WorldWideScience

Sample records for skeletal tuberculosis resembling

  1. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numberger, J.

    1982-01-01

    The general X-ray-symptoms follow one another or appear at the same time: Swelling of soft tissues by fungus; toxic perifocal and sometimes parafocal osteoporosis; osteolysis by specific granulation tissues; destruction of adjacent discs and articulation cartilages; formation of sequesters; cold abscess and formation of fistulas because of perforation of the corticalis by liquified tuberculous tissue; bone compression and deformation; amorphous calcifications; perifocal osteosclerosis as a repairing process. The spondylitis tuberculosis is the most frequent form with about 50%; usually narrowing of the discspace is the earliest X-ray-finding. On the second and third place follow the tuberculosis of the hip- and the knee-joint, the rest shows up at other locations of red bone marrow. Very often the perifocal osteoporosis is the earliest X-ray-symptom of joint tuberculosis. All X-ray-findings, even the earliest, in reality are late symptoms, because at that time the disease exists at least some months. Radiologically only the differential diagnosis can be made, final diagnosis is established by histologic examination only. Because the course of untreated skeletal tuberculosis usually is chronic and destructive and, on the other hand early antituberculous chemotherapy as well as surgical treatment show excellent results early radiological suggestion of tuberculosis is of great importance for initiating other diagnostic procedures to establish the diagnosis. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Unusual Features of Extraarticular Skeletal Tuberculosis: New Classification and Differential Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Twenty two cases of extra articular skeletal tuberculosis which showed unusual radiological features are reported and classified into several categories with discussion on the differential diagnosis. Radiological patterns of skeletal tuberculosis is so variable that with any kind of skeletal changes the possibility of the skeletal tuberculosis should not be excluded between of lack of its classical patterns.

  3. Two cases of multiple skeletal tuberculosis with spina ventosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byung Hee; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Byung Soo [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Two cases of multiple skeletal tuberculosis with spina ventosa proved by radiological and pathological methods, were reported. One of the cases was 3 years old boy who had multiple abscess formations in both lower legs, intermittent high fever and soft tissue swelling in both hands, and the other was 19 years old boy who had soft tissue swelling in both hands and feet. Radiologically, the former showed active hilar tuberculosis of the chest, and destructive changes with cortical expansion in the left humerus, left tibra, left calcaneus and both hands; the latter showed almost fibroconsolidated lesions of the chest, and the bony lesions in both radii, left calcaneus, and both hands and feet. Biopsy specimen showed tubercles composed of epithelial cells, small round cells and fibroblasts with caseous necrosis in part.

  4. Proximal Neuropathy and Associated Skeletal Muscle Changes Resembling Denervation Atrophy in Hindlimbs of Chronic Hypoglycaemic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F.H.; Molck, Anne Marie; Soeborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle......, and severity of the myofibre atrophy correlated with severity of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerve. Both neuropathy and myopathy were still present after four weeks of recovery, although the neuropathy was less severe. In conclusion, the results suggest that peripheral neuropathy induced by IIH progresses...... changes. Aims of this study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible. Chronic IIH was induced by infusion of human insulin, followed by an infusion-free recovery...

  5. Proximal Neuropathy and Associated Skeletal Muscle Changes Resembling Denervation Atrophy in Hindlimbs of Chronic Hypoglycaemic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F.H.; Molck, Anne Marie; Soeborg, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle......, and severity of the myofibre atrophy correlated with severity of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerve. Both neuropathy and myopathy were still present after four weeks of recovery, although the neuropathy was less severe. In conclusion, the results suggest that peripheral neuropathy induced by IIH progresses...... changes. Aims of this study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible. Chronic IIH was induced by infusion of human insulin, followed by an infusion-free recovery...

  6. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  7. Scapular bone destruction: A case report of skeletal tuberculosis with a series of dynamic radiologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an extremely common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. Pulmonary TB is the most common manifestation while skeletal TB, especially with an involvement of flat bone like scapula, is quite rare. We report the first case scapular TB in an advanced AIDS individual who was initially considered as lymphoma because of the faulty interpretation of the positivity of PET/CT scan. In this article, we present a series of dynamic radiologic data and emphasize the differential diagnostic of skeletal TB.

  8. Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    Classification of clinical forms of tuberculosis of respiratory organs is m ade. It is shown, that diagnosis, determination of the clinical form of pulmona ry tuberculosis, extent and phase of the process are mainly based on the data of roentgenologic studies and in certain cases tomography is preferable. Roentgenologic picture of primary tuberculosis, tuberculosis of intrathoracis l ymp nodes, dissemenated tuberculosis, focal and infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, tuberculomas of lungs, cavernous and fibrocavernous form of pulmonary tub erculosis, cirrhotic tuberculosis of lungs, tuberculosis of upper respiratory tracks, tuberculous pleurite and tuberculosis of respiratory organs, combined wi th dust occupational diseases, has been described

  9. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  10. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This book chapter for medical students and researcher Tuberculosis is still one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases with 2 million deaths per year and 9.2 million new cases of tuberculosis disease annually [1-3]. Besides, more than 2 milliard people are infected with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) [1-3]. Despite continuous effort in the prevention, monitoring and treatment of tuberculosis, the disease remains a major health problem in many countries [4-6...

  11. Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The tuberculosis is an infection bacterial chronicle of world distribution. Three organisms of the family of the mycobacterium, the m. tuberculosis, the m. bovis and m. africanum, phenotypic and genetically similar, produce it, but only the m. tuberculosis has importance; the others rarely produce illness in the human. By definition, the lung tuberculosis is the localization of the m. tuberculosis in the breathing tract, the most common and main form in the affection and the only able to contaminate to other people. The koch bacillus, transmits the illness directly person to person. The paper Includes topics like pathogenesis, natural history, epidemiology, diagnose, symptomatology and treatment

  12. TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Bajrović; Mahmud Nurkić; Šukrija Zvizdić

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis, known as the "White Plague" in the early 19th century, is the infectious disease, which is being researched today even in some of the most developed countries in the world. Epidemiological- epizootiological research points to the importance of pasteurizing milk as well as the transmission in aerosolized droplets in humans and animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti are the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. Other mycobacteria cause dis...

  13. Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Vorster, Mariza; Sathekge, Mike M

    Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the world's leading cause of infectious mortality. Imaging plays an important role in the management of this disease. The complex immune response of the human body to Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in a wide array of clinical manifestations, making clinical and

  14. Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis is usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium. At least 20 different types of M. avium have been identified, only three of which are known to cause disease in birds. Other types of Mycobacterium rarely cause tuberculosis in most avian species; however, parrots, macaws, and other large perching birds are susceptible to human and bovine types of tuberculosis bacilli. Avian tuberculosis generally is transmitted by direct contact with infected birds, ingestion of contaminated feed and water, or contact with a contaminated environment. Inhalation of the bacterium can cause respiratory tract infections. Wild bird studies in the Netherlands disclosed tuberculosis-infected puncture-type injuries in birds of prey that fight at the nest site (kestrels) or on the ground (buteo-type buzzards), but tuberculosisinfected injuries were not found in accipiters (falco

  15. Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an update on the manifestations and management of ocular tuberculosis. Tuberculosis affects one-third of the world's population. The incidence of tuberculosis has increased with the increase in the HIV infected population. Following a resurgence of the disease in the US, the incidence has recently declined. Patients may develop scleritis that can be focal, nodular or diffuse with or without keratitis. Anterior granulomatous uveitis may occur. The posterior segment reveals vitritis, choroiditis, and can mimic serpiginous choroiditis and other entities. Patients who are immunosuppressed or HIV infected may develop active mycobacterial disease in the eye leading to rapid destruction of the ocular structures. The diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is made by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwestein-Jensen medium or by PCR. The diagnosis is supported by the clinical findings, imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green and ultrasonography. Tuberculin skin test helps to confirm the diagnosis. Ocular tuberculosis may occur in the absence of pulmonary disease. Patients present with a spectrum of clinical signs. The disease may mimic several clinical entities. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ocular tuberculosis may prevent ocular morbidity and blindness.

  16. TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Bajrović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, known as the "White Plague" in the early 19th century, is the infectious disease, which is being researched today even in some of the most developed countries in the world. Epidemiological- epizootiological research points to the importance of pasteurizing milk as well as the transmission in aerosolized droplets in humans and animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti are the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. Other mycobacteria cause diseases commonly known as mycobacteriosae. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis includes both host- related and mycobacterium-related factors (virulence. Mtb acts through the expression of various genes and their proteins that are detectable in the serums of the diseased only, proving these proteins are formed in the course of the disease. In humans, a diagnosis is established by the detection of antigens (and antibodies, and in animals, with the allergy tests. As far as the bovine tuberculosis is concerned, the combination of skin tuberculin and blood gamma interferon test is recommended. Sequential genome (Mtb analysis has given the basis for further research of the new vaccines.Key words: Tuberculosis, pathogenesis, immunity

  17. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la incidencia de la tuberculosis ha aumentado. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecta frecuentemente a las personas con SIDA, debido a que en estos pacientes hay una reducción de la resistencia mediada por células T, lo que propicia que este bacilo pueda desarrollar la enfermedad con una frecuencia superior a la de las personas sanas. La transmisión de la enfermedad puede ser por vía directa, de un individuo afectado a otro, fundamentalmente por las gotitas de saliva que contengan a este microorganismo, o por vía indirecta por la inhalación del bacilo que se puede encontrar por meses en los objetos de uso diario, debido a su gran resistencia. Las micobacterias que producen tuberculosis en el hombre inmunocompetente son la Mycobacterium tuberculosis y la bovis, otros tipos pueden provocar tuberculosis en individuos inmunocomprometidos. La patogenicidad de este bacilo está relacionada con su capacidad para escapar de la destrucción inducida por los macrófagos y para provocar hipersensibilidad de tipo retardado. Esta enfermedad tiene muy pocas manifestaciones bucales, lo que se observa generalmente es una úlcera que toma como asiento fundamental el dorso de la lengua. La tuberculosis amenaza con convertirse en una enfermedad incurable por la deficiente administración de los programas contra ésta, por lo que la OMS plantea para su detección y tratamiento el DOTS (tratamiento observado directamente, de corta duración que comienza a tener resultados satisfactorios, aunque en el último quinquenio, el 88 % de los pacientes que se estimaban como infectados por tuberculosis no recibieron DOTS.At present, the incidence of tuberculosis is on the rise. Mycobacterium tuberculosis often infests AIDS patients due to the fact that these persons´T-cell mediated resistance is reduced, which favors the development of the disease at a higher rate than in healthy people. The disease can be transmitted directly, that is , from an

  18. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácido...

  19. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Latorre Tortello

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácidos y alcohol, de ahí el nombre de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistente (BAAR. Su transmisión es directa, de persona a persona.

  20. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Latorre Tortello

    1998-01-01

    Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácido...

  1. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Zuñiga, Marleny; Bastidas Párraga, Gustavo; León Untiveros, Paúl Albert

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa producida por el bacilo de Koch, que ataca a los pulmones pero puede ser difuminada por todo el cuerpo. El siguiente artículo de información nos da una visión amplia de la detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la misma.

  2. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez, D.

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculosis sigue constituyendo un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial con casi nueve millones de casos nuevos en 2012 y se estima que un tercio de la humanidad está infectada. A nivel nacional, si bien las tasas son alentadoras, la variación regional es muy importante. En los últimos años se han registrado progresos importantes tanto en el conocimiento de la conducta del bacilo de Koch, el causante de la enfermedad, como en los métodos para detectarlo. Así los IGRAS (Interferon G R...

  3. A case of skeletal tuberculosis and psoas abscess: disease activity evaluated using (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Makoto; Murakami, Koji; Ishioka, Kota; Yagi, Kazuma; Ishii, Ken; Watanabe, Kota; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2013-11-14

    Psoas abscess complicating tuberculous spondylitis is a rare morbidity in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There are no established guidelines for evaluating the clinical response of psoas abscess. Although several studies have shown that positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can play a potential role in diagnosing multifocal tuberculosis and monitoring the clinical response of pulmonary tuberculosis, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating local inflammation and disease activity of a tuberculous psoas abscess. We report a case of multifocal bone and lymph node tuberculosis with concomitant lumbar psoas abscess in a 77-year-old man, along with a literature review. An initial positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed intense 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and lymph nodes. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular agents and computed tomography-guided drainage therapy. A follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography after abscess drainage and 9 months of antitubercular drug treatment revealed that the majority of lesions improved; however, protracted inflammation surrounding the psoas abscess was still observed. These results indicate that disease activity of psoas abscess can remain, even after successful drainage and antitubercular medication regime of appropriate duration. We have successfully followed up the extent of skeletal tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In this patient, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating the disease activity of tuberculous psoas abscess and for assessing the appropriate duration of antitubercular drug therapy in psoas abscess.

  4. A case of skeletal tuberculosis and psoas abscess: disease activity evaluated using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Naoki; Ishii, Makoto; Murakami, Koji; Ishioka, Kota; Yagi, Kazuma; Ishii, Ken; Watanabe, Kota; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Psoas abscess complicating tuberculous spondylitis is a rare morbidity in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There are no established guidelines for evaluating the clinical response of psoas abscess. Although several studies have shown that positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can play a potential role in diagnosing multifocal tuberculosis and monitoring the clinical response of pulmonary tuberculosis, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating local inflammation and disease activity of a tuberculous psoas abscess. We report a case of multifocal bone and lymph node tuberculosis with concomitant lumbar psoas abscess in a 77-year-old man, along with a literature review. An initial positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed intense 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and lymph nodes. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular agents and computed tomography-guided drainage therapy. A follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography after abscess drainage and 9 months of antitubercular drug treatment revealed that the majority of lesions improved; however, protracted inflammation surrounding the psoas abscess was still observed. These results indicate that disease activity of psoas abscess can remain, even after successful drainage and antitubercular medication regime of appropriate duration. We have successfully followed up the extent of skeletal tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In this patient, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating the disease activity of tuberculous psoas abscess and for assessing the appropriate duration of antitubercular drug therapy in psoas abscess

  5. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  6. Duodenal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Sarwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a world wide communicable disease caused by tubercle bacilli discovered by Robert Kock in 1882. In 1993 WHO declared TB as a global emergency due to its world wide resurgence. It can involve any organ of the body. Abdomen is the fourth commonest site of involvement in the extra pulmonary tuberculosis after the lymph-nodes, skeletal and Genito urinary variants. In the gastro intestinal tract tuberculosis can affect any part from the mouth to the anus but ileocaecal area is a favourite location. Duodenal involvement is uncommon and accounts for only 2.5% of tuberculous enteritis. Major pathogens are Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and bovis and the usual route of entry is by direct penetration of the intestinal mucosa by swallowed organisms. (author)

  7. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  8. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  9. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  10. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  11. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  12. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  13. Imaging of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussel, L.; Marchand, B.; Blineau, N.; Picaud, G.; Emn, M.; Coulon, A.; Pagnon, P.; Rode, A.; Pin-Leveugle, J.; Berthezene, Y.; Pariset, C.; Boibieux, A.; Hermier, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose and methods. To perform an illustrated and educational review of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Results. As the incidence of musculoskeletal tuberculosis still increases, a review appears justified. The following four main presentations are detailed and illustrated, by emphasizing the value of both CT and MR imaging: a) spine tuberculosis (∼ 50 %/) commonly involves two adjacent vertebral bodies with usual large paravertebral abscesses. The following lesions are highly suggestive of tuberculosis: solitary vertebral involvement, solitary epidural abscess with or without erosive spondylitis; b) osteo-arthritis: peripherally located erosions at synovial insertions with gradual narrowing of the joint space are highly suggestive; c) osteomyelitis: unusual, may involve any bones; d) tenosynovitis and bursitis. Conclusion. Imaging studies are essential for diagnosis and to assess the extent of musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. (author)

  14. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  15. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  17. Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Tuberculosis Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: NIAID Scanning ... are drug resistant. Why Is the Study of Tuberculosis a Priority for NIAID? Tuberculosis is one of ...

  18. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  19. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  20. Genitourinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Maria Joao; Bacelar, Maria Teresa; Pinto, Pedro; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Although uncommon, genitourinary tuberculosis is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection. Its diagnosis is often difficult. This article provides an overview of the pathologic and radiologic findings of this disease process

  1. Tuberculosis Fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

  2. Congenital tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-06-20

    Jun 20, 2012 ... Key words: Congenital tuberculo- sis, case report, miliary tuberculosis. Introduction. Congenital tuberculosis defines tuberculosis in infants of .... tary TB and otitis media, resulting in seizures, deafness, and death. It is therefore not surprising that the index case who presented at twelve weeks of age, had ...

  3. Bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti) . Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous cat...

  4. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was considered. MRI of brain revealed a lesion in the cerebellum suggestive of medulloblastoma. Bone scan revealed multiple sites of skeletal metastases excluding the lumbar vertebrae. MRI of lumbar spine and hip revealed metastases to all lumbar vertebrae and both hips. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was obtained from the L3 vertebra, which revealed metastatic deposits from medulloblastoma. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed the presence of medulloblastoma cells. A final diagnosis of cerebellar medulloblastoma with skeletal metastases was made. He underwent craniotomy and histopathology confirmed medulloblastoma.

  5. Sternal tuberculosis | Sachdeva | Annals of Medical and Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extra‑pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes 15‑20% of total tuberculosis (TB) case load in immuno‑competent patients. Affliction of the skeletal system is rare with still rarer presentation of sternal osteomyelitis even in endemic countries. A patient with primary sternal TB presenting with multiple cutaneous sinuses over the ...

  6. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  7. Colorectal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal tuberculosis in our series and to study its radiological spectrum. A total of 684 cases of proven gastrointestinal tuberculosis with positive barium contrast findings seen over a period of more than one decade were evaluated. The study did not include cases where colon was involved in direct contiguity with ileo-caecal tuberculosis. Seventy-four patients (10.8%) had colorectal tuberculosis. Commonest site involved was transverse colon, closely followed by rectum and ascending colon. Radiological findings observed were in the form of strictures (54%), colitis (39%) and polypoid lesions (7%). Complications noted were in the form of perforations and fistulae in 18.9% of cases. Colorectal tuberculosis is a very common site for gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Typical findings of colorectal tuberculosis are strictures, signs of colitis and polypoid lesions. Common complications are perforation and fistulae. (orig.)

  8. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis from a Cecal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Cho, Seung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis is a relatively rare finding in the setting of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon, and it typically exhibits nonspecific imaging findings. We report a case of a skeletal muscle metastasis originating from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The skeletal lesion closely resembled intramuscular myxoma with regard to imaging findings, due to abundant mucin and internal calcification

  9. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  10. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis (TB) Living With Tuberculosis What to Expect You will need regular checkups ... XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Tuberculosis (TB) Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk ...

  11. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  12. Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic ...

  13. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  14. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  15. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  16. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Salahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuyst, Dimitri De; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Bernaerts, Anja; Gielen, Jan; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses. (orig.)

  18. Learn About Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis (TB) Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne bacterial infection caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs, although other organs ...

  19. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, D J; Scott, R N

    1986-10-01

    In the developed countries gastrointestinal tuberculosis is no longer common in clinical practice. In this setting the importance of the condition lies in the vagaries of its presentation and the fact that it is eminently treatable, usually by a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. The clinical features and complications of gastrointestinal tuberculosis are highlighted by the seven cases which we report. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition is discussed and attention is drawn to the importance of case notification. Clinicians should bear in mind the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis when dealing with any patient with non-specific abdominal symptoms.

  20. Sternal Tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB) case load in immuno‑competent patients. Affliction of the skeletal system is rare with still rarer presentation of sternal osteomyelitis even in endemic countries. A patient with primary sternal TB presenting with multiple cutaneous sinuses over ...

  1. Tuberculosis Multidrogoresistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Acevedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. En el año 2010 se registraron 8.8 millones de casos incidentes en el mundo y en los últimos años han aparecido poblaciones bacterianas de micobacterias con resistencia a los fármacos de primera línea. Se ha definido la presencia de resistencia a rifampicina e isoniacida como multidrogoresistencia, estimándose una incidencia mundial aproximada de 3.6%. Esta revisión de tema se centrará en la situación de la tuberculosis multidrogoresistente en el mundo, incluyendo un análisis regional de la casuística Colombiana. Se comentarán los principales mecanismos de resistencia del microorganismo, los genes implicados en la misma y los factores de riesgo asociados a la generación de resistencia en algunas comunidades.

