system programming language is BASIC with the addition of assembly level routines for communication with the peripheral devices. The peripheral devices include a 100 channel scanner, analog-to-digital converter, visual display, and strip printer. (auth)

  3. The GSI control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, U.; Schaa, V.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  4. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N Ananthkrishnan1 Rashi Bansal2. Head, CAE Analysis & Design Zeus Numerix Pvt Ltd. M-03, SINE, IIT Bombay Powai Mumbai 400076, India. MTech (Aerospace Engineering) with specialization in Dynamics & Control from IIT Bombay.

  5. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality characteristics and plasmin activity of thermosonicated skim milk and cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Grewell, D; Annandarajah, C; Benner, L; Clark, S

    2015-10-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is limited by heat-stable proteases, which cause gelation and bitter taste upon extended storage of milk. Ultra-high temperature processing inactivates proteases but detrimentally affects milk's sensory quality. An adjunct to pasteurization is desired to extend milk's shelf life while maintaining quality characteristics. In this study, the effects of combined heat and ultrasound (thermosonication) on total plasmin activity and various quality characteristics of skim milk and cream were studied. Thermosonication, at an average power of 115 W (152 µmp-p, where p-p=peak-to-peak amplitude) for 3 min, decreased the total plasmin activity (i.e., plasmin- and plasminogen-derived activity) by nearly 94% in fresh skim milk and cream. Enzyme activity in thermosonicated skim milk samples measured at the end of 30 d was 5- to 10-fold higher than on d 0, but remained stable in thermosonicated cream. Descriptive analysis of odor attributes was conducted for up to 4 wk with 8 trained panelists. No significant differences were observed between the intensities of offensive "eggy" and "rubbery" odor attributes of thermosonicated skim milk and pasteurized commercial skim milk and cream. In addition, lightness (L*) values and viscosity were not adversely affected by thermosonication. Thermosonication decreased the fat globule size in skim milk and cream, and the homogenizing effect increased with treatment time. Thermosonication at average powers of 104 W (133 µmp-p) and 115 W (152 µmp-p) for 1 and 3 min destroyed coliforms and over 99% of the total aerobic bacteria. The total aerobic bacteria counts of thermosonicated skim milk and cream samples were less than 20,000 cfu/mL on d 30. Because thermosonication did not induce off-aromas or viscosity changes but did inactivate microorganisms and protease enzymes, thermosonication may be an appropriate adjunct to pasteurization to extend milk shelf life. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  7. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  8. The Role of Ammonia in Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in Skim Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Danwanichakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized in skim natural rubber latex, the by-product from concentrated latex production. The role of ammonia was investigated by varying the concentration to be 0.217, 0.362, 0.377, 0.392, and 0.406 wt%. The emergence of AgNPs was detected by UV-visible spectrophotometer and electrical conductivity meter. Upon increasing ammonia concentration, the ABS peak increased to a maximum and slightly shifted to a higher wavelength and then it decreased afterward and slightly shifted to a lower wavelength. The shift of the ABS peak was consistent with the conductivity result. The kinetic model was proposed to explain the competition between the reducing effect and size-controlling effect of ammonia. The reducing effect seemed to dominate in the low range of concentration while the size-controlling effect via the formation of AgNH32+ complex ion was important in the higher range. The TEM figures evidently confirmed the effects.

  9. Control systems with network delay

    OpenAIRE

    Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Yashiro, Daisuke; Acer, Merve; Ş.-Behliloviç, Nadira; S.-Behlilovic, Nadira

    2009-01-01

    In this paper motion control systems with delay in measurement and control channels are discussed and a new structure of the observer-predictor is proposed. The feature of the proposed system is enforcement of the convergence in both the estimation and the prediction of the plant output in the presence of the variable, unknown delay in both measurement and in the control channels. The estimation is based on the available data – undelayed control input, the delayed measurement of position o...

  10. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  11. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  12. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  13. Effect of skim milk treated with high hydrostatic pressure on permeate flux and fouling during ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Mathilde; Marciniak, Alice; Chamberland, Julien; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is largely used in the dairy industry to generate milk and whey protein concentrate for standardization of milk or production of dairy ingredients. Recently, it was demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extended the shelf life of milk and improved rennet coagulation and cheese yield. Pressurization also modified casein micelle size distribution and promoted aggregation of whey proteins. These changes are likely to affect UF performance. Consequently, this study determined the effect of skim milk pressurization (300 and 600 MPa, 5 min) on UF performance in terms of permeate flux decline and fouling. The effect of HHP on milk proteins was first studied and UF was performed in total recycle mode at different transmembrane pressures to determine optimal UF operational parameters and to evaluate the effect of pressurization on critical and limiting fluxes. Ultrafiltration was also performed in concentration mode at a transmembrane pressure of 345 kPa for 130 or 140 min to evaluate the decline of permeate flux and to determine fouling resistances. It was observed that average casein micelle size decreased by 32 and 38%, whereas β-lactoglobulin denaturation reached 30 and 70% at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. These results were directly related to UF performance because initial permeate fluxes in total recycle mode decreased by 25% at 300 and 600 MPa compared with nonpressurized milk, critical flux, and limiting flux, which were lower during UF of milk treated with HHP. During UF in concentration mode, initial permeate fluxes were 30% lower at 300 and 600 MPa compared with the control, but the total flux decline was higher for nonpressurized milk (62%) compared with pressure-treated milk (30%). Fouling resistances were similar, whatever the treatment, except at 600 MPa where irreversible fouling was higher. Characterization of the fouling layer showed that caseins and β-lactoglobulin were mainly involved in membrane fouling after UF of

  14. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  15. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  16. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  17. INSTRUCTIONAL QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONROE, BRUCE

    A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, A MAIL SURVEY, AND A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE DOCUMENTS INDICATE THAT, WHILE CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTION, CONTROL OF THAT QUALITY IS RARELY A SYSTEMATIC ROUTINE ENTERPRISE BASED ON EXAMINATION OF BEHAVIOR CHANGES IN STUDENTS FOLLOWING INSTRUCTION.…

  18. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    discipline has played critical roles in technological advances over the last few decades. If not for modern control theory, aircraft would not be flying as far or as fast; manufactured goods, from paper to steel to gasoline to Mars Bars, would not be as readily available; Rover would still be just a dog's name; ... the list is endless.

  19. Mutu Organoleptik dan Total Bakteri Asam Laktat Yogurt Sari Jagung dengan Penambahan Susu Skim dan Karagenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premy Puspitawati Rahayu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze sensory evaluation quality and total lactic acid bacteria of corn yogurt added with skim milk and carrageenan. This research used experimental laboratory method with completely randomized design and four replications. The treatment used were skim milk with concentration (2.5; 3; 3.5% b/v dan carrageenan (0.5; 0.75; 1 % b/v. The result showed that the treatment gave significant different effect (p 0.05 on the total lactic acid bacteria, organoleptic (aroma and color. The addition of various of skim milk, and carrageenan concentrations gave total of total lactic acid bacteria, organoleptic (color, aroma and texture was 2.83 x 108-4.4 x 108 CFU/ml; white to yellowness; acidness to acid; and thickness to thick. The best treatment of this research is the addition of skim 5% and carrageenan 0.75% with total lactic acid bacteria 4.4 x 108, the aroma is acidness, the color is yellowness, the texture is thickness. It could be concluded that the addition of skim milk and carrageenan in corn yogurt production can be accepted by consumers and increase the activity of lactic acid bacteria

  20. Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens in skim milk by combinations of pulsed electric fields and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Molina, Juan J; Altunakar, Bilge; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2005-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in skim milk was inactivated by application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) either alone or in combination with acetic or propionic acid. The initial concentration of microorganisms ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/ml. Addition of acetic acid and propionic acid to skim milk inactivated 0.24 and 0.48 log CFU/ml P. fluorescens, respectively. Sets of 10, 20, and 30 pulses were applied to the skim milk using exponentially decaying pulses with pulse lengths of 2 micros and pulse frequencies of 3 Hz. Treatment temperature was maintained between 16 and 20 degrees C. In the absence of organic acids, PEF treatment of skim milk at field intensities of 31 and 38 kV/cm reduced P. fluorescens populations by 1.0 to 1.8 and by 1.2 to 1.9 log CFU/ml, respectively. Additions of acetic and propionic acid to the skim milk in a pH range of 5.0 to 5.3 and PEF treatment at 31, 33, and 34 kV/cm, and 36, 37, and 38 kV/cm reduced the population of P. fluorescens by 1.4 and 1.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. No synergistic effect resulted from the combination of PEF with acetic or propionic acid.

  1. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  2. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  3. Skimming behaviour and spreading potential of Stenus species and Dianous coerulescens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Carolin; Seifert, Karlheinz; Dettner, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille and the genus Dianous Leach possess pygidial glands containing a multifunctional secretion of piperidine and pyridine-derived alkaloids as well as several terpenes. One important character of this secretion is the spreading potential of its different compounds, stenusine, norstenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, cicindeloine, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one. The individual secretion composition enables the beetles to skim rapidly and far over the water surface, even when just a small amount of secretion is emitted. Ethological investigations of several Stenus species revealed that the skimming ability, skimming velocity and the skimming behaviour differ between the Stenus species. These differences can be linked to varied habitat claims and secretion saving mechanisms. By means of tensiometer measurements using the pendant drop method, the spreading pressure of all secretion constituents as well as some naturally identical beetle secretions on the water surface could be established. The compound 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine excelled stenusine believed to date to be mainly responsible for skimming relating to its surface activity. The naturally identical secretions are not subject to synergistic effects of the single compounds concerning the spreading potential. Furthermore, evolutionary aspects of the Steninae's pygidial gland secretion are discussed.

  4. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Virtualization in control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.R.; Liu, D.K.; Wan, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In large scale distributed control system, there are lots of common service composed an environment for the entire control system, such as the server system for the common software base library, application server, archive server and so on. This paper gives a description of a virtualization realization for control system environment including the virtualization for server, storage, network system and application for the control system. With a virtualization instance of the EPICS based control system environment that was built by the VMware vSphere v4, we tested the whole functionality of this virtualization environment in the SSRF control system, including the common server of the NFS, NIS, NTP, Boot and EPICS base and extension library tools, we also have applied virtualization to application servers such as the Archive, Alarm, EPICS gateway and all of the network based IOC. Specially, we test the high availability and VMotion for EPICS asynchronous IOC successful under the different VLAN configuration of the current SSRF control system network. (authors)

  6. Instrumentation and control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Kondo, Makoto; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The instrumentation and control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor consists of the instrumentation, control equipments and safety protection systems. There are not many differences in the instrumentation and control equipments design between the HTTR and light water reactors except for some features. Various kinds of R and D of reactor instrumentation were performed taking into account the HTTR operational conditions, and a plant dynamic analysis was carried out considering the operational conditions of the HTTR in order to design the control system. These systems are required to have a high reliability in respect to safety. In the rise-to-power test it was confirmed that the instrumentation has a high reliability and the control system has a high stability and reasonable damped characteristics for various disturbances

  7. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  8. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system

  9. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  10. Vacuum control system of VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Bandopadhyay, D.L.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of modernization of VEC (Variable Energy Cyclotron), the Vacuum Control System is being upgraded to PLC based automated system from initial Relay based Manual system. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open source software tool for designing distributed control system, is chosen for developing the supervisory control software layer, leading towards a unified distributed control architecture of VEC Control System. A Modbus - TCP based IOC (I/O Controller) has been developed to communicate control data to PLC using Ethernet-TCP LAN. Keeping in mind, the operators' familiarity with MS-Windows, a MS-Windows based operator interface is developed using VB6. It is also used to test and evaluate EPICS compatibility to MS Windows. Several MS Windows ActiveX components e.g. text display, image display, alarm window, set-point input etc. have been developed incorporating Channel Access library of EPICS. Use of such components ease the programming complexity and reduce developmental time of the operator interface. The system is in the final phase of commissioning. (author)

  11. Application of Combined Cake Filtration-Complete Blocking Model to Ultrafiltration of Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Kazemimoghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane ultrafiltration (UF is widely used in dairy industries like milk concentration and dehydration processes. The limiting factor of UF systems is fouling which is defined as the precipitation of solutes in the form of a cake layer on the surface of the membrane. In this study, the combined cake filtration-complete blocking model was compared to cake filtration mechanism for flux data through ultrafiltration of skim milk at constant flow rate. The resistance data also was modeled using cake filtration model and standard blocking model. The effect of different trans-membrane pressures and temperatures on flux decline was then investigated. Based on the results obtained here, the combined complete blocking-cake formation model was in excellent agreement with experimental data. The cake filtration model also provided good data fits and can be applied to solutions whose solutes tend to accumulate on the surface of the membrane in the form of a cake layer. With increasing pressure, the differences between the model and experimental data increased.

  12. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... as exosomes and microvesicles. These vesicles contain various types of RNAs and proteins, suggested to transfer health-promoting messages from mother to offspring. However, the variety of the vesicles in milk is less understood and, additionally, complicated by the complexity of more pronounced milk...... components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre...

  13. JT-60 plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, K.

    1988-01-01

    JT-60 plasma control can be performed by the supervisory controller, the measurement system and actuators such as the poloidal field coil power supplies, gas injectors, neutral beam injection (NBI) heating system and radio frequency (RF) heating system. One of the most important characteristics of this system is a perfect digital control one composed of mini-computers, fast array processors and CAMAC modules, and it has large flexibility and few troubles to adjust the system. This system started to be operated in April 1985, after the six-year-long design, construction and testing, and have been operated and improved many times for two years. In this paper, the final system specification and its performance are presented aiming at the technological aspect of hardware and software. In addition, and experienced troubles are also presented. (author)

  14. Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. -F.; Hurley, Francis X.; Huang, Jie; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    %T Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design%A C-F. Lin%A Francis X. Hurley%A Jie Huang%A F. Y. Hadaegh%J International Conference on Control and Information(psi)995%C Hong Kong%D June 1995%K aeropropulsion, control, system%U http://jpltrs.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0658.pdfAn integrated intelligent control approach is proposed to design a high performance control system for aeropropulsion systems based on advanced sensor processing, nonlinear control and neural fuzzy control integration. Our approach features the following innovations:??e complexity and uncertainty issues are addressed via the distributed parallel processing, learning, and online reoptimization properties of neural networks.??e nonlinear dynamics and the severe coupling can be naturally incorporated into the design framework.??e knowledge base and decision making logic furnished by fuzzy systems leads to a human intelligence enhanced control scheme.In addition, fault tolerance, health monitoring and reconfigurable control strategies will be accommodated by this approach to ensure stability, graceful degradation and reoptimization in the case of failures, malfunctions and damage.!.

  15. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  16. Plasma Skimming in a Spiral Groove Bearing of a Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Plasma skimming is a phenomenon in which discharge hematocrit is lower than feed hematocrit in microvessels. Plasma skimming has been investigated at a bearing gap in a spiral groove bearing (SGB), as this has the potential to prevent hemolysis in the SGB of a blood pump. However, it is not clear whether plasma skimming occurs in a blood pump with the SGB, because the hematocrit has not been obtained. The purpose of this study is to verify plasma skimming in an SGB of a centrifugal blood pump by developing a hematocrit measurement method in an SGB. Erythrocyte observation using a high-speed microscope and a bearing gap measurement using a laser confocal displacement meter was performed five times. In these tests, bovine blood as a working fluid was diluted with autologous plasma to adjust the hematocrit to 1.0%. A resistor was adjusted to achieve a pressure head of 100 mm Hg and a flow rate of 5.0 L/min at a rotational speed of 2800 rpm. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was measured using an image analysis based on motion image of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, the measured bearing gap, and a cross-sectional area of erythrocyte. Mean hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was linearly reduced from 0.97 to 0.07% with the decreasing mean bearing gap from 38 to 21 μm when the rotational speed was changed from 2250 to 3000 rpm. A maximum plasma skimming efficiency of 93% was obtained with a gap of 21 μm. In conclusion, we succeeded in measuring the hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB of the blood pump. Hematocrit decreased on the ridge region in the SGB and plasma skimming occurred with a bearing gap of less than 30 μm in the hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  18. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  19. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  20. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  1. Manual control of unstable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.; Hogue, J. R.; Parseghian, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Under certain operational regimes and failure modes, air and ground vehicles can present the human operator with a dynamically unstable or divergent control task. Research conducted over the last two decades has explored the ability of the human operator to control unstable systems under a variety of circumstances. Past research is reviewed and human operator control capabilities are summarized. A current example of automobile directional control under rear brake lockup conditions is also reviewed. A control system model analysis of the driver's steering control task is summarized, based on a generic driver/vehicle model presented at last year's Annual Manual. Results from closed course braking tests are presented that confirm the difficulty the average driver has in controlling the unstable directional dynamics arising from rear wheel lockup.

  2. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  3. ISABELLE control system: design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented

  4. Test results of HTTR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Toshihiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Hirato, Yoji; Kondo, Makoto; Shibutani, Hideki; Ogawa, Satoru; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2006-06-01

    The plant control performance of the IHX helium flow rate control system, the PPWC helium flow rate control system, the secondary helium flow rate control system, the inlet temperature control system, the reactor power control system and the outlet temperature control system of the HTTR are obtained through function tests and power-up tests. As the test results, the control systems show stable control response under transient condition. Both of inlet temperature control system and reactor power control system shows stable operation from 30% to 100%, respectively. This report describes the outline of control systems and test results. (author)

  5. Exploring authentic skim milk powder variance for the development of nontargeted adulterant detection methods using NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational collaborative team led by the US Pharmacopeial Convention is currently investigating the potential of NIR spectroscopy for nontargeted detection of adulterants in skim milk powder. The development of a compendial method is challenged by the range of authentic or nonadulterated skim m...

