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Sample records for skeletal myoblast cells

  1. Skeletal muscle myoblasts possess a stretch-responsive local angiotensin signalling system.

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    Johnston, Adam P W; Baker, Jeff; De Lisio, Michael; Parise, Gianni

    2011-06-01

    A paucity of information exists regarding the presence of local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in skeletal muscle and associated muscle stem cells. Skeletal muscle and muscle stem cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and examined for the presence of a local RAS using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stimulation on RAS member gene expression was analysed. Whole skeletal muscle, primary myoblasts and C2C12 derived myoblasts and myotubes differentially expressed members of the RAS including angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). Renin transcripts were never detected, however, mRNA for the 'renin-like' enzyme cathepsin D was observed and Ang I and Ang II were identified in cell culture supernatants from proliferating myoblasts. AT(1) appeared to co-localise with polymerised actin filaments in proliferating myoblasts and was primarily found in the nucleus of terminally differentiated myotubes. Furthermore, mechanical stretch of proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells differentially induced mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, AT(1) and AT(2). Proliferating and differentiated muscle stem cells possess a local stress-responsive RAS in vitro. The precise function of a local RAS in myoblasts remains unknown. However, evidence presented here suggests that Ang II may be a regulator of skeletal muscle myoblasts.

  2. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Stimulate Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation through the Paracrine Release of VEGF

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    Chellini, Flaminia; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Nistri, Silvia; Nosi, Daniele; Saccardi, Riccardo; Quercioli, Franco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the leading cell candidates in the field of regenerative medicine. These cells have also been successfully used to improve skeletal muscle repair/regeneration; however, the mechanisms responsible for their beneficial effects remain to be clarified. On this basis, in the present study, we evaluated in a co-culture system, the ability of bone-marrow MSCs to influence C2C12 myoblast behavior and analyzed the cross-talk between the two cell types at the cellular and molecular level. We found that myoblast proliferation was greatly enhanced in the co-culture as judged by time lapse videomicroscopy, cyclin A expression and EdU incorporation. Moreover, myoblasts immunomagnetically separated from MSCs after co-culture expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of Notch-1, a key determinant of myoblast activation and proliferation, as compared with the single culture. Notch-1 intracellular domain and nuclear localization of Hes-1, a Notch-1 target gene, were also increased in the co-culture. Interestingly, the myoblastic response was mainly dependent on the paracrine release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by MSCs. Indeed, the addition of MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM) to C2C12 cells yielded similar results as those observed in the co-culture and increased the phosphorylation and expression levels of VEGFR. The treatment with the selective pharmacological VEGFR inhibitor, KRN633, resulted in a marked attenuation of the receptor activation and concomitantly inhibited the effects of MSC-CM on C2C12 cell growth and Notch-1 signaling. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence for a role of MSCs in stimulating myoblast cell proliferation and suggests that the functional interaction between the two cell types may be exploited for the development of new and more efficient cell-based skeletal muscle repair strategies. PMID:22815682

  3. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Secreted Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Exerts a Stimulatory Effect on Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation

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    Tani, Alessia; Anderloni, Giulia; Pierucci, Federica; Matteini, Francesca; Chellini, Flaminia; Zecchi Orlandini, Sandra; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to significantly contribute to skeletal muscle healing through the secretion of paracrine factors that support proliferation and enhance participation of the endogenous muscle stem cells in the process of repair/regeneration. However, MSC-derived trophic molecules have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate paracrine signaling effects of MSCs on skeletal myoblasts. It was found, using a biochemical and morphological approach that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a natural bioactive lipid exerting a broad range of muscle cell responses, is secreted by MSCs and represents an important factor by which these cells exert their stimulatory effects on C2C12 myoblast and satellite cell proliferation. Indeed, exposure to conditioned medium obtained from MSCs cultured in the presence of the selective sphingosine kinase inhibitor (iSK), blocked increased cell proliferation caused by the conditioned medium from untreated MSCs, and the addition of exogenous S1P in the conditioned medium from MSCs pre-treated with iSK further increased myoblast proliferation. Finally, we also demonstrated that the myoblast response to MSC-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involves the release of S1P from C2C12 cells. Our data may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:25264785

  4. One-Step Purification of Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Subsequent Expansion Using Laminin-Coated Surface.

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    Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; binti Ismail, Annis; Chee, Sia Chye; bin Laupa, Mohd Suffian; binti Jaffri, Fadhlun; Saberi, Salfarina Ezrina Mohmad; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal myoblasts have been extensively used to study muscle growth and differentiation, and were recently tested for their application as cell therapy and as a gene delivery system to treat muscle and nonmuscle diseases. However, contamination of fibroblasts in isolated cells from skeletal muscle is one of the long-standing problems for routine expansion. This study aimed to establish a simple one-step process to purify myoblasts and maintain their purity during expansion. Mixed cells were preplated serially on laminin- and collagen type I-coated surfaces in a different array for 5, 10, and 15 min. Immunocytochemical staining with antibodies specific to myoblasts was performed to evaluate myoblast attachment efficiency, purity, and yield. It was found that laminin-coated surface favors the attachment of myoblasts. Highest myoblast purity of 78.9% ± 6.8% was achieved by 5 min of preplating only on the laminin-coated surface with a yield of 56.9% ± 3.3%. Primary cells, isolated from skeletal muscle (n = 4), confirm the enhancement of purity through preplating on laminin-coated surface for 5 min. Subsequent expansion after preplating enhanced myoblast purity due to an increase in myoblast growth than fibroblasts. Myoblast purity of ∼ 98% was achieved when another preplating was performed during passaging. In conclusion, myoblasts can be purified and efficiently expanded in one step by preplating on laminin-coated surface, which is a simple and robust technique.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Human Myoblast Culture In Vitro for Technologies of Cell and Gene Therapy of Skeletal Muscle Pathologies.