  2. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissemination of the tubercle bacillus is of three types: bronchogenic, hematogenous, and lymphangitic. Bronchogenic dissemination occurs when exudate from a cavity or small area of caseation drains into a bronchus and is aspirated into previously uninfected areas either on the same or on the opposite side. This type of spreading occurs frequently after bleeding and when there is a cavity emptying into a bronchus. Hematogenous dissemination leads to miliary tuberculosis and to extrapulmonary lesions throughout the body. Acute massive hematogenous spread causes miliary tuberculosis, while chronic spread in smaller amounts usually results in the chronic extrapulmonary foci. Lymphangitic dissemination is common in primary infection. It is responsible for involvement with subsequent enlargement of hilar and mediastinal nodes that is often seen in children and in young black adults. The reaction to M. tuberculosis depends on the presence or absence of immunity to tuberculoprotein. In individuals having no tissue hypersensitivity or immunity, primary tuberculosis results. In those with immunity produced by previous infection or BCG vaccination, the reactivation (reinfection) disease may develop

  3. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis Treatment, Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3 ... TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in ... respondents (89.4%) had positive attitude towards TB treatment ..... respondents described feelings of depression, anger and apathy .... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 1979, 37:1-11.

  4. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  5. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  6. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  7. Tuberculosis ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Barrera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspec...

  8. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT

  9. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye [Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT.

  10. Tuberculosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  11. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  12. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across

  13. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  14. Spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R N; Ben Husien, M

    2018-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in many parts of the developing world and is increasingly seen in the developed world due to migration. A total of 1.3 million people die annually from the disease. Spinal TB is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation, affecting about 1 to 2% of all cases of TB. The coexistence of HIV, which is endemic in some regions, adds to the burden and the complexity of management. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact of HIV and both the medical and surgical options in the management of spinal TB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:425-31.

  15. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  16. A brief history of tuberculosis in the Czech Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, Lenka; Vymazalová, Kateřina; Horáčková, Ladislava

    2017-07-01

    Tuberculosis currently remains a serious medical problem, therefore increased attention is being paid to this disease. Paleopathological studies focused on the monitoring of morbid changes in skeletal remains of historical populations facilitate a detailed study of the development of this disease. They provide direct evidence of the existence of tuberculosis and its past forms. In addition to literary and iconographic sources, the present study is focused on recording the findings of bone tuberculosis in historical osteological sets from the Czech Lands and is the starting point for their detailed review. Approximately 76 cases of bone tuberculosis from the Czech Lands have been published and more or less reliably documented from 20 archeological sites dated back from the Eneolithic to the modern period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.

    1982-01-01

    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnabharath S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 23-year-old male patient with tuberculosis verrucous cutis on the foot for a duration of six months without responding to routine treatment. Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis contributes to 10% of cases. Cutaneous tuberculosis occupies a small spectrum of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis is an exogenous infection occurring in a previously sensitized patient by direct inoculation of the organism. It occurs in sensitized patients with a moderate to high immune response. The diagnosis in our patient was confirmed by history, clinical examination, histopathological examination and the patient’s response to anti-tuberculous therapy.

  19. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  2. HIV status and tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Failure to perform mycobacterium culture bacterial blood culture and results of other causes of .... for Identification of Highly Infectious Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV in Southeast Asia. ... Indian Journal of Tuberculosis 58, 108-112.

  3. Tuberculosis Lymphoedema Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoedema following cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare occurrence. A case of elephantiasis of leg following lupus vulgaris is presented. It can still be seen in rural India in untreated advanced cutaneous tuberculosis.

  4. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  5. Tuberculosis Treatment and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  6. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  7. Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo tropicalista magister en Epidemiología Clínica.

    2014-01-01

    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupationa...

  8. Ankle tuberculosis. A case in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, F E; Gómez-Alessandri, J; Tintó, M; Sánchez-González, M; Vicent, V

    Articular tuberculosis of the ankle joint is a rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis (10% of cases). This unusual location and the low index of clinical suspicion leads to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Radiographic and analytic studies are unspecific in the first stage. CAT and MRI are useful in diagnosis. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment and surgery is often required to establish the diagnosis and in the treatment. We report a case of ankle tuberculosis in a 22 month-old child. The diagnosis was confirmed by synovial biopsy. There was no patient or family contact with tuberculosis patients. There was no risk factor. There was no lung disease. Diagnosis was made 1 year after onset of symptoms. The treatment was with chemotherapy and surgery was performed as preventive treatment of equinus deformity and osteoarthritis. Good clinical and functional outcome was achieved after 20 years of follow up. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutaneous tuberculosis, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamani Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous tuberculosis because of its variability in presentation, wider differential diagnosis, and difficulty in obtaining microbiological confirmation continues to be the most challenging to diagnose for dermatologists in developing countries. Despite the evolution of sophisticated techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA, the sensitivity of new methods are not better than the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosum in culture. Even in the 21 st century, we rely on methods as old as the intradermal reaction purified protein derivative standard test and therapeutic trials, as diagnostic tools. We describe a case which has been diagnosed and treated as eczema by renowned physicians for 2 years. Incisional biopsy showed the presence of well-defined granulomas and ZN staining of the biopsy specimen showed the presence of acid fast bacilli; a trial of ATT (antitubercular therapy for 6 months lead to permanent cure of the lesion.

  10. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2001-06-01

    supported the diagnosis. There was no positive results of acid fast bacilli and culture done for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in gastric aspirate as well as ascitic fuid. Peritonitis tuberculosis was most commonly diagnosed (80.0%, followed by mesenterial/nodal tuberculosis (20.0%. All of the children followed (60.0% responded well to the drugs therapy.

  11. pulmonary tuberculosis, jimma hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program manual. RESULTS: A total of 112 extra pulmonary ... Key words: Clinical audit; extra pulmonary Tuberculosis; National Tuberculosis and. Leprosy Control manual. "Addis Ababa ..... intern influence drug regimen selection. Compliance to the 1997 NTLCP inanual is.

  12. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  13. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  14. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  15. [When history meets molecular medicine: molecular history of human tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Falchetti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis represents one of the humankind's most socially devastating diseases. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective therapies, this disease remains a global health danger even in the 21st century. Tuberculosis may cause death but infected people with effective immunity may remain healthy for years, suggesting long-term host-pathogen co-existence. Because of its antiquity, a supposed association with human settlements and the tendency to leave typical lesions on skeletal and mummified remains, tuberculosis has been the object of intensive multidisciplinary studies, including paleo-pathological research. During the past 10 years molecular paleo-pathology developed as a new scientific discipline allowing the study of ancient pathogens by direct detection of their DNA. In this work, we reviewed evidences for tuberculosis in ancient human remains, current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA and explored current theories of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolution and their implications in the global development of tuberculosis looking into the past and present at the same time.

  16. Imaging of musculoskeletal tuberculosis; Imagerie de la tuberculose osteo-articulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussel, L.; Marchand, B.; Blineau, N.; Picaud, G.; Emn, M.; Coulon, A.; Pagnon, P.; Rode, A.; Pin-Leveugle, J.; Berthezene, Y.; Pariset, C.; Boibieux, A. [Hopital de la Croix-Rousse, 69 - Lyon (France); Hermier, M. [Hopital de la Croix-Rousse, Serv. de Neuroradiologie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-09-01

    Purpose and methods. To perform an illustrated and educational review of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Results. As the incidence of musculoskeletal tuberculosis still increases, a review appears justified. The following four main presentations are detailed and illustrated, by emphasizing the value of both CT and MR imaging: a) spine tuberculosis ({approx} 50 %/) commonly involves two adjacent vertebral bodies with usual large paravertebral abscesses. The following lesions are highly suggestive of tuberculosis: solitary vertebral involvement, solitary epidural abscess with or without erosive spondylitis; b) osteo-arthritis: peripherally located erosions at synovial insertions with gradual narrowing of the joint space are highly suggestive; c) osteomyelitis: unusual, may involve any bones; d) tenosynovitis and bursitis. Conclusion. Imaging studies are essential for diagnosis and to assess the extent of musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. (author)

  17. Tuberculosis in the lung (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

  18. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  19. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  20. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  3. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  4. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  5. Childhood tuberculosis and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2012-12-15

    Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on pediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of tuberculosis in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease.

  6. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Mahender K; Chaudhary, Vikas; Baruah, Dhiraj; Kathuria, Manoj; Anand, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  7. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  8. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  9. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  10. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  11. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  12. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  14. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantis Almaliotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis. When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

  15. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  17. "Tuberculosis Case Management" Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to…

  18. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  19. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  20. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  1. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  2. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  3. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Skeletal MR imaging: Correlation with skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Ford, P.V.; Benson, R.C.; Kerr, R.M.; Boswell, W.D.; Siegel, M.E.; Ralls, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal MR images bone marrow while skeletal scintigraphy uses bone metabolism to demonstrate abnormalities. The purpose of this paper is to correlate these MR and scintigraphic findings. T1 and T2 MR images at 0.5 T were correlated with planar bone scintigraphy (RN) using Tc-99m MDP in 56 patients. Of 23 cases with suspected spinal metastases, 19 were positive by MR imaging, 16 by RN. Individual lesions were shown better by MR imaging in five and by RN in two. These two cases had scoliosis, a potential difficulty with MR imaging. In 14 cases of suspected avascular necrosis (AVN), MR imaging was positive in 13 while RN was positive in ten. One negative case by RN had bilateral AVN by MR imaging. Four skull lesions shown easily by RN were seen only in retrospect on MR images. MR imaging is advantageous in evaluating bones with predominant marrow such as vertebrae or the femoral head, while RN is superior in areas primarily composed of cortical bone such as the skull

  5. Imaging of pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, P.; De Schepper, A.M.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Van den Brande, P.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis, more than any other infectious disease, has always been a challenge, since it has been responsible for a great amount of morbidity and mortality in humans. After a steady decline in the number of new cases during the twentieth century, due to improved social and environmental conditions, early diagnosis, and the development of antituberculous medication, a stagnation and even an increase in the number of new cases was noted in the mid-1980s. The epidemiological alteration is multifactorial: global increase in developing countries; minority groups (HIV and other immunocompromised patients); and elderly patients due to an altered immune status. Other factors that may be responsible are a delayed diagnosis, especially in elderly patients, incomplete or inadequate therapy, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The course of the disease and its corresponding clinicoradiological pattern depends on the interaction between the organism and the host response. Classically, pulmonary tuberculosis has been classified in primary tuberculosis, which occurred previously in children, and postprimary tuberculosis, occurring in adult patients. In industrialized countries, however, there seems to be a shift of primary tuberculosis towards adults. Furthermore, due to an altered immunological response in certain groups, such as immunocompromised and elderly patients, an atypical radioclinical pattern may occur. The changing landscape, in which tuberculosis occurs, as well as the global resurgence, and the changed spectrum of the clinical and radiological presentation, justify a renewed interest of radiologists for the imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis. This article deals with the usual imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis as well as the atypical patterns encountered in immunodepressed and elderly patients. (orig.)

  6. Absceso y tuberculosis pulmonar

    OpenAIRE

    Hercelles García, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    Si la tuberculosis pulmonar es conocida desde los tiempos más remotos y el absceso del pulmón es considerado, desde el siglo XIX, como una entidad patológica perfectamente definida, es evidente que la asociación absceso y tuberculosis pulmonar no tiene su verdadera expresión de estudio, sino en los últimos años. If pulmonary tuberculosis has been known since ancient times and lung abscess is considered, since the nineteenth century as a well-defined disease entity, it is clear that the abs...

  7. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  8. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  9. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  10. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: June 14, 2018 ...

  11. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  12. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  13. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  14. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  15. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  17. Tuberculosis Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisory Groups Federal TB Task Force Data and Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Set) Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Reports Data and Statistics Decrease in Reported Tuberculosis Cases MMWR 2010; 59 ( ...

  18. Tuberculosis concomitant with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the different factors involved in this phenomenon and to give a clear, comprehensive picture of the problem of tuberculosis resurgence and its correlation with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  20. Vaccination against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús

    2018-04-04

    BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease. There are limitations understanding the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. MTBVAC is the first and only tuberculosis vaccine candidate based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical evaluation. MTBVAC clinical development plans to target tuberculosis prevention in newborns, as a BCG replacement strategy, and as secondary objective to be tested in adolescents and adults previous vaccinated with BCG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Tuberculosis--triumph and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M M

    2003-03-01

    Tuberculosis has been making havoc worldwide with an 11.9 million cases to be involved by the year 2005. In India, about 2 million cases are infected every year. Regarding triumphs and tragedies in the control of tuberculosis some points as follows are discussed. (1) Tuberculosis Control Programmes from National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) to Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and Directly Observed Treatment, Short course (DOTS). (2) Problem of multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis and (3) HIV and tuberculosis. DOTS being largely based on Indian research. It is now being applied worldwide. MDR is strictly a man made problem. Poor prescriptions, poor case management, lack of coordinated education and haphazard treatment research result in drug resistance. Treatment of MDR is difficult. The drug acceptability, tolerance and toxicity have to be considered. HIV and tuberculosis form a deadly duo. They mean more cases, more costs and more national losses.

  2. Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis - medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB - medicines ... Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 324. ...

  3. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non- ... of time for taking the drugs; when the supply of drugs is not always available; or when ...

  4. Perinatal tuberculosis: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lúcia S. de Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, the congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. In Brazil, there has been only one published case of congenital tuberculosis and two cases of the perinatal form of this disease. We report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting with pneumonia. Alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli were found in the gastric lavage. Diagnosis of this disease presentation requires a high index of suspicion.

  5. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  6. Unusual Complication of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Capreomycin is a second-line drug often used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which can result in nephrotoxic effects similar to other aminoglycosides. We describe a case of capreomycin induced Bartter-like syndrome with hypocalcemic tetany. Case Report. 23-year-old female patient presented with carpopedal spasms and tingling sensations in hands. Patient was being treated with capreomycin for two months for tuberculosis. On further investigation, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis were noted. Vitamin D and serum PTH levels were within normal limits. Hypercalciuria was confirmed by urine calcium/creatinine ratio. Calcium, potassium, and magnesium supplementation was given and capreomycin was discontinued. Electrolytes normalized in two days after cessation of capreomycin with no further abnormalities on repeat investigations. Discussion. Aminoglycosides can result in renal tubular dysfunction leading to Fanconi syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and distal tubular acidosis. Impaired mitochondrial function in the tubular cells has been hypothesized as the possible cause of these tubulopathies. Acquired Bartter-like syndrome phenotypically resembles autosomal dominant type 5 Bartter syndrome. Treatment consists of correction of electrolyte abnormalities, indomethacin, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of severe dyselectrolytemia are warranted in patients on aminoglycoside therapy.

  7. Imaging of Esophageal Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.; Lal, A.; Gulati, M.; Suri, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the various radiological abnormalities in patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis. Material and Methods: The case records of 23 patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis were evaluated retrospectively for various radiological abnormalities. Twenty-two patients had secondary involvement of esophagus in the form of direct extension of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis or spinal tuberculosis. Only 1 patient had primary involvement of the esophagus with no evidence of disease elsewhere. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic and CT-guided biopsy/aspiration cytology in 7 and 6 cases, respectively. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgical biopsy of lymph node and autopsy in 1 patient each. In the remaining 8 patients the diagnosis was based on radiological and endoscopic findings and the response to antituberculous treatment. Results: Chest radiography (CXR) was abnormal in 65% patients. While the findings were non-conclusive for esophageal tuberculosis, characteristic lesions of tuberculosis in lungs or spine were suggestive of tuberculous etiology. In 15 patients, CT of the chest confirmed the corresponding CXR findings and also showed additional findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy when CXR was normal. Fourteen patients showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT of the chest. In all these patients, more than one group of lymph nodes was involved. The characteristic hypodense center of lymph nodes suggestive of tuberculosis was seen in 12 patients. Radiological abnormalities seen in barium swallow examination were extrinsic compression, traction diverticula, strictures, sinus/fistulous tracts, kinking and pseudotumor mass of esophagus in decreasing order of frequency. The middle third of the esophagus was found to be the most frequent site of involvement

  8. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  9. Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaros, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

  10. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  11. Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

  12. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  13. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  15. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebes, J.I.; Niell, H.B.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Reidy, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  16. Detecting Ancient Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Gernaey

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases have played a more significant role in human development than others. Here we describe the results of a trial to diagnose ancient tuberculosis using chemical methods. Palaeo-epidemiological studies of the disease are compromised, but it has become apparent that tuberculosis (TB is a 'population-density dependent' disease. From modern studies, it is also apparent that the prevalence of TB can be used as an indicator of the level of poverty within the studied population. Mid-shaft rib samples from articulated individuals recovered from the former Newcastle Infirmary Burial Ground (1753-1845 AD were examined for mycolic acids that are species-specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The 24% of ribs positive for mycolic acids correlated with the documented 27% tuberculosis prevalence. Mycolic acid biomarkers have the potential to provide an accurate trace of the palaeo-epidemiology of tuberculosis in ancient populations, thereby providing an indication of the overall level of poverty - a useful adjunct for archaeology.

  17. Evidence of tuberculosis among children in medieval (13th–15th century Wrocław: A case study of hip joint tuberculosis in a juvenile skeleton excavated from the crypt of the St. Elizabeth church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Agata Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleopathological examinations of the skeletal remains of people who died centuries ago are material source of knowledge about health and diseases in the past. In this article, a case of skeletal tuberculosis from historical (13th-15th c. Wrocław, Poland has been presented. The juvenile skeleton excavated from grave No 93, from the crypt located under the church of St. Elizabeth, displayed pathological lesions within the right hip joint resulting from a chronic inflammation, which might have been assigned to signs typical for skeletal tuberculosis. The results of macroscopic and radiological analyses appeared to be consistent, and allowed to determine a reliable diagnosis of this paleopathological case.

  18. Managing latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI.To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Pediatric, Childhood, Latent tuberculosis infection

  19. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  20. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C.; Cazzato, R.L.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Chang, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  1. Radiologic diagnosis of lung tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhuber, E.; Mostbeck, G.; Bankier, A.; Stadler, A.; Rumetshofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    The radiologic knowledge of tuberculosis-associated lung disease is an essential tool in the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. Chest radiography is the primary imaging method, but the importance of CT is still increasing, as CT is more sensitive in the detection of cavitation, of hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathie, of endobronchial spread and of complications in the course of the disease. In addition, CT has been proven as a valuable technique in the assessment of tuberculosis activity, especially in patients where M. tuberculosis has not been detected in the sputum or in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Depending on the immune status of the patient, the morphologic spectrum of tuberculosis is quite variable. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to prevent further spread of the disease. (orig.) [de

  2. Tuberculosis-Related Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, Huma; Christensen, Dirk L.; Ambreen, Atiqa

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months, respect......Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months...

  3. Tuberculosis of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharoon Salim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis of the breast is an uncommon disease even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is high. Clinical presentation is usually of a solitary, ill-defined, unilateral hard lump situated in the upper outer quadrant of the breast. This disease can present a diagnostic problem on radiological and microbiological investigations, and thus a high index of suspicion is needed. Incorporating a highly sensitive technique like polymerase chain reaction (PCR may be helpful in establishing the usefulness of such technology and can aid in conforming the diagnosis early. The disease is curable with antitubercular drugs, and surgery is rarely required

  4. XV Conferencia : Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Varón Rico

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis se puede evitar en el niño en varias formas: en primer lugar se puede hacer una profilaxis que se llama de disposición, o sea, como la consideran los autores alemanes, mediante las prácticas de una puericultura bien realizada, ojalá en todas las clases sociales, su nutrición, sus hábitos higiénicos y dietéticos correctos, se va levantando por medio de ello resistencia no sólo a la tuberculosis sino a todas las enfermedades.

  5. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  6. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  7. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  8. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  9. Tuberculosis in African lions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been

  10. Tuberculosis of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, M.S.; Rao, S.S.; Nagi, O.N.; Sandhu, M.S.; Vasisht, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    A rare case of tuberculosis of the patella is presented. Diagnostic features include an osteolytic lesion in the patella with flaky sequestrum, associated with typical clinical features. Treatment should be urgent and should include a regimen of surgical debridement along with four antitubercular drugs. Once the joint is involved, the end results become less satisfactory. (orig.)

  11. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  12. Tuberculosis and anorexia nervosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recently our experience in the Eating Disorders Unit at Tara, where three patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were only diagnosed after admission for treatment of anorexia nervosa.· It appears that despite the presence of a persistent dry cough in each case, no investigation was undertaken. Did demographic stereotyping ...

  13. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  15. La tuberculosis pulmonar

    OpenAIRE

    Suñé Ysamat, Bertila

    1982-01-01

    La tuberculosis pulmonar todavía no es una enfermedad erradicada, aunque su incidencia ha disminuido considerablemente. El tratamiento y el pronóstico de esta enfermedad han dado un cambio profundo durante estos últimos 30 años con el descubrimiento de nuevos medicamentos antituberculosos.

  16. La tuberculosis pulmonar (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Suñé Ysamat, Bertila

    1982-01-01

    Los bacilos tuberculosos pueden encontrarse en cantidades importantes en el interior de los macrófagos, o bien en el exterior. El tratamiento médico de la tuberculosis debe conseguir la destrucción de los bacilos intra y extracelulares.

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.

  18. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  19. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2013-06-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and hence is included in Category I of the WHO classification. The tuberculosis bacilli isolated from patients are of four different types with different growth kinetics and metabolic characteristics. Hence multiple drugs, which act on the different groups of the mycobacteria, are included in each anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. Prolonged and uninterrupted chemotherapy (which may be 'short course' and 'intermittent' but preferably 'directly observed') is effective in controlling the infection. Spinal Multi-drug-resistant TB and spinal TB in HIV-positive patients present unique problems in management and have much poorer prognosis. Failure of chemotherapy and emergence of drug resistance are frequent due to the failure of compliance hence all efforts must be made to improve patient compliance to the prescribed drug regimen.