  6. The BATES linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, T.; Radouch, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Bates linac control system (LCS), a distributed processing architecture, is described. Due to the historic evolution of the system, a mix of different hardware, operating systems and programming languages are used throughout. However, a standardized interface at the network level enables a smooth system integration. In particular, a multicasting scheme for data transmission over the network permits simultaneous database updates on more than one workstation. This allows for true distribution of data processing power. 3 figs

  7. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  8. Next Generation Target Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the allegations concerning the Next Generation Target Control System Program and to determine whether the Program is the most cost effective solution to meet the target...

  9. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  10. Integrated control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Paul Sai Keat; Baldwin, Darryl; Kim, Myoungjin

    2013-10-29

    An integrated control system for use with an engine connected to a generator providing electrical power to a switchgear is disclosed. The engine receives gas produced by a gasifier. The control system includes an electronic controller associated with the gasifier, engine, generator, and switchgear. A gas flow sensor monitors a gas flow from the gasifier to the engine through an engine gas control valve and provides a gas flow signal to the electronic controller. A gas oversupply sensor monitors a gas oversupply from the gasifier and provides an oversupply signal indicative of gas not provided to the engine. A power output sensor monitors a power output of the switchgear and provide a power output signal. The electronic controller changes gas production of the gasifier and the power output rating of the switchgear based on the gas flow signal, the oversupply signal, and the power output signal.

  11. The ILC global control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Saunders, C.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, B.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larsen, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2008-01-01

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  12. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  13. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  14. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, H.E.; Howe, M.A.; Jackson, L.W.; LaCroix, J.M.; Readdy, H.P.; Storm, D.W.; Van Houten, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  15. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  16. A novel microsatellite control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

  17. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  18. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    2Center for Computational Natural Sciences and Bioinformatics,. International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032 ..... journal.34. 3. The control system. We have chosen two diatomic systems for studying the vibrational excitations from an initial state to a target state in a Morse potential of the HF and OH.

  19. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  20. The AFP detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Sicho, Petr; Zabinski, Bartlomiej

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  1. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  2. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Safety Implications of Control Systems Program has three major activities in support of USI-A47. The first task is a failure mode and effects analysis of all plant systems which may potentially induce control system disturbance that have safety implications. This task has made a preliminary study of overfill events and recommended cases for further analysis on the hybrid simulator. Work continues on overcooling and undercooling. A detailed investigation of electric power network is in progress. LERs are providing guidance on important failure modes that will provide initial conditions for further simulator studies. The simulator taks is generating a detailed model of the control system supported by appropriate neutronics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics submodels of all other principal plant components. The simulator is in the last stages of development. Checkout calculations are in progress to establish model stability, robustness, and qualitative credibility. Verification against benchmark codes and plant data will follow

  3. The new Aladdin control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, J.P.; Eisert, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design of the new control system for the Aladdin electron-storage-ring light source was described at the Los Alamos workshop and an updated report was given at the Villars conference. The new system is now almost completely installed and this paper is a final report on the project. The major features of the system are the following: commercial hardware is used throughout the computer, network and microcomputer systems; the operator consoles and the device-control microcomputers are linked by Ethernet; VAXstations with keyboard and track-ball input devices are used in the operator consoles; the microcomputers use 68000-based single-board computers and VMEbus backplanes; the main magnet power supplies contain intelligent controllers which are linked to a microcomputer by a multidrop serial link; the microcomputer software is developed on the VAXstations; it is downloaded into RAM and debugged over the Ethernet before being burned into EPROMs for operational use. This paper describes the design of the system, highlighting changes from the previous proposals, and discusses the aspects which allowed the control system of an operating facility to be rebuilt without requiring or causing any significant downtime. The performance of the new system and possible future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of

  5. Textural and sensory characteristics of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt during long storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A; Fiszman, S M

    2004-12-01

    A study of refrigerated storage (10 degrees C for 91 d) of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt was made. Comparison with storage at 20 degrees C for 21 d and 30 degrees C for 3 d (accelerated) was also carried out. Refrigerated storage yogurts were assessed by a trained panel and by a consumer panel. Trained-panel scores were correlated to instrumental data, and the acceptability data for long storage were studied using consumer criteria. In all cases, after-storage pH values barely changed over storage time, indicating that the yogurt samples did not develop much acidity under any of the storage conditions studied. The profile of the instrumental texture curves obtained corresponded to a firm gel, which broke after a plunger penetrated the sample, and the firmness values of the whole yogurt were lower than for the skimmed yogurt under all the storage conditions studied. From a microbiological point of view, the viability of the yogurts was adequate at the different storage times and temperatures studied, although those stored at 10 degrees C for long periods would not comply with some countries' minimum requirements. Logistic regression of the data from a 50-consumer sensory evaluation showed that the probability of the whole yogurt being accepted after 91 d storage at 10 degrees C was around 40%, whereas for the skimmed yogurt it was only 15%, largely because the skimmed yogurt developed certain negative attributes at an earlier stage of storage than the whole yogurt.

  6. Hyb-Seq: combining target enrichment and genome skimming for plant phylogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Weitemier; Shannon C.K. Straub; Richard C. Cronn; Mark Fishbein; Roswitha Schmickl; Angela McDonnell; Aaron. Liston

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. • Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed ( Asclepias syriaca ) were used to design enrichment probes for 3385...

  7. A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties, namely; viscosity, flavour, acidity, texture, aroma and palatability of cultured yoghurt made from milk previously heated to 90OC for 30 minutes in a Vat were studied and the results compared to those of yoghurt fortified by addition of dry skim milk powder. The results showed no significant difference (P ...

  8. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and...

  9. High-flux membrane separation using fluid skimming dominated convective fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van A.M.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    We here report on the separation of yeast cells, with micro-engineered membranes having pores that are typically five times larger than the cells. The separation is due to neither shear-induced diffusion, nor initial lift, but to an effect similar to fluid skimming. The separation performance is

  10. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  11. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  12. Dressage, Control, and Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas; Yoo, Youngjin

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented Full Cost, an activity-based accounting program through an agency-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation. We apply Foucault's notion of 'dressage' to highlight aspects of demonstrative control associated...... with this implementation effort and to outline the different dimensions along which control was distributed. We suggest that some elements of Full Cost and the ERP system were geared toward satisfying disciplinary requirements without necessarily contributing to productive activity. We term these elements dressage......-as-control. Our findings indicate that dressage-as-control breeds dressage-as-response: employees' responses to control imperatives that are intended merely to satisfy the demand for control by exhibiting public compliance, but make no direct contribution to the execution of work. Accordingly, we propose...

  13. Digital control system of advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huaqing; Zhang Rui; Liu Lixin

    2001-01-01

    This article produced the Digital Control System For Advanced Reactor made by NPIC. This system uses Siemens SIMATIC PCS 7 process control system and includes five control system: reactor power control system, pressurizer level control system, pressurizer pressure control system, steam generator water level control system and dump control system. This system uses three automatic station to realize the function of five control system. Because the safety requisition of reactor is very strict, the system is redundant. The system configuration uses CFC and SCL. the human-machine interface is configured by Wincc. Finally the system passed the test of simulation by using RETRAN 02 to simulate the control object. The research solved the key technology of digital control system of reactor and will be very helpful for the nationalization of digital reactor control system

  14. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  15. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A [Riverside, CA; Beloussov, Alexandre V [Bernardino, CA; Bakir, Julide [Alta Loma, CA; Armon, Deganit [Redlands, CA; Olsen, Howard B [Colton, CA; Salem, Dana [Riverside, CA

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of Listeria innocua treated by pulsed electric fields and nisin in skimmed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Miranda, M L; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Swanson, B G

    1999-10-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a nonthermal food preservation process where organoleptic and nutritional properties of the food are maintained. PEF is known to inactivate microorganisms by causing dielectric breakdown of the cell membrane, thus altering the functionality of the membrane as a semipermeable barrier. The extent of damage of the cell membrane, whether visible in the form of a pore or as loss of membrane functionality leads to the inactivation of the microorganism. The objective of this study was to investigate under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the morphological changes on Listerit innocua as a result of PEF treatment in skimmed milk containing nisin. L. innocua was subjected to PEF at selected electric field intensities of 30, 40, and 50 kV/cm. L. innocua was treated by PEF in both skimmed milk with and without 37 IU nisin/ml. L. innocua treated by PEF in skimmed milk exhibited an increase in the cell wall roughness. cytoplasmic clumping, leakage of cellular material, and rupture of the cell walls and cell membranes. L. innocua subjected to PEF in skimmed milk containing 37 IU nisin/ml exhibited an increased cell wall width. At the highest electric field intensity, 50 kV/cm, elongation of the cell length was observed. There were no morphological differences between cells treated by PEF in skimmed milk with or without nisin. The combination of PEF and nisin exhibit an additive effect in the morphological damage observed on L. innocua. Pore formation was observed on L. innocua for an electric field intensity of 40 kV/cm. The inactivation of L. innocua was a consequence of rupture of the cell membrane and loss of cell membrane functionality.

  17. Circular and noncircular nearly horizon-skimming orbits in Kerr spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Hughes, Scott A.; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2007-08-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of orbital motion in the vicinity of a nearly extremal Kerr black hole. For very rapidly rotating black holes—spin parameter a≡J/M>0.9524M—we have found a class of very strong-field eccentric orbits whose orbital angular momentum Lz increases with the orbit’s inclination with respect to the equatorial plane, while keeping latus rectum and eccentricity fixed. This behavior is in contrast with Newtonian intuition, and is in fact opposite to the normal behavior of black hole orbits. Such behavior was noted previously for circular orbits; since it only applies to orbits very close to the black hole, they were named “nearly horizon-skimming orbits.” Our current analysis generalizes this result, mapping out the full generic (inclined and eccentric) family of nearly horizon-skimming orbits. The earlier work on circular orbits reported that, under gravitational radiation emission, nearly horizon-skimming orbits exhibit unusual inspiral, tending to evolve to smaller orbit inclination, toward prograde equatorial configuration. Normal orbits, by contrast, always demonstrate slowly growing orbit inclination—orbits evolve toward the retrograde equatorial configuration. Using up-to-date Teukolsky-based fluxes, we have concluded that the earlier result was incorrect—all circular orbits, including nearly horizon-skimming ones, exhibit growing orbit inclination under radiative backreaction. Using kludge fluxes based on a Post-Newtonian expansion corrected with fits to circular and to equatorial Teukolsky-based fluxes, we argue that the inclination grows also for eccentric nearly horizon-skimming orbits. We also find that the inclination change is, in any case, very small. As such, we conclude that these orbits are not likely to have a clear and peculiar imprint on the gravitational waveforms expected to be measured by the space-based detector LISA.

  18. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  19. Trends in accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1984-04-01

    Over the years, we have seen a revolution in control systems that has followed the ever decreasing cost of computer power and memory. It started with the data gathering, when people distrusted the computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer system to provide a convenient remote look and adjust facility, to the present day, when more and more emphasis is being placed on using a computer system to simulate or model all or parts of the accelerator, feed in the required performance and calling for the computers to set the various parameters and then measure the actual performance, with iteration if necessary. The progress that has been made in the fields of architecture, communications, computers, interface, software design and operator interface is reviewed

  20. Advanced Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs

  1. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.(J.E.de C.)

  2. The CMS tracker control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  3. The CMS tracker control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G H; Fahrer, M; Frey, M; Hartmann, F; Masetti, L; Militaru, O; Shah, S Y; Stringer, R; Tsirou, A

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 10 4 power supply parameters, about 10 3 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 10 5 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention

  4. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 27.395 Section 27.395... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 27.395 Control system. (a) The part of each control system from the pilot's controls to the control stops must be...

  5. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  6. The QUIJOTE TGI control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reñasco, M. F.; Martín, Y.; Aguiar-González, M.; Cozar, J.; González-Cobos, N.; Hoyland, R.; Núñez Cagical, M.; Pérez-de-Taoro, M. R.; Sánchez-de la Rosa, V.; Vega-Moreno, A.; Viera-Curbelo, T.

    2016-07-01

    The QUIJOTE-CMB experiment (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife CMB experiment) has been described in previous publications. In particular, the architecture of the MFI instrument control system, the first of the three QUIJOTE instruments, was presented in [1]. In this paper we describe the control system architecture, hardware, and software, of the second QUIJOTE instrument, the TGI (Thirty GHz Instrument), which has been in the process of commissioning for a few weeks now. It is a 30 pixel 26-36 GHz polarimeter array mounted at the focus of the second QUIJOTE telescope. The polarimeter design is based on the QUIET polarimeter scheme, implementing phase switches of 90° and 180° to generate four states of polarisation. The TGI control system acquires the scientific signal of the four channels for each of the 30 polarimeters, sampled at 160 kHz; it controls the commutation of the 30 x 4 phase switches at 16 kHz or 8 kHz; it performs the acquisition and monitoring of the health of the complete instrument, acquiring housekeeping from the various subsystems and also controls the different operational modes of the telescope. It finally, implements a queue system that permits automation of the observations by allowing the programming of several days of observations with the minimum of human intervention. The acquisition system is based on a PXI-RT host from NI, the commutations of the phase switches are performed by a PXI-FPGA subsystem and the telescope control is based on an EtherCAT bus from Beckhoff.

  7. Streptococcus uberis: In vitro biofilm production in response to carbohydrates and skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieser, Silvana A; Fessia, Aluminé S; Ferrari, Miriam P; Raspanti, Claudia G; Odierno, Liliana M

    Streptococcus uberis has become one of the most important environmental pathogens associated with clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Biofilm confers to bacteria more resistance to physical and chemical agents as well as to different mechanisms of the innate immune system. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of in vitro biofilm production in 32 S. uberis isolates from bovine mastitis and identified by biochemical tests and subsequently confirmed by the amplification of the pauA gene. The isolates were cultivated in TMP broth and TMP broth with the addition of 0.5% glucose, 1% sucrose, 1% lactose or 0.5% skim milk in microtiter plates stained with crystal violet. We demonstrated that S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis are able to produce biofilms in TMP broth and, also that biofilm formation by S. uberis can be significantly enhanced by the addition of 0.5% glucose or 1% sucrose to TMP broth. This may suggest that the carbohydrates in milk or within the ruminant gut might affect the growth mode of S. uberis. In addition, our results showed that in vitro biofilm production under different conditions of supplementation displays variation among the isolates and that each isolate shows a particular profile of biofilm production. This phenotypic heterogeneity in biofilm production exhibited by S. uberis could at least partly explain why this bacterium has the ability to adapt to different niches facilitating survival to diverse and stressful conditions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. TUNING OF GAUSSIAN STOCHASTIC-CONTROL SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHUPPEN, JH

    1994-01-01

    A closed-loop system consisting of a control system and an adaptive controller will be called tuning for a specified control objective if the real system and the ideal system defined below achieve the same value for the control objective. The real system is the system consisting of the unknown

  9. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  10. Neutron flux control systems validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascik, R.

    2003-01-01

    In nuclear installations main requirement is to obtain corresponding nuclear safety in all operation conditions. From the nuclear safety point of view is commissioning and start-up after reactor refuelling appropriate period for safety systems verification. In this paper, methodology, performance and results of neutron flux measurements systems validation is presented. Standard neutron flux measuring chains incorporated into the reactor protection and control system are used. Standard neutron flux measuring chain contains detector, preamplifier, wiring to data acquisition unit, data acquisition unit, wiring to display at control room and display at control room. During reactor outage only data acquisition unit and wiring and displaying at reactor control room is verified. It is impossible to verify detector, preamplifier and wiring to data acquisition recording unit during reactor refuelling according to low power. Adjustment and accurate functionality of these chains is confirmed by start-up rate (SUR) measurement during start-up tests after refuelling of the reactors. This measurement has direct impact to nuclear safety and increase operational nuclear safety level. Briefly description of each measuring system is given. Results are illustrated on measurements performed at Bohunice NPP during reactor start-up tests. Main failures and their elimination are described (Authors)

  11. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  12. Sedimentação em leite UHT integral, semidesnatado e desnatado durante armazenamento Particle sedimentation in semi-skimmed, skimmed on whole milk UHT, during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Neuwald Vesconsi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas do leite UHT é a sedimentação que ocorre durante o período de armazenamento, o que é muito reclamado pelos consumidores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a sedimentação em leite UHT integral, semidesnatado e desnatado, armazenados a 20°C e 30°C (±1°C durante 120 dias. Nos leites pasteurizados que deram origem aos leites UHT, foram efetuadas análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas (bactérias mesófilas, psicrotróficas e láticas e, nos leites UHT integral, semidesnatado e desnatado, avaliaram-se a acidez, pH, fervura, sensorial, integridade das embalagens e sedimentação, logo depois de embalados e no 30°, 60°, 90° e 120° dia de armazenamento. Os leites pasteurizados integral, semidesnatado e desnatado apresentaram resultados dentro dos padrões estipulados pela indústria para as bactérias mesófilas (log10 4,37 a log10 4,08UFC mL-1, psicrotróficas (log10 3,06 a log10 2,77UFC mL-1 e lácticas (log10 3,10 a log10 2,42UFC mL-1, que diferiram significativamente (POne of the biggest problems of UHT milk is the sedimentation of protein particles that occurs during the storage period, which faces rejection by the consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the particle sedimentation in semi-skimmed, skimmed and wholemilk, stored at 20°C, 30°C (±1 for 120 days. In pasteurized milk that yielded UHT milk physico-chemical and microbiological analisys (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria were carried out. In semi-skimmed, skimmed and whole milk, the acidity, pH, boiling, sensory analysis, integrity of packaging and sedimentation tests were carried out shortly after packing and at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of storage. The pasteurized whole milk, semi skimmed and skimmed milk showed results within the required standards by the industry for mesophilic bacteria(log10 4.37 a log10 4.08UFC mL-1, psychrotrophic (log10 3.06 a log10 2.77UFC mL-1 and lactic acid (log10 3.10 a