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    Tabakov, V Yu; Zinov'eva, O E; Voskresenskaya, O N; Skoblov, M Yu

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed cultures of 5 independent myoblast lines from human skeletal muscles. It was shown that the content of desmin-positive cells in cultures at early passages exceeds 90%. Typical morphofunctional signs of myogenic differentiation disturbances were identified and their dynamics was studied. Signs of alternative adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of cells were revealed. Based on these data, limitations for the use of myoblast cultures of certain passages for biomedical research and cell therapy were evaluated.

  6. New perspectives in the treatment of damaged myocardium using autologous skeletal myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Rossini, Katia; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mazzoleni, Francesco; Rigatelli, Giorgio; Carraro, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation may be used to ameliorate the healing process following myocardium infarct and, hopefully, cardiomyopathies. Despite successful animal experimentation, several issues need to be addressed in clinical settings, i.e., the impact of the delivery route, the extent of short- and long-term survival, and differentiation of the injected skeletal myoblasts. The authors offer some new hypotheses resulting from basic research, i.e., where and when to inject the myogenic cells, whatever their source, how to decrease new myofiber atrophy and improve their regeneration. Although these new hypotheses still need to be tested in humans, they may be decisive for future experimental studies and will lead to making endovascular cell implantation a more effective way to treat ischemic heart disease and failure

  7. Enhanced contractile force generation by artificial skeletal muscle tissues using IGF-I gene-engineered myoblast cells.

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    Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Nagamori, Eiji; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery to myoblast cells promotes the contractile force generated by hydrogel-based tissue-engineered skeletal muscles in vitro. Two retroviral vectors allowing doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to evaluate the effects of IGF-I gene expression on these cells. IGF-I gene expression stimulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, and a significant increase in the growth rate was observed for IGF-I-transduced C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells. Quantitative morphometric analyses showed that the myotubes induced from C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells had a larger area and a greater width than control myotubes induced from normal C2C12 cells. Artificial skeletal muscle tissues were prepared from the respective cells using hydrogels composed of type I collagen and Matrigel. Western blot analyses revealed that the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs showed activation of a skeletal muscle hypertrophy marker (Akt) and enhanced expression of muscle-specific markers (myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin). Moreover, the creatine kinase activity was increased in the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs. The C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs contracted in response to electrical pulses, and generated a significantly higher physical force than the control C2C12 tissue constructs. These findings indicate that IGF-I gene transfer has the potential to yield functional skeletal muscle substitutes that are capable of in vivo restoration of the load-bearing function of injured muscle or acting as in vitro electrically-controlled bio-actuators. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of cell-sheet technique eliminates arrhythmogenicity of skeletal myoblast-based therapy to the heart with enhanced therapeutic effects.

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    Narita, Takuya; Shintani, Yasunori; Ikebe, Chiho; Kaneko, Masahiro; Harada, Narumi; Tshuma, Nomathamsanqa; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Campbell, Niall G; Coppen, Steven R; Yashiro, Kenta; Sawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ken

    2013-09-20

    Clinical application of skeletal myoblast transplantation has been curtailed due to arrhythmogenicity and inconsistent therapeutic benefits observed in previous studies. However, these issues may be solved by the use of a new cell-delivery mode. It is now possible to generate "cell-sheets" using temperature-responsive dishes without artificial scaffolds. This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of epicardial placement of myoblast-sheets (myoblast-sheet therapy) in treating heart failure. After coronary artery ligation in rats, the same numbers of syngeneic myoblasts were transplanted by intramyocardial injection or cell-sheet placement. Continuous radio-telemetry monitoring detected increased ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, after intramyocardial injection compared to the sham-control, while these were abolished in myoblast-sheet therapy. This effect was conjunct with avoidance of islet-like cell-cluster formation that disrupts electrical conduction, and with prevention of increased arrhythmogenic substrates due to exaggerated inflammation. Persistent ectopic donor cells were found in the lung only after intramyocardial injection, strengthening the improved safety of myoblast-sheet therapy. In addition, myoblast-sheet therapy enhanced cardiac function, corresponding to a 9.2-fold increase in donor cell survival, compared to intramyocardial injection. Both methods achieved reduced infarct size, decreased fibrosis, attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and increased neovascular formation, in association with myocardial upregulation of a group of relevant molecules. The pattern of these beneficial changes was similar between two methods, but the degree was more substantial after myoblast-sheet therapy. The cell-sheet technique enhanced safety and therapeutic efficacy of myoblast-based therapy, compared to the current method, thereby paving the way for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  9. MicroRNA-128 targets myostatin at coding domain sequence to regulate myoblasts in skeletal muscle development.

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    Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Pinghua; Schinckel, Allan P; Liang, Tingting; Wang, Han; Li, Huizhi; Fu, Lingling; Chu, Qingpo; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In a previous study we observed that miR-128 was highly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, its function in regulating skeletal muscle development is not clear. Our hypothesis was that miR-128 is involved in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. In this study, through bioinformatics analyses, we demonstrate that miR-128 specifically targeted mRNA of myostatin (MSTN), a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis, at coding domain sequence (CDS) region, resulting in down-regulating of myostatin post-transcription. Overexpression of miR-128 inhibited proliferation of mouse C2C12 myoblast cells but promoted myotube formation; whereas knockdown of