  20. The tuberculosis hospital in Hohenkrug, Stettin. Department of Genitourinary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Towards the end of the 19th century, Europe turned particular attention to the problem of tuberculosis, at that time the most serious social disease. In the majority of cases, pulmonary tuberculosis had a fatal outcome owing to the lack of effective drugs and methods of treatment. Due to poor sanitary conditions, particularly as regards dwellings, pulmonary tuberculosis was able to spread rapidly. Hospital departments were reluctant to admit patients suffering from tuberculosis. It was only after the discoveries of Robert Koch (bacillus tubercle in 1882) that the cause of the disease became understood and methods of treatment began to be developed. A modern sanatorium and hospital with 270 beds was erected in Hohenkrug (today Szczecin-Zdunowo) between 1915 and 1930. Patients could now be treated with modern methods, surgically in most cases. After the Second World War, pulmonary tuberculosis was still an enormous epidemiologic problem. In 1949, the Polish authorities opened a 400-bed sanatoriumin Zdunowo. The methods of treatment were not much different from pre-war practice and it was only the routine introduction of antituberculotic drugs during the fifties of the past century that brought about a radical change in the fight against tuberculosis. The growing numbers of patients with tuberculosis of the genitourinary system led to the opening in 1958 of a 40-bed specialist ward at the Tuberculosis Sanatorium in Zdunowo. It should be emphasized that the Department of Genitourinary Tuberculosis in Szczecin-Zdunowo was a historical necessity and a salvation for thousands of patients from Northern Poland. The Department totally fulfilled its social duties thanks to the commitment of many outstanding persons dedicated to helping the patients. This unit was finally closed in 1987 because the demand for surgical treatment of tuberculosis was declining concurrently with the advent of new and potent antituberculotics and falling number of new cases of genitourinary

  1. Tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Mendoza-Ticona

    2012-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis ...

  2. Lung abscess due to Streptococcus pneumoniae simulating pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perazzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, anaerobes were the most common cause of community-acquired lung abscess; Streptococcus species were the second most common cause. In recent years, this has changed. Klebsiella pneumoniae is now most common cause of community- acquired lung abscess, although Streptococcus species remain pathogen of major importance. We present two cases of pulmonary cavitation due to Streptococcus pneumoniae which resembled pulmonary tuberculosis with regards to their history and radiological findings. These are examples of a common diagnosis presenting in an uncommon way. Our cases had some peculiarities: they had a clinical picture strongly suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer rather than necrotizing infectious pneumonia in patients with no comorbidities or underlying diseases (including oral or dental pathologies. Radiological findings did not help the clinicians: pulmonary tuberculosis was the first diagnostic hypothesis in both cases. An underlying lung cancer was excluded in the first case only after invasive pulmonary procedures.

  3. Radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Pearcy, E.A.; Conces, D.J. Jr.; Mathur, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 95 patients with the new diagnosis of atypical turberculosis were reviewed to determine if any significant differences between atypical tuberculosis and that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be discerned. Findings included upper lobe involvement in B4 of the 95 patients and cavities in 76, with nearly equal groups having no, moderate, or extensive surrounding alveolar disease. Nodules were common; in six patients a nodule was the sole manifestation of disease. Adenopathy was seen in 12 of the 95 patients, atlectasis in 45, pleural thickening in 90, and effusions in three. These radiographic findings did not allow the radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  4. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampmann, L.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  5. Changing patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytle, T.L.; Johnson, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reviewed the initial chest roentgenograms of 182 consecutive adult patients with proven active tuberculosis. Less than 50% of all cases were known or suspected at the time of initial presentation. There is a low degree of correlation between radiologically discernible active pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A high percentage of cases represent uncommon pulmonary locations. The frequency of occurrence of four common pulmonary patterns is presented. 21 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  6. Skeletal changes in congenital fibrinogen abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagier, R.; Bouvier, C.A.; van Strijthem, N.

    1980-01-01

    We report anatomico-radiologic study of humerus, femur, and tibia from a case of total congenital afibrinogenemia. Juxtatrabecular hemorrhages occur mainly in metaphyses and seem to be related to normal lines of stress. They may lead to the formation of intraosseous cysts and to a remodelling of bone trabeculae. The radiologic lesions in a second case, diagnosed as congenital dysfibrinogenemia, are similar to those found in Case 1 (femoral trabeculae remodelling) but also resemble some alterations described in hemophilia (pseudotumor of the right iliac bone). Anatomic study of the lesions in Case 2 was not possible. The significance of these observations could be better defined by a more extended skeletal study (radiologic and when feasible anatomic) of patients with congenital clotting defects and especially with inherited disorders of the fibrinogen molecule. It would also be worthwhile investigating manifest or latent hemostatic disorders (particularly at the fibrinogen level) in patients with solitary or aneurysmal bone cysts, and even with bone infarct or unexplained trabecular remodelling.

  7. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  8. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  10. Citoquinas en tuberculosis Cytokines in tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime I. Rodríguez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis continúa siendo un modelo inmunológico para estudiar las infecciones intracelulares. Entenderlos complejos mecanismos de interacción de la micobacteria con el sistema inmune del hospedero permitirá un manejo más racional de los fenómenos clínicos que se presentan en la enfermedad. Las citoquinas desempeñan un papel fundamental tanto en el desarrollo de los mecanismos de inmunidad protectora como en el daño tisular presente en esta enfermedad. La estimulación in vitro de linfocitos de sujetos sanos tuberculino positivos con antígenos específicos induce preferencial mente un patrón de citoquinas tipo I (1'IL-2, 1'IFN-y, ~IL-4, ~IL-5, mientras que en la mayoría de los pacientes no se presenta este patrón. Las citoquinas tipo I conducen a la activación de los macrófagos que a su vez inhiben la replicación de las micobacterias. En el ratón, los macrófagos activados inhiben la micobacteria por medio del óxido nítrico; en los humanos la producción de óxido nítrico por los macrófagos no está plenamente demostrada. Recientemente se ha demostrado que la infección con M. tuberculosis puede inducir apoptosis en los macrófagos infectados. La apoptosis depende de la producción del Factor de Necrosis Tumoral a y de óxido nítrico. Paradójicamente, ellipoarabinomanán manosilado (ManLAM presente en la pared de las micobacterias inhibe la apoptosis. Estos hallazgos muestran un nuevo fenómeno en la interacción micobacteriamacrófago el cual debe estar finamente regulado tanto en el microorganismo como en el hospedero. Tuberculosis continues to be a model to study the immunological aspects of intracellular infections. A better understanding of the mycobacteria.host interaction would allow a more rational approach to the clinical problems of this disease. Cytokines playa key role in the development of protective immunity as well as in the tissue injury that occurs during the disease. In vitro stimulation with

  11. Tuberculosis of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-07-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis.

  12. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  13. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  14. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Handayani, Diah; Burhan, Erlina; Yunus, Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks. New advances in the molecular detection of TB, including the faster and simpler nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have resulted in a shorter time for diagnosis and, therefore, faster TB treatments. In this review, we explored the current findings on molecular diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB to see how this advancement could be integrated into public health systems in order to control TB.

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  17. Immunology of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzano, Federica; Marras, Francesco; De Maria, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    MTB ranks as the first worldwide pathogen latently infecting one third of the population and the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of vigorous and apparently appropriate immune response upon infection with M.tuberculosis in humans and experimental animals conflict with failure to eradicate the pathogen itself and with its ability to undergo clinical latency from which it may exit. From a clinical standpo...

  18. Tuberculosis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kecia Gaither; Joseph J. Apuzzio

    1996-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy and in the perinatal period was once considered to be an infrequent event in the United States. After a decade of steady decline, however, the disease has begun a resurgence. According to the CDC, a 20% increase in the number of reported cases occurred between 1985 and 1992. The factors associated with this increase are the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of drug-resistant organisms, substance abuse, homelessness, a...

  19. Primary prostatic tuberculosis: A rare form of genitourinary tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Ratkal

    HOSTED BY. Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association. African Journal of Urology www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Primary prostatic tuberculosis: A rare form of genitourinary tuberculosis. J.M. Ratkal. KIMS, Hubli, India. Received 6 August 2014; received in revised form 28 August 2014 ...

  20. Host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and risk of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Agger, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune responses to latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) may enable individuals to control Mtb infection and halt progression to tuberculosis (TB), a hypothesis applied in several novel TB vaccines. We aimed to evaluate whether immune responses to selected LTBI...

  1. Tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza-Ticona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.

  2. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  3. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  4. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  6. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  7. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  8. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Ab-Aziz, Aini

    2010-01-01

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  9. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ab-Aziz, Aini [University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, (Morocco)

    2010-06-15

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  10. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  11. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  12. Tuberculosis, Fiji, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Gounder, Shakti; Tamani, Talatoka; Daulako, Mary Raori; Underwood, Frank; Mainawalala, Sakiusa; Nawadra-Taylor, Vasiti; Rafai, Eric; Gillini, Laura

    2016-03-01

    During 2002-2013, a total of 1,890 tuberculosis cases were recorded in Fiji. Notification rates per 100,000 population increased from 17.4 cases in 2002 to 28.4 in 2013. Older persons were most affected, but tuberculosis also increased sharply in persons 25-44 years of age.

  13. Tuberculosis, Fiji, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Shakti; Tamani, Talatoka; Daulako, Mary Raori; Underwood, Frank; Mainawalala, Sakiusa; Nawadra-Taylor, Vasiti; Rafai, Eric; Gillini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    During 2002–2013, a total of 1,890 tuberculosis cases were recorded in Fiji. Notification rates per 100,000 population increased from 17.4 cases in 2002 to 28.4 in 2013. Older persons were most affected, but tuberculosis also increased sharply in persons 25–44 years of age. PMID:26890215

  14. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has

  15. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  17. Radiology in silico-tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of a decreasing number of new cases of silico-tuberculosis even today there still remains a serious complication of silicosis. The job of radiology is to recognise the disease, evaluate the course of the disease during therapy and classify the disease for compensation purposes. Due to the pathogenetic and pathomorphologic similarities of silicosis and tuberculosis, it is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to recognise the presence of tuberculosis in cases of silicoses or to identify and isolate the TB component in silico-tuberculosis. Careful consideration of all radiological and clinical parameters improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Since the radiographic examination provides the only method of evaluating the morphologic state of the disease, radiology will keep its central position in the diagnosis of silico-tuberculosis. (orig.) [de

  18. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  19. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie Mia Katrine; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  20. Tuberculosis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis. (orig.) [de

  1. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  2. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  3. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  4. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  5. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  7. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  8. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Hoon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa.

  9. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  10. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. ‘TB or not TB?’ Problems of differential diagnosis of cutaneous mycobacteriosis and tuberculosis – A Case Study and interdisciplinary discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szmygin-Milanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis poses a serious challenge due to many skin diseases of different etiology resembling the lesions caused by the TB (tuberculosis bacillus, and difficulties in confirming the disease. The presented case concerns skin lesions in a hobby aquarist stung in the finger of the left hand by a fish. The resulting inflammatory infiltration was to be cutaneous tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis caused by MOTT (Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. Laboratory, pathomorphologic, genetic and microbiologic tests of samples obtained from the patient, fish and water in the aquarium gave ambiguous results. A multidisciplinary discussion is presented on the difficulties in the differential diagnosis, problems with a clear interpretation of the results of various conducted tests, and possible ways of transmission of the infection, relevant to the described example.

  12. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  13. IMMUNOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bozzano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MTB ranks as the first worldwide pathogen latently infecting one third of the population and the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The development of vigorous and apparently appropriate immune response upon infection with M.tuberculosis in humans and experimental animals conflict with failure to eradicate the pathogen itself and with its ability to undergo clinical latency from which it may exit. From a clinical standpoint, our views on MTB infection may take advantage from updating the overall perspective, that has quite changed over the last decade, following remarkable advances in our understanding of the manipulation of the immune system by M.tuberculosis and of the role of innate components of the immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and NK cells in the initial spread of MTB and in its exit from latency. Scope of this review is to highlight the the major mechanisms of MTB escape from immune control and to provide a supplementary translational perspective for the interpretation of innate immune mechanisms with particular impact on clinical aspects.

  14. Angiography in renal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Angiographies on forty cases of renal tuberculosis performed at the National Medical Center during a period 1960 through 1970 were reviewed. Abdominal angiography was performed via the femoral route. Some were followed by selective nephroangiography. All patients were subjected to urographyior to angiography. The results of X-ray findings in the forty cases with renal tuberculosis were follows. 1. The age varied 18 to 57 years, average 30.5 years. Twenty one patients were male, and nineteen were female. 2. The right kidney was involved in 17 cases and the left in 15 cases. Both kidneys were involved in 8 cases. 3. Urographic examination revealed pathologic changes in all patients. 4. Focal destruction in the collecting system was the most common finding in the urography of 16 patients. 5. A varying degree of hydronephrosis was present in 15 patients, of whom nine had complained of palpable mass due to hydronephrosis. 6. In the 7 patients with extensive destruction there was no observable excretion contrast medium from the diseased kidney. 7. Angiographic examination was normal in 6 of the 40 patients. 8. Decreased vascularity in the subsegmental or smaller arteries of the affected kidney was the most frequent finding, being found in 34 patients. 9. Occlusion or abrupt termination of the subsegmental arteries was present in 4 patients. 10. Eighteen of the patients had signs of an expansive process within the cavity, the vessels being displaced and stretched around the lesions.

  15. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  16. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  17. Imaging diagnosis of breast tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of breast tuberculosis. The authors evaluated the radiologic findings of five cases of surgically confirmed tuberculosis of the breast. Patients were examined with mammography (n=5), ultrasonography (n=3), and MRI (n=2). All patients were female. Four patients had unilateral lesion and the remaining one patient had bilateral breast tuberculosis. Mammographic findings were mainly radiopaque mass density without secondary signs. Two patients showed secondary signs such as skin thickening, parenchymal distortion, and nipple retraction. Ultrasonographic findings were variable but helpful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion, MRI findings were more helpful in differentiating abscess from malignant lesions. Radiologic findings were useful to diagnose tuberculosis of the breast, but fine needle aspiration biopsy and culture were needed for suspicious radiologic findings.

  18. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  19. Imaging diagnosis of breast tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Oh, Ki Keun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of breast tuberculosis. The authors evaluated the radiologic findings of five cases of surgically confirmed tuberculosis of the breast. Patients were examined with mammography (n=5), ultrasonography (n=3), and MRI (n=2). All patients were female. Four patients had unilateral lesion and the remaining one patient had bilateral breast tuberculosis. Mammographic findings were mainly radiopaque mass density without secondary signs. Two patients showed secondary signs such as skin thickening, parenchymal distortion, and nipple retraction. Ultrasonographic findings were variable but helpful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion, MRI findings were more helpful in differentiating abscess from malignant lesions. Radiologic findings were useful to diagnose tuberculosis of the breast, but fine needle aspiration biopsy and culture were needed for suspicious radiologic findings

  20. Radiologic observation of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Ra, Y. W.; Kim, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of thirty eight cases of renal tuberculosis treated at this hospital during last 4 years were analysed with following results. The cases examined were 24 male and 14 female patients. Age distribution was broad and evenly distributed ranging from 2nd decades to 5th decades. Main symptoms complained were urinary frequency, hematuria, dysuria and flank pain. Findings of physical examination revealed tenderness of costovertebral angle, palpable mass on flank area and epididymal indutration. The simple chest films showed pulmonary tuberculosis in 22 cases including 6 cases of active military type. Thirty one cases showed increased ESR, 8 cases showed AFB positive in urine and 12 cases showed bilateral renal tuberculosis. Through urographic findings nonvisualization, cyceopelviectasis, motheaten appearance of minor calyx, contracted bladder, delayed visualization, ureteral stricture and beading were observed in order of frequency. Five cases with miliary tuberculosis showed advanced renal lesion on urogram

  1. Novel nanoparticles for Tuberculosis chemotherapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Semete, B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Current therapeutic management of tuberculosis is inadequate due to non-compliance, lengthy course of treatment and drug- related side effects. In order to address these setbacks, the authors are developing a nanotechnology drug delivery system...

  2. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  3. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Patrick; Johnston, James

    2017-01-01

    Opinion statement The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and ac...

  4. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  5. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  6. OROPHARYNGEAL TUBERCULOSIS: AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Dadgarnia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nTuberculosis (TB still represents a major public health problem worldwide. The primary form of disease is most often localized to the lung. In a minority of patients, progressive pulmonary disease spreads to other organ systems through self inoculation via infected sputum, blood and lymphatic system, establishing the secondary form of tuberculosis. We present a patient that was referred to us with complaint of ulcerative mouth lesions from 3 months ago. In physical examination multiple erythematous and irregularly ulcerative lesions affecting soft palate area, uvula and anterior tonsillar pillar was noted bilaterally. Punch biopsy was done from several points that revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation. Ziehl-Nielsen staining of cultured specimen demonstrated acid-fast bacilli. Chest X-ray showed apical pulmonary involvement, suggesting tuberculosis infection. Patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis 4 drugs regimen. In the one year follow-up period after complete treatment; patient didn't have any evidence of disease. Oral and oropharyngeal TB lesions are uncommon, it is estimated that only 0.05-5% of total TB cases may present with oral manifestations, but should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of lesions that appear in the oral cavity and oropharynx. The secondary form is more frequent and involves mainly the tongue but involvement of pharynx is quite rare condition. Although tuberculosis of oropharynx is relatively rare, with the increasing incidence of tuberculosis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical ulcerative lesions of the mouth and oropharynx.

  7. Tuberculosis: looking beyond BCG vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Abu S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.

  8. Radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreu, J. E-mail: andreuj@hg.vhebron.es; Caceres, J.; Pallisa, E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M

    2004-08-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a common worldwide lung infection. The radiological features show considerable variation, but in most cases they are characteristic enough to suggest the diagnosis. Classically, tuberculosis is divided into primary, common in childhood, and postprimary, usually presenting in adults. The most characteristic radiological feature in primary tuberculosis is lymphadenopathy. On enhanced CT, hilar and mediastinal nodes with a central hypodense area suggest the diagnosis. Cavitation is the hallmark of postprimary tuberculosis and appears in around half of patients. Patchy, poorly defined consolidation in the apical and posterior segments of the upper lobes, and in the superior segment of the lower lobe is also commonly observed. Several complications are associated with tuberculous infection, such as hematogenous dissemination (miliary tuberculosis) or extension to the pleura, resulting in pleural effusion. Late complications of tuberculosis comprise a heterogeneous group of processes including tuberculoma, bronchial stenosis bronchiectasis, broncholithiasis, aspergilloma, bronchoesophageal fistula and fibrosing mediastinitis. Radiology provides essential information for the management and follow up of these patients and is extremely valuable for monitoring complications.

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of 9,000-year-old Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a Neolithic settlement in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hershkovitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the principal etiologic agent of human tuberculosis. It has no environmental reservoir and is believed to have co-evolved with its host over millennia. This is supported by skeletal evidence of the disease in early humans, and inferred from M. tuberculosis genomic analysis. Direct examination of ancient human remains for M. tuberculosis biomarkers should aid our understanding of the nature of prehistoric tuberculosis and the host/pathogen relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used conventional PCR to examine bone samples with typical tuberculosis lesions from a woman and infant, who were buried together in the now submerged site of Atlit-Yam in the Eastern Mediterranean, dating from 9,250-8,160 years ago. Rigorous precautions were taken to prevent contamination, and independent centers were used to confirm authenticity of findings. DNA from five M tuberculosis genetic loci was detected and had characteristics consistent with extant genetic lineages. High performance liquid chromatography was used as an independent method of verification and it directly detected mycolic acid lipid biomarkers, specific for the M. tuberculosis complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human tuberculosis was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods in a population living in one of the first villages with evidence of agriculture and animal domestication. The widespread use of animals was not a source of infection but may have supported a denser human population that facilitated transmission of the tubercle bacillus. The similarity of the M. tuberculosis genetic signature with those of today gives support to the theory of a long-term co-existence of host and pathogen.