  13. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  14. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance

  15. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  16. VARIASI KONSENTRASI BUAH ASAM (Tamarindus indica L. DAN SUSU SKIM TERHADAP KUALITAS YOGHURT KUNIR ASAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Rahayu Artini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi buah asam (Tamarindus indica L. dan  susu skim untuk menghasilkan kualitas yoghurt sesuai  dengan SNI 01-2981-2009.Rancangan percobaan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri atas sembilan perlakuan. Yoghurt kunir asam dibuat dari variasi penambahan variasi konsentrasi Tamarindus indica L. 30%, 40%, dan 50% (b/V dan  susu skim 5%, 10%, dan 15% (b/V. Sifat fisika, kimia, dan mikrobiologi  yoghurt kunir asam diamati. Dihasilkan kualitas terbaik yoghurt kunir asam dengan penambahan 30% Tamarindus indica L. (b/V0dan 15% susu skim (b/V. Dengan hasil analisis penampakan cairan kental; konsistensi homogen; rasa asam; bau khas; viskositas 89,3 cP; pH 4,85; kadar abu 1,52%; kadar lemak total 2,53%; kadar protein total 3,74%; kadar asam laktat 0,223%, kadar kurkumin 0,389%; cemaran logam Pb dan Cu serta Total Coliform dan E. coli negatif. ABSTRACT:.The objective of this research was to determinethe influence of concentrated Tamarindus indica L. and skim milk powder in producing tumuric curcumin yogurt towards its product based on SNI 01-2981-2009. The research was conducted in completely randomized design which consisted of nine treatments. The yogurt mixtures were made from a variation of 30%, 40%, and 50% of Tamarindus indica L. and addition of  5%, 10%, and 15% of skim milk powder.  Physical, chemical, and microbiology properties of the turmeric curcuma yogurts were observed.  The results showed the best quality of turmeric curcumin  yogurt was formulated by the addition of 30% Tamarindus indica L. and 15% skim milk powder,  with the results of the analysis: the appearance of a viscous fluid; homogeneous consistency; sour taste; distinctive smell; viscosity of 89.3 cP; pH of 4.85; ash content of 1.52%; total fat content of 2.53%; total protein content of 3.74%; lactic acid levels of 0.22%, curcumin content of 0

  17. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  18. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-02-23

    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust Lyapunov controller includes an inner closed loop Lyapunov controller and an outer closed loop error stabilizer. In another example, a method includes monitoring a system output of a process plant; generating an estimated system control input based upon a defined output reference; generating a system control input using the estimated system control input and a compensation term; and adjusting the process plant based upon the system control input to force the system output to track the defined output reference. An inner closed loop Lyapunov controller can generate the estimated system control input and an outer closed loop error stabilizer can generate the system control input.

  19. Quantum control of optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the prospects of entanglement-enhanced quantum control of optomechanical systems. We first discuss several pulsed schemes in which the radiation-pressure interaction is used to generate EPR entanglement between the mechanical mode of a cavity-optomechanical system and a travelling-wave light pulse. The entanglement created in this way can be used as a resource for mechanical state preparation. On the basis of this protocol, we introduce an optomechanical teleportation scheme to transfer an arbitrary light state onto the mechanical system. Furthermore, we describe how one can create a mechanical non-classical state (i.e., a state with a negative Wigner function) by single-photon detection, and, in a similar protocol, how optomechanical systems can be used to demonstrate the violation of a Bell inequality. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to time-continuous quantum control protocols. Making use of optimal-control techniques, we analyse measurement-based feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator and demonstrate that ground-state cooling is achievable in the sideband-resolved, blue-detuned regime. We then extend this homodyne-detection based setup and introduce the notion of a time-continuous Bell measurement---a generalisation of the standard continuous variable Bell measurement to a continuous measurement setting. Combining this concept with continuous feedback we analyse the generation of a squeezed mechanical steady state via time-continuous teleportation, and the creation of bipartite mechanical entanglement by entanglement swapping. Finally we discuss an experiment demonstrating the evaluation of the conditional optomechanical quantum state by Kalman filtering, constituting a important step towards time-continuous quantum control of optomechanical systems and the possible realisation of the protocols presented in this thesis. (author) [de

  20. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  1. Isolation contactor state control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  2. Control system for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    An improved gamma camera arrangement is described which utilizing a solid state detector, formed of high purity germanium. the central arrangement of the camera operates to effect the carrying out of a trapezoidal filtering operation over antisymmetrically summed spatial signals through gated integration procedures utilizing idealized integrating intervals. By simultaneously carrying out peak energy evaluation of the input signals, a desirable control over pulse pile-up phenomena is achieved. Additionally, through the use of the time derivative of incoming pulse or signal energy information to initially enable the control system, a low level information evaluation is provided serving to enhance the signal processing efficiency of the camera

  3. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    A up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille '95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station. (author)

  4. Plug-and-Play Control – Modifying Control Systems Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Often, when new sensor or actuator hardware be- comes available for use in a control system, it is desirable to retain the existing control system and apply the new control capabilities in a gradual fashion rather than decommissioning the entire existing system and replacing it with an altogether...... new control system. However, this requires that the existing controller remains in action, and the new control law component is added to the existing system. This paper formally introduces the concept of Plug-and-Play control and proposes two different methods of introducing new control components...

  5. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E.

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  6. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  7. Free molecule flow analysis of the interaction of skimming hardware components and background gas with free jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuraman, P.; Bossel, U.

    1974-01-01

    Under conditions typical for the extraction of nozzle beams from free jets the rarefied flow pattern in the expansion chamber containing skimming hardware components and background gas is studied using a free molecule solution to the Boltzmann equation

  8. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  9. Accelerator control systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chihyuan

    1992-01-01

    Three accelerator facilities were built in the past few years, the 2.8 GeV electron positron collider BEPC, the heavy ion SSC cyclotron accelerator HIRFL and the 800 MeV synchrotron radiation storage ring HESYRL. Aimed at different research areas, they represent a new generation of accelerator in China. This report describes the design philosophy, the structure, performance as well as future improvements of the control systems of the these facilities. (author)

  10. Experimental research control software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, I A; Kovalenko, A G; Vystavkin, A N

    2014-01-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  11. Experimental research control software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  12. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  13. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...... to the conclusion that primary control systems are designed as global systems, which are universal throughout the company, whereas secondary systems are designed as local or glocal systems....

  14. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was c...

  15. Perencanaan Gudang Block Skim Rubber dengan Metode Shared Storage di PTPN III Kebun Rambutan Pengolahan Lateks Pekat.

    OpenAIRE

    Darianto

    2011-01-01

    Kebun Rambutan merupakan salah satu unit PTPN III Medan – Sumatera Utara, yang bergerak dalam usaha Perkebunan Karet dan Kelapa Sawit, serta mempunyai pabrik pengolahan Lateks Pekat dan dari sisa Lateks Pekat didapat produk yang masih mempunyai nilai jual yaitu Block Skim Rubber Dari hasil pengamatan yang dilakukan Dalam penempatan Block Skim Rubber digudang sementara ini tidak teratur, yang dapat menyebabkan ketidakefisienan waktu pengambilan dan menyulitkan pekerja karena ...

  16. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine

    2008-01-01

    . Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding......Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect...... of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS...

  17. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  18. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. 'This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  19. Acid skim milk gels: The gelation process as affected by preheated pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of preheating milk (10 min 80 [degree sign]C) at pH values from 6.20 to 6.90 on formation of acid skim milk gels was studied by dynamic oscillation measurements. Up to pH 6.65 a higher pH of heating (pHheating) resulted in a higher G'. Since below pH 4.9 the development of

  20. DIVERSIFIKASI KEFIR BERBASIS KEDELAI DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI SUSU SKIM DAN INOKULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Nurkhoeriyati*

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial kefir were evaluated to be used as the benchmark for the development of soybean-based kefir with various concentrations of skim milk and inoculum. The commercial kefir has alcohol content and titratable acidity values in accordance with the Codex standards. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA was carried out to obtain the description of kefir as the reference for the development of soybean-based kefir. Sensory evaluation of soybean-based kefir samples with various concentrations of skim milk and inoculum was conducted by trained panelists. Based on sensory evaluation, the soybean-based kefir with similar sensory characteristics to the commercial kefir was that made by adding 10% of skim milk and 10% kefir grains of 3, 4 and 5% (w/w. Soybean-based kefir with 10% (w/w skim milk and 3% (w/w kefir grains was chosen for analysis of its physicochemical characteristics. Despite having sensory characteristics similiar to commercial kefir, this soy-based kefir possesses different physicochemical properties from that of commercial one. Neverthe-less, the physico-chemical characteristics of selected kefir-based soybean met the Codex standards. The content of protein, fat, alcohol, dry matter and viscosity of the selected soy-based kefir were: 3.79±0.10% wb, 0.00±0.00% wb, 0.93±0.00%wb, 57.26 mg/kg, 8.43±0.38% wb, and 37.95±0.05 cP, respectively.

  1. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai Kuan; Xiao, Rui Feng; Qi†, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagul...

  2. Performance assessment of membrane distillation for skim milk and whey processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Kulozik, Ulrich; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging membrane process based on evaporation of a volatile solvent. One of its often stated advantages is the low flux sensitivity toward concentration of the processed fluid, in contrast to reverse osmosis. In the present paper, we looked at 2 high-solids applications of the dairy industry: skim milk and whey. Performance was assessed under various hydrodynamic conditions to investigate the feasibility of fouling mitigation by changing the operating parameters and to compare performance to widespread membrane filtration processes. Whereas filtration processes are hydraulic pressure driven, membrane distillation uses vapor pressure from heat to drive separation and, therefore, operating parameters have a different bearing on the process. Experimental and calculated results identified factors influencing heat and mass transfer under various operating conditions using polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes. Linear velocity was found to influence performance during skim milk processing but not during whey processing. Lower feed and higher permeate temperature was found to reduce fouling in the processing of both dairy solutions. Concentration of skim milk and whey by membrane distillation has potential, as it showed high rejection (>99%) of all dairy components and can operate using low electrical energy and pressures (<10 kPa). At higher cross-flow velocities (around 0.141 m/s), fluxes were comparable to those found with reverse osmosis, achieving a sustainable flux of approximately 12 kg/h·m(2) for skim milk of 20% dry matter concentration and approximately 20 kg/h·m(2) after 18 h of operation with whey at 20% dry matter concentration. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Susceptibility of nine organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk towards inoculated lactic acid bacteria and yogurt starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fresh milk might be polluted by some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). In this study the dissipation of nine OPPs, namely chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, phorate, pirimiphos-methyl and trichlorphon, in skimmed milk was investigated to clarify their susceptibility towards lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yogurt starters. Skimmed milk was spiked with nine OPPs, inoculated with five strains of LAB and two commercial yogurt starters at 42 °C for 24 and 5 h respectively and subjected to quantitative OPP analysis by gas chromatography. Degradation kinetic constants of these OPPs were calculated based on a first-order reaction model. OPP dissipation in the milk was enhanced by the inoculated strains and starters, resulting in OPP concentrations decreasing by 7.0-64.6 and 7.4-19.2% respectively. Totally, the nine OPPs were more susceptible to Lactobacillus bulgaricus, as it enhanced their degradation rate constants by 18.3-133.3%. Higher phosphatase production of the assayed stains was observed to bring about greater OPP degradation in the milk. Both LAB and yogurt starters could enhance OPP dissipation in skimmed milk, with the nine OPPs studied having different susceptibilities towards them. Phosphatase was a key factor governing OPP dissipation. The LAB of higher phosphatase production have more potential to decrease OPPs in fermented foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Concentration of field and skim latex by microfiltration - membrane fouling and biochemical methane potential of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongmak, Narumol; Sridang, Porntip; Puetpaiboon, Udomphon; Grasmick, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration was used to concentrate field and skim latex suspensions and recover the smallest compounds (proteins, sugars, etc.) in permeate (serum solutions). The experiments were performed in a lab-scale microfiltration unit equipped with ceramic membranes. In continuous mode, the operations were performed at constant trans-membrane pressure (0.5 bars), constant cross-flow velocity (3 m/s) and constant temperature (28 ± 2°C). In retentate, the volumetric concentration factor was only close to 2 (about 54% of total solid content, TSC) when concentrating the field latex suspensions, and it reached 10 (close to 40% TSC) when concentrating skim latex suspensions. The quality of retentate suspensions let envisage a significant potential of industrial valorization. The membrane fouling rates appeared as an increasing function of dry rubber content suspension, and the main fouling origin (94%) was linked to a reversible accumulation of suspended compounds on the membrane surface. Permeate appeared as a clear yellow solution containing the smallest soluble organic fractions that show a high degree of biodegradability when using biochemical methane potential tests. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was then higher than 92% and the methane production yield was close to 0.29 NLCH4/gCODremoved. The association of a membrane separation step and anaerobic digestion appeared, then, as a relevant solution to recover rubber content from skim latex suspensions and energy from the anaerobic digestion of serum.

  5. Development, chemical and sensory characterization of semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Regina Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop, to perform the chemical characterization and verify the acceptability of a semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate (WPC 35 %, and compare it to traditional yogurt, without adding any protein source. For this, two formulations were prepared: 1- traditional semi skim and 2: semi skim added with WPC 35 %, with subsequent evaluation of physicochemical characteristics of acidity, pH and viscosity, as well as the compositional analysis of the levels of humidity, full solids, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrates for both formulations. The sensory analysis was performed with 80 untrained tasters, which was based on parameters of appearance, taste, flavor and consistency. The appearance and consistency parameters showed a significant difference between received grades, and the yogurt added with WPC 35 % the most preferred these aspects, as well as the formulation with the highest widespread acceptance among testers. The results indicate that the use of WPC 35 % in foods is a promising alternative, considering the overall acceptance obtained, the protein content beneficial to the consumers health, the improvement of technological properties provided to food coupled to the extent which it is produced, low cost and reducing the damage caused to the environment. 

  6. Boundary controllability of integrodifferential systems in Banach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [6] discussed the general theory of boundary control systems. Barbu and Precupanu [4] studied a class of convex control problems governed by linear evolution systems covering the principal boundary control systems of parabolic type. In [5] Barbu investigated a class of boundary-distributed linear control systems in ...

  7. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures must...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  9. Three axis attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  10. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  11. Almaraz ovation control system security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronal Rodriguez, E.; Anderson, E.; Jimenez Diaz, J.; Carrasco Mateos, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    Improving the security of a plant's Distributed Control System (DCS) is an important consideration for plant safety and profitability, as well as the necessity to comply with the regulation. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has produced Regulatory Guide (RG) 5.71, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has produced NEI 08-09 to assist plants in meeting 10 CFR 73.54, Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks. These requirements, which address the establishment, implementation and maintenance of a cyber security program, present challenges to ensure that safety, security and emergency preparedness functions of nuclear facilities are not negatively impacted by the vulnerability scanning and testing process.

  12. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  13. Advances and applications in nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The book reports on the latest advances and applications of nonlinear control systems. It consists of 30 contributed chapters by subject experts who are specialized in the various topics addressed in this book. The special chapters have been brought out in the broad areas of nonlinear control systems such as robotics, nonlinear circuits, power systems, memristors, underwater vehicles, chemical processes, observer design, output regulation, backstepping control, sliding mode control, time-delayed control, variables structure control, robust adaptive control, fuzzy logic control, chaos, hyperchaos, jerk systems, hyperjerk systems, chaos control, chaos synchronization, etc. Special importance was given to chapters offering practical solutions, modeling and novel control methods for the recent research problems in nonlinear control systems. This book will serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering. The resulting design proce...

  14. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

     weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12......% confidence intervals 0.05-0.50 kg m(-2) , all P ≤ 0.009) and the pre-test control group (0.044-0.247 kg m(-2) , P ≤ 0.002) for all four test drinks. Fat mass index (FMI) increased only for milk-based drink groups compared with baseline (0.15-0.67 kg m(-2) , P 

  15. Study on Design of Control Module and Fuzzy Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Sohn, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Seon; Kim, Min Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Performance of control unit is improved by introduction of fuzzy control theory and compensation for input of control unit as FLC(Fuzzy Logic Controller). Here, FLC drives thermal control system by linguistic rule-base. Hence, In case of using compensative PID control unit, it doesn't need to revise or compensate for PID control unit. Consequently, this study shows proof that control system which implements H/W module and then uses fuzzy algorism in this system is stable and has reliable performance

  16. Contouring controller for precise motion control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Golubovic, Edin; Baran, Eray Abdurrahman; Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the trajectory generation algorithm, contour error construction method and finally the contour controller design. In the trajectory generation algorithm combination of elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFD) and time based spline approximation (TBSA) is used to generate position, velocity and acceleration references.Contour error is constructed using transformation of trajectory tracking errors. Transformation is computationally efficient and requires only reference velocity...