  10. Progression to active tuberculosis, but not transmission, varies by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Bouke C.; Hill, Philip C.; Aiken, Alex; Awine, Timothy; Antonio, Martin; Adetifa, Ifedayo M.; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly J.; Fox, Annette; Deriemer, Kathryn; Gagneux, Sebastien; Borgdorff, Martien W.; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Corrah, Tumani; Small, Peter M.; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease. METHODS: In a cohort study of patients with tuberculosis and their

  11. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  12. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Socio-demographic profile of patients with sarcoidosis vis-à-vis tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Vinay, N; Agarwal, R; Agarwal, A N

    2013-11-25

    Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis closely resemble each other and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been implicated as a causative agent for sarcoidosis. Herein we explore the socio-demographic features of patients with sarcoidosis vis-a-vis tuberculosis. In a prospective case-control design, we studied hundred patients each of newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy controls. Socio-demographic profile was recorded on a standardized questionnaire. Information about tobacco smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cooking fuels was also collected. Various parameters were compared among the three groups. Compared to tuberculosis, patients with sarcoidosis were elder, had better body mass index (BMI), higher urban residence (OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.02-4.69), were better educated (ORs 8.50 to 74.25 for different categories), had higher per capita income (OR 13.33; 95% CI: 6.79-26.19) and belonged to better overall socio-economic status (SES) (ORs 8.57-195.0 for different categories). All these differences were also significant when sarcoidosis patients were compared to healthy controls albeit to a lesser degree. Tobacco smoking, ETS exposure and use of fossil/biomass fuels for cooking were more commonly seen in TB patients. In the multivariate analysis, as compared to TB or controls, sarcoidosis patients had higher odds for a better SES after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, religion, smoking, ETS exposure and cooking fuel. Patients with sarcoidosis are likely to be better educated and more affluent compared to those with tuberculosis and healthy controls and this can be useful in clinical differential diagnosis of the two conditions in populations with high prevalence of TB.

  14. Towards host-directed therapies for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Hoelscher, Michael; Ntoumi, Francine; Rustomjee, Roxana; Vilaplana, Cristina; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Rasolof, Voahangy; Munderi, Paula; Singh, Nalini; Aklillu, Eleni; Padayatchi, Nesri; Macete, Eusebio; Kapata, Nathan; Mulenga, Modest; Kibiki, Gibson; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nyirenda, Thomas; Maboko, Leonard; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Reither, Klaus; Gagneux, Sebastien; Edwards, Sarah; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Abdulla, Salim; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Russell, James B W; Gant, Vanya; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Elkington, Paul; Bonnet, Maryline; Menendez, Clara; Dieye, Tandakha N; Diarra, Bassirou; Maiga, Almoustapha; Aseffa, Abraham; Parida, Shreemanta; Wejse, Christian; Petersen, Eskild; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Oliver, Matt; Craig, Gill; Corrah, Tumena; Tientcheu, Leopold; Antonio, Martin; Rao, Martin; McHugh, Timothy D; Sheikh, Aziz; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Ramjee, Gita; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Churchyard, Gavin; Steyn, Andrie; Grobusch, Martin; Sanne, Ian; Martinson, Neil; Madansein, Rajhmun; Wilkinson, Robert J; Mayosi, Bongani; Schito, Marco; Wallis, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    The treatment of tuberculosis is based on combinations of drugs that directly target Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A new global initiative is now focusing on a complementary approach of developing adjunct host-directed therapies.

  15. WHO GLOBAL TUBERCULOSIS REPORTS: COMPILATION AND INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vаsilyevа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to inform national specialists involved in tuberculosis control about methods for compilation of WHO global tuberculosis statistics, which are used when developing strategies and programmes for tuberculosis control and evaluation of their efficiency.  The article explains in detail the notions of main WHO epidemiological rates, used in the international publications on tuberculosis along with the data on their registered values, new approaches to making the list of country with the highest burden of tuberculosis, drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis with concurrent HIV infection. The article compares the rates in the Russian Federation with global data as well as data from countries within WHO European Regions and countries with highest TB burden. It presents materials on the achievement of Global goals in tuberculosis control and main provisions of WHO End TB Strategy for 2015-2035 adopted as a part of UNO Sustainable Development Goals.  

  16. CDC WONDER: Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS) on CDC WONDER contains information on verified tuberculosis (TB) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control...

  17. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.

  18. determinants of tuberculosis services acceptance among patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    stigmatization on acceptance of tuberculosis services in government hospitals in Oyo State, ... tuberculosis. It usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the .... out that, stigma among Mexican immigrants in Califonia significantly ...

  19. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  20. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the pelvis in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Motoi; Machinami, Rikuo; Goto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Aiichiro

    1999-01-01

    We report on a case of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) of the left iliac bone in a 12-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed an aggressive osteolytic lesion with areas of mineralization. Fluid-fluid levels were seen on T2-weighted MR images. Laboratory data showed slight elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. The biopsy specimen showed histological features of CCCS with some resemblance to osteosarcoma, such as prominent irregular osteoid formation among clear tumor cells. Surgical treatment was accomplished without pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Because of the patient's age, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and histopathology with prominent osteoid production, this case could be confused with osteosarcoma. Although CCCS is an extremely rare bone tumor in children, it is important to be aware that it may arise in a skeletally immature patient. CCCS, unlike osteosarcoma, is not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Comparative Mycobacteriology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Stephen V.; Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of highly genetically related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammalian species. However, the very name of the complex underlines the fact that our knowledge of these pathogens is dominated by studies on the human pathogen, M. tuberculosis. Of course this is entirely justified; M. tuberculosis is a major global pathogen that exacts a horrendous burden in terms of mortality and morbidity so it is appropriate that it is...

  2. Concomitant active tuberculosis prolongs survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a study in a tuberculosis-endemic country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsi Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant tumor cell vaccine with chemotherapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC shows limited clinical response. Whether it provokes effective cellular immunity in tumor microenvironment is questionable. Concomitant active tuberculosis in NSCLC (TBLC resembles locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine; thus, maximally enriches effective anti-tumor immunity. This study compares the survival and immunological cell profile in TBLC over NSCLC alone. METHODS: Retrospective review of NSCLC patients within 1-year-period of 2007 and follow-up till 2010. RESULTS: A total 276 NSCLC patients were included. The median survival of TBLC is longer than those of NSCLC alone (11.6 vs. 8.8 month, p<0.01. Active tuberculosis is an independent predictor of better survival with HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 ~ 0.97. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (55.8 vs. 31.7%, p<0.01 is a significant risk factor for NSCLC with active TB. The median survival of SCC with active tuberculosis is significantly longer than adenocarcinoma or undetermined NSCLC with TB (14.2 vs. 6.6 and 2.8 months, p<0.05. Active tuberculosis in SCC increases the expression of CD3 (46.4 ± 24.8 vs. 24.0 ± 16.0, p<0.05, CXCR3 (35.1 ± 16.4 vs. 19.2 ± 13.3, p<0.01 and IP-10 (63.5 ± 21.9 vs. 35.5 ± 21.0, p<0.01, while expression of FOXP3 is decreased (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 13.3 ± 3.7 p<0.05, p<0.05. Survival of SCC with high expression of CD3 (12.1 vs. 3.6 month, p<0.05 and CXCR3 (12.1 vs. 4.4 month, p<0.05 is longer than that with low expression. CONCLUSIONS: Active tuberculosis in NSCLC shows better survival outcome. The effective T lymphocyte infiltration in tumor possibly underlies the mechanism. Locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine may deserve further researches.

  3. Genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with variable clinical presentations: A report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Arora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is usually diagnosed in young women being assessed for infertility. After menopause it usually presents with symptoms resembling endometrial malignancy, such as postmenopausal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge and pyometra. The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or bacteriological culture and/or presence of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Anti-tubercular therapy involves the use of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgery is indicated if a pelvic mass and recurrence of pain or bleeding persist after 9 months of treatment. Three cases of genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with different clinical presentations are reported. The first woman presented with ascites and weight loss. The second had postmenopausal bleeding with a pipelle biopsy suggestive of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. The third presented with weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass. Pelvic malignancy was initially suspected but a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made following pre-operative endometrial biopsy, bacteriological culture and intra-operative frozen section. All three women responded to anti-tubercular therapy. Keywords: Genital tuberculosis, Postmenopausal, Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, Anti-tubercular therapy, Endometrial biopsy

  4. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleoid-associated protein HU with structure-based inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ghosh, Soumitra; Dixit, Karuna; Ganesan, Varsha; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Dey, Debayan; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoid-associated protein HU plays an important role in maintenance of chromosomal architecture and in global regulation of DNA transactions in bacteria. Although HU is essential for growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), there have been no reported attempts to perturb HU function with small molecules. Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HU from Mtb. We identify a core region within the HU-DNA interface that can be targeted using stilbene derivatives. These small molecules specifically inhibit HU-DNA binding, disrupt nucleoid architecture and reduce Mtb growth. The stilbene inhibitors induce gene expression changes in Mtb that resemble those induced by HU deficiency. Our results indicate that HU is a potential target for the development of therapies against tuberculosis.

  5. An immunocompetent young patient with tuberculosis of the penis: a challenging case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Maria; Tăban, Sorina; Ţăroi, Mona; Pătraşcu, Virgil; Popa, Florina Ligia

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous chancre is an extremely rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. The genital area is a possible site of presentation. We present a case of a young male with a persistent balanopreputial ulceration resembling a luetic chancre with negative serology for syphilis. The diagnosis was based on the specific pathologic features and the positive intradermal reaction to tuberculin. A successful treatment was achieved by combining antituberculosis treatment and surgical approach with circumcision. After six months of antituberculosis treatment, the patient developed paradoxical inguinal lymph node enlargement, which, after surgical excision and biopsy, was not followed by a relapse of the disease and needed no further therapy. Tuberculosis should be considered a potential diagnosis in the case of a persistent genital ulcer.

  6. Atypical extraspinal musculoskeletal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients: Part II, tuberculous myositis, tuberculous bursitis, and tuberculous tenosynovites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, I.F. [Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Bianchi, S. [Clinique et Fondation des Grangettes, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: stefanobianchi@bluewin.ch; Martinoli, C. [Universita di Genova, Cattedra di Radiologia, DICMI, Genoa (Italy); Klein, M. [Univ. of Alabama School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Hermann, G. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, New York, New York (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Tuberculosis involving the soft tissue from adjacent bone or joint is well recognized. However, primary tuberculous pyomyositis, tuberculous bursitis, and tuberculous tenosynovitis are rare entities constituting 1% of skeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis involves most commonly the tendon sheaths of the hand and wrist, and tuberculous bursitis occurs most commonly around the hip. The greater trochanteric bursa and the greater trochanter are the most frequent sites of tuberculous bursitis. Cases of primary tuberculous pyomyositis and tenosynovitis of the tendons of the ankle and foot are seldom reported in the radiology literature. All imaging modalities - plain radiography, bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - provide information that is helpful in determining therapy. MRI in particular, with its multiplanar capabilities and superb contrast of soft tissue, can demonstrate the extent of the soft tissue mass and access the adjacent bones and joints. However, MRI has no diagnostic specificity in regard to tuberculosis, and in nonendemic areas, biopsy is strongly recommended. All patients in this review were permanent residents of North America or Western Europe and were immunocompetent. Examples of atypical presentations of the above entities are demonstrated. (author)

  7. Atypical extraspinal musculoskeletal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients: Part II, tuberculous myositis, tuberculous bursitis, and tuberculous tenosynovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Bianchi, S.; Martinoli, C.; Klein, M.; Hermann, G.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis involving the soft tissue from adjacent bone or joint is well recognized. However, primary tuberculous pyomyositis, tuberculous bursitis, and tuberculous tenosynovitis are rare entities constituting 1% of skeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis involves most commonly the tendon sheaths of the hand and wrist, and tuberculous bursitis occurs most commonly around the hip. The greater trochanteric bursa and the greater trochanter are the most frequent sites of tuberculous bursitis. Cases of primary tuberculous pyomyositis and tenosynovitis of the tendons of the ankle and foot are seldom reported in the radiology literature. All imaging modalities - plain radiography, bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - provide information that is helpful in determining therapy. MRI in particular, with its multiplanar capabilities and superb contrast of soft tissue, can demonstrate the extent of the soft tissue mass and access the adjacent bones and joints. However, MRI has no diagnostic specificity in regard to tuberculosis, and in nonendemic areas, biopsy is strongly recommended. All patients in this review were permanent residents of North America or Western Europe and were immunocompetent. Examples of atypical presentations of the above entities are demonstrated. (author)

  8. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  9. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis homologue of the Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the completion of genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and upsurge in the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection worldwide partly as a result of HIV pandemic, there is need for rationale approach to vaccine and chemotherapy discoveries for M. tuberculosis. The homologue of mig gene of. Mycobacterium ...

  10. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem throughout the world. Nearly one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and hence at risk of developing active disease. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia, and the country belongs to one of ...

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Alan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.

  12. Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso, there is no recent data about the level of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update of the primary drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients in Burkina faso. METHODS: ...

  13. Some haematological parameters of tuberculosis infected Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Drug resistant tuberculosis is now common place due to poor patient compliance and lack of detection of resistant strains. The occurrence of HIV has been responsible for an increased frequency of tuberculosis. Knowledge of the blood picture in pulmonary ...

  14. Overview of airway involvement in tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Arundeep; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is a ubiquitous infection and a re-emerging medical and socioeconomic problem resulting in increasing mortality and morbidity, especially in Asian countries. We aim to review the spectrum of imaging findings in airway involvement in tuberculosis through characteristic radiological images and to assess the role of computed tomography and image-guided interventions in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  16. 38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20, 1968...

  17. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned. ...

  18. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  19. 9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The entire...

  20. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  1. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis: Still a challenge for radiologists and Gastroenterologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadnejad, M.; Malekzadeh, R.; Soroush, Z.; Sedighi, N.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Iran. All parts of the gastrointestinal tract can be affected by Tuberculosis. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnoses of almost and tuberculosis diseases, and physicians should be aware of the imaging characteristics of tuberculosis in the tuberculosis tract. This is a report of 4 patients with different types of tuberculosis involvement by tuberculosis, along with its clinical pictures and imaging characteristics

  2. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  3. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  4. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  5. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  6. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  7. Severely impaired bone material quality in Chihuahua zebrafish resembles classical dominant human osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Imke A K; Schmidt, Felix N; Wölfel, Eva M; Plumeyer, Christine; Milovanovic, Petar; Gioia, Roberta; Tonelli, Francesca; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Jähn, Katharina; Besio, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Busse, Björn

    2018-04-17

    Excessive skeletal deformations and brittle fractures in the vast majority of patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are a result of substantially reduced bone quality. Since the mechanical competence of bone is dependent on the tissue characteristics at small length scales, it is of crucial importance to assess how osteogenesis imperfecta manifests at the micro- and nanoscale of bone. In this context, the Chihuahua (Chi/ +) zebrafish, carrying a heterozygous glycine substitution in the α1 chain of collagen type I, has recently been proposed as suitable animal model of classical dominant OI, showing skeletal deformities, altered mineralization patterns and a smaller body size. This study assessed the bone quality properties of Chi/+ at multiple length scales using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, quantitative back-scattered electron imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation and X-ray microscopy. At the skeletal level, Chi/+ display smaller body size, deformities and fracture calli in the ribs. Morphological changes at the whole bone level showed that the vertebrae in Chi/+ had a smaller size, smaller thickness and distorted shape. At the tissue level, Chi/+ displayed a higher degree of mineralization, lower collagen maturity, lower mineral maturity, altered osteoblast morphology, and lower osteocyte lacunar density compared to WT. The alterations in the cellular, compositional and structural properties of Chi/+ bones bear an explanation for the impaired local mechanical properties, which promote an increase in overall bone fragility in Chi/ +. The quantitative assessment of bone quality in Chi/+ thus further validates this mutant as an important model reflecting osseous characteristics associated with human classical dominant osteogenesis imperfecta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The skeletal consequences of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jonathan J; Brassill, Mary Jane; Williams, Graham R; Bassett, J H Duncan

    2012-06-01

    Euthyroid status is essential for normal skeletal development and the maintenance of adult bone structure and strength. Established thyrotoxicosis has long been recognised as a cause of high bone turnover osteoporosis and fracture but more recent studies have suggested that subclinical hyperthyroidism and long-term suppressive doses of thyroxine (T4) may also result in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fracture, particularly in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, large population studies of euthyroid individuals have demonstrated that a hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis set point at the upper end of the normal reference range is associated with reduced BMD and increased fracture susceptibility. Despite these findings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in bone remain controversial and incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss the role of thyroid hormones in bone and the skeletal consequences of hyperthyroidism.

  9. MAMMARY TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS CARCINOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fig. I . Case 1. Typical tubercle follicle surrounded by tissue ... glands and fibrosis of the surrounding adipose tissue. .... to tuberculous infection, memions heart, skeletal muscle, testis .... oesophagus, blood vessels or tracheobronchial tract-.

  10. Active tuberculosis patients have high levels of IgA anti-alpha-crystallin and isocitrate lyase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera-Paulín, M; García-Morales, L; Ruíz-Sánchez, B P; Caamal-Ley, Á D; Hernández-Solis, A; Ramírez-Casanova, E; Cicero-Sabido, R; Espitia, C; Helguera-Repetto, C; González-Y-Merchand, J A; Flores-Mejía, R; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-García, I; Chacón-Salinas, R; Wong-Baeza, I; Serafín-López, J

    2016-12-01

    Mexico City, Mexico. To identify proteins synthetised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic culture, which resemble more closely a granuloma environment than aerobic culture, and to determine if they are recognised by antibodies from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Soluble extracts from M. tuberculosis H37Rv cultured under aerobic or hypoxic conditions were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and proteins over-expressed under hypoxia were identified by mass spectrometry. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM antibodies against these proteins was determined in the serum of 42 patients with active PTB and 42 healthy controls. We selected three M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins (alpha-crystallin protein [Acr, Rv2031c], universal stress protein Rv2623 and isocitrate lyase [ICL, RV0467]) that were over-expressed under hypoxia. Titres of anti-Acr and anti-ICL IgA antibodies were higher in patients than in healthy controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 for anti-ICL IgA antibodies. ICL could be used in combination with other M. tuberculosis antigens to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current serological TB diagnostic methods.

  11. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn A Distel

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  12. Bone scintigraphy, radiography and MRI in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response of calcaneal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Choudhury, S.K.; Thomas, E.J.; Sharma, S.; Ashok, S.; Trika, V.; Gupta, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We describe the role of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow up of calcaneal tuberculosis. Materials and methods: Six patients (5 males, 1 female; age range 16-49 years) presented with heel pain. All patients underwent routine laboratory and radiological investigations e.g. radiographs, MRI and skeletal scintigraphy as part of initial diagnostic work-up. In all patients the diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed based on histopathology or culture. Standard multi-drug anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was administered for 15 months. All patients were subsequently followed up with clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations and imaging. Skeletal scintigraphy, MRI and radiographs were repeated at 12 to 15 months from the initiation of anti-tubercular treatment in all patients. Results: Five out of six patients had lytic lesions at presentation on radiographs. Four of these 5 patients also had surrounding sclerosis. Follow-up radiographs obtained 12-15 months after starting ATT, showed an increase in surrounding sclerosis with progressive reduction in area of osteopenia in four and mild sclerotic changes in one. In the remaining one patient radiograph were normal both at presentation and follow up. Three phase bone scintigraphy revealed increased blood flow and blood pool activity and 'hot spots' in 5 and a central photopenic area in the calcaneum in one patient at the time of diagnosis. After starting ATT, significant reduction in vascularity and reactive bone changes in 5 patients and mild improvement in one patient. MRI was done in three patients, which revealed hyperintense lesion with erosion of the superior articular surface in 2 and 'Bull's eye' lesion with a hypointense centre and a surrounding hyperintense rim on post contrast T1W images in one patient. Follow-up MRI showed intermediate signal intensity on T2 weighted images that corresponded to caseous necrosis and high signal intensity related to granulomas or effusion. Conclusion

  13. MRI in intraspinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, S.; Kohli, A.; Misra, U.K.; Gujral, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    We studied 20 patients with intraspinal tuberculosis (TB), to characterise the MRI features of tuberculous meningitis and myelitis. MRI leptomeningitis and intramedullary involvement in 11 patients, intramedullary lesions alone in 5, leptomeningitis alone in 2, and isolated extradural disease in 2. TB leptomeningitis was characterised by loculation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root thickening and clumping (seen only in the lumbar region) or complete obliteration of the subarachnoid space on unenhanced images. Gd-DTPA-enhanced images proved useful in 6 cases, revealing linear enhancement of the surface of the spinal cord and nerve roots or plaque-like enhancement of the dura-arachnoid mater complex. Intramedullary lesions included tuberculomas (8), cord oedema (5) and cavitation (3). In seven cases of intramedullary tuberculoma multiple lesions with skip areas were seen, without significant cord swelling. One patient had an isolated lesion in the conus medullaris. The lesions were iso- or hypointense on T1-weighted images, iso-, hypo- or hyperintense on T2-weighted images and showed rim or nodular enhancement with contrast medium. (orig.)

  14. Extrathoracic manifestations of tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl-Palma, D.; Prosch, H.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the lungs, tuberculosis (TB) can affect any organ system. In most cases, extrathoracic TB occurs in immunosuppressed patients as part of a severe illness via hematogenous spread. Extrathoracic involvement most commonly involves abdominal organs, especially the urogenital tract and less commonly the central nervous system (CNS) and the musculoskeletal system. Most frequently, computed tomography (CT) is used for detecting extrathoracic TB manifestations, except for CNS and musculoskeletal manifestations, where contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard. Extrathoracic manifestations of TB may be indistinguishable from inflammatory or malignant causes. Due to unspecific symptoms the diagnosis is often delayed. This article summarizes and discusses the various radiological manifestations of extrathoracic manifestation of TB. Radiological modalities for screening extrathoracic TB are CT and MRI. Conventional X-radiographs do not play a role in the diagnosis of extrathoracic TB. The possibility of extrathoracic TB should be considered particularly in immunosuppressed patients, such as the homeless, alcoholics or drug addicts or in patients with an immigrant background from the endemic areas of TB. The most likely site of extrathoracic TB is the abdomen; however, infections of the CNS or musculoskeletal systems and multisystem infections can also occur. In patients with suspected extrathoracic TB, radiological modalities for screening are CT, especially for abdominal infections and lymphadenopathy and MRI with contrast media for the musculoskeletal system and the CNS. (orig.) [de

  15. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  16. Tuberculosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, K; Apuzzio, J J

    1996-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy and in the perinatal period was once considered to be an infrequent event in the United States. After a decade of steady decline, however, the disease has begun a resurgence. According to the CDC, a 20% increase in the number of reported cases occurred between 1985 and 1992. The factors associated with this increase are the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of drug-resistant organisms, substance abuse, homelessness, and immigration. Environmental factors promoting transmission can be found in overcrowded areas such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, hospitals, and migrant-worker camps. For a large number of medically underserved women, the obstetrician is the only interface with medical care, as most of these patients do not have primary-care providers. It is important, therefore, that health-care providers recognize the clinical symptoms of TB and follow the recognized guidelines for antenatal screening for TB because the omission of these steps can lead to potentially disastrous sequelae in the fetus and neonate.

  17. Tuberculosis and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Tuberculosis is responsible for far more women's deaths each year than all the causes of maternal deaths combined (e.g., in 1990, 720,000 vs. 428,000). TB attacks women in the most productive years of life, the years in which they raise children and work in the household, labor force, or fields. Mothers infected with TB are a threat to their children, since they often infect their children with TB before they die. Lack of diagnosis or poor treatment account for the deaths of around 33% of the 6 million women with TB at any given time. Various reasons explain why women do not seek or receive treatment: lack of time because of family and work demands, lack of money and transportation, the need to get permission from or be accompanied by a male family member to visit a health center, the stigma of infertility, poor education, and lack of female health workers in cultures where female modesty is important. Deaths of women to TB have major effects on child survival, economic productivity, and family well-being. In order to increase case finding and treatment, TB programs and health workers must respond to the needs of women.

  18. [Penile Tuberculosis : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Takahiro; Nomura, Hironori; Tsujimura, Go; Ko, Yoko; Kinjyo, Takanori; Yoshioka, Iwao; Takada, Shingo; Yahata, Yoko; Mizutani, Tetsu

    2017-04-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of glans penis pain, induration, and discharge of pus. He was prescribed a course of antibiotics, but the condition persisted despite treatment. Thus, we differrentially diagnosed the patient with penile tuberculosis and pyoderma gangrenosum, and performed a biopsy of the penis. The biopsy result was thickening of the horny layer epidermis with only a foreign body granuloma composed of inflammatory cells, and did not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Thoraca-abdominal computed tomography revealed axillary lymphadenopathy with necrosis. Suspecting tuberculosis lymphadenitis, we performed T-spot and QuantiFERONtests. The result was T-spot negative and QuantiFERONpositive, so we diagnosed the patient with penile tuberculosis, and started antituberculosis medication. In about half a year after the start of treatment the symptoms subsided, and lymphadenopathy showed reduction.

  19. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  20. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  1. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  2. Neutrophils in Tuberculosis: Heterogeneity Shapes the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Infection with M. tuberculosis remains one of the most common infections in the world. The outcome of the infection depends on host ability to mount effective protection and balance inflammatory responses. Neutrophils are innate immune cells implicated in both processes. Accordingly, during M. tuberculosis infection, they play a dual role. Particularly, they contribute to the generation of effector T cells, participate in the formation of granuloma, and are directly involved in tissue necrosis, destruction, and infection dissemination. Neutrophils have a high bactericidal potential. However, data on their ability to eliminate M. tuberculosis are controversial, and the results of neutrophil depletion experiments are not uniform. Thus, the overall roles of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and factors that determine these roles are not fully understood. This review analyzes data on neutrophil defensive and pathological functions during tuberculosis and considers hypotheses explaining the dualism of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. PMID:28626346

  3. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... May and October 2014, before and after a performance feedback intervention in August 2014. The outcomes of interest were overall tuberculosis suspicion rate during consultations and provider adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the World Health Organizations' guidelines...

  4. Sonographic findings of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Chang Joon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine sonographic characteristic of renal tuberculosis, we retrospectively collected 27 cases during a 5 year period. Infected kidneys showed large size (52%) and lobulating contour (76%). In 19 cases of increased parenchymal echogenicity, most of them (16 cases) showed decreased parenchymal thickness. We divided hydronephrotic patterns into 4 categories; predominant calyceal dilatation with mild or no pelvic dilatation (67%), focal calyectasis without pelvic dilation (15%), parenchymal cavitation without hydronephrosis (11%) and proportional hydronephrosis with calyceal deformity (7%). Our findings suggest that disproportional hydronephrosis would be the characteristic finding of renal tuberculosis

  5. Ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Un Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Seok; Ko, Kang Seok; Park, Byung Ran; Yang, Dong Cheol; Im, Ju Hyeon; Kang, In Young

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic and CT findings of confirmed hepatosplenic tuberculosis in 12 patients. Six were men and six were women ; their average age was 41, and most were in their twenties. Lesions of the liver and spleen, as well as associated findings such as abdominal tuberculosis and other organ involvement of tuberculosis were analyzed. Results : There were three cases of hepatic tuberculosis, seven of splenic tuberculosis, and two of hepatosplenic involvement of tuberculosis. On the basis of the ultrasonographic and CT findings, hepatosplenic tuberculosis was classified as one of two patterns : miliary or micronodular, ormacronodular. The micronodular type was more common (9/12 cases) being characterized by innumerable micronodules,and with easy coalescence in the liver and spleen in five of the nine cases. The macronodular type of low density mass was noted in the other three patients. Splenomegaly was noted in 12 cases and hepatomegaly in ten. Pulmonary tuberculosis-including the miliary type(n=5)-was noted in eight patients. Associated abdominal tuberculosis such as lymphadenopathy with central low density and peripheral rim enhancement (n=6), tuberculous peritonitis(n=3),highly attenuated ascites(n=6), adrenal tuberculosis(n=1), renal tuberculosis(n=1), ovarian abscess(n=1), psoasabscess(n=1), and systemic tuberculosis such as central nervous system tuberculoma(n=2), cervical lymphadenopathy(n=4) and tuberculous spondylitis(n=1) were noted. Conclusion : Ultrasonography and CT were valuable in the detection and diagnosis of hepatosplenic tuberculosis

  6. Ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Un Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Seok; Ko, Kang Seok; Park, Byung Ran; Yang, Dong Cheol; Im, Ju Hyeon [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Young [Kwangju Green Cross Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic and CT findings of confirmed hepatosplenic tuberculosis in 12 patients. Six were men and six were women ; their average age was 41, and most were in their twenties. Lesions of the liver and spleen, as well as associated findings such as abdominal tuberculosis and other organ involvement of tuberculosis were analyzed. Results : There were three cases of hepatic tuberculosis, seven of splenic tuberculosis, and two of hepatosplenic involvement of tuberculosis. On the basis of the ultrasonographic and CT findings, hepatosplenic tuberculosis was classified as one of two patterns : miliary or micronodular, ormacronodular. The micronodular type was more common (9/12 cases) being characterized by innumerable micronodules,and with easy coalescence in the liver and spleen in five of the nine cases. The macronodular type of low density mass was noted in the other three patients. Splenomegaly was noted in 12 cases and hepatomegaly in ten. Pulmonary tuberculosis-including the miliary type(n=5)-was noted in eight patients. Associated abdominal tuberculosis such as lymphadenopathy with central low density and peripheral rim enhancement (n=6), tuberculous peritonitis(n=3),highly attenuated ascites(n=6), adrenal tuberculosis(n=1), renal tuberculosis(n=1), ovarian abscess(n=1), psoasabscess(n=1), and systemic tuberculosis such as central nervous system tuberculoma(n=2), cervical lymphadenopathy(n=4) and tuberculous spondylitis(n=1) were noted. Conclusion : Ultrasonography and CT were valuable in the detection and diagnosis of hepatosplenic tuberculosis.

  7. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  8. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  9. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  10. Microevolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hajoj, S.A.; Akkerman, O.; Parwati, I.; Al-Gamdi, S.; Rahim, Z.; Soolingen, D. van; Ingen, J. van; Supply, P.; Zanden, A.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    Five Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from three body sites from a Dutch patient. The isolates displayed a single genotype by 24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing (except for a single locus not amplified from one isolate) but were differentiated by small variations in IS6110 fingerprints,

  11. Inappropriate Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens in Chinese Tuberculosis Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue He, Guang; van den Hof, Susan; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Guo, Hui; Hu, Yuan Lian; Fan, Ji Huan; Zhang, Wei Min; Tostado, Christopher P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens in 6 TB hospitals in China showed that only 18% of patients with new cases and 9% of patients with retreatment cases were prescribed standard TB treatment regimens. Adherence to treatment guidelines needs to be improved in TB hospitals to

  12. Sonographic Findings of Abdominal Tuberculosis in Children With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélard, Sabine; Heller, Tom; Orie, Viyanti; Heuvelings, Charlotte C.; Bateman, Lindy; Workman, Lesley; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zar, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound reports of 102 children with microbiologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) showed that 23 of 37 (64%) and 23 of 65 (36%) had TB suggestive abdominal lymphadenopathy, and 16 of 37 (44%) and 8 of 65 (13%) had splenic microabscesses, respectively. Splenic

  13. Immune responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen ESAT-6 signal subclinical infection among contacts of tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, T Mark; Demissie, Abebech; Olobo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is considered essential for tuberculosis control but is hampered by the lack of specific reagents. We report that strong recognition of tuberculosis complex-specific antigen ESAT-6 by healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients...... correlates with the subsequent development of active tuberculosis during a 2-year follow-up period....

  14. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  15. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  16. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  17. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  18. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  19. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  20. Controlling the Seedbeds of Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Marais, Ben J.; Thim, Sok; Martinson, Neil A.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a critical opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programs focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programs that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control may continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly utilized tool that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the current epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. This paper outlines challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provides pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. It further advocates for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed global focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics, and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems, community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programs. PMID:26515679

  1. Radiation injury to skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, C.C.M.; Wondergem, J.; Leer, J.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy of neoplasia has increased the mean life expectancy of cancer patients. On the other hand, more reports are published on morbidity of the treatment with regard to normal tissue. Studies on skeletal muscle injury specifically are scarce, but many clinical long term follow-up studies make note of side effects as muscle atrophy, fibrosis and limited function. Furthermore it is suggested that skeletal muscles of children are more prone to radiation injury than those of adult subjects. Effects of radiation on skeletal muscle were studied in rats. On hind limb of young (100 g) and adult (350 g) rats was irradiated with single doses (15-30 Gy), while the other served as control. Follow-up was up to 12 months post treatment. Muscular function in young rats was decreased significantly at 6 months post irradiation, but did not further decrease in the following 6 months. The amount of collagen, on the other hand, was not increased at 6 months, but became highly elevated at 12 months past treatment. This suggests that at 6 months, impaired muscular function may not be explained by increased fibrotic tissues. This is an agreement with results obtained in adult rats, where function was also impaired, without concomitant increase in collagen. In an earlier study, mitochondrial oxygen consumption was dose dependently decreased after irradiation, at 12 months, but not at 6 months post treatment. Furthermore, myosin-actin interaction was measured in skinned fibers. The first results of this study indicate changes in the interaction of contraction proteins, as early as 6 months post treatment. (authors)

  2. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, V.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with skeletal metastases puts new demands on imaging. The radiological imaging in screening for skeletal metastases entails detection, metastatic site description and radiologically guided biopsy for morphological typing and diagnosis. Regarding sensitivity and the ease in performing surveys of the whole skeleton, radionuclide bone scintigraphy still is the first choice in routine follow-up of asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease of the skeleton. A negative scan has to be re-evaluated with other findings, with emphasis on the possibility of a false-negative result. Screening for metastases in patients with local symptoms or pain is best accomplished by a combination of radiography and MRI. Water-weighted sequences are superior in sensitivity and in detection of metastases. Standard spin-echo sequences on the other hand are superior in metastatic site description and in detection of intraspinal metastases. MRI is helpful in differentiating between malignant disease, infection, benign vertebral collapse, insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy, degenerative vertebral disease and benign skeletal lesions. About 30% of patients with known cancer have benign causes of radiographic abnormalities. Most of these are related to degenerative diseases and are often easily diagnosed. However, due to overlap in MRI characteristics, bone biopsy sometimes is essential for differentiating between malignant and nonmalignant lesions. Performing bone biopsy and aspiration cytology by radiologist and cytologist in co-operation has proven highly accurate in diagnosing bone lesions. The procedure involves low risk to the patient and provides a morphological diagnosis. Once a suspected metastatic lesion is detected, irrespective of modality, the morphological diagnosis determines the appropriate work-up imaging with respect to the therapy alternatives. (orig./VHE)

  3. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....

  4. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P. N.; Addonisio, G.; Righi, R.; Giganti, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to present an algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases, which may be applied differently in symptomatic and asymptomatic cancer patients. February to March 1999 it was randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 100 cancer patients (70 women and 30 men; mean age: 63 years, range: 55-87). All the patients had been staged according to TNM criteria and had undergone conventional radiography and bone scan; when findings were equivocal, CT and MRI had been performed too. The primary lesions responsible for bone metastases were sited in the: breast (51 cases), colon (30 cases: 17 men and 13 women), lung (7 cases: 6 men and 1 woman), stomach (4 cases: 2 men and 2 women), skin (4 cases: 3 men and 1 woman), kidney (2 men), pleura (1 woman), and finally liver (1 man). The most frequent radiographic pattern was the lytic type (52%), followed by osteosclerotic, mixed, lytic vs mixed and osteosclerotic vs lytic patterns. The patients were divided into two groups: group A patients were asymptomatic and group B patients had local symptoms and/or pain. Skeletal metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors: the spine and the pelvis are the most frequent sites of metastasis, because of the presence of high amounts of red (hematopoietic active) bone marrow. Pain is the main symptom, even though many bone metastases are asymptomatic. Pathological fractures are the most severe consequences. With the algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases two different diagnostic courses are available for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy remains the technique of choice in asymptomatic patients in whom skeletal metastases are suspected. However this technique, though very sensitive, is poorly specific, and thus a negative bone scan finding is double-checked with another physical examination: if the findings remain negative, the diagnostic workup is over. On the contrary, in

  5. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  6. Tuberculosis Prevention in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert

    2004-01-01

    To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…

  7. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.

  8. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850...

  9. 175 original article bronchopulmonary tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Also efforts should be made to ensure that all positive cases .... tuberculosis situation in some cities of the country such as Portharcourt .... countries were above the age of 50 (17, 25) . Of the 350 smear-positive patients, 235 were tested for HIV infection. 63 (26.8%) of these were positive. This agrees with the WHO estimate.

  10. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  11. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  12. Clinical evaluation of skeletal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, I; Sasaki, T; Kaneko, M; Watanabe, M [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Following about 10 mCi of intravenous administration of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, skeletal scintiphotography was performed in various skeletal diseases. Skeletal scintiphotograms were taken at about 2 to 3 hours after the administration of the radioisotope with Nuclear Chicago Rho/Gamma III scinticamera. The frontal, occipital and bilateral views of the skull, posterior and lateral views of the spine, anterior and posterior views of ribs, anterior and posterior views of the pelvis and either anterior and posterior views of extremities were scintiphotographed. 17 cases were studied of primary bone tumor (7 benign, 10 malignant), 20 cases of osseous metastasis and 20 cases of non-tumorous conditions. In malignant and benign bone tumors radioactivity is increased at the site of bony changes except for myeloma and leukaemia. In osseous metastasis radioactivity is increased at the site of lesion, even in the early stage. In non-tumorous conditions, radioactivity is also increased at the site of bony changes except for old healed osteomyelitis, old healed tuberculosis of bone and osteoporosis in Cushing's syndrome.

  13. Surgical aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ravindra Kumar; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global medical challenge and concern. In the world's population of over 7.4 billion people, 8.6 million are estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; another 2.2 billion have latent tuberculosis. There is an annual incidence of 16,000 new cases in the USA and 7-8 million new cases worldwide, of which 440,000 are multidrug-resistant or extensively multidrug-resistant, mainly in developing countries or emerging economies. According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of tuberculosis is 133 cases per 100,000 of the population; 3.3% new cases are drug resistant and 20% are already treated cases. Of the drug-resistant cases, 9.7% are extensively drug-resistant. The annual global mortality attributable to tuberculosis is over 1.3 million people. The association with HIV/AIDS in 430,000 people has compounded the global concern and challenge. This review presents the historical indications for surgical treatment of tuberculosis, reviews the current literature and clinical experience, and collates this into increased awareness and contemporary understanding of the indications and need for surgery in primary active tuberculosis, adjuvant surgical therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and the complications of chronic tuberculosis sequelae or previous tuberculosis surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis-mimicking Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Mi Young; Hong, Sun In; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Hyun Joo; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is occasionally confused with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in transplant recipients, since clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and IPA rely heavily on imaging modes such as computed tomography (CT). We therefore investigated IPA-mimicking tuberculosis in transplant recipients. All adult transplant recipients who developed tuberculosis or IPA at a tertiary hospital in an intermediate tuberculosis-burden country during a 6-year period were enrolled. First, we tested whether experienced radiologists could differentiate pulmonary tuberculosis from IPA. Second, we determined which radiologic findings could help us differentiate them. During the study period, 28 transplant recipients developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation, and 80 patients developed IPA after transplantation. Two experienced radiologists scored blindly 28 tuberculosis and 50 randomly selected IPA cases. The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for IPA were 78% and 68%, respectively (poor agreement, kappa value = 0.25). The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for tuberculosis were 64% and 61%, respectively (excellent agreement, kappa value = 0.77). We then compared the CT findings of the 28 patients with tuberculosis and 80 patients with IPA. Infarct-shaped consolidations and smooth bronchial wall thickening were more frequent in IPA, and mass-shaped consolidations and centrilobular nodules (tuberculosis. Certain CT findings appear to be helpful in differentiating between IPA and tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the CT findings of about one-third of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in transplant recipients are very close to those of IPA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  16. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  17. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  18. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  19. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Ssengooba, Willy; Muwonge, Catherine; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Kyaligonza, Stephen; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk

  20. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaban, L.B.; Cisneros, G.J.; Heyman, S.; Treves, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  1. Management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: WHO guidelines for low tuberculosis burden countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, Haileyesus; Matteelli, Alberto; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel; Baddeley, Annabel; Barreira, Draurio; den Boon, Saskia; Borroto Gutierrez, Susana Marta; Bruchfeld, Judith; Burhan, Erlina; Cavalcante, Solange; Cedillos, Rolando; Chaisson, Richard; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Chesire, Lucy; Corbett, Elizabeth; Dara, Masoud; Denholm, Justin; de Vries, Gerard; Falzon, Dennis; Ford, Nathan; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Gilpin, Chris; Girardi, Enrico; Go, Un-Yeong; Govindasamy, Darshini; D Grant, Alison; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Harris, Ross; Horsburgh, C. Robert; Ismayilov, Asker; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Kik, Sandra; Kranzer, Katharina; Lienhardt, Christian; LoBue, Philip; Lönnroth, Knut; Marks, Guy; Menzies, Dick; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mosca, Davide; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Mwinga, Alwyn; Nelson, Lisa; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Oordt-Speets, Anouk; Rangaka, Molebogeng Xheedha; Reis, Andreas; Rotz, Lisa; Sandgren, Andreas; Sañé Schepisi, Monica; Schünemann, Holger J.; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Stagg, Helen R.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Tayeb, Tamara; Uplekar, Mukund; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Vandevelde, Wim; van Kessel, Femke; van't Hoog, Anna; Varma, Jay K.; Vezhnina, Natalia; Voniatis, Constantia; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije; Weil, Diana; Weyer, Karin; Wilkinson, Robert John; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Zellweger, Jean Pierre; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is characterised by the presence of immune responses to previously acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without clinical evidence of active tuberculosis (TB). Here we report evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization for a public health

  2. Association between smoking and tuberculosis infection: a population survey in a high tuberculosis incidence area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boon, S.; van Lill, S. W. P.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Verver, S.; Bateman, E. D.; Lombard, C. J.; Enarson, D. A.; Beyers, N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between smoking and tuberculosis disease including death from tuberculosis have been reported, but there are few reports on the influence of smoking on the risk of developing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The aim of this study was to determine the association between

  3. [Increased IL-4 production in response to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis patients with advanced disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane J; Martins, Marta S; Costa, Leonor M; Freire, Mónica S; Arroz, Maria J; Dockrell, Hazel M; Ventura, Fernando A

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to compare immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and antigens in healthy Portuguese subjects and pulmonary tuberculosis patients (TB), and to correlate immune status with clinical severity of tuberculosis disease. PBMC were cultured and stimulated with live and killed M. tuberculosis H37Rv and purified protein derivative (PPD) and lymphoproliferation and production of IFN-gamma and IL-5/IL-4 by these cultures were evaluated by the use of ELISA and multi-parameter flow cytometry. PBMC from 30 tuberculosis patients demonstrated significantly reduced amounts of proliferation and IFN-gamma when stimulated with live M. tuberculosis compared the control group. Of 15 tuberculosis patients tested for intracellular IL-4 following stimulation with M. tuberculosis, 7 showed greatly increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta+ T cells. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated an increase of intracellular IL-4 after PBMC were stimulated with live M. tuberculosis in the CD4+ phenotype, but more notably in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ subsets. Increased production of IL-4 in tuberculosis patients was primarily in individuals with advanced involvement of lung parenchymal with high bacterial loads in sputum. These results suggest that an alteration in type 1 and type 2 cytokine balance can occur in patients with tuberculosis at an advanced clinical stage of disease.