  17. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking. We adjusted the concentration of substrate available to form lactic acid. We added water to decrease the lactose content of the milk, but this also decreased the protein content, so we used ultrafiltration to help maintain a constant protein concentration. We used 3 milks with different lactose-to-casein ratios: one at a high level, 1.8 (HLC, the normal level in milk); one at a medium level, 1.3 (MLC); and one at a low level, 1.0 (LLC). All milks had similar total casein (2.5%) and fat (2.5%) content. We investigated the composition, texture, and functional and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella manufactured from these milks when the cheeses were ripened at 4°C for 84d. All cheeses had similar pH values at draining and salting, resulting in cheeses with similar total calcium contents. Cheeses made with LLC milk had higher pH values than the other cheeses throughout ripening. Cheeses had similar moisture contents. The LLC and MLC cheeses had lower levels of lactose, galactose, lactic acid, and insoluble calcium compared with HLC cheese. The lactose-to-casein ratio had no effect on the levels of proteolysis. The LLC and MLC cheeses were harder than the HLC cheese during ripening. Maximum loss tangent (LT), an index of cheese meltability, was lower for the LLC cheese until 28d of ripening, but after 28d, all treatments exhibited similar maximum LT values. The temperature where LT=1 (crossover temperature), an index

  18. Control System for Prosthetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that of movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part through the full-shrg position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  19. Skim milk powder supplementation affects lactose utilization, microbial survival and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones in soymilk by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy T; Shah, Nagendra P

    2008-08-01

    Four probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461, L. acidophilus 4962, Lactobacillus casei 290 and L. casei 2607, were used for fermentation of soymilk (SM) prepared from soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with skim milk powder (SMP) (SSM). Soymilk and reconstituted skim milk (RSM) were used as controls. Lactose utilization in SSM by these probiotic organisms ranged from 14.97 to 18.15mg/ml, compared to 14.12-16.06mg/ml for RSM. The pH in SSM dropped to 4.07-4.29 compared to 6.15-6.36 for SM and 4.10-4.96 for RSM. The microbial viable counts were also significantly enhanced by up to 0.98logCFU/ml by the supplementation of SMP to SM. The biotransformation level of isoflavone glycosides (IG) to isoflavone aglycones (IA) in SSM ranged from 81.4% to 85.1%, which was 13.9-19.0% higher than that for SM, after 24h of incubation. Most of IG in SSM was completely converted to IA, except malonyl glycitin and malonyl genistin. At the end of the incubation, IA comprised up to 76.8% of total isoflavones in SSM.

  20. 14 CFR 31.49 - Control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control systems. 31.49 Section 31.49... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.49 Control systems. (a) Each control must operate... and subsequent inadvertent operation. (b) Each control system and operating device must be designed...

  1. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 29.395 Section 29.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 29.395 Control system. (a) The reaction to the loads prescribed in § 29.397 must be provided by— (1) The control...

  2. Fuel fabrication instrumentation and control system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.W.; Fritz, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    A process instrumentation and control system is being developed for automated fabrication of breeder reactor fuel at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington. The basic elements of the control system are a centralized computer system linked to distributed local computers, which direct individual process applications. The control philosophy developed for the equipment automation program stresses system flexibility and inherent levels of redundant control capabilities. Four different control points have been developed for each unit process operation

  3. Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System Distributed Operating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper contains a description of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) Distributed Operating System. The SCDS consists of nine 32-bit minicomputers with shared memory. The system's main purpose is to control a large Mirror Fusion Test Facility

  4. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  5. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANWAR, M.M.; YOUSEF, E.T.; ABD-ELHADI, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 7 0C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12 th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  6. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1991-02-01

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  7. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    .... Finally, they overlay the model from corporate America onto the Naval Postgraduate School to examine where socially responsible management control systems operate to control and adjust the overall...

  8. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  9. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  10. Fuzzy logic for structural system control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Martins Gomes

    Full Text Available This paper provides some information and numerical tests that aims to investigate the use of a Fuzzy Controller applied to control systems. Some advantages are reported regarding the use of this controller, such as the characteristic ease of implementation due to its semantic feature in the statement of the control rules. On the other hand, it is also hypothesized that these systems have a lower performance loss when the system to be controlled is nonlinear or has time varying parameters. Numerical tests are performed using modal LQR optimal control and Fuzzy control of non-collocated systems with full state feedback in a two-dimensional structure. The paper proposes a way of designing a controller that may be a supervisory Fuzzy controller for a traditional controller or even a fuzzy controller independent from the traditional control, consisting on individual mode controllers. Some comments are drawn regarding the performance of these proposals in a number of arrangements.

  11. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...... to hinder surges and mechanical fractures. Experimental results verify the performance of the controllers....

  12. The GAIT translational control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Abul; Yao, Peng; Terenzi, Fulvia; Jia, Jie; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Fox, Paul L

    2018-03-01

    The interferon (IFN)-γ-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT) system directs transcript-selective translational control of functionally related genes. In myeloid cells, IFN-γ induces formation of a multiprotein GAIT complex that binds structural GAIT elements in the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of multiple inflammation-related mRNAs, including ceruloplasmin and VEGF-A, and represses their translation. The human GAIT complex is a heterotetramer containing glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS), NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), ribosomal protein L13a (L13a), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). A network of IFN-γ-stimulated kinases regulates recruitment and assembly of GAIT complex constituents. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and S6K1 kinases induces EPRS release from its parental multiaminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex to join NSAP1 in a 'pre-GAIT' complex. Subsequently, the DAPK-ZIPK kinase axis phosphorylates L13a, inducing release from the 60S ribosomal subunit and binding to GAPDH. The subcomplexes join to form the functional GAIT complex. Each constituent has a distinct role in the GAIT system. EPRS binds the GAIT element in target mRNAs, NSAP1 negatively regulates mRNA binding, L13a binds eIF4G to block ribosome recruitment, and GAPDH shields L13a from proteasomal degradation. The GAIT system is susceptible to genetic and condition-specific regulation. An N-terminus EPRS truncate is a dominant-negative inhibitor ensuring a 'translational trickle' of target transcripts. Also, hypoxia and oxidatively modified lipoproteins regulate GAIT activity. Mouse models exhibiting absent or genetically modified GAIT complex constituents are beginning to elucidate the physiological role of the GAIT system, particularly in the resolution of chronic inflammation. Finally, GAIT-like systems in proto-chordates suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of the pathway in innate immunity

  13. Can milk cell or skim milk miRNAs be used as biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina I Schanzenbach

    Full Text Available The most critical phase of pregnancy is the first three weeks following insemination. During this period about 50% of high yielding lactating cows suffer embryonic loss prior to implantation, which poses a high economic burden on dairy farmers. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is therefore essential for monitoring breeding outcome and efficient production intervals. Regulated microRNAs (miRNAs that reach easily accessible body fluids via a 'liquid biopsy' could be a new class of pregnancy predicting biomarkers. As milk is obtained regularly twice daily and non-invasively from the animal, it represents an ideal sample material. Our aim was to establish a pregnancy test system based on the discovery of small RNA biomarkers derived from the bovine milk cellular fraction and skim milk of cows. Milk samples were taken on days 4, 12 and 18 of cyclic cows and after artificial insemination, respectively, of the same animals (n = 6. miRNAs were analysed using small RNA sequencing (small RNA Seq. The miRNA profiles of milk cells and skim milk displayed similar profiles despite the presence of immune cell related miRNAs in milk cells. Trends in regulation of miRNAs between the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were found in miR-cluster 25~106b and its paralog cluster 17~92, miR-125 family, miR-200 family, miR-29 family, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-100, miR-140, 193a-5p, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-652, miR-2898 and let-7i. A separation of cyclic and pregnant animals was achieved in a principal component analysis. Bta-miRs-29b, -221, -125b and -200b were successfully technically validated using quantitative real-time PCR, however biological validation failed. Therefore we cannot recommend the diagnostic use of these miRNAs in milk as biomarkers for detection of bovine pregnancy for now.

  14. Can milk cell or skim milk miRNAs be used as biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Corina I.; Kirchner, Benedikt; Ulbrich, Susanne E.; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The most critical phase of pregnancy is the first three weeks following insemination. During this period about 50% of high yielding lactating cows suffer embryonic loss prior to implantation, which poses a high economic burden on dairy farmers. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is therefore essential for monitoring breeding outcome and efficient production intervals. Regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) that reach easily accessible body fluids via a ‘liquid biopsy’ could be a new class of pregnancy predicting biomarkers. As milk is obtained regularly twice daily and non-invasively from the animal, it represents an ideal sample material. Our aim was to establish a pregnancy test system based on the discovery of small RNA biomarkers derived from the bovine milk cellular fraction and skim milk of cows. Milk samples were taken on days 4, 12 and 18 of cyclic cows and after artificial insemination, respectively, of the same animals (n = 6). miRNAs were analysed using small RNA sequencing (small RNA Seq). The miRNA profiles of milk cells and skim milk displayed similar profiles despite the presence of immune cell related miRNAs in milk cells. Trends in regulation of miRNAs between the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were found in miR-cluster 25~106b and its paralog cluster 17~92, miR-125 family, miR-200 family, miR-29 family, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-100, miR-140, 193a-5p, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-652, miR-2898 and let-7i. A separation of cyclic and pregnant animals was achieved in a principal component analysis. Bta-miRs-29b, -221, -125b and -200b were successfully technically validated using quantitative real-time PCR, however biological validation failed. Therefore we cannot recommend the diagnostic use of these miRNAs in milk as biomarkers for detection of bovine pregnancy for now. PMID:28234939

  15. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  16. Control system elektromehanicheskoy "electric – centrifugal compressors"

    OpenAIRE

    Цабенко, Марина Владимировна; Садовой, Александр Валентинович; Волянский, Роман Сергеевич

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the control system of electromechanical system «Electric - centrifugal compressor». The possibility of using the controlled actuators, not only to improve the energy efficiency of centrifugal compressors, but also for their antisurging protection.

  17. Computer control system of TARN-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the present status and future plane of TARN-II computer control system. At present, the microcomputer M-16 is used as the main control computer to regulate the 64 kinds of power supplies coupled with the serial CAMAC interface system. An excitation control of the main ring magnets is performed with the aid of self-learn technique to optimize the tracking error among them. An Rf pattern control is also performed with the microcomputer as well as the main ring control system. New computer system linked with the Ethernet is planed to develop the computing power and portability of the present control system. (author)

  18. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  19. An Integrated Expert Controller for the Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a methodology for design of integrated fuzzy logic based an expert controller and its implementation for a real time oven temperature control system. Integrated expert controller (IEC is composed by cascading fuzzy logic controller with improved PID controller. Wherein, fuzzy controller evaluates the supplemental control actions and PID evaluates the final control actions. Temperature measurement of the oven with a precision of 16-bits is achieved through Pt100, instrumentation amplifier, and A/D converter and fuzzy plus PID computed control actions are given to the actuator via D/A converter (16-bits and PWM generator. Paper experimentally demonstrated the performance of IEC for oven temperature control application. The performance indexes of the system are presented in a comparative fashion with the conventional PID and expert controllers. Control algorithms are developed using C language.

  20. New slip control system considering actuator dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Amirmasoud; Assadian, Francis

    2015-01-01

    A new control strategy for wheel slip control, considering the complete dynamics of the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) system, is developed and experimentally validated in Cranfield University's HiL system. The control system is based on closed loop shaping Youla-parameterization method. The plant model is linearized about the nominal operating point, a Youla parameter is defined for all stabilizing feedback controller and control performance is achieved by employing closed loop shaping techni...

  1. Reanalysis and experimental evidence indicate that the earliest trace fossil of a winged insect was a surface-skimming neopteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, James H

    2013-01-01

    A recent description and analysis of an imprint fossil from the Carboniferous concluded that it was made by a mayfly landing in sediment at the edge of water. Here, I reanalyze that trace fossil and supply experimental evidence regarding wing traces and behavior. The thorax of the trace maker lacked structures characteristic of mayflies, but closely matches a modern neopteran insect family (Taeniopterygidae, Plecoptera) little changed from Early Permian fossils. Edges of the folded wings of live Taeniopteryx leave marks on sediment closely matching marks in the trace fossil. Faint marks lateral to and beyond the reach of meso- and metathoracic legs match the location where wings of surface-skimming Taeniopteryx stoneflies lightly touch the sediment when these insects skim onto wet ground at shorelines. Dimensions of the thorax of the trace indicate relatively weak flight ability compared to fossils from the Early Permian, making doubtful the hypothesis that the trace maker was flight capable. Ultimately, this fossil best fits a scenario in which a neopteran insect skimmed across the surface of water, then folded its wings. Surface skimming as a precursor to the evolution of flight in insects is supported by this fossil evidence of skimming behavior in a Carboniferous insect. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  3. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per

    1968-01-01

    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  4. NOVANET: communications network for a control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.; Severyn, J.R.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    NOVANET is a control system oriented fiber optic local area network that was designed to meet the unique and often conflicting requirements of the Nova laser control system which will begin operation in 1984. The computers and data acquisition devices that form the distributed control system for a large laser fusion research facility need reliable, high speed communications. Both control/status messages and experimental data must be handled. A subset of NOVANET is currently operating on the two beam Novette laser system

  5. Decentralized estimation and control for power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a decentralized alternative to the centralized state-estimation and control technologies used in current power systems. Power systems span over vast geographical areas, and therefore require a robust and reliable communication network for centralized estimation and control. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems provide such a communication architecture and are currently employed for centralized estimation and control of power systems in a static ma...

  6. Architecture of the modern accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzic, B.; Drndarevic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Well defined concept of the system and construction plan are the important conditions for the successful realization of the accelerator control system. In this paper the modern concept of accelerator control system as well as guidelines for its efficient development have been presented. Described concept could be applied for the design of control systems for other types of facilities for experimental physics and for industrial process control. (author)

  7. Specification of EDITH motion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitwieser, H.; Frank, A.; Holler, E.; Suess, U.; Leinemann, K.

    1990-09-01

    EDITH is an experimental device for in vessel handling at NET/ITER. The purpose of EDITH is: Testing of ABS (articulated boom system) components; testing and validation of remote handling procedures; testing and validation of ABS end-effectors; testing of ABS control system features and verification of control system concepts. This document, after describing the environment in which the control system is to operate, specifies architecture and functionality to be implemented by the EDITH motion control system software, thereby taking full reference to the control system specification for TARM, which was decided to be the base for the implementation. (orig.) [de

  8. The CEBAF control system for the CHL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesee, M.S.; Bevins, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) control system consists of independent safety controls located at each subsystem, CAMAC computer interface hardware, and a CEBAF-designed control software called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL). The paper describes how control software was interfaced with the subsystems of the CHL. Topics of configuration, editing, operator interface, datalogging, and internal logic functions are presented as they relate to the operational needs of the helium plant. The paper also describes the effort underway to convert from TACL to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), the new control system for the CEBAF accelerator. This software change will require customizing EPICS software to cryogenic process control

  9. Potential and pitfalls of eukaryotic metagenome skimming: a test case for lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, Bastian; Zehr, Simonida; Dal Grande, Francesco; Meiser, Anjuli; Schmitt, Imke; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of multispecies communities using only a single library layout is commonly used to assess taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial assemblages. Here, we investigate to what extent such metagenome skimming approaches are applicable for in-depth genomic characterizations of eukaryotic communities, for example lichens. We address how to best assemble a particular eukaryotic metagenome skimming data, what pitfalls can occur, and what genome quality can be expected from these data. To facilitate a project-specific benchmarking, we introduce the concept of twin sets, simulated data resembling the outcome of a particular metagenome sequencing study. We show that the quality of genome reconstructions depends essentially on assembler choice. Individual tools, including the metagenome assemblers Omega and MetaVelvet, are surprisingly sensitive to low and uneven coverages. In combination with the routine of assembly parameter choice to optimize the assembly N50 size, these tools can preclude an entire genome from the assembly. In contrast, MIRA, an all-purpose overlap assembler, and SPAdes, a multisized de Bruijn graph assembler, facilitate a comprehensive view on the individual genomes across a wide range of coverage ratios. Testing assemblers on a real-world metagenome skimming data from the lichen Lasallia pustulata demonstrates the applicability of twin sets for guiding method selection. Furthermore, it reveals that the assembly outcome for the photobiont Trebouxia sp. falls behind the a priori expectation given the simulations. Although the underlying reasons remain still unclear, this highlights that further studies on this organism require special attention during sequence data generation and downstream analysis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Kualitas Semen Beku Kuda dalam Pengencer Susu Skim dan Dimitropoulos dengan Dimetilformamida Sebagai Krioprotektan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arifiantini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine semen are far less tolerant in the freezing and thawing process than bull semen. The stallion spermatozoa are known susceptible to cold-shock relating with the content of their fatty acid on the plasma membrane. The extender is one of determining factors in the success of stallion semen cryopreservation, as an energy source and protector the cell from harmfull effect of cold shock. The common cryoprotective agent (CPA for mammalian spermatozoa was glycerol, but for stallion semen cryopreservation, dimethyl formamide (DMF was more suitable. This research was conducted to compare the success of the stallion semen cryopreservation in skim milk and dimitropoulos (DV extender with DMF as cryoprotectant. Semen from three sexualy mature stallions was collected twice a week using an artificial vagina. Semen was evaluated macro- and microscopically and then divided into two tubes, diluted each of them with skim milk dan DV extender (1:1, centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 15 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the pellet (spermatozoa was re-diluted in skim DMF (SDMF and DVDMF extender with the concentration of spermatozoa was 200x106 ml-1. The semen then packed in 0.3ml minitub straw equilibrated for two hours at 4-5oC and frezee in liquid N2 vapor for 10 minutes. The assessment of sperm quality was conducted based on the percentage of sperm motility and viability. In this research, post-thawed semen in DVDMF showed the percentages of the motility (36.2% and the viability (59.3% higher (P<0.05 than SDMF (28.5 and 48.0 %. In conclusion, the DVDMF extender provided better post-thawed semen quality than SDMF.

  11. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...... that these controllers have good performance on the set of training targets as well as on a randomly generated set of validation targets....

  12. Logistics hardware and services control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, A.; Miller, K.; Lamb, T.

    1973-01-01

    Software system permits onsite direct control of logistics operations, which include spare parts, initial installation, tool control, and repairable parts status and control, through all facets of operations. System integrates logistics actions and controls receipts, issues, loans, repairs, fabrications, and modifications and assets in predicting and allocating logistics parts and services effectively.