  4. Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)

  5. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  6. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute intractional tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, S.; Sander, B.; Benndorf, G.; Terstegge, K.; Podrabsky, P.; Cordes, M.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    We reported three cases of acute intracranial tuberculosis including miliary tuberculosis, basal meningitis, tuberculomas and neuritis of cranial nerves. All patients had native and contrast enhanced CT and MRI scans. MRI revealed more granulomas and a better imaging contrast in the detection of basal meningitis. Neuritis was diagnosed only with the MRI. MRI scans should be prefered as the imaging procedure in clinically presumed intracranial tuberculosis. (orig.) [de

  8. Primary Oral Tuberculosis - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is most common disease in developing countries because of lack of public health awareness, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, absence of medical facilities. Primary oral lesions in tuberculosis are still exceedingly rare. Oral involvement may be primary or secondary to systemic involvement. Involvement of oral cavity is rare accounting for 0.2-1.5% of cases. A rare case report of primary oral tuberculosis is presented.

  9. Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Young Ae

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a significant infectious problem in elderly patients with comorbidities in Korea. The age-associated diseases such as malignancy and diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of tuberculosis in this population. The medication treatments of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities can cause adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs and inadequate treatment responses. Thus, clinicians must carefully monitor the toxicity of antituberculosis therapy and the efficacy of treatmen...

  10. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Wheezing In Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitra G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in children and infants can be suggested by the presence of a wheezing, often interpreted as acute bronchiolitis or asthma. The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and mechanism of wheezing in infants and toddlers with tuberculosis and to assess its value as an alarm symptom in children from areas where tuberculosis incidence is high.

  11. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  12. COIN EFFECT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthy. B. Nair

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common disease caused by various strains of mycobacterium, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1]. The first reference to tuberculosis in non European civilization was found in Vedas. Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic diseases where the person has high blood sugar level either because the pancreas does not produce insulin or because cells do not respond to insulin that is produced. It may eventually leads to polyuria, polyphagia and polydipsia. This review is to reveal...

  13. Tuberculosis of the Breast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Azarkar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary tuberculosis of the breast is a rare disease. It usually occurs in female of reproductive age. Any form of tuberculosis mastitis may present with feature of malignancy. Diagnosis is mainly based on identification of tubercle bacilli. We report a 42-year-old woman with primary tuberculosis abscess of the breast, who underwent surgical resection. Fine needle biopsy failed to achieve specific diagnosis before surgical operation. She responded to anti-TB therapy postoperatively. In endemic area, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast tumors

  14. [Treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Fujita, Akira

    2013-12-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment are the keys to tuberculosis control. In particular, providing appropriate treatment for tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic hepatic disease, or renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, and taking appropriate measures against adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs are issues of critical importance. This mini-symposium, four experts explained the current status of "treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities" and proposed measures to address these problems. Dr. Aoki talked about "HIV infection complicated by tuberculosis." To the next, Dr. Yoshinaga gave a talk on "treatment of tuberculosis in RA patients receiving biological agents. Further, Dr. Sasaki lectured on "tuberculosis in patients with hepatic disease/impairment". Lastly, Dr. Takamori gave a lecture on "tuberculosis in patients with renal disease and those on hemodialysis. Tuberculosis patients often have some underlying diseases, and adverse reactions caused by antituberculosis drugs, such as hepatic and renal impairments, are matters of concern. I believe that this mini-symposium has provided useful information for physicians engaged in tuberculosis treatment and for many other healthcare professionals as well.

  15. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  16. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  18. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  19. Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrini Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

  20. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  1. Ablation of steroid receptor coactivator-3 resembles the human CACT metabolic myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L; Sagen, Jørn V; Nikolai, Bryan C; Zhou, Suoling; Louet, Jean-Francois; Chopra, Atul R; Chen, Xian; Reed, Graham; Noebels, Jeffrey; Adesina, Adekunle M; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Stevens, Robert D; Wenner, Brett R; Ilkayeva, Olga; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2012-05-02

    Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and impaired neurologic, cardiac and skeletal muscle performance, each of which is apparent in mice lacking SRC-3 expression. Consistent with human cases of CACT deficiency, dietary rescue with short chain fatty acids drastically attenuates the clinical hallmarks of the disease in mice devoid of SRC-3. Collectively, our results position SRC-3 as a key regulator of β-oxidation. Moreover, these findings allow us to consider platform coactivators such as the SRCs as potential contributors to syndromes such as CACT deficiency, previously considered as monogenic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning and expression of a novel lysophospholipase which structurally resembles lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Y; Shibata, S; Kita, S; Horikoshi, K; Fuse, H; Shirafuji, H; Sumino, Y; Fujino, M

    1999-04-02

    Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the key enzyme in the esterification of plasma cholesterol and in the reverse cholesterol transport on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We have found a novel LCAT-related gene among differentially expressed cDNA fragments between two types of foam cells derived from THP-1 cells, which are different in cholesterol efflux ability, using a subtractive PCR technique. The deduced 412-amino-acid sequence has 49% amino acid sequence similarity with human LCAT. In contrast to the liver-specific expression of LCAT, mRNA expression of the gene was observed mainly in peripheral tissues including kidney, placenta, pancreas, testis, spleen, heart, and skeletal muscle. The protein exists in human plasma and is probably associated with HDL. Moreover, we discovered that the recombinant protein hydrolyzed lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a proatherogenic lipid, to glycerophosphorylcholine and a free fatty acid. We have therefore named this novel enzyme LCAT-like lysophospholipase (LLPL), through which a new catabolic pathway for lysoPC on lipoproteins could be elucidated. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.

  4. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  5. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  6. Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Ni, Bin; Dodd, Claire E; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding macrophage responses to M.tb infection, while pointing out relevant differences in experimental outcomes due to the use of divergent model systems. A brief description of the lung environment is included since there is increasing evidence that the alveolar macrophage (AM) has immunoregulatory properties that can delay optimal protective host immune responses. In this context, this review focuses on selected macrophage immunoregulatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, negative regulators of inflammation, lipid mediators and microRNAs (miRNAs). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tuberculosis and migration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, N M; Mansour, Z

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, the number of new cases of tuberculosis worldwide has barely declined and national tuberculosis control and elimination programmes in many high-income countries worldwide are increasingly challenged to address the problem of disease in foreign-born residents and migrant workers. Routine immigration medical screening, either before or after arrival in the recipient country, is designed to avoid the admission of migrants who pose a public health threat. Screening measures, however, have changed with time largely based on respect for individuals' rights. This paper reviews the measures that are being used by countries to screen immigrants and improve their health well-being, and presents cases studies from two Eastern Mediterranean Region countries.

  8. Tuberculosis Notification: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nagpal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem. An emerging menace in India is drug resistant forms of TB. In order to ensure proper TB diagnosis and case management, reduce TB transmission and address the problems of emergence of spread of Drug Resistant-TB, it is essential to have complete information of all TB cases. Therefore, Govt. of India declared Tuberculosis a notifiable disease on 7th May 2012. This paper highlights the fact that notification of TB in the absence of regulation of diagnostic practices, rational use of anti-TB medicines and availability of diagnostic and treatment facilities for drug-resistant TB will pose more problems rather than provide solutions to this problem.

  9. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  10. Radiometric diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of this study confirm that rapid radiometric diagnostic tests such as the NAP selective inhibition test for the M. tuberculosis complex followed by the radiometric drug susceptibility tests are extremely reliable and compare favourably with conventional methodologies. This study also shows that referred cultures growing on solid medium can be processed by radiometric procedures without prior subculture. This circumstance by itself shortens the time needed for reporting. (Auth.)

  11. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  12. La Tuberculosis, Una Enfermedad Modificada*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Malagón Castro

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con ocasión de un estudio de revisión que hemos llevado a cabo recientemente sobre la tuberculosis osteoarticular, *** se ha apreciado un cambio notable en las características y manifestaciones de esta enfermedad.

    Hemos sido testigos del comportamiento de la tuberculosis en los últimos 40 años. Realizamos la tesis profesional en el Hospital de niños de la Misericordia de Bogotá en el año 1950 (86, basada en el análisis de más de 300 enfermos de Mal de Pott tratados con pobres resultados en esa institución en la época prequimioterápica. Efectuamos estudios de control del tratamiento quirúrgico de esa afección en el Hospital Infantil Lorencita Villegas de Santos y publicamos sus resultados en los años 1975,1980 Y1987 (85-87-88. Los pacientes correspondientes a estas nuevas series, ya en la época de la quimioterapia moderna, presentaban un mejor pronóstico vital y funcional. Cuadro 1A.

    En el decenio 1978-1988 asistimos al descenso espectacular de la frecuencia de tuberculosis osteoarticular en las salas de nuestros hospitales. Posteriormente hemos sido igualmente testigos de su lenta y progresiva reaparición.

    El estudio actual nos ha mostrado profundos cambios, como ya se ha dicho, en el comportamiento de la entidad, por lo que estamos de acuerdo en denominarla: La tuberculosis, una enfermedad modificada, diferente a la que hasta hace un década parecía derrotada, vencida por las nuevas drogas y las recientes técnicas quirúrgicas.

    La actual es una enfermedad diferente que ha tomado una fuerza avasalladora que amenaza con volverse resistente al tratamiento específico y dar lugar a una pandemia de incalculables proporciones y de terribles consecuencias para la humanidad.

    El objeto de publicar este estudio es recordar a nuestros colegas, en especial a aquellos de las nuevas promociones que quizás no han tenido la oportunidad de estar en contacto con pacientes de tuberculosis osteoarticular, de

  13. CT manifestations of pancreatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Risheng; Zheng Ji'ai; Li Rongfen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the CT manifestations and diagnostic value in the pancreatic tuberculosis(PTB)with review of the literatures. Methods: All cases of PTB proved by surgery or biopsy were examined with plain and enhanced CT scans. Results: The CT findings in one case with multiple-nodular type of PTB were diffuse enlargement of the pancreas with multiple, nodular, and low-density lesions; The nodular lesions had peripheral enhancement. 7 cases of local type of PTB encroached on pancreatic head. 4 cases showed local soft tissue masses with multiple flecked calcifications in 2 cases and mild enhancement in one case; Cystic masses was found in 2 cases, with mural calcification in 1 case and multi-loculated cystic mass in 1 case, respectively; Massive pancreatic head calcification was demonstrated in one case. In these 8 cases of PTB, the lesion extended out of pancreas in 4 cases, including abdominal tuberculous lymph nodes, tuberculous peritonitis, and hepatosplenic tuberculosis. Conclusion: CT findings of PTB were various but had some characteristics. Pancreatic masses with multiple flecked calcification or mild enhancement could suggest the diagnosis. Abdominal tuberculosis accompanied with the pancreatic lesion, especially tuberculous lymph nodes, was highly suggestive of the diagnosis of PTB

  14. Mechanical complication of endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulain Fatima Kizilbash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old Vietnamese lady was diagnosed with culture positive, left upper lobe pulmonary tuberculosis for which medical treatment was initiated. Four months into treatment, she developed a 'rubber-band-like' stretching sensation in her left chest with wheezing and shortness of breath. Decreased respiratory excursion over the left lung was present on physical-examination. Chest-Xray revealed left-upper-lobe collapse with leftward deviation of the trachea and mediastinum. CT thorax revealed a long segment of stenosis in the left mainstem bronchus. FEV1 was 1.26 L (45% predicted, FVC 1.53 L (49% predicted, FEV1/FVC 82% (95% predicted indicating airway limitation. Ventilation-perfusion scan noted 9.8% ventilation to the left lung and 92.8% to the right lung and 7.6% perfusion to the left lung and 92.4% to the right lung. Bronchoscopy was notable for pin point stenosis of the left mainstem bronchus beyond which was inflamed mucosa and abnormal cartilage rings in the left upper and middle lobe bronchi. Nine months of medical therapy for tuberculosis along with oral steroid taper was completed successfully; however the patient has required six serial bronchscopies with dilatations without stent placement at four to six week intervals due to partial restenosis, with the last bronchoscopy at four months after completion of tuberculosis therapy.

  15. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: methods to form skeletal myotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined.

  16. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  18. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Image and Global Resemblance in the Light of Hadith “Who So Imitates other People Becomes One of Them”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR DEMİREL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, people from different countries, cities and institutions unprecedentedly resemble each other in every aspect of life. Likewise, the deeds and imagery aspirations of Oriental and Occidental people also resemble. In such an atmosphere, the local cultures rooted in history become accessories and lose their historical significance and metaphysical aspects in the edifice of the society. This study aims to analyze Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w. warning, “Who so imitates other people becomes one of them”, its layers of meaning and its relationship with “image and global resemblence”.

  20. Endometrial Tuberculosis i ninfertility: Report of 2 cases and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous disease affecting human and many other mammals. Most human diseases are caused by M.tuberculosis but some are due to M.bovis.(1). Tuberculosis of the tubes and endometrium is intimately bound to the problem of sterility. Despite the decline in frequency of genital tuberculosis ...

  1. A rare presentation of disseminated tuberculosis: Prostatic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay; Singh, Anubhuti; Kishore, Kislay; Kant, Surya

    2017-10-01

    Involvement of the prostate by tuberculosis (TB) occurs rarely and tuberculosis prostate abscess is an even rarer occurrence. It has been reported in immunocompromised patients, mainly human immunodeficiency virus seropositive individuals. We are reporting a case of tuberculosis prostatic abscess in an immunocompetent patient with relapse of TB. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Patients with secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is ...

  3. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  4. Transmission of tuberculosis within family-households.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustynowicz-Kopec, E.; Jagielski, T.; Kozinska, M.; Kremer, K.; Soolingen, D. van; Bielecki, J.; Zwolska, Z.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The introduction of molecular typing methods in the 1990s to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) has significantly improved the possibilities of quantifying transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in different human settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate

  5. Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F; Dadang-Sudrajat; Maria-Lina, R.

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10 -9 g

  6. Tuberculosis: Art Therapy with Patients in Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…

  7. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  8. The difficulties of childhood tuberculosis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Djouahra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Tuberculosis in children is often undiagnosed or difficult to diagnose, most developing countries still using ancient methods which can recognize only the developed tuberculosis. It's necessary to evaluate the issue's importance in order to improve the diagnosis conditions (systematic culture and susceptibility test in children, and to ensure the availability of the effective treatment (the pediatric formulation of the essential drugs.

  9. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workersf risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be ...

  10. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among patients attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    l'infection à Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. Mais il y avait une différence significative entre l'ESR et la tuberculose. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was first described in 1882 by Robert Koch, who won the. Nobel Prize in Physiology/ Medicine ...

  11. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  12. Cervical spinal tuberculosis with tuberculous otitis media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prompt and effective response to anti tuberculosis drugs informed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the cervical vertebra and tuberculous otitis media with multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case underscores the value of high index of suspicion, thorough and complete clinical evaluation in any patient with chronic symptoms ...

  13. Improving Tuberculosis Case Finding in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Ahmad (Riris)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of the disease is pulmonary TB, but it can affect any part of the body (extra-pulmonary TB), including the skin, lymph nodes, spine, joints,

  14. High prevalence of tuberculosis diagnosed during autopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aims of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes is early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infectious cases to limit transmission. Failure to diagnose and adequately treat TB could lead to premature death and unrecognized transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proportion of missed TB cases has not ...

  15. Modelling the Transitional Dynamics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization's targets of eliminating Tuberculosis (TB) by 2050 is challenged by the emergence and spread of drug resistance TB. However, the traditional mechanism of resistance is that of acquired resistance, whereby the mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) strain develops mutations under selective ...

  16. [REASONS OF DELAYED DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER TUBERCULOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul'chavenja, E V; Holtobin, D P

    2015-01-01

    The fourth, terminal, stage of bladder tuberculosis (BT) manifests itself in irreversible changes and requires surgical treatment. To identify the reasons for delayed diagnosis of this urogenital tuberculosis complication. Medical history of 26 urogenital tuberculosis patients with a complicated form of stage 4 BT, referred to the Novosibirsk TB Research Institute for reconstructive surgery were analysed. In 22 patients, bladder volume ranged from 55 to 100 ml, 4 patients previously underwent cystostomy due to extremely small bladder volume. Average duration of BT hidden in the guise of "urogenital infection" was 6.2 years. Patients were treated with norfloxacin (a total of 104 courses), ciprofloxacin (86 courses), amikacin (43 courses), nitroxoline (27 courses), third generation cephalosporins (32 courses), lomefloxacin (17 courses), levofloxacin (11 courses), Amoxicillin clavulanate (4 courses), ampicillin (2 courses). It was demonstrated that all cases of BT stage 4 were iatrogenic. Irreversible debilitating complications occurred due to suboptimal therapy, primarily due to administration of amikacin and fluoroquinolones for urogenital infections, which was tuberculosis in disguise. Absence of M. tuberculosis growth does not exclude tuberculosis; pathological specimens must be further examined at least by PCR. Interventional material must be mandatory examined histologically and stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method to identify M. tuberculosis. Effective and not masking tuberculosis, optimal therapy for urogenital infections includes fosfomycin, furazidin (nitrofurantoin), gentamicin, III generation cephalosporins (in outpatient settings dispersible form of efixime should be preferable).

  17. Rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis - rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PH.D. T. C. VJCtor. PH.O. National Tuberculosis Research Programme, Pretoria ... together with. MDR profiles of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis to assess ..... values in a population." This analysis ..... increased after the mid-1980s but the contribution of social science has ... Schall argues that this is a worst- case scenario ...

  18. Necrotizing lymphadenitis: If not tuberculosis then what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Rhea K

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of Kikuchi disease in a young lady presenting with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. Clinically, the disease mimics tuberculosis and lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy is diagnostic and treatment is symptomatic. Although tuberculosis is endemic, clinicians should be aware of uncommon conditions as early recognition of the disease will minimize unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  19. Necrotizing lymphadenitis: If not tuberculosis then what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea K Punjabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of Kikuchi disease in a young lady presenting with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. Clinically, the disease mimics tuberculosis and lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy is diagnostic and treatment is symptomatic. Although tuberculosis is endemic, clinicians should be aware of uncommon conditions as early recognition of the disease will minimize unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  20. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among adults: Experience at Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) occurs in 15. - 20% of immunocompetent and 20 - 70% of HIV- infected patients with tuberculosis (TB).[1] There are few recent incidence data for EPTB. In the USA, incidence rates were 5.93/100 000 population in black males in Tennessee and 209/100 000 among ...

  1. Emergence of Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) outbreaks have been reported in South Africa, and strains have been identified on 6 continents. Dr. Peter Cegielski, team leader for drug-resistant TB with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at CDC, comments on a multinational team's report on this emerging global public health threat.

  2. Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. ... The risk factors among smear positive TB patients were co-illness (32.5%), previous history of TB (7.5%) and history of positive TB contact (4.7%). These findings also show that as CD4+ T Cells ...

  3. Atypical tuberculosis presenting with primary infertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It remains a public health concern especially in developing country. Pulmonary infection is the main presentation. However, genitourinary TB is common especially with the increase in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Genitourinary TB is one of the ...

  4. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  5. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  6. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  7. Mathematical Models of Tuberculosis Reactivation and Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steven Wallis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is highly variable, as is the response to treatment of active tuberculosis. There is presently no direct means to identify individuals in whom Mtb infection has been eradicated, whether by a bactericidal immune response or sterilizing antimicrobial chemotherapy. Mathematical models can assist in such circumstances by measuring or predicting events that cannot be directly observed. The 3 models discussed in this review illustrate instances in which mathematical models were used to identify individuals with innate resistance to Mtb infection, determine the etiology of tuberculosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists, and predict the risk of relapse in persons undergoing tuberculosis treatment. These examples illustrate the power of various types of mathematic models to increase knowledge and thereby inform interventions in the present global tuberculosis epidemic.

  8. Primary breast tuberculosis. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippou, D.C.; Rizos, S.; Nissiotis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background. The differential diagnosis of primary breast tuberculosis with other benign or malignant conditions can be difficult with the current imaging techniques that used to recognize breast pathologies. In many cases mammographic and ultrasound characteristics of breast tuberculosis are similar to those of breast cancer. Case report. We present a case of primary breast tuberculosis, with no previous history of the disease, which was diagnosed during the operation. Conclusions. Primary breast tuberculosis can be misdiagnosed. In these cases a tuberculosis infection history is negative, the mammographic and radiological findings obscure and the mass can be misdiagnosed as carcinoma. The diagnosis is achieved after the surgical removal of the mass and histological examination of the specimen. (author)

  9. CT and MR findings of genitourinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In Young; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Won Hee

    2000-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease spread hematogenously from a small tuberculous abscess of the lung. The renal cortex is initially involved, and multiple granulomas form. Ultimately the cortex may cavitate and communicate with the collecting system, allowing downward extension of the infection and subsequent focal caliectasis with infundibular stenosis, ureteral fibrosis, and calcifications of urinary tract organs. The female genitourinary organ is also infected by the hematogenous spread of tuberculosis, the most common lesion being hydrosalpynx with salpingitis. The clinical and radiologic features of genitourinary tuberculosis may mimic other acute abdominal diseases, and the diagnosis of tuberculosis remains difficult. This report describes the ways in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable aids in the recognition and diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis. (author)

  10. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  11. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  12. Role of Akirin in Skeletal Myogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingbiao Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis.

  13. The association between smoking and tuberculosis La asociación entre tabaquismo y tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Hassmiller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological evidence on the association between smoking and tuberculosis. METHODS: Reviewed articles were identified by searching Pubmed for the terms "smoking" or "tobacco" and "tuberculosis". Additional articles were obtained from the bibliographies of identified papers. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were reviewed: five investigate the association between smoking and mortality from tuberculosis, 13 investigate the association between smoking and development of tuberculosis, eigth investigate the association between smoking and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nine estimate the impact of smoking on characteristics of tuberculosis and disease outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, evidence suggests that smoking (both current and former is associated with: risk of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk of developing tuberculosis, development of more severe forms of tuberculosis, and risk of dying of tuberculosis. In many cases, there is a strong dose-response relationship -both in terms of quantity and duration of smoking. These relationships are not explained away by controlling for potentially confounding variables such as age, gender, alcohol consumption, and HIV status.OBJETIVO: Revisar evidencia epidemiológica relativa a la asociación entre el tabaquismo y la tuberculosis. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se identificaron artículos de revisión mediante la búsqueda en Pubmed de los términos "tabaquismo", "tabaco" y "tuberculosis". Se obtuvieron artículos adicionales de las bibliografías de los trabajos identificados. RESULTADOS: Se revisaron 34 estudios: cinco investigan la asociación entre tabaquismo y mortalidad a partir de la tuberculosis; 13, la asociación entre tabaquismo y el desarrollo de tuberculosis; ocho, la asociación entre tabaquismo y la infección con Mycobacterium tuberculosis; y nueve estiman el impacto del tabaquismo en las características de la tuberculosis y las

  14. Immune responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen ESAT-6 signal subclinical infection among contacts of tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, T Mark; Demissie, Abebech; Olobo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is considered essential for tuberculosis control but is hampered by the lack of specific reagents. We report that strong recognition of tuberculosis complex-specific antigen ESAT-6 by healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients...

  15. Skeletal shape correspondence via entropy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liyun; Styner, Martin; Vicory, Jared; Paniagua, Beatriz; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Yang, Dan; Pizer, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Improving the shape statistics of medical image objects by generating correspondence of interior skeletal points. Data: Synthetic objects and real world lateral ventricles segmented from MR images. Method(s): Each object's interior is modeled by a skeletal representation called the s-rep, which is a quadrilaterally sampled, folded 2-sided skeletal sheet with spoke vectors proceeding from the sheet to the boundary. The skeleton is divided into three parts: up-side, down-side and fold-curve. The spokes on each part are treated separately and, using spoke interpolation, are shifted along their skeletal parts in each training sample so as to tighten the probability distribution on those spokes' geometric properties while sampling the object interior regularly. As with the surface-based correspondence method of Cates et al., entropy is used to measure both the probability distribution tightness and sampling regularity. The spokes' geometric properties are skeletal position, spoke length and spoke direction. The properties used to measure the regularity are the volumetric subregions bounded by the spokes, their quadrilateral sub-area and edge lengths on the skeletal surface and on the boundary. Results: Evaluation on synthetic and real world lateral ventricles demonstrated improvement in the performance of statistics using the resulting probability distributions, as compared to methods based on boundary models. The evaluation measures used were generalization, specificity, and compactness. Conclusions: S-rep models with the proposed improved correspondence provide significantly enhanced statistics as compared to standard boundary models.

  16. What's in a child's face? : effects of facial resemblance, love withdrawal, empathy and context on behavioral and neural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckendorf, E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of individual differences in the neural processing and appraisal of children’s faces that differ in their degree of resemblance with the participant’s face. Chapter 2 focuses on participants’ neural responses to child faces that differ in

  17. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  18. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Sequential inflammatory processes define human progression from M. tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Shankar, Smitha; Hraha, Tom; Thompson, Ethan G; Sterling, David; Nemes, Elisa; Darboe, Fatoumatta; Suliman, Sara; Amon, Lynn M; Mahomed, Hassan; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Whatney, Wendy; Johnson, John L; Boom, W Henry; Hatherill, Mark; Valvo, Joe; De Groote, Mary Ann; Ochsner, Urs A; Aderem, Alan; Hanekom, Willem A; Zak, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms underlying progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to pulmonary tuberculosis disease in humans remains limited. To define such mechanisms, we followed M. tuberculosis-infected adolescents longitudinally. Blood samples from forty-four adolescents who ultimately developed tuberculosis disease (“progressors”) were compared with those from 106 matched controls, who remained healthy during two years of follow up. We performed longitudinal whole blood transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing and plasma proteome analyses using multiplexed slow off-rate modified DNA aptamers. Tuberculosis progression was associated with sequential modulation of immunological processes. Type I/II interferon signalling and complement cascade were elevated 18 months before tuberculosis disease diagnosis, while changes in myeloid inflammation, lymphoid, monocyte and neutrophil gene modules occurred more proximally to tuberculosis disease. Analysis of gene expression in purified T cells also revealed early suppression of Th17 responses in progressors, relative to M. tuberculosis-infected controls. This was confirmed in an independent adult cohort who received BCG re-vaccination; transcript expression of interferon response genes in blood prior to BCG administration was associated with suppression of IL-17 expression by BCG-specific CD4 T cells 3 weeks post-vaccination. Our findings provide a timeline to the different immunological stages of disease progression which comprise sequential inflammatory dynamics and immune alterations that precede disease manifestations and diagnosis of tuberculosis disease. These findings have important implications for developing diagnostics, vaccination and host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. Clincialtrials.gov, NCT01119521.

  20. PRIMARY CONJUNCTIVAL TUBERCULOSIS – A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Dinesh R, Sulegaon Ritesh V, Chulki Shashidhar F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in India. Primary conjunctival tuberculosis is an uncommon condition and with better treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis it is now becoming extremely rare. Primary conjunctival Tuberculosis can present as unilateral conjunctivitis, hence laterality, chronicity and non-resolution of symptoms on treatment are indications for biopsy. In our patient conjunctival Tuberculosis was diagnosed on histopathology, which resulted in early implementation of antikochs’ treatment and complete resolution of the disease condition.

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  3. Report writing in skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of reports in clinical practice is a standard method of documentation of a patient's history, examination findings, therapeutic regime, and prognosis, as well as other important features. In the practice of producing and interpreting diagnostic radiographs, report writing also serves a number of important roles, which include providing an accurate means of recording findings in instances of 1) medicolegal circumstances; 2) a standard for comparison with previous or later examinations; 3) a permanent record if the radiographs are lost or not immediately available for perusal; 4) communication with other practitioners and health professionals; and 5) expediating the treatment regime by providing a resume of important indications and contraindictions for therapy. In the radiological literature there is a distinct lack of material on report writing and very little as to what would be considered a standard style. Consequently, radiological reporting has increasingly become a subjective, personalized procedure, with each individual modifying the report according to previous training, experience, and needs. It is the purpose of this chapter to provide basic guidelines on the mechanisms of formulating adequate standardized reports in radiological examinations of the skeletal system

  4. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  5. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik O Vannberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa.A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803. Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n = 914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2 x 2 chi(2 = 7.47, P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.96. In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n = 557, Pearson's 2x2 chi(2 = 17.34, P = 0.00003, odds ratio = 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.65. This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele.This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased levels of the DC-SIGN receptor may therefore be

  6. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  7. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Zhang Xuelin; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge; Zhong Qun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Kamran, S. M.; Haider, E.; Qadir, A.; Usman, H. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and association of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Department, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from July 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: One hundred and five outdoor patients of tuberculosis were selected with 255 gender matched controls. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by presence of acid fast bacilli in sputum smears, positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or demonstration of chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation in tissue specimens. Controls were drawn randomly from general population. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D3] levels < 25 ng/ml was considered Vitamin D deficiency. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: Mean Vitamin D levels were 23.23 A+- 6.81 ng/ml in cases, 29.27 A+- 8.89 ng/ml in controls (p < 0.0001). Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57% of cases and 33% controls (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in females with tuberculosis (20.84 ng/ml) as compared to males (25.03 ng/ml, p = 0.002). Mean BMI in patients of tuberculosis with Vitamin D deficiency were 19.51 A+- 1.77 kg/m2 and in patients with normal Vitamin D were 21.65 A+- 1.79 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis was lower to a mean of 15.41 A+- 4.67 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: There is significant deficiency of Vitamin D in patients with tuberculosis as compared to controls. This deficiency is more pronounced in females, individuals with low BMI, extra pulmonary and MDR tuberculosis. (author)

  9. Whole-body MRI in comparison to skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases in patients with solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, N.; Altehoefer, C.; Winterer, J.; Schaefer, O.; Bley, T.A.; Langer, M.; Kelly, T.; Moser, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as a new and rapid examination technique with skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases from solid tumors. In 129 patients with solid malignant tumors, WB-MRI was performed for individual comparison with skeletal scintigraphy. Examinations were performed with the innovative AngioSURF trademark rolling table with integrated phased array surface coil and coronary TIRM sequences for different body regions. The results for WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy were concordant in 81% of the cases, whereby both procedures excluded skeletal metastases in 43%. WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy demonstrated skeletal metastases in 38% of the cases, whereby WB-MRI provided more comprehensive findings in 45%. In 12% of the cases, skeletal scintigraphy was superior to WB-MRI and in 19% the findings were discordant, whereby WB-MRI detected skeletal metastases in 15 cases which had not been found on skeletal scintigraphy. In nine cases, skeletal scintigraphy was positive when the WB-MRI was negative. In 60% of the cases, WB-MRI evidenced tumor-associated findings. WB-MRI represents a promising new staging technique for detection of skeletal metastases, which is more sensitive in many cases than skeletal scintigraphy in detecting and assessing the extent of skeletal metastases - and tumor-associated findings that are relevant for treatment strategy. (orig.) [de

  10. Espectro clínico de tuberculosis cutánea Clinic spectrum of cutaneous tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    G Pizzariello; P Fernández Pardal; G D´Atri; V Novac; A Uranga

    2008-01-01

    La Tuberculosis (TBC) es producida por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis o bacilo de Koch, y se ha observado en las últimas décadas, una reemergencia de casos pulmonares y extrapulmonares. La TBC cutánea es infrecuente, y presenta un amplio espectro clínico dependiendo del interjuego existente entre el agente, el huésped y el ambiente. TBC cutánea, ilustrándola con casos clínicos de pacientes que concurrieron a nuestro servicio.Tuberculosis (TBC) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's ...

  11. Splenic tuberculosis. Report of twelve cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adil, A.; Chikhaoui, N.; Ousehal, A.; Kadiri, R.

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the spleen is not exceptional. The authors report ten cases which occurred with a predominance in young male adults. All patients had at least one other site of tuberculosis without any HIV infection. All patients had focal splenic lesions in the form of scattered hypo-echogenic and hypodense nodules. These nodules had a pseudo-tumor appearance in one case. CT-guided puncture was performed in one case. Splenic tuberculosis is not as rare as is sometimes thought. The CT-guided splenic puncture is now performed routinely and remains the ideal diagnostic approach. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. Computerized tomography study in peritoneal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Ares, J.; Rene, A.; Canales, L.; Marcos, J.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis usually involves a combination of organs (hepatosplenic, intestinal and/or genitourinary), lymph nodes (peritoneal and mesenteric) and peritoneum, mesentery and omentum. It preferentially affects immuno compromised patients (diabetic, cirrhotic, HIV-positive individuals). We present four cases in which abdominal tuberculosis involved only peritoneum, mesentery and omentum, with no radiological evidence of retroperitoneal lymph node or hepatosplenic disease. Exclusively peritoneal involvement is rare and the radiologic findings are nonspecific as they are also observed in other more common disorders. Despite this fact, tuberculosis should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  14. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  15. New tuberculosis diagnostics and rollout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and effective treatment are crucial for tuberculosis control, but global case detection rates remain low. The diagnosis of paediatric and extrapulmonary disease is problematic and there are, as yet, no rapid screening tests to assist active case finding in the community. Progress has been made in clinic-based detection tools with the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF, a nucleic acid amplification test that combines sample processing and analysis in a single instrument to provide a diagnostic result and detection of resistance to rifampicin in under 2 h. Enthusiasm for Xpert MTB/RIF has been high and global rollout has been facilitated by donor agencies. However, concerns remain about access and sustainability due to the high cost and infrastructure requirements. Although more sensitive than smear microscopy, early studies suggest the impact of the new test on case detection rates and patient survival has been limited. Alternative technologies are being developed, including non-sputum-based tests to assist the detection of extrapulmonary disease. Evaluation studies are needed to provide evidence of the impact of the new technologies on patient outcomes. This will enable appropriate placement of new diagnostic products in the healthcare system to support the control and eventual eradication of tuberculosis disease.

  16. Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST; however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  17. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  18. Medical management of genitourinary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasu Kadhiravan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimycobacterial chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB. A large body of evidence from clinical trials suggests that short-course chemotherapy regimens, employing four drugs including rifampicin and pyrazinamide, achieve cure in most of the patients with tuberculosis (TB and are associated with the lowest rates of relapse. Standard six-month regimens are adequate for the treatment of GUTB. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS is the internationally recommended comprehensive strategy to control TB, and directly observed treatment is just one of its five elements. DOTS cures not only the individual with TB but also reduces the incidence of TB as well as the prevalence of primary drug-resistance in the community. Corticosteroids have no proven role in the management of patients with GUTB. Errors in prescribing anti-TB drugs are common in clinical practice. Standardized treatment regimens at correct doses and assured completion of treatment have made DOTS the present-day standard of care for the management of all forms of TB including GUTB.

  19. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  20. Tuberculosis treatment outcome in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhary, Zakeya A.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of the chemotherapy for pulmonary, extraplumonary and disseminated tuberculosis is not well documented, especially in developing countries. This study assessed tuberculosis treatment outcome, cure-to-treatment ratio and mortality among all types of tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. All cases diagnosed and treated for active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection between 1991 and 2000 were included retrospectively. Data collected included type of tuberculosis involvement, treatment outcome, relapse and co-morbidities. Over a ten-year period, 535 case of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. Isolated pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 141 cases (26.4%), extrapulmonary tuberculosis in 339 cases (63.3%). Co-morbidities were noted in 277 (52%) patients. Immunosuppression was found in 181 (34%) cases. The cure rate was 82%. The cure-to-treatment ratio was 86% in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and 65% in disseminated tuberculosis. Overall mortality was 18%. Disseminated tuberculosis had the highest mortality (34.9%), followed by pulmonary (21.8%), the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (13.6%). Forty-seven percent of all mortalities were directly related to tuberculosis. Relapse was documented in 14 out of 349 patients (4%) who had 24 months of follow-up. Despite tertiary care support, complicated tuberculosis carries a high mortality. Earlier diagnosis and complete appropriate chemotherapy are essential for improved outcome. (author)

  1. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Paediatric Clinic, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  2. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni; Beluffi, Giampiero; Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  3. Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, C A; Berning, S E

    1994-01-01

    To update readers on the clinical management of infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to provide a general description of the organism, culture and susceptibility testing, and clinical manifestations of the disease, and to provide several aspects of the treatment of the disease, including historical perspective, current approaches, and research opportunities for the future. The current medical literature, including abstracts presented at recent international meetings, is reviewed. References were identified through MEDLINE, MEDLARS II, Current Contents, and published meeting abstracts. Data regarding the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, culture and susceptibility testing, and treatment of tuberculosis are cited. Specific attention has been focused on the clinical management of patients with noncontagious infection and potentially contagious active disease (TB) caused by M. tuberculosis. Information contributing to the discussion of the topics selected by the authors is reviewed. Data supporting and disputing specific conclusions are presented. The incidence of TB is increasing in the US, despite the fact that available technologies are capable of controlling the vast majority of existing cases. Fueling the fire is the problem of coinfection with HIV and M. tuberculosis. Very few drugs are available for the treatment of TB, and few of these approach the potency of isoniazid and rifampin. Preventive therapy of patients exposed to multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is controversial and of unknown efficacy. Treatment of active disease caused by MDR-TB requires up to four times longer, is associated with increased toxicity, and is far less successful than the treatment of drug-susceptible TB. Strategies for the management of such cases are presented. The rising incidence of TB in the US reflects a breakdown in the healthcare systems responsible for controlling the disease, which reflects the past budgetary reductions. Although TB control

  4. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  5. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis: imaging findings in 19 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeppa, M.A.; Greenspan, A.; McGahan, J.P.; Laorr, A.; Steinbach, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and radiologic appearance of skeletal coccidioidomycosis in 19 documented cases. Medical records of 19 patients with clinically confirmed skeletal occidioidomycosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were studied with plain radiography, skeletal scintigraphy and MRI. Multiple lesions were seen in 11 of 19 patients (58%). Of a total of 46 lesions, 27 (59%) were described as punched-out lytic, 10 (22%) as permeative/destructive, and 9 (17%) as involving a joint and/or disk space. Lesions were identified in almost every bone (with the exception of the facial bones, ulna, carpus, and fibula) and were most commonly found in the axial skeleton (20 of 46; 43%). Plain radiographs are effective in the initial evaluation of bones and joints, scintigraphic studies can identify disseminated disease, and CT and MRI are effective in determining soft tissue involvement and spinal abnormalities. (orig./MG)

  6. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle......PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...

  7. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  9. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. An Unusual Gross Appearance of Vulval Tuberculosis Masquerading as Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha U. Arakeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized.

  12. An unusual gross appearance of vulval tuberculosis masquerading as tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Surekha U; Sinkar, Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized.

  13. [Immigrants treated for tuberculosis in Mazovian Center for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Otwock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodziński, Jacek; Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2010-01-01

    Migration of population contributes to the transmission of tuberculosis (TB), particularly multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In the countries of Western Europe, the immigrants' inflow contributes to the deterioration of the epidemiological situation. Majority of newly detected TB cases in some countries were affirmed among immigrant and foreign born population. In Poland, this problem has not been investigated up to 2005. The aim of the study was the assessment of the occurrence of tuberculosis in foreigners treated in the Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Otwock. This work had a retrospective character. The number of cases of tuberculosis in foreigners admitted between 2002 and 2007 was calculated from the data base of the Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis; 125 patients, whose basic demographic data, bacteriological status and the radiological changes suggested TB, were included in the study. The foreigners made up to 0.5-1.7% all tuberculosis cases treated in Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis. Among confirmed cases, twenty four nationalities were seen. Nationals of the Russian Federation (coming from the Republic of Chechnya) formed the biggest group (24%), followed by the Vietnamese (21%) and the Ukrainians (12%). Most of all cases were young men (77%; average age - 34 years). Children made up to 12% of all cases. Tuberculosis of lungs was predominating, and there were culture confirmed extrapulmonary locations in 13.6% of cases. Bacteriological confirmation was achieved in 53% of cases, but up to 22.7% cases were resistant to one of the antituberculosis medicines and 13.6% was multidrug-resistant. Despite the fact, that foreigners made up a small proportion among all the patient treated for tuberculosis in Mazovia, their number systematically increases. High proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis reported in foreign-born cases is a concern.

  14. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selective primary isolation of mycobacterial strains.' M. tuberculosis was ..... 15 In developing countries, however, a different picture is seen, with rates for initial isoniazid ... require attention to caseholding and prevention of defaulting, which will ...

  15. pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that TB infection is present in one- third of the world's ... tuberculosis among pregnant women would be as high as in .... previous two years appeared to confer an increased ... limited to the immediate neighborhood or workplace.