  13. 50 CFR 600.420 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control system. 600.420 Section 600.420..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.420 Control system. (a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters of...

  14. 75 FR 65151 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... 35 and 39 Marine Vapor Control Systems; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 203... Control Systems AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... vapor control systems (VCSs). The proposed changes would make VCS requirements more compatible with new...

  15. 75 FR 2597 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... al. Positive Train Control Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 10 / Friday... Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation... passenger and freight rail lines requiring the implementation of positive train control (PTC) systems. This...

  16. Effects of Ethanolic Ferolagu angulata Extract on Pathogenic Gastrointestinal Bacteria and Probiotic Bacteria in Skimmed Milk Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naghiha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Due to excessive consumption of synthetic drugs, drug resistance rate of pathogenic bacteria is increasing and there is an ever-increasing need to find new safe compounds to tackle this problem. This study was conducted to investigate the consequences of chavill extract on the growth and viability of gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterium and probiotics bacteria. Methods:    The experiment contained three levels of the chavill extract concentrations (0, 1 and 3% which were added to the milk free fat in accompany with three probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and lactobacillus plantaram and a pathogenic gastrointestinal bacterium (Salmonella typhimurium. Bacterial inoculums (1×107 CFU/ml with different concentrations of chavill extract were added to skimmed milk medium and bacteria growth were enumerated. Results:  The concentration of 1% chavill extract significantly increased the total count of probiotic bacteria compared to the control group, while the number of pathogenic bacteria was decreased. At 3% chavill extract the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantaram were increased. On the other hand, it prevented the growth of Salmonella typhimurium Conclusion:   Chavill extracts would play as an alternative to antibiotics in pharmacological studies to decreases harmful bacteria and increase probiotic bacteria.

  17. Effect of Formic Acid on Exopolysaccharide Production in Skim Milk Fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Junko; Kawai, Yasushi; Aritomo, Ryota; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Isogai, Emiko; Saito, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    In yogurt, the formation of formate by Streptococcus thermophilus stimulates the activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus). However, there have been no reports how formic acid acts on the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of L. bulgaricus. Here, the effect of formate on the EPS production in skim milk by L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 was investigated. After incubation for 24 hr with 100 mg/l formate, cell proliferation and lactic acid production were accelerated. The viable and total cell numbers were increased about ten- and four-fold, respectively. The amount of EPS in culture with formate (~116 µg/ml) was also four-fold greater than that of the control (~27 µg/ml). Although elongation of cells was observed at 6 hr of cultivation in both cultures, cells cultivated with formate returned to a normal shape after incubation for 24 hr. The sensitivity to cell wall hydrolase and composition of surface layer proteins, as well as the cell membrane fatty acid composition of L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1, were not influenced by formate. However, differences were observed in intracellular fatty acid compositions and sensitivity to antibiotics. Cell length and surface damage returned to normal in cultures with formate. These observations suggest that formic acid is necessary for normal cell growth of L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 and higher EPS production.

  18. The Role of Ammonia in Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in Skim Natural Rubber Latex

    OpenAIRE

    Danwanichakul, Panu; Suwatthanarak, Thanawat; Suwanvisith, Chidchanok; Danwanichakul, Duangkamol

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in skim natural rubber latex, the by-product from concentrated latex production. The role of ammonia was investigated by varying the concentration to be 0.217, 0.362, 0.377, 0.392, and 0.406 wt%. The emergence of AgNPs was detected by UV-visible spectrophotometer and electrical conductivity meter. Upon increasing ammonia concentration, the ABS peak increased to a maximum and slightly shifted to a higher wavelength and then it decreased afterward a...

  19. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...

  20. The Application Concentration Addition of Skim Milk to Soy Milk Kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Mandang, Filan O; Dien, Henny; Yelnetty, Afriza

    2016-01-01

    Soy milk is a product processed soybean extract that resembles cow's milk. High protein content makes soy milk as highly nutritious vegetable milk. But the beany flavor of the resulting lead soy milk consumption levels are relatively low. One way of improving the quality of soy milk with a probiotic drink that process into soy milk kefir. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of the concentration of skim milk to soy milk kefir quality, namely in terms of the physical and chemical ...

  1. Decrease of Salmonella typhimurium in skim milk and egg by heat and ultrasonic wave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, D.M.; Llorca, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves induce cavitation which is lethal for many bacteria. When Salmonella typhimurium was suspended in skim milk or brain heart infusion broth and placed in an ultrasonicating water bath, the number of bacteria decreased by 2 to 3 log CFU in a time dependent manner. The killing by ultrasonic waves was enhanced if the menstruum was simultaneously maintained at 50 degrees C. Ultrasonic reduction in S. typhimurium numbers in liquid whole egg ranged from 1-3 log CFU at 50 degrees C. The results indicate that indirect ultrasonic wave treatment is effective in killing Salmonella in some foods

  2. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    of the system, in order to achieve a realistic test environment. A new scheme for controlling the inlet air temperature was suggested and designed as a part of a cascade control strategy. The control scheme developed can be used in general for control of the inlet air temperature in an air handling unit. A room...... temperature controller, based on airflow control, was designed. Feedback linearisation is used together with an auto-tuning procedure, based on relay feedback. Design of a new CO2 controller was made to achieve a demand controlled ventilation system, in order to save energy. Feedback linearisation was used...... as the system was recognised as a nonlinear first order system. A new tuning method was suggested, based on the results from the flow temperature controller. A supervisor for the demanded controller ventilation system was designed and implemented. The functionality of the supervisor was partly validated through...

  3. ACHEMA '85: Process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopf, E.

    1985-01-01

    The strategy obviously adopted by the well-established manufacturers is to offer 'easy-to-handle' equipment to gain new customers, and there is a variety of new compact systems or personal computers being put on the market. The changes and improvements within the processing sector proceed more or less in silence; high-capacity storage devices and multiprocessor configurations are obtainable at a moderate price, offering a greater variety of basic functions and enhanced control possibilities. Redundancy problems are handled with greater flexibility, and batch programs are advancing. Data communication has become a common feature, transmission speed and bus length have been improved. Important improvements have been made with regard to data display; even medium-sized equipment now offer the possibility of making dynamic flow-sheets and reserving space for process history display, and the hierarchy of displays has been considerably simplified. The user software also has been made more easy, 'fill-in-the-blancs' is the prevailing motto for dialog configurations, and such big terms as process computer' or 'programming skill' are passing into oblivion. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  5. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng [West Hartford, CT

    2012-04-17

    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  6. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma...... insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....../L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered...

  7. A CAMAC based knob controller for the LAMPF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.; Bjorklund, E.

    1987-01-01

    The control computer for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) has been recently upgraded from an SEL-840 to a VAX 11/780 running the VMS operating system. As part of this upgrade, a CAMAC-based knob controller was developed for the new control system. The knobs allow the facility operators to have slew control over software selectable accelerator devices. An alphanumeric display associated with each knob monitors the progress of the selected device. This paper describes the system requirements for the new LAMPF knob controller, and the resulting hardware and software design

  8. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  9. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Komareji, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices, it is often the case that systems, which...... diagonal controller structure. The interaction measure is used for control configuration selection of the nonlinear quadruple-tank process....

  10. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...

  11. Control Systems and Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhuo Li

    2012-01-01

    and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.

  12. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  13. Design of embedded control systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamski, M; Karatkevich, Andrei; Węgrzyn, M

    2005-01-01

    ... using some concrete technological base; efficient methods of logic synthesis, test, and verification should be developed for that. Fourth, the task of the communication between the control device and controlled objects (and maybe between different control devices) waits for its solution. All these problems are hard enough and cannot be successfull...

  14. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  15. Safety-related control air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This Standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this Standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  16. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  17. Holonic Models for Traffic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    This paper proposes a new time-placed net model for traffic control systems, respectively railway control traffic systems. This model can be interpreted as a holonic one, and contains three modules: Transport Planning Module, Transport Control Module and Priority Control Module. For railway traffic systems we introduce a strategy in a timed-place Petri net model to solve collision and traffic jam problems.

  18. Response Based Emergency Control System for Power System Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A transient stability control system for the electric power system composed of a prediction method and a control method is proposed based on trajectory information. This system, which is independent of system parameters and models, can detect the transient stability of the electric power system quickly and provide the control law when the system is unstable. Firstly, system instability is detected by the characteristic concave or convex shape of the trajectory. Secondly, the control method is proposed based on the analysis of the slope of the state plane trajectory when the power system is unstable. Two control objectives are provided according to the methods of acquiring the far end point: one is the minimal cost to restore the system to a stable state; the other one is the minimal cost to limit the maximum swing angle. The simulation indicates that the mentioned transient stability control system is efficient.

  19. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  20. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided

  1. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Descriptor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, which...... is needed to be controlled, is either in the descriptor form or can be represented in the descriptor form. Singular systems and the differential algebraic equation (DAE) systems are among these systems. Descriptor systems appear in the variety of fields to describe the practical processes ranging from power...... systems, hydraulic systems to heat transfer, and chemical processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for multivariable descriptor systems. A gramian-based interaction measure for control configuration selection of such processes is described in this paper...

  2. Gain scheduling controller for pitch control of a TRMS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyalakshmi, R.; Rashmi, GP; Jaganatha Pandian, B.

    2017-11-01

    Gain scheduling is a control technique which is applied for the control of non-linear systems by using a family of linear controllers at different operating points so as to increase the range of operation of the process. The dynamics of any nonlinear system changes with respect to operating points. These operating points are characterized by one or more variables known as scheduling variables. In such cases, we linearize the system at different equilibrium points. Due to the high amount of non-linearities and complexity in the aerodynamic design, modelling of other unmanned aerial vehicles have been replaced here with twin rotor system. The linearized system is then controlled by using PID controllers which are designed with respect to the obtained operating points. Linearizing of the non-linear system, designing and tuning of PID are being implemented using different MATLAB functions.

  3. Terminal Sliding Modes In Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T.; Gulati, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Control systems of proposed type called "terminal controllers" offers increased precision and stability of robotic operations in presence of unknown and/or changing parameters. Systems include special computer hardware and software implementing novel control laws involving terminal sliding modes of motion: closed-loop combination of robot and terminal controller converge, in finite time, to point of stable equilibrium in abstract space of velocity and/or position coordinates applicable to particular control problem.

  4. Research on automatic control system of greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Qi, Guoyang; Li, Zeyu; Wu, Qiannan; Meng, Yupeng

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a kind of automatic control system of single-chip microcomputer and a temperature and humidity sensor based on the greenhouse, describes the system's hardware structure, working principle and process, and a large number of experiments on the effect of the control system, the results show that the system can ideally control temperature and room temperature and humidity, can be used in indoor breeding and planting, and has the versatility and portability.

  5. Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Murray-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control

  6. Access control and personal identification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Dan M

    1988-01-01

    Access Control and Personal Identification Systems provides an education in the field of access control and personal identification systems, which is essential in selecting the appropriate equipment, dealing intelligently with vendors in purchases of the equipment, and integrating the equipment into a total effective system. Access control devices and systems comprise an important part of almost every security system, but are seldom the sole source of security. In order for the goals of the total system to be met, the other portions of the security system must also be well planned and executed

  7. Operational advanced materials control and accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanify, J.J.; Bearse, R.C.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the LASL facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system have developed in addition to safeguards, notably scrap control and quality control. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities. 20 refs

  8. Comparative analysis of improved soy-mozzarella cheeses made of ultrafiltrated and partly skimmed soy blends with other mozzarella types

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and functional qualities of soy based mozzarella cheeses by ultrafiltration (UF) of soy milk blends, adding skim milk instead of cow’s milk or increasing the soy milk proportions in cheese milk. Eight types of mozzarella cheeses made using soy milk and analyzed for nutritional, structural, and functional characteristics for 4 weeks at 4 °C. Cheeses made with cow milk, 10, 20, and 30 % soy milk in cow milk, skim milk, 10...

  9. Effect of lactose, skim milk and Tris diluents on frozen buffalo spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rastegarnia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the extender in which semen is diluted before freezing plays a major role in successful cryopreservation of spermatozoa. This study was carried out to identify the suitable buffer for cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Sixteen split pooled ejaculates from two buffalo bulls possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility, were diluted at 370c either in lactose, skim milk or Tris extenders. The diluted semen was cooled to 40c within 2 hours, equilibrated at 40c for 4-6 hours following the addition of glycerol, filled in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Semen was thawed at 370c for 30 seconds after 48 hours of storage inside liquid nitrogen. Post thaw visual sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome morphology of each semen sample were assessed by warm plate microscopy at 370c, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST and giemsa staining, respectively. Analysis of variance revelated that percentage of post thaw visual sperm motility (Mean± standard deviation tended to be higher in Tris (50±3.6 than skim milk (44.5±2.5 and lower in lactose (24.4±10.5 extenders (P

  10. Hyb-Seq: Combining Target Enrichment and Genome Skimming for Plant Phylogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Weitemier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed (Asclepias syriaca were used to design enrichment probes for 3385 exons from 768 genes (>1.6 Mbp followed by Illumina sequencing of enriched libraries. Hyb-Seq of 12 individuals (10 Asclepias species and two related genera resulted in at least partial assembly of 92.6% of exons and 99.7% of genes and an average assembly length >2 Mbp. Importantly, complete plastomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA cistrons were assembled using off-target reads. Phylogenomic analyses demonstrated signal conflict between genomes. Conclusions: The Hyb-Seq approach enables targeted sequencing of thousands of low-copy nuclear exons and flanking regions, as well as genome skimming of high-copy repeats and organellar genomes, to efficiently produce genome-scale data sets for phylogenomics.

  11. Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Frozen Snacks Based on Whey Protein Isolate and Skimmed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ioana MORAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four different formulations of frozen snacks were prepared by reconstituting whey protein isolate with skimmed milk then adding different ingredients such as cocoa and vanilla (CW, cranberries and cocoa (CrC, sour cherries and vanilla (ChW, as well as cranberries, cocoa and vanilla (CrCW. Formulation with 50% skimmed milk, 15% whey protein isolate, 10% fructose, 1% vanilla, and 24% sour cherries (ChW was selected based on sensory characteristics; the addition of sour cherry significantly (p < 0.05 changed the appearance of the frozen snack and thus this formulation showed the highest score for overall acceptability (7.6 points. This product contains 16.5 g protein, 0.2 g fat, and 16.4 g carbohydrates per 100 g frozen snack that gives an energy value of approximately 133 kcal (556 kJ. Thus, ChW is a low calories snack (under 200 kcal/100 g product characterized by high-protein content and very low-fat content.

  12. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  13. The potential for Probiotic Bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury metals in skimmed milk media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyana, Zaraswati; Priosambodo, D.; Haedar, N.; Erviani, A. E.; Djabura, A. K.; Sukma, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals that is harmful to humans. The accumulation of mercury in the body is generally derived from food. Several types of bacteria from intestine of milkfish are known to reduce mercury concentration. People can take advantage of this bacterial ability by eating it through probiotic foods. This research conducted to figure out the potential for probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury. Isolation from probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine conducted with grown the isolates in MRSA medium with addition of 1% CaCO3. Twelve isolate were obtained from milkfish intestine. Mercury resistance tested was performed by measuring cell density using a spectrophotometer at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 ppm respectively in skim milk media. Probiotic tests (gastric acid, bile salts and antimicrobial activity) for MRSB media was also conducted. Results showed that seven isolate were resistant to mercury in all concentrations and potential as probiotics. All resistant isolate then tested for skim milk media with addition of 5, 10, 20 ppm mercury acetate respectively. Result showed that only one isolated was able to reduce the concentration of mercury (Hg) in all variations on concentration and potential as mercury reducer probiotic bacteria.

  14. Development and characterization of an atorvastatin solid dispersion formulation using skimmed milk for improved oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Choudhary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atorvastatin has low aqueous solubility resulting in low oral bioavailability (12% and thus presents a challenge in formulating a suitable dosage form. To improve the aqueous solubility, a solid dispersion formulation of atorvastatin was prepared by lyophilization utilising skimmed milk as a carrier. Six different formulations were prepared with varying ratios of drug and carrier and the corresponding physical mixtures were also prepared. The formation of a solid dispersion formulation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum drug-to-carrier ratio of 1:9 enhanced solubility nearly 33-fold as compared to pure drug. In vitro drug release studies exhibited a cumulative release of 83.69% as compared to 22.7% for the pure drug. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy studies suggested the conversion of crystalline atorvastatin to an amorphous form. In a Triton-induced hyperlipidemia model, a 3-fold increase in the lipid lowering potential was obtained with the reformulated drug as compared to pure drug. These results suggest that solid dispersion of atorvastatin using skimmed milk as carrier is a promising approach for oral delivery of atorvastatin.

  15. Peningkatan Efisiensi LKMS Inklusif Melalui Skim Pembiayaan Mikro Takaful Untuk PKL Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin Setiyowati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surabaya sebagai kota metropolis kedua di Indonesia, isu terkait tenaga kerja informal khususnya pedagang kaki lima merupakan salah satu isu abadi yang sangat kompleks untuk diselesaikan. Satu hal yang perlu digarisbawahi adalah PKL menjadi salah satu solusi alternatif dalam mengurangi angka pengangguran di Surabaya sebagai kota urban. Sehingga wajar saja kalau PKL layak mendapatkan jamsostek (jaminan sosial ketenagakerjaan, mengingat tempat kerjanya yang rentan kecelakaan kerja dan jaminan hari tua untuk keluarga mereka. Sementara UU SJSN dan jamsostek maupun  UU pelaksana lainnya belum secara signifikan menganggarkan untuk mereka. Sehingga perlu segera diadakan skim coverage baru yang diinisiasi oleh lembaga non pemerintah untuk jamsostek PKL. Melalui Lembaga keuangan mikro syariah (LKMS dengan karakter inklusifitasnya, maka salah satunya BMT mengadakan skim pembiayaan mikrotakaful untuk tenaga kerja informal, khususnya PKL dalam rangka coverage kecelakaan kerja dan jaminan hari tua. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian PAR (Partisipation Action Research dengan PKL-PKL di sentra PKL yang sudah disediakan oleh Pemkot Surabaya maupun yang masih liar, dan dari pihak LKMS. Sehingga diharapkan dari penelitian ini mampu menjadi new inside dalam Islamic Economic science dan menjadi solusi alternatif mewujudkan kesejahteraan umat.