  16. Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359

  17. CT Features of pseudo tumoral bronchopulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidi, A.; Hantoux, S.; Mestiri, I.; Ben Miled-Mrad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis may at times simulate lung carcinoma on bronchoscopic examination or imaging studies. Diagnosis can be delayed and lead to surgical resection. Based on review of 25 cases, the different CT features are reviewed. (author)

  18. TUBERCULOSIS IN TROPICAL AFRICA. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROELSGAARD, E; IVERSEN, E; BLOCHER, C

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere.In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another.Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients in Addis ... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was collected ... of co-infection appeared to have increased compared to previous studies, 6.6%, ...

  20. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: In the absence of active tuberculosis, a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result defines latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although test results may vary depending on immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the performance...... of TST and IGRAs in five different groups of immunocompromised patients, and evaluated their ability to identify those at risk for development of tuberculosis. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients with HIV infection, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, solid-organ or stem-cell transplantation......, and healthy control subjects were evaluated head-to-head by the TST, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold in-tube test (ELISA), and T-SPOT.TB test (enzyme-linked immunospot) at 17 centers in 11 European countries. Development of tuberculosis was assessed during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequencies of positive...

  1. Pitfall of ultrasonographic diagnosis in abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Yoo, H.S.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, J. T.; Park, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis is generally diagnosed using conventional barium studies, however recent diagnostic modalities such as ultrasonography and CT scan are widely applicated in conjunction with conventional studies for the search of lymph node presentation and associated extra-intestinal organs. It is important to differentiate intra-abdominal tuberculosis from metastatic or lymphomatous disease clinically. And it might be especially of worth to find out if there is any differential point between tuberculosis and other lymph nodal disease entities when we meet similar findings on imaging modalities. Authors have tried to evaluate ultrasonographic findings in conjunction with other studies in nine cases of abdominal tuberculosis which showed mainly extra-intestinal and/or lymph nodal involvement

  2. The CT findings of spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yizhao; Liu Jianming; Ke Yong; XiaoYong; Liu Rihua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis. Methods: CT manifestations were retrospectively analyzed in 43 cases of spinal tuberculosis. This series included 24 males and 19 females, aged 10-57 years. 15 cases were confirmed by operation and pathology; 18 cases were confirmed by biopsy and 10 cases were cured by antituberculosis therapy. Results: The CT manifestations of spinal tuberculosis were: 1) mottling, patchy, caved or faveolate bone destructions (43/43 cases); 2) elevated density of the involved vertebrae (13/43 cases); 3) destruction of intervertebral discs (32/43 cases); 4) formation of sequester (30/43 cases); 5) para-vertebral abscess, often with calcification (38/43 cases); 6) osseous vertebral canal narrowing (8/43 cases); 7) vertebrae compression (28/43 cases). Conclusion: CT scan is a valuable modality for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis

  3. The epidemic of Tuberculosis on vaccinated population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sriwahyuni; Halfiani, Vera; Meurah Yuni, Syarifah; Iskandar, Taufiq; Rasudin; Ramli, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which has caused a large number of mortality in Indonesia. This disease is caused by Mycrobacterium tuberculosis. Besides affecting lung, this disease also affects other organs such as lymph gland, intestine, kidneys, uterus, bone, and brain. This article discusses the epidemic of tuberculosis through employing the SEIR model. Here, the population is divided into four compartments which are susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered. The susceptible population is further grouped into two which are vaccinated group and unvaccinated group. The behavior of the epidemic is investigated through analysing the equilibrium of the model. The result shows that administering vaccine to the susceptible population contributes to the reduction of the tuberculosis epidemic rate.

  4. Miliary tuberculosis: HRCT findings in 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kun II; Juhng, Dong Hi; Lee, Suk Hong; Kim, Byung Su; Park, Soon Kew

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate high-resolution CT(HRCT) findings of the miliary tuberculosis and their significance. We retrospectively studied clinical records, HRCT and chest radiographs of 14 patients with miliary tuberculosis. On HRCT, nodules were seen in all 14 cases, 10 of them evenly, and 4 were irregularly distributed. The size of each nodule was less than 1 mm in 7 cases, 1 - 2 mm in 6 cases, and 3 mm or more in 1 case. The ground - glass opacity was accompanied in 8 cases, and fine reticular opacity was also noted in 8 cases. Other associated findings were pleural effusion (n=4), hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=3), consolidation of the exudative tuberculosis (n=4). HRCT findings of miliary tuberculosis are diffusely distributed micro nodules of variable size, less than 5 mm in diameter. The ground-glass opacity can be combined

  5. 1 APOPO's tuberculosis research agenda: achievements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microorganism that causes tuberculosis (TB), in human sputum samples and to ..... when working in this fully-automated cage and it is anticipated that future TB .... continued and replicated in Mozambique, which will help to ascertain the ...

  6. DIAGNOSING TUBERCULOSIS IN ADULTS: OPPORTUNITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-02-03

    Feb 3, 2005 ... and tuberculosis remains one of the most lethal infections to afflict our species. ... Hospital. He started an antiretroviral clinic at. Somerset Hospital in 2001, and in ... manager whether quality control meas- ... 1 - 9 per 100 fields.

  7. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  8. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.M.; Ogden, J.A.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six pairs of proximal radioulnar and elbow units from cadavers and prepared skeletons ranging in age from full-term neonates to fourteen years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air/cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate the osseous and cartilaginous portions of the developing epiphyses. These roentgenographic aspects are discussed and illustrated to provide a reference index. The skeletal development is outlined with regard to the diagnosis of several traumatic skeletal diseases as dislocation of elbow or radial head. Moteggia fracture dislocation and Nursemaid's elbow. (orig./WU)

  9. Radiology of skeletal and soft tissue changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.C. Jr.; Coleman, C.C.; Hunter, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skeletal complications are very common in renal transplant patients. Loss of bone mass in the posttransplant period places the skeletal system in jeopardy. Osteonecrosis, while not life threatening, often prevents rehabilitation. Spontaneous fractures are frequent but are usually not a major problem except in the diabetic transplant recipient. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis are usually successfully managed by conservative measures, except when accompanied by severe occlusive vascular disease. Juvenile onset diabetic patients still may develop disabling neuropathic joint disease or occlusive vascular disease after renal transplantation. The authors hope that successful pancreas transplantation will avert these problems in the future

  10. Occipital projections in the skeletal dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamine, Yuji; Field, Fiona M.; Lachman, Ralph S.; Rimoin, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Occipital projections of the cranium have been reported in a number of skeletal dysplasias and syndromes. We observed two cases of atelosteogenesis type I with a bony occipital projection. This finding has neither been noted nor reported in any form of atelosteogenesis. This led us to search the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry for occipital projections, and we found them in four other syndromes in which they had not been reported. Thus occipital spurs are a non-diagnostic feature that can be found in at least ten distinct disorders as well as a normal variant. (orig.)

  11. [Management of tuberculosis during pregnancy and puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Emiko; Minoura, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Hirofumi

    2002-11-01

    We reported 22 cases with tuberculosis in pregnancy and puerperium, who were treated in our hospital from 1993 to 2001. Nine out of 22 cases were foreign women and the onset of tuberculosis was not clear and the diagnosis tended to be delayed in most cases. In the reports from industrial countries, most of those patients are foreign bone and the delay in diagnosis is common because symptoms are apt to be mixed up those for pregnancy and puerperium. In 10 of 22 cases, extrapulmonary lesions were noted. Most of our cases were treated with INH, RFP and EB, and in some severer cases PZA was added. WHO and BTS recommend standard therapy with PZA but ATS recommends INH, RFP and EB without PZA. Generally SM is contraindicated because of adverse effect of hearing loss for all pregnant periods, and the data for PZA and other second line drugs are insufficient. Our cases and their neonates showed normal course and no malformation nor congenital tuberculosis. 2 cases could not keep adherence for drugs and 2 babies got active tuberculosis. Precaution for infection is one of most important problem to deal with cases with tuberculosis during pregnancy and postpartum in the hospital. If she is still infectious on delivery, we should consider prevention for transmission and manage her in isolated manner. CDC recommends not to treat for latent tuberculosis during pregnancy because of high frequency of hepatic damage due to INH. It is the best way to check and treat latent tuberculosis before gestation if she is at high risk with tuberculosis.

  12. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  13. Emergence of Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-01

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) outbreaks have been reported in South Africa, and strains have been identified on 6 continents. Dr. Peter Cegielski, team leader for drug-resistant TB with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at CDC, comments on a multinational team's report on this emerging global public health threat.  Created: 3/1/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/26/2007.

  14. Aerobic actinomycetes that masquerade as pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing recognition of organisms in the order Actinomycetales including Nocardia sp. causing lung infections that mimic pulmonary tuberculosis or fungal pneumonias. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of patients in the southeastern United States in whom a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was initially entertained but who eventually were found to have infection caused by Rhodococcus sp. or Tsukamurella sp. Results: Among a cohort of 52 indi...

  15. Challenges in diagnosing tuberculosis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Nadia; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country.......Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country....

  16. An analysis of correlation between occlusion classification and skeletal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinhua; Cai Bin; Wang Dawei; Wu Liping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between dental relationship and skeletal pattern of individuals. Methods: 194 cases were selected and classified by angle classification, incisor relationship and skeletal pattern respectively. The correlation of angle classification and incisor relationship to skeletal pattern was analyzed with SPSS 10.0. Results: The values of correlation index (Kappa) were 0.379 and 0.494 respectively. Conclusion: The incisor relationship is more consistent with skeletal pattern than angle classification

  17. DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Vultos, Tiago; Mestre, Olga; Tonjum, Tone; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms is still poor compared with that of other bacterial organisms. However, the publication of the first complete M. tuberculosis genome sequence 10 years ago boosted the study of DNA repair systems in this organism. A first step in the elucidation of M. tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms was taken by Mizrahi and Andersen, who identified homologs of genes involved in the reversal or repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and related organisms. Genes required for nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, recombination, and SOS repair and mutagenesis were identified. Notably, no homologs of genes involved in mismatch repair were identified. Novel characteristics of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair machinery have been found over the last decade, such as nonhomologous end joining, the presence of Mpg, ERCC3 and Hlr - proteins previously presumed to be produced exclusively in mammalian cells - and the recently discovered bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase. The study of these systems is important to develop therapeutic agents that can counteract M. tuberculosis evolutionary changes and to prevent adaptive events resulting in antibiotic resistance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair system.

  18. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. REACTIVITY OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Khasanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proliferative and IL-2-producing activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes wasperformed, using cultural methods, in patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. The cell testing was performed at basal level and following in vitro stimulation with recombinant IL-2 and M. tuberculosis antigens. It was established that clinical course of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, independently on drug sensitivity/resistance of the infectious pathogen, is accompanied by suppression of spontaneous lymphoproliferation. The levels of induced IL-2 production in drug-sensitive tuberculosis proved to be increased, whereas a reserve of IL-2-secreting reactivity of blood lymphocytes was lower than in drugresistant infection. Also, it was revealed that the level of lymphoproliferative response induced by IL-2, does not depend on clinical variant of tuberculosis, whereas stimulation of IL-2 production in blood lymphocytes is attained only in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis variant.

  20. Primary tuberculosis of the glans penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Parra, Jose David; Alvarez Bandres, Silvia; Garcia Garcia, Diego; Torres Varas, Lorena; Sotil Arrieta, Amaia; Jimenez Calvo, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis of the penis is an extremely rare disease with few cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 64 year-old man with a whitish papular-ampullary eruption in the glans penis. After antibiotic/antimycotic therapy and several topical ointments for 3 months without response he was referred to our Department. Biopsy of the ulceration edge was performed and pathology result showed a chronic granulomatous inflammatory necrotizing lesion with granulomatous vasculitis lesions, without tumor infiltration. Systemic examination to rule out other tuberculosis foci was negative. With de suspicion of primary tuberculosis of the glans penis, anti tuberculosis therapy with Isoniazid and Piridoxine was started. Within a period of five months the ulceration healed significantly. Currently, the patient is still asymptomatic without glans penis lesions. Primary glans penis tuberculosis is a rare disease, but we must consider it (both primary and secondary forms) to try to avoid diagnostic delays that may cause prejudice for the patient. This condition promptly responds to anti tuberculosis therapy as evidenced by our case and many other reports.

  1. Phenotypic assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Deboosere, Nathalie; Delorme, Vincent; Queval, Christophe J; Deloison, Gaspard; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Lafont, Frank; Baulard, Alain; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB. Indeed, M. tuberculosis has multiple specific interactions within host phagocytes, which may be targeted by small molecules. In order to enable drug discovery strategies against microbes residing within host macrophages, we developed multiple fluorescence-based HT/CS phenotypic assays monitoring the intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis as well as its intracellular trafficking. What we propose here is a population-based, multi-parametric analysis pipeline that can be used to monitor the intracellular fate of M. tuberculosis and the dynamics of cellular events such as phagosomal maturation (acidification and permeabilization), zinc poisoning system or lipid body accumulation. Such analysis allows the quantification of biological events considering the host-pathogen interplay and may thus be derived to other intracellular pathogens. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Demographics of tuberculosis in district mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Pakistan is one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries of the world sharing more than 80% of the global burden of tuberculosis. Methods: This study was a retrospective case-based study that analyzed secondary data obtained from TB-03 form at the office of the District Tuberculosis Control Officer (DTO), Mansehra. Data was entered into SPSS-20 and analyzed. Results: A total of 625 patients with a mean age of 32.1±19.1 years were registered at the DTO office during the year 2013. Most of the patients were female (57%) as compared to males (43%). The most common treatment outcome was treatment completed, recorded against 56% of the patients. The proportion of patients declared cured at the end of the treatment was 236 (37.8%). There were only 4 (0.64%) cases of treatment failure during 2013. Conclusion: Despite falling incidence of tuberculosis and mortality across the globe, tuberculosis is still a major determinant of disease in our society. Aggressive case detection and treatment is needed to manage this disease. (author)

  3. An outbreak of tuberculosis in Lleyn sheep in the UK associated with clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, G M; Drummond, F; Crawshaw, T; Morris, S

    2013-01-19

    This case report describes an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection a Lleyn sheep flock associated with clinical signs of illthrift. There was no known direct contact with tuberculous cattle although bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in the area. The spoligotype isolated from the diseased sheep was the local spoligotype. The repeated use of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and the subsequent removal of reactor animals, resulted in apparent elimination of bTB from the flock. Lesions caused by M bovis in sheep may contain very few acid-fast bacilli, and gross lesions may resemble those found in cases of Caseous Lymphadenitis. Routine meat inspection may, therefore, not always easily detect this notifiable disease.

  4. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster demonstrating the use of genotyping in urban tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Vries (Gerard); R.M. van Hest (Reinier); C.C.A. Burdo (Conny); D. van Soolingen (Dick); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB) cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries. Methods: A medium-sized molecular cluster of TB cases with

  5. Fast and efficient detection of tuberculosis antigens using liposome encapsulated secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the newly developed liposome tuberculosis antigen card test detected antigens in our study population with approximately 97.48% sensitivity and 95.79% specificity. This is the first study to report the liposomal encapsulation of culture filtrate proteins from M. tuberculosis for diagnostic application.

  6. [Tuberculosis and HIV infection: experience of the national tuberculosis prevention program in Djibouti: 1990-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, E; Matan, A Barreh; Sevre, J P; Mohamed Ali, I; Chami, D; Vincent, V

    2002-01-01

    Based on analysis of data collected from the national tuberculosis prevention program in Djibouti between 1990 and 1996, the authors analyzed the relationship between HIV infection and tuberculosis. The study cohort comprised a total of 22,000 patients including 14,000 with documented HIV infection. Although HIV infection probably worsened the situation, it was neither the only nor the main factor involved in the resurgence of tuberculosis. Demographic growth, higher population density, and increasing poverty as well as the quality of the national tuberculosis prevention program must be taken into account. The incidence of smear-negative tuberculosis was not significantly higher in HIV-infected patients (incidence of smear positive cases, > 92%). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially of pleural involvement was more common (15% versus 9.4%). Treatment was effective in HIV-infected patients. If directly observed (DOT) therapy was used, there was no risk of emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. Drug side-effects associated with the protocols used in Djibouti were not greater in HIV-infected patients. Most additional mortality observed in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients (10.5% versus 2%) was due to progression of HIV infection.

  7. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mack, U; Migliori, G B; Sester, M

    2009-01-01

    . tuberculosis after tuberculin skin test or IGRA conversion is unknown. It is also uncertain how long adaptive immune responses towards mycobacterial antigens persist in the absence of live mycobacteria. Clinical management and public healthcare policies for preventive chemotherapy against tuberculosis could...

  8. Chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea monophora misdiagnosed as sporotrichosis and cutaneous tuberculosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Dongmei; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Guixia; de Hoog, G Sybren; Liang, Guanzhao; Mei, Huan; Zheng, Hailin; Shen, Yongnian; Liu, Weida

    Chromoblastomycosis is caused by dematiaceous fungi. It develops after inoculation of the organism into the skin. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient without known history of trauma. The lesions were initially diagnosed as sporotrichosis and skin tuberculosis.

  9. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  10. Tuberculosis relapse in Vietnam is significantly associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Buu, Tran N.; Tiemersma, Edine; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Dung, Nguyen H.; Kremer, Kristin; Soolingen, Dick V.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis were

  11. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened for the presence of latent...

  12. Datos básicos sobre la tuberculosis (Basic Tuberculosis Facts)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    En este podcast el doctor Kenneth Castro, Director de la División de Eliminación de la Tuberculosis, presenta información básica sobre la prevención, las pruebas y el tratamiento de la tuberculosis.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Beijing genotype strains not associated with radiological presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; van Deutekom, Henk; de Haas, Petra E. W.; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype have been involved in various outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Some studies suggest that the infection with the Beijing genotype is associated with a different host immune response. Since this might also lead to a different

  14. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened...

  15. The essence of biophysical cues in skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is an appealing topic for tissue engineering because of its variety in applications. Evidently, tissue engineered skeletal muscle can be used in the field of regenerative medicine to repair muscular defects or dystrophies. Engineered skeletal muscle constructs can also be used as a

  16. Turning the tide against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayatchi, Nesri; Naidu, Naressa; Friedland, Gerald; Naidoo, Kasavan; Conradie, Francesca; Naidoo, Kogieleum; O'Donnell, Max Roe

    2017-03-01

    Despite affecting men, women, and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organization's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035. In this article, the consequences of a myopic and conventional biomedical approach to TB, which has ultimately permeated to the level of individual patient care, are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberculosis--a notifiable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sukhendu; Rai, D R; Suresh, Gutta

    2012-10-01

    In a landmark development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, has taken important steps to establish the compulsory notification of tuberculosis in the country. A Government Order to this effect was issued on 7 May 2012. In addition to this IMA passed a resolution on TB notification in CWC on 22nd April 2012 at Mumbai: "In conformity with the requirements of ISTC, Indian Medical Association (IMA) desires that Notification of TB patient to the National Programme be made mandatory. IMA also recommends to the medical practitioner to follow the ISTC guidelines in diagnosis and management of TB care". Notification of TB will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment, prevention of MDR and XDR, reduce TB deaths, better quality diagnostic and treatment services for the TB patients. RNTCP will realistically estimateTB burden, plan resources and control measures to commensurate with the actual burden of disease.

  18. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozere, I.; Sele, A.; Ozolina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis in children and adults is a growing problem with important public health implications. In Latvia the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children up to age 14 has increased from 7,1 per 100000 in 1992 to 28,8 per 100000 in 2003. The diagnosis of TB is confirmed by isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis (MT) from clinical specimen. Confirmation of the disease, however, is difficult in children due to poor bacilli excretion and even under the best circumstances only about 30-40% of pediatric TB cases are proved bacteriologically. Of the 370 pediatric TB cases diagnosed between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2003 in Latvia, 53 (14,3%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The clinical, radiological, immunological and anamnestic features of confirmed TB can serve as cornerstones for diagnosing of TB, when culture is not available. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic criteria of TB, clinical and radiological manifestation of TB and drug susceptibility of MT isolated also. Methods All consecutive children (53 in total) up to age 14 diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB during 01.01.2001. -01.12.2003. were prospectively evaluated for reasons mentioned above. Results Of the 53 children identified all but one had respiratory tract TB. 17(32,1 %) children were under 4 years of age, 9 (17%) children were 5-9 years old, but 27 (50,9%) patients were 10-14 years old. During evaluation data on TB source case were found in addition in 13 children and total TB contact history was positive in 37 (69,8%) patients. All clinical and radiographical forms of respiratory tract TB were diagnosed. The most common encountered forms were intrathoracic adenopathy in 10 (18,9%) cases and TB pneumonia in 6 (11,3%) cases in children aged 10-14 years. lnthrathoracic adenopathy associated with segmental parenchymal lesion was the most common form in children under 4 years of age -7 (13,2%) cases respectively. Conclusions 1. The clinical and radiological

  19. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  20. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).