  16. Reasoning about Control Situations in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of distributed generation, deregulation and distribution of control has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in reasoning tasks such as intelligent control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus......, a model for intelligent control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because...

  17. Superconducting Coil Winding Machine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Kotelnikov, S. [Fermilab; Makulski, A. [Fermilab; Walbridge, D. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system, which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls. The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system.

  18. Parametric robustness of the reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Kim, Sin

    1998-01-01

    The parametric analysis method is applied to the reactor control system. The mathematical reactor model is discussed in terms of the parametric uncertainties. The Tsyplin-Polyak locus, based on the boundary crossing theorem, shows the reactor plant has an intrinsic stability. A simple controller is incorporated to the plant to configure the overall closed loop system. Then parametric stability margins are obtained for the controller constants. The results show that a new design constraint of the controller robustness with respect to overall system should be considered for the controller design of an uncertain system

  19. Computer-aided control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebenhaft, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Control systems are typically implemented using conventional PID controllers, which are then tuned manually during plant commissioning to compensate for interactions between feedback loops. As plants increase in size and complexity, such controllers can fail to provide adequate process regulations. Multivariable methods can be utilized to overcome these limitations. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, modern control systems are designed and analyzed with the aid of MVPACK, a system of computer programs that appears to the user like a high-level calculator. The software package solves complicated control problems, and provides useful insight into the dynamic response and stability of multivariable systems

  20. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  1. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  2. Interface For Fault-Tolerant Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Charles; Williamson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Interface unit and controller emulator developed for research on electronic helicopter-flight-control systems equipped with artificial intelligence. Interface unit interrupt-driven system designed to link microprocessor-based, quadruply-redundant, asynchronous, ultra-reliable, fault-tolerant control system (controller) with electronic servocontrol unit that controls set of hydraulic actuators. Receives digital feedforward messages from, and transmits digital feedback messages to, controller through differential signal lines or fiber-optic cables (thus far only differential signal lines have been used). Analog signals transmitted to and from servocontrol unit via coaxial cables.

  3. Geometric Control of Patterned Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    This monograph is aiming at researchers of systems control, especially those interested in multiagent systems, distributed and decentralized control, and structured systems. The book assumes no prior background in geometric control theory; however, a first year graduate course in linear control systems is desirable.  Since not all control researchers today are exposed to geometric control theory, the book also adopts a tutorial style by way of examples that illustrate the geometric and abstract algebra concepts used in linear geometric control. In addition, the matrix calculations required for the studied control synthesis problems of linear multivariable control are illustrated via a set of running design examples. As such, some of the design examples are of higher dimension than one may typically see in a text; this is so that all the geometric features of the design problem are illuminated.

  4. Technical quality control - constancy controls for digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Landmark, I.D.; Bredholt, K.; Hauge, I.H.R.

    2009-04-01

    To ensure the quality of mammographic images, so-called constancy control tests are performed frequently. The report contains a programme for constancy control of digital mammography systems, encompassing the mammography unit, computed radiography (CR) systems, viewing conditions and displays, printers, and procedures for data collection for patient dose calculations. (Author)

  5. Control system for JAERI Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    A control system comprising of the personal computers network and the CAMAC stations for the JAERI Free Electron Laser is designed and is in the development stage. It controls the equipment and analyzes the electron and optical beam experiments. The concept and the prototype of the control system are described. (author)

  6. F-15 IFCS: Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.

  7. Building Blocks for Control System Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Amerongen van, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L

    2001-01-01

    Software implementation of control laws for industrial systems seem straightforward, but is not. The computer code stemming from the control laws is mostly not more than 10 to 30% of the total. A building-block approach for embedded control system development is advocated to enable a fast and

  8. Control system for glassing hot presses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.F.

    1984-06-13

    A software programmable control system has been developed that automates the glass fusing process used in the production of semiconductor thermopile elements. The new control system replaces an older, mostly manual, electromechanical design. This report describes the new control design and its functional features.

  9. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2013-01-01

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flows and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...... to design an optimising control strategy for a subcathcment area in Copenhagen....

  10. Correlation control theory of chaotic laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fuli.

    1986-04-01

    A novel control theory of chaotic systems is studied. The correlation functions are calculated and used as feedback signals of the chaotic lasers. Computer experiments have shown that in this way the chaotic systems can be controlled to have time-independent output when the external control parameters are in chaotic domain. (author)

  11. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...-0028, Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad...-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system implementation on track segments... and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control Division, Federal Railroad Administration, Mail...

  12. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  13. Development of SI Engine Control Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Ogai, Harutoshi; Kusaka, Jin

    An engine control education system is designed. This system can realize the following functions: it serves to familiarize people with gasoline engine properties and can be applied to carry out engine control simulation, to design engine control logic and to realize engine real-time simulation. In the paper, the structure of this education system is explained. The system is composed of a computer, a high-speed arithmetic processing board, an ECU and an engine test bench. Engine control simulations are carried out, and engine properties are obtained. Therefore this system can assist people in mastering gasoline engine properties. Besides, a real-time simulation system is designed, and PID control real-time simulation is realized. In the future, new control systems can be designed based on the current one. When the engine simulator is connected with engine test bench and ECU, engine real-time simulation can be realized.

  14. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  15. Robust tracking control of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of virtual stabilizability for dynamical systems is introduced and the virtual stabilizability of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach with differential inequality, a tracking control is proposed such that the states of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control system track the desired trajectories with any pre-specified exponential decay rate and convergence radius. Moreover, we present an algorithm to find such a tracking control. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main results.

  16. Siroco, a configurable robot control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, B.G.; Maraggi, G.J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The SIROCO (Configurable Robot Control System) is an electronic system designed to work in applications where mechanized remote control equipment and robots are necessary especially in Nuclear Power Plants. The structure of the system (hardware and software) determines the following user characteristics: a) Reduction in the time spent in NDT and in radiation doses absorbed, due to remote control operation; b) possibility for full automation in NDT, c) the system can simultaneously control up to six axes and can generate movements in remote areas; and d) possibility for equipment unification, due to SIROCO being a configurable system. (author)

  17. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Development of 2-loop feedwater control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    A 2-loop feedwater control system has been developed for automatic transfer control of the reactor feed pumps (RFP's) in BWR plants. This system consists of a master level controller and sub-loop flow controllers for each of the RFP's. Control characteristics of the 2-loop control system were investigated using a dynamic analysis code for the condensate feedwater system. Although the RFP system has a hydraulic coupling effect, the flow control loops become stable by setting adequate controller gains in the sub-loop flow controllers. The control characteristics in the major loop were modified in their initial response to level setpoint change by using a lead/lag compensator. Moreover, reactor core cooling was protected sufficiently during the transient in a trip of a turbine driven RFP. From simulation results of the transfer controls from the motor driven RFP to turbine driven RFP, it was ascertained that the 2-loop control system has such advantages as shorter completion time and superior controllability against ON-OFF action of a RFP recirculation valve during transfer control. (author)

  19. Anatomy of a control system; a system designer's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) control system is quite unconventional in its design and implementation. This paper discusses the system design considerations, the actual implementation, hardware and software costs, and the measured performance across all layers of the system

  20. Relative controllability and null controllability of linear delay systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the relative, absolute controllability and null controllability of the generalized linear delay system and its discrete prototype. The paper presents illuminating examples on previous controllability results by Manitius and Olbrot [7] and carries over the results of Onwuatu [8] ...

  1. Model predictive control for a thermostatic controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff...... temperatures are estimated by reduced order observers and evaporation temperature is regulated by an algorithmic suction pressure control scheme. The method is applied to a validated simulation benchmark. The results show that even with the thermostatic control valves, there exists significant potential...

  2. Linear systems optimal and robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Alok

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Overview Contents of the Book State Space Description of a Linear System Transfer Function of a Single Input/Single Output (SISO) System State Space Realizations of a SISO System SISO Transfer Function from a State Space Realization Solution of State Space Equations Observability and Controllability of a SISO System Some Important Similarity Transformations Simultaneous Controllability and Observability Multiinput/Multioutput (MIMO) Systems State Space Realizations of a Transfer Function Matrix Controllability and Observability of a MIMO System Matrix-Fraction Description (MFD) MFD of a Transfer Function Matrix for the Minimal Order of a State Space Realization Controller Form Realization from a Right MFD Poles and Zeros of a MIMO Transfer Function Matrix Stability Analysis State Feedback Control and Optimization State Variable Feedback for a Single Input System Computation of State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multiinput System State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multi...

  3. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  4. Exact controllability for a Thermodiffusion System with locally distributed controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, F. G.; Schulz, R. A.; Soriano, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we establish a exact controllability result for a thermodiffusion system, modeled by Cattaneo's law, posed in a one-dimensional domain. In the present model the control mechanisms are effective in a small subinterval of the domain. To obtain the desired results, we prove an observability inequality for the adjoint system which, together with the multiplier methods and the Hilbert Uniqueness Method (HUM) developed by J.L. Lions, gives the controllability.

  5. PSS Controller for Wind Power Generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, J. L.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Bianchi, F.; Sumper, A.

    2012-10-01

    Small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction is presented. Power systems oscillation modes can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. Variable speed wind turbines can be regulated to reduce these oscillations, stabilising the power system. A power system stabiliser (PSS) control loop for wind power is designed in order to increase the damping of the oscillation modes. The proposed power system stabiliser controller is evaluated by small signal analysis.

  6. Gradient realization of nonlinear control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortes monforte, J.; Cortés, J.; Crouch, P.E.; Astolfi, A.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Gordillo, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate necessary and su?cient conditions under which a nonlinear afine control system with outputs can be written as a gradient control system corresponding to some pseudo-Riemannian metric defined on the state space. The results rely on a suitable notion of compatibility of the system with

  7. Evolution of control systems for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the development of control systems for accelerators. After an historical survey and a general introduction the hardware and software of such systems is described. As example the control system of the CERN SP5 is considered. Finally an outlook is given to future developments with special regards to the LEP storage ring. (HSI)

  8. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  9. Fuzzy control system for a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Quan Dai; Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first fuzzy logic control system was proposed by Mamdani, many studies have been carried out on industrial process and real-time controls. The key problem for the application of fuzzy logic control is to find a suitable set of fuzzy control rules. Three common modes of deriving fuzzy control rules are often distinguished and mentioned: (1) expert experience and knowledge; (2) modeling operator control actions; and (3) modeling a process. In cases where an operator's skill is important, it is very useful to derive fuzzy control rules by modeling an operator's control actions. It is possible to model an operator's control behaviors in terms of fuzzy implications using the input-output data concerned with his/her control actions. The authors use the model obtained in this way as the basis for a fuzzy controller. The authors use a finite number of fuzzy or approximate control rules. To control a robot in a cluttered reactor environment, it is desirable to combine all the methods. In this paper, the authors describe a general algorithm for a mobile robot control system with fuzzy logic reasoning. They discuss the way that knowledge of fuzziness will be represented in this control system. They also describe a simulation program interface to the K2A Cybermation mobile robot to be used to demonstrate the control system

  10. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  11. The SNS Resonance Control Cooling System Control Valve Upgrade Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Derrick C.; Schubert, James Phillip; Tang, Johnny Y.

    2008-01-01

    The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

  12. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  13. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine how businesses with social responsibility as part of their core strategy use related management control systems within the business strategy control model set forth...

  14. Adding PCs to SLC Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, T.; Levitt, S.; MacKenzie, R.; Spencer, N.; Underwood, K.

    1993-05-01

    The SLAC Controls Department has interfaced IBM-Compatible PCs to the SLC Control System, for use by the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) experimenters, who are building new accelerator equipment and developing and testing it at their home institutions. They will bring the equipment to SLAC and integrate it into the control system using a new software package. The machine physicists and operators will use the existing SLC control system applications and database device types to control and monitor the equipment. The PCs support a limited control environment: they run DOS and exchange messages with the existing control system via TCP/IP over ethernet, using the new SLC Area Message Service. This mechanism will also allow SLC to implement other commercial device controllers that can communicate over ethernet and run the same software interface code

  15. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heefner, J.W.; Williams, C.W.; Lauze, R.R.; Karsner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. 2 figs

  16. Control of self-organizing nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klapp, Sabine; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The book summarizes the state-of-the-art of research on control of self-organizing nonlinear systems with contributions from leading international experts in the field. The first focus concerns recent methodological developments including control of networks and of noisy and time-delayed systems. As a second focus, the book features emerging concepts of application including control of quantum systems, soft condensed matter, and biological systems. Special topics reflecting the active research in the field are the analysis and control of chimera states in classical networks and in quantum systems, the mathematical treatment of multiscale systems, the control of colloidal and quantum transport, the control of epidemics and of neural network dynamics.

  17. Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

  18. Robust control of linear descriptor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This book develops original results regarding singular dynamic systems following two different paths. The first consists of generalizing results from classical state-space cases to linear descriptor systems, such as dilated linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterizations for descriptor systems and performance control under regulation constraints. The second is a new path, which considers descriptor systems as a powerful tool for conceiving new control laws, understanding and deciphering some controller’s architecture and even homogenizing different—existing—ways of obtaining some new and/or known results for state-space systems. The book also highlights the comprehensive control problem for descriptor systems as an example of using the descriptor framework in order to transform a non-standard control problem into a classic stabilization control problem. In another section, an accurate solution is derived for the sensitivity constrained linear optimal control also using the descriptor framework. The boo...

  19. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  20. Expert system controlled image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swett, H.A.; Fisher, P.; Mutalik, P.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional medical expert systems deliver advice as text (a diagnosis, list, recommendation, or discussion). This may be quite useful in some areas of medical decision making but has distinct limitations in such a visually oriented discipline as diagnostic imaging, where decisions often depend on pattern recognition and the appreciation of subtle morphologic features. We are developing an expert system that displays groups of images as part of its intelligent output. This system uses a rule-based strategy to select images for display. They may be displayed because they share a common feature, cluster of features, or clinical history. Such a system may be useful as a diagnostic aid or for continuing medical education. It is likely to have particular value in the setting of picture archiving and communication systems

  1. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  2. Controllable Subspaces of Open Quantum Dynamical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Gong Erling; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of controllable subspace for open quantum dynamical systems. It is constructively demonstrated that combining structural features of decoherence-free subspaces with the ability to perform open-loop coherent control on open quantum systems will allow decoherence-free subspaces to be controllable. This is in contrast to the observation that open quantum dynamical systems are not open-loop controllable. To a certain extent, this paper gives an alternative control theoretical interpretation on why decoherence-free subspaces can be useful for quantum computation.

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  4. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.T. Raczka

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation.

  5. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation

  6. Network aspects of the Fermilab control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, H.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The control system of the Fermi National Accelerator is a heavily computerized network of distributed processors. One part of the control system includes a multidrop network of eleven Lockheed MAC-16 processors, a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computer, a Xerox 530, and a Control Data 6600 system. These computers exchange information using serial hardware and dedicated cable buses. The individual functions of the central processing units in this network, the message protocols for computer communications, and design guidelines for future distributed processing control systems are discussed

  7. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2010-07-01

    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  8. Primary cooling system fabrication control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjaret, J.L.; Colot, Y.

    1988-01-01

    After a general presentation of non destructive control methods, the author passes in review the french construction code (RCC. M: Rules for conception and construction of mechanic materials used in PWR nuclear island) and gives examples of putting in place non destructive testing for the primary coolant circuit [fr

  9. Tower controller surveillance system parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    A brief study of airport ground traffic control surveillance parameters has been conducted. The study addressed the following questions by means of a set of simple experiments: (1) Can vehicle ID be displayed in a suitable format; (2) What size displ...

  10. The MedAustron Accelerator Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Gutleber, J; Marchhart, M; Torcato de Matos, C; Dedic, J; Moser, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture and design of the MedAustron accelerator control system. This ion therapy and research facility is currently under construction in Wr. Neustadt, Austria. The accelerator and its control system are designed at CERN. This class of machine is characterized by rich sets of configuration data, real-time reconfiguration needs and high stability requirements. The machine is operated according to a pulse-to-pulse modulation scheme. Each beam cycle is described in terms of ion type, energy, beam dimensions, intensity and spill length. The control system is based on a multi-tier architecture with the aim to achieve a clear separation between front-end devices and their controllers. In-house developments cover a main timing system, a light-weight layer to standardize operation and communication of front-end controllers, fast and slow control of power converters and a procedure programming framework for automating high-level control and data analysis tasks.

  11. PROWAY - a standard for distributed control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellie, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The availability of cheap and powerful microcomputer and data communications equipment has led to a major revision of instrumentation and control systems. Intelligent devices can now be used and distributed about the control system in a systematic and economic manner. These sub-units are linked by a communications system to provide a total system capable of meeting the required plant objectives. PROWAY, an international standard process data highway for interconnecting processing units in distributed industrial process control systems, is currently being developed. This paper describes the salient features and current status of the PROWAY effort. (auth)

  12. HITACHI security concept for industrial control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, H.; Yamada, T.; Okubo, S.; Nakano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Security is a necessary factor for the safe and efficient operation of today's control systems. To ensure safe operation of control systems throughout their lifetime, security measures must be carefully planned in the development phase and then maintained continuously during the operation phase and other following phases. To ensure operation within the system's safe states, Hitachi proposes security concept processes (1) to derive security measures rationally and (2) to maintain the security model over the system life cycle. Hitachi also proposes security development programs which support the integration of standards-compliant systems and development of robust control equipment. (author)

  13. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  14. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  15. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    control is to let an optimization procedure take over the task of operating the refrigeration system and thereby replace the role of the operator in the traditional control structure. In the context of refrigeration systems, the idea is to divide the optimizing control structure into two parts: A part......Today refrigeration control systems consist of a number of self-contained distributed control loops that during the past years has been optimized obtaining a high performance of the individual subsystems, thus disregarding cross-couplings as well dynamically as statically. The supervisory control...... of the supermarket refrigeration systems therefore greatly relies on a human operator to detect and accommodate failures, and to optimize system performance under varying operational condition. Today these functions are maintained by monitoring centres located all over the world. Initiated by the growing need...

  16. Control system for Siam photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Apiwatwaja, R; Isoyama, G; Ishii, T; Pairsuwan, W

    2003-01-01

    A new computer control system has been developed for Siam photon source, which is the first synchrotron light source in Thailand, personal computers and PLC's have been employed which are connected together through Ethernet. Man Machine Interface Stations (MMIS) at the front end act as a graphical user interface within Windows environment. The monitoring and controlling of individual devices is handled through several pairs of digital control station and the device interface located in each part of the synchrotron complex. The installation of the control system has been completed. The commissioning test of the control system is underway and the reliability of the system is on the positive side. Details of commissioning tests as well as characteristics of this newly built control system for the Siam photon source are described in this report.

  17. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  18. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...... to a number of constrains. The objective is to develop an efficient and optimal control strategy....

  19. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  20. Untargeted LC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry method for the detection of adulterations in skimmed-milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, J.H.G.; Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    A nontargeted protein identification method was developed to screen for adulterations in skimmed-milk powder (SMP). There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. To demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the developed comparative LC-MS method using a

  1. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Skim Milk and Liquid Egg White by Antimicrobial Bottle Coating with Polylactic Acid and Nisin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was to develop an antimicrobial bottle coating method to reduce the risk of outbreaks of human listeriosis caused by contaminated liquid foods. Liquid egg white and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and stored in glass jars that were coated with a mixture of po...

  2. Structural characterisation of the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrückii subspecies bulgaricus rr grown in skimmed milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gruter, M.; Leeflang, B.R.; Kuiper, J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The exopolysaccharide of Lactobacillus delbrückii subsp. bulgaricus rr. isolated from skimmed milk, is a heteropolymer of D-galactopyranosyl, D-glucopyranosyl, and L-rhamnopyranosyl residues in the molar ratio 5:1:1. The structure was established by linkage analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy of

  3. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS, we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR, plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF USING SKIMMING TECHNIQUE TOWARD THE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AMONG THE ELEVENTH GRADERS OF SMK N 3 METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Yuniasih -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to implement the skimming technique and analyze its influence in the student comprehending reading texts at the eleventh grade (XI TKJ of SMK N 3 Metro. In this research the researcher gave pretest to know the students’ ability in understanding reading texts and posttest to know the result of the students’s ability in reading text after giving the skimming technique.This research was quantitative research which had been conducted in SMK N 3 Metro at the class XI TKJ and followed by 70 students as the sample. The tehnique sampling was cluster random sampling. In collectting the data the researcher used test. The researcher used the test to get the data of student’s reading comprehension through the questions which consisted of 30 multiple choices  about the reading text. This test was used to figure out whether the skimming technique was suitable and could be used by the students in comprehending the reading texts. The analysis which was used by the researcher was t-test. Finally, the data indicates that t observed  = 23.945 is higher than t table = 2.99. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. It means that the skimming technique influences the students’ reading comprehension at the eleventh graders of SMK N 3 Metro in the academic year of 2010/2011.

  5. Status of the BEPC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jijiu; Yan Yonghe; Zhan Mingchuan; Yu Yulan; Luo Huiying; Wang Yaru; Geng Xiaosong

    1994-01-01

    The control system of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) was built by the end of 1987. Since then, it has been running safely and reliably. Due to the tight construction schedule, we adopted the control system structure of the new SPEAR of SLAC, which was a centralized control system. The system was not performing very well due to various problems such as low CPU power, limited memory of the VAX-11/750 control computer, a bottle-neck of the VAX-CAMAC-Channel etc. Since 1991 we have therefore been working on upgrading it to a distributed control system based on DECnet. The old console will be replaced by VAX-4090 workstations. The status of the system and the progress of the upgrading work are presented in this paper. ((orig.))

  6. Distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A real-time multi-tasking digital control system with rapid recovery capability is disclosed. The control system includes a plurality of computing units comprising a plurality of redundant processing units, with each of the processing units configured to generate one or more redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors are employed for detecting data errors in the control commands. One or more recovery triggers are provided for initiating rapid recovery of a processing unit if data errors are detected. The control system also includes a plurality of actuator control units each in operative communication with the computing units. The actuator control units are configured to initiate a rapid recovery if data errors are detected in one or more of the processing units. A plurality of smart actuators communicates with the actuator control units, and a plurality of redundant sensors communicates with the computing units.

  7. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  8. IT Security Aspects of Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holecko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a set of general network system architectures for industrial process control systems as well as vulnerabilities related to these systems and the IT threats these systems are exposed to from the point of view of Common Criteria methodology and ITU-T recommendation X.805.

  9. Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O.; Seibel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed

  10. Access control system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, K.; Littenberg, L.

    1977-01-01

    An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release

  11. The alcator C-MOD control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco, J.; Fairfax, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Alcator C-MOD experiment includes over 30 engineering and diagnostic subsystems. The control system hardware and software is a mixture of custom and commercial products which includes sensors, signal conditioners, hard-wired controls, programmable logic controllers, displays, a hybrid analog/digital computer, networked personal computers, and networked VAX workstations. This paper describes the computer-based portions of the control system. The control system coordinates all C-MOD systems including power, vacuum, heating and cooling, access control, plasma shape and position control, and diagnostics. Programmable logic controllers (PLC's) are located near each subsystem. The control room is isolated by fiber optics. Functions that are essential to personnel or equipment safety (e.g. access control) are implemented in hardwired logic and monitored but not controlled by the PLC's. The initial configuration will include over 25 Allen-Bradley PLC-5 units. The PLCs in each subsystem are connected to personal computers (PC's) in the control room. The PC's provide graphical displays and operator interface. The Pc's are networked and share process data with each other and with a master control console and a large mimic panel

  12. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    SEAIS EOP.ER IS IN MEI ORY AFTER ABOUT SMINUTEJS SWITCHES TO MAINERnAL MODE R] PUE INERIW.L NAVIA~iOXN I PROOSESS EATS GOPLER HAS FAT LED I PIME INER~i...feet he excercises directional control, and with his left hand he contrns the two degrees of freedom of the engine, namely thrust and additionally...eat 6vident qua, mis A part Vef- fat do rapprochement, one modification de la trajectaire entraine one modification des positions relatives dv Ia cible

  13. Fuel element radiometry system for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Gaur, Swati; Sridhar, Padmini; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Vaidya, P.R.; Das, Sanjoy; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    An indigenous and fully automatic PC based radiometry system has been designed and developed. The system required a vibration free scanning with various automated sequential movements to scan the fuel pin of size 5.8 mm (OD) x 1055 mm (L) along its full length. A mechanical system with these requirements and precision controls has been designed. The system consists of a tightly coupled and collimated radiation source-detector unit and data acquisition and control system. It supports PLC based control electronics to control and monitor the movement of fuel element, nuclear data acquisition and analysis system and feedback system to the mechanical scanner to physically accept or reject the fuel pin based on the decision derived by the software algorithms. (author)

  14. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  15. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-17

    DAC/Euro- VHDL, Genf , Switzerland, September 1996. [Har78] D. Harel. Statecharts: A visual formalism for complex systems. Science of Computer...possible discrete state behaviors is finite. This con- cerns trajectories that are periodic both precisely and approximately. To precise details

  16. Force optimized recoil control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.

    1982-05-01

    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  17. Documenting control system functionality for digital control implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harber, J.; Borairi, M.; Tikku, S.; Josefowicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    In past CANDU designs, plant control was accomplished by a combination of digital control computers, analogue controllers, and hardwired relay logic. Functionality for these various control systems, each using different hardware, was documented in varied formats such as text based program specifications, relay logic diagrams, and other various specification documents. The choice of formats was influenced by the hardware used and often required different specialized skills for different applications. The programmable electronic systems in new CANDU designs are realized in a manner consistent with latest international standards (e.g., the IEC 61513 standard). New CANDU designs make extensive use of modern digital control technology, with the benefit that functionality can be implemented on a limited number of control platforms, reducing development and maintenance cost. This approach can take advantage of tools that allow the plant control system functional and performance requirements to be documented using graphical representations. Modern graphical methods supplemented by information databases can be used to provide a clear and comprehensive set of requirements for software and system development. Overview diagrams of system functionality provide a common understanding of the system boundaries and interfaces. Important requirements are readily traced through the development process. This improved reviewability helps to ensure consistency with the safety and and production design requirements of the system. Encapsulation of commonly used functions into custom-defined function blocks, such as typical motor control centre interfaces, process interlocks, median selects etc, eases the burden on designers to understand and analyze the detailed functionality of each instance of use of this logic. A library of encapsulated functions will be established for complex functions that are reused in the control logic development. By encapsulation and standardisation of such

  18. Advanced Controllers for Electromechanical Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop advanced controllers for electromechanical motion systems. In order to increase efficiency and reliability, these control systems are required to achieve high performance and robustness in the face of model uncertainty, measurement noise, and reproducible

  19. Generic control of material handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Material handling systems (MHSs) are in general complex installations that raise challenging design and control problems. In the literature, design and control problems have received a lot of attention within distinct business sectors or systems, but primarily from a system’s user perspective. Much

  20. Control system reliability at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the availability of the control system is crucial to the operation of the accelerator for experimental programs. Jefferson Lab's control system, uses 68040 based microprocessors running VxWorks, Unix workstations, and a variety of VME, CAMAC. GPIB, and serial devices. The software consists of control system toolkit software, commercial packages, and over 200 custom and generic applications, some of which are highly complex. The challenge is to keep this highly diverse and still growing system, with over 162,000 control points, operating reliably, while managing changes and upgrades to both the hardware and software. Downtime attributable to the control system includes the time to troubleshoot and repair problems and the time to restore the machine to operation of the scheduled program. This paper describes the availability of the control system during the last year, the heaviest contributors to downtime and the response to problems. Strategies for improving the robustness of the control system am detailed and include changes in hardware, software, procedures and processes. The improvements range from the routine preventive hardware maintenance, to improving their ability to detect, predict and prevent problems. This paper also describes the software tools used to assist in control system troubleshooting, maintenance and failure recovery processes

  1. Life-critical digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwha, James

    1990-01-01

    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  2. Fit Control Systems to Your Managerial Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammann, Cortlandt; Nadler, David A.

    1976-01-01

    Technologically sound administrative control systems may have undesirable results if they are not properly utilized. Before adopting a control system, a manager should consider how well it fits his managerial style, the organizational climate of the organization, the personality of his subordinates, and the goals of the organization. (JG)

  3. Controller Reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.K.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting

  4. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Operational experience with the CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Chowdhary, M.; Karn, J.; Tiefenback, M.; Zeijts, J. van; Watson, W.

    1996-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) successfully began its experimental nuclear physics program in November of 1995 and has since surpassed predicted machine availability. Part of this success can be attributed to using the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) control system toolkit. The CEBAF control system is one of the largest accelerator control system now operating. It controls approximately 338 SRF cavities, 2,300 magnets, 500 beam position monitors and other accelerator devices, such as gun hardware and other beam monitoring devices. All told, the system must be able to access over 125,000 database records. The system has been well received by both operators and the hardware designers. The EPICS utilities have made the task of troubleshooting systems easier. The graphical and test-based creation tools have allowed operators to custom build control screens. In addition, the ability to integrate EPICS with other software packages, such as Tcl/Tk, has allowed physicists to quickly prototype high-level application programs, and to provide GUI front ends for command line driven tools. Specific examples of the control system applications are presented in the areas of energy and orbit control, cavity tuning and accelerator tune up diagnostics

  6. Control system reliability at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, K.S.; Areti, H.; Garza, O.

    1997-01-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the availability of the control system is crucial to the operation of the accelerator for experimental programs. Jefferson Lab's control system, uses 68040 based microprocessors running VxWorks, Unix workstations, and a variety of VME, CAMAC. GPIB, and serial devices. The software consists of control system toolkit software, commercial packages, and over 200 custom and generic applications, some of which are highly complex. The challenge is to keep this highly diverse and still growing system, with over 162,000 control points, operating reliably, while managing changes and upgrades to both the hardware and software. Downtime attributable to the control system includes the time to troubleshoot and repair problems and the time to restore the machine to operation of the scheduled program. This paper describes the availability of the control system during the last year, the heaviest contributors to downtime and the response to problems. Strategies for improving the robustness of the control system am detailed and include changes in hardware, software, procedures and processes. The improvements range from the routine preventive hardware maintenance, to improving their ability to detect, predict and prevent problems. This paper also describes the software tools used to assist in control system troubleshooting, maintenance and failure recovery processes

  7. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution.An optimized combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) control system requires a manage...

  9. Dissipative control for singular impulsive dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the dissipative control problem for singular impulsive dynamical systems. We start by introducing the impulse to the singular systems, and give the definition of the dissipation for singular impulsive dynamical systems. Then we discuss the dissipation of singular impulsive dynamical systems, we obtain some sufficient and necessary conditions for dissipation of these systems by solving some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. By using this method, we design a state feedback controller to make the closed-loop system dissipative. At last, we testify the feasibility of the method by a numerical example.

  10. Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lunze, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic

  11. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  12. The next generation control system of GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.; David, L.; Lecorche, E.; Ulrich, M.

    1992-01-01

    A short description of the new control system of GANIL is presented. It consists of a three layer distributed architecture of a VAX6000-410/VMS host computer, a real time control system made up of a dual-host VAX3800 and workstation based operator consoles, and VME and CAMAC processors at the frontend segment, running under the VAXELN operating system, and programmable logic controllers for local controls. The basic issues with regard to architecture, human interface, information management, etc. are discussed. First implementations and operation results are presented. (author) 11 figs

  13. Multibody system dynamics, robotics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gerstmayr, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The volume contains 19 contributions by international experts in the field of multibody system dynamics, robotics and control. The book aims to bridge the gap between the modeling of mechanical systems by means of multibody dynamics formulations and robotics. In the classical approach, a multibody dynamics model contains a very high level of detail, however, the application of such models to robotics or control is usually limited. The papers aim to connect the different scientific communities in multibody dynamics, robotics and control. Main topics are flexible multibody systems, humanoid robots, elastic robots, nonlinear control, optimal path planning, and identification.

  14. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  15. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  16. Multicopter control with Navio using REX control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Ozana, Stepan

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with study of possible connection of the REXcontrols platform with Raspberry Pi based control system and Navio2 expansion board. This board is designed for development of autonomous robotic platforms type car, plane or multicopter. In this article, control system REXcontrols is introduced and its integration possibilities for control board Navio2 are discussed. The main discussed aspects are communication possibilities of the REXcontrols system with external scripts which further on allow control of this board. The main reasons for this undertaking are vast possibilities of archiving, visualization, signal processing and control which REXcontrols system allows. The control itself of the navio2 board is done through numerous interfaces. Specifically it is a pair of SPI data buses, an I2C data bus, UART and multiple GPIO pins. However, since REXcontrols control system has only limited access to these data buses, it is necessary to establish the communication through external scripts. For this purpose REXcontrols is equipped with mechanisms; SILO, EPC and REXLANG which are described in the article. Due to its simple implementation into REXcontrols and the option to utilize available libraries for communication with Navio2 board in external script, an EPC block was selected for the final implementation.

  17. Nontargeted detection of adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins using UHPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Moore, Jeffrey C; Harnly, James M

    2014-06-04

    Chromatographic profiles of skim milk powder (SMP) and mixtures of SMP with soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWPI) isolates were obtained by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with 215 nm detection. Two data analysis approaches were compared for their utility to classify samples as authentic or adulterated. The t test approach evaluated data points exceeding the 99% confidence limit of the mean authentic SMP chromatogram and used data points from the entire chromatogram. The other approach used the multivariate Q statistic from a SIMCA model of authentic samples to determine adulteration and used a selected retention window to obtain best classifications. Q-Statistic and t test correctly classified adulteration of SMP with SPI at the 1% and 3% levels, respectively, while minimizing false classifications of authentic SMP. Detection of SMP adulterated with PPI, BRP, and HWPI was possible at higher adulteration levels.

  18. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  19. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M

    2015-01-01

    genomic regions affecting traits related to rennet-induced gelation, the aim of this study was to identify potential candidate genes affecting these traits. Hence, rennet-induced gelation, including rennet coagulation time, gel strength, and yield stress, was measured in skim milk samples collected from...... 379 animals of the Swedish Red breed using low-amplitude oscillation measurements. All animals had genotypes for almost 621,000 segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), identified using the Bovine HD SNPChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome was scanned for associations, haplotypes...... based on SNP sets comprising highly associated SNP were inferred, and the effects of the 2 most common haplotypes within each region were analyzed using mixed models. Even though the number of animals was relatively small, a total of 21 regions were identified, with 4 regions showing association...

  20. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... is observed all over the gradient. The variety of the membrane vesicles is currently being investigated further by several means. Summary/conclusion: A new procedure for easy and gentle isolation of bovine milk membrane vesicles encompassing ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography has been...... established. The resulting vesicle isolate exhibits the general membrane vesicle characteristics and provides an appropriate start material from which the variety of milk vesicles can be investigated...

  1. INVENTORY CONTROL USING KANBAN SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    VINICIUS VALVERDE DE ASSIS

    2010-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta o estudo e aplicabilidade dos conceitos do Just in Time (JIT) e Kanban em modelos de gestão de estoques. O produtos são suprimentos utilizados no processo de surfaçagem de lentes oftalmológicas de um grande fabricante mundial. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no principal laboratório que a empresa detém no Brasil, situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo foi elaborar uma proposta de controle de estoque de forma a garantir um bom atendimento aos c...

  2. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  3. Performance characteristics for advanced control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A growing collection of control techniques is becoming available to the design engineer. This make selection of the most appropriate technique for a given application a difficult task. A systematic approach to evaluating alternative control schemes is needed. The approach discussed in this paper expands the traditional concepts of quantitative performance analysis to include other relevant factors such as robustness of the technique, resource requirements, and effects on operators and other personnel. This collection of factors, termed measures of utility, may be used as qualitative and quantitative means of evaluating and comparing properties of alternative control system designs. This paper, although not an in-depth study, serves to outline several measures of utility and suggests a general structure for control system development. This method of comparing the usefulness of alternative control system will prove valuable to the ORNL Advanced Controls Program (ACTO) for optimizing compatibility with actual systems and equipment

  4. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. K. Schaffner; K. S White

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management

  5. The Ganil computer control system renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Lecorche, E.; Luong, T.T.; Ulrich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1982 the GANIL heavy ion accelerator has been under the control of 16-bit minicomputers MITRA, programmable logic controllers and microprocessorized Camac controllers, structured into a partially centralized system. This control system has to be renewed to meet the increasing demands of the accelerator operation which aims to provide higher quality ion beams under more reliable conditions. This paper gives a brief description of the existing control system and then discusses the main issues of the design and the implementation of the future control system: distributed powerful processors federated through Ethernet and flexible network-wide database access, VME standard and front-end microprocessors, enhanced color graphic tools and workstation based operator interface

  6. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    - hard concerns are constraints that must always be met, while soft concerns describe desirable goals that may be prioritized by the system's user. The extensible controller uses a genetic algorithm to continuously resolve conflicts among independently developed control concerns. Both new software...... to introduce a new component without performing a global integrity check. Avoiding a global integrity check relies on anticipating what kind of extensions are required in the future and designing a suitable interface and coordination mechanism, so that conflicts among mutually unaware components can...... be resolved automatically. Typical control system components are concerned with the way in which actuators are controlled. Combining mutually unaware control system components that share interest in the same actuators are likely to lead to complex conflicts, thus making control systems a particularly...

  7. Distributed Web-Based Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Langmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a concept and application examples for a distributed Web-based control system (DWCS. The DWCS is based of two key components: an IEC 61131-programmable Web control and a process data proxy as the process interface. Control functions can be distributed and executed ad lib in the Intranet/Internet via the DWCS.

  8. Repetitive learning control of continuous chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua

    2004-01-01

    Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller

  9. Touch panel system for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.; Johnson, R.

    1976-12-01

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described

  10. Modelling Supervisory Controller for Hybrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Alexandre De Lemos; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1999-01-01

    The modular concept described in this paper attempts to design standard supervisory controllers for different applications. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic...

  11. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  12. Automatic control variac system for electronic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuocheng; Wang Dan; Jing Lan; Qiao Weimin; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    An automatic control variac system is designed in order to satisfy the controlling requirement of the electronic accelerator developed by the Institute. Both design and operational principles, structure of the system as well as the software of industrial PC and micro controller unit are described. The interfaces of the control module are RS232 and RS485. A fiber optical interface (FOC) could be set up if an industrial FOC network is necessary, which will extend the filed of its application and make the communication of the system better. It is shown in practice that the system can adjust the variac output voltage automatically and assure the accurate and automatic control of the electronic accelerator. The system is designed in accordance with the general design principles and possesses the merits such as easy operation and maintenance, good expansibility, and low cost, thus it could also be used in other industrial branches. (authors)

  13. Center for Intelligent Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    34 November 1988 October 1987 Professor Roger W. Brockett, CICS Professor Karl Johan Astrom "Differential Equations that Sort and Lund Institute of Technology... Karl Robert Sloan Alan Knoew Stephen Strickland Felipe Martins Paul Tseng M~ohammed Messaoudene Yuui Wang Michael Miller Jichuan Yang Densi Mustafa...Professor Willsky, Dr. Karl , and their students engaged in research in discrete-event systems and in a number of problem areas in multidimensional

  14. A fuzzy classifier system for process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.; Phillips, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy classifier system that discovers rules for controlling a mathematical model of a pH titration system was developed by researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Fuzzy classifier systems successfully combine the strengths of learning classifier systems and fuzzy logic controllers. Learning classifier systems resemble familiar production rule-based systems, but they represent their IF-THEN rules by strings of characters rather than in the traditional linguistic terms. Fuzzy logic is a tool that allows for the incorporation of abstract concepts into rule based-systems, thereby allowing the rules to resemble the familiar 'rules-of-thumb' commonly used by humans when solving difficult process control and reasoning problems. Like learning classifier systems, fuzzy classifier systems employ a genetic algorithm to explore and sample new rules for manipulating the problem environment. Like fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy classifier systems encapsulate knowledge in the form of production rules. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of fuzzy classifier systems to generate a fuzzy logic-based process control system.

  15. Passive environmental temperature control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  16. Structural Control Systems Implemented in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pastia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a great interest has been generated by the use of protection systems to mitigate the effects of dynamic environmental hazards on civil engineering structures, such as earthquakes and strong wind. These control systems develop controllable forces to add or dissipate energy in a structure, or both, due to specific devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real – time process to operate. The paper includes the advantages of these technologies consisting of the following sections: 1 represents an introduction, 2 deals with passive control system, 3 regards some control techniques, 4 concerns hybrid control techniques, 5 contains semi – active control techniques, and 6 is dedicated to general conclusions.

  17. Control system for the NBS microtron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.; Trout, R.E.; Wilson, B.L.; Ayres, R.L.; Yoder, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    As various subsystems of the National Bureau of Standards/Los Alamos racetrack microtron accelerator are being brought on-line, we are gaining experience with some of the innovations implemented in the control system. Foremost among these are the joystick-based operator controls, the hierarchical distribution of control system intelligence, and the independent secondary stations, permitting sectional stand-alone operation. The result of the distributed database philosophy and parallel data links has been very fast data updates, permitting joystick interaction with system elements. The software development was greatly simplified by using the hardware arbitration of several parallel processors in the Multibus system to split the software tasks into independent modules

  18. Computerized control system of reactor charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, P.; Krajci, L.; Valo, J.; Bacek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Features of a new system of charging machine control are described, based on a PC AT computer. The main advantages of the new system include reduction of manual manipulations the machine and effective control and recording of the manipulations steps the machine. The system allows to control, check and record all manipulation sequences on the machine above the reactor or in the area of the storage pool. Suitable graphics provides optimal comfort for the machine operator or physicist during manipulation with the system. (author) 7 figs., 1 ref

  19. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF CHEMICAL REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Labutin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the analytical synthesis of the synergetic control system of chemical reactor for the realization of a complex series-parallel exothermal reaction has been solved. The synthesis of control principles is performed using the analytical design method of aggregated regulators. Synthesized nonlinear control system solves the problem of stabilization of the concentration of target component at the exit of reactor and also enables one to automatically transfer to new production using the equipment.

  20. Arduino based acquisition system for control applications

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Navarro, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design an implement a low cost acquisition system intended for control applications using the Arduino prototyping platform. Arduino has become a popular open-source single-board microcontroller among electronic hobbyists, and it is gaining acceptance as a quick prototyping tool for engineering and educational projects also. A computer, using a control application done in LabVIEW or IDE Arduino, must control all the system by cable or wireless. The pro...

  1. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SKIMMING AND SCANNING IN READING SKILL BY APPLYING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the

  2. Improving Students’ Skimming and Scanning in Reading Skill by Applying Metacognitive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the

  3. System-Awareness for Agent-based Power System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    transition. This paper presents a concept for the representation and organization of control- and resource-allocation, enabling computational reasoning and system awareness. The principles are discussed with respect to a recently proposed Subgrid operation concept.......Operational intelligence in electric power systems is focused in a small number of control rooms that coordinate their actions. A clear division of responsibility and a command hierarchy organize system operation. With multi-agent based control systems, this control paradigm may be shifted...... to a more decentralized openaccess collaboration control paradigm. This shift cannot happen at once, but must fit also with current operation principles. In order to establish a scalable and transparent system control architecture, organizing principles have to be identified that allow for a smooth...

  4. System-Awareness for Agent-based Power System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Operational intelligence in electric power systems is focused in a small number of control rooms that coordinate their actions. A clear division of responsibility and a command hierarchy organize system operation. With multi-agent based control systems, this control paradigm may be shifted...... to a more decentralized openaccess collaboration control paradigm. This shift cannot happen at once, but must fit also with current operation principles. In order to establish a scalable and transparent system control architecture, organizing principles have to be identified that allow for a smooth...... transition. This paper presents a concept for the representation and organization of control- and resource-allocation, enabling computational reasoning and system awareness. The principles are discussed with respect to a recently proposed Subgrid operation concept....

  5. Using WWW in SRRC Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. S.

    1997-05-01

    The SRRC (Synchrotron Radiation Research Center - in Taiwan) control system was originally implemented in DEC VMS and DEC OSF/1 UNIX systems. Other computer system in SRRC (e.g. SUN, SGI, and IBM PC ...) were not able to connect to the control system. On sequently a hardware and OS independent system is required. The SRRC light source WWW site (http://www-icg.srrc.gov.tw) is built for this propose. With a IBM comptable PC (Pentium-133) runing Microsoft WindowsNT 3.51 and Microsoft IIS 1.0, it supports an easy way to build a WWW server. The program connected to SRRC control system is written with JAVA language, using JAVA applets to support runtime interactive ablitity.Using WWW browser(such as Netscape Navagator 3.0 or Microsoft Explorer 3.0), it is possible to monitor and control every storage ring device. This paper will describe the detail of the hardware and softwarestructures.

  6. Transition control system for procedure prompting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    A system called the Transition Control System (TCS) is being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The purpose of the TCS is to monitor the operational status of a plant's systems and equipment, and provide either operator guidance or direct control. The TCS provides the rule-based information to the operator specific to the plant's current operational status. A schematic of the information flow and control functions of a reactor plant is shown. The basis for the TCS is a methodology called Sequencing Established States (SES). The fundamental precept of this methodology is that all plant states are determined by the operational status of the various plant systems. The operational status of each plant system is determined, in turn, by the operational status of the system's equipment, instrumentation and controllers

  7. Ground test accelerator control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burczyk, L.; Dalesio, R.; Dingler, R.; Hill, J.; Howell, J.A.; Kerstiens, D.; King, R.; Kozubal, A.; Little, C.; Martz, V.; Rothrock, R.; Sutton, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the GTA control system that provides an environment in which the automation of a state-of-the-art accelerator can be developed. It makes use of commercially available computers, workstations, computer networks, industrial 110 equipment, and software. This system has built-in supervisory control (like most accelerator control systems), tools to support continuous control (like the process control industry), and sequential control for automatic start-up and fault recovery (like few other accelerator control systems). Several software tools support these levels of control: a real-time operating system (VxWorks) with a real-time kernel (VRTX), a configuration database, a sequencer, and a graphics editor. VxWorks supports multitasking, fast context-switching, and preemptive scheduling. VxWorks/VRTX is a network-based development environment specifically designed to work in partnership with the UNIX operating system. A data base provides the interface to the accelerator components. It consists of a run time library and a database configuration and editing tool. A sequencer initiates and controls the operation of all sequence programs (expressed as state programs). A graphics editor gives the user the ability to create color graphic displays showing the state of the machine in either text or graphics form

  8. System Identification and Robust Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    a performance specification may be cast into the same framework. The main limitation in the standard H infinity theory is that it can only handle unstructured complex full block perturbations to the nominal plant. However, often much more detailed perturbation models are available, e.g. from physical modelling...... permitted by m is definitely much more flexible than those used in H inifity. Unfortunately m synthesis is a very difficult mathematical problem which is only well developed for purely complex perturbation sets. In order to develop our main result we will unfortunately need to synthesize m controllers...... quantities like masses, inertias, etc. Which are only known with a certain degree of accuracy. This will give rise to real scalar perturbation to the nominal model. Furthermore working point deviations may also be addressed with real perturbations. However, accurate physical modelling may be a complicated...

  9. Plasma control concepts for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Nieswand, C.

    1997-01-01

    This overview paper skims over a wide range of issues related to the control of ITER plasmas. Although operation of the ITER project will require extensive developmental work to achieve the degree of control required, there is no indication that any of the identified problems will present overwhelming difficulties compared with the operation of present tokamaks. However, the precision of control required and the degree of automation of the final ITER plasma control system will present a challenge which is somewhat greater than for present tokamaks. In order to operate ITER optimally, integrated use of a large amount of diagnostic information will be necessary, evaluated and interpreted automatically. This will challenge both the diagnostics themselves and their supporting interpretation codes. The intervening years will provide us with the opportunity to implement and evaluate most of the new features required for ITER on existing tokamaks, with the exception of the control of an ignited plasma. (author) 7 figs., 7 refs

  10. Controllability of nonlinear delay oscillating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the controllability of a system governed by second order delay differential equations. We introduce a delay Gramian matrix involving the delayed matrix sine, which is used to establish sufficient and necessary conditions of controllability for the linear problem. In addition, we also construct a specific control function for controllability. For the nonlinear problem, we construct a control function and transfer the controllability problem to a fixed point problem for a suitable operator. We give a sufficient condition to guarantee the nonlinear delay system is controllable. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results by calculating a specific control function and inverse of a delay Gramian matrix.

  11. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  12. Feasibility of EGS Well Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC; Darlow, Richard [GeoTek Energy LLC

    2015-02-03

    This report covers the 8th major objective listed in Grant DE-FG36-08GO18185. This objective takes the information and experience gained from the development of 300°C well monitoring system and applies them to concepts envisioned for future geothermal well control systems supporting EGS power production. This report covers a large number of instrumentation and control system engineering issues for EGS wells while also providing a window into existing technology to address those issues.

  13. Slug control system; Sistema de controle de golfadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Filho, Alvaro de Miranda; Meira, Marco Antonio Alves de; Vaz, Celio Eduardo Martins [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2004-07-01

    Due to the characteristics of flow, gas can separate from oil in the pipelines and risers that link subsea manifolds to production offshore platforms, forming liquid and gas slugs in the production separator. Liquid slugs can cause overflow in the separators. Gas slugs can cause burning in the flare due to the limitation in the turbo-compressors acceleration. In both cases the consequences are loss of production or shut-downs. This paper presents a Slug Control System designed to attenuate severe gas and liquid flow variations. The system consist of a control valve installed in the separator inlet, transmitters, a controller, control algorithm and a monitoring station. This system is operating since October 2003 in a production offshore platform, in Campus Basin, Brazil, with excellent results, reducing the gas burning in 45% without oil production loss. (author)

  14. VVER NPPs fuel handling machine control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mini, G.; Rossi, G.; Barabino, M.; Casalini, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to increase the safety level of the fuel handling machine on WWER NPPs, Ansaldo Nucleare was asked to design and supply a new Control System. Two Fuel Handling Machine (FHM) Control System units have been already supplied for Temelin NPP and others supply are in process for the Atommash company, which has in charge the supply of FHMs for NPPs located in Russia, Ukraine and China.The computer-based system takes into account all the operational safety interlocks so that it is able to avoid incorrect and dangerous manoeuvres in the case of operator error. Control system design criteria, hardware and software architecture, and quality assurance control, are in accordance with the most recent international requirements and standards, and in particular for electromagnetic disturbance immunity demands and seismic compatibility. The hardware architecture of the control system is based on ABB INFI 90 system. The microprocessor-based ABB INFI 90 system incorporates and improves upon many of the time proven control capabilities of Bailey Network 90, validated over 14,000 installations world-wide.The control system complies all the former designed sensors and devices of the machine and markedly the angular position measurement sensors named 'selsyn' of Russian design. Nevertheless it is fully compatible with all the most recent sensors and devices currently available on the market (for ex. Multiturn absolute encoders).All control logic were developed using standard INFI 90 Engineering Work Station, interconnecting blocks extracted from an extensive SAMA library by using a graphical approach (CAD) and allowing and easier intelligibility, more flexibility and updated and coherent documentation. The data acquisition system and the Man Machine Interface are implemented by ABB in co-operation with Ansaldo. The flexible and powerful software structure of 1090 Work-stations (APMS - Advanced Plant Monitoring System, or Tenore NT) has been successfully used to interface the

  15. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  16. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  17. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  18. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  19. Computer networks in future accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1977-03-01

    Some findings of a study concerning a computer based control and monitoring system for the proposed ISABELLE Intersecting Storage Accelerator are presented. Requirements for development and implementation of such a system are discussed. An architecture is proposed where the system components are partitioned along functional lines. Implementation of some conceptually significant components is reviewed

  20. Controllability-observability of expanded composite systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Rodellar, J.; Rossell, J. M.

    332-334, - (2001), s. 381-400 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075802 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : interconnected dynamical systems * inclusion principle * large-scale systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.423, year: 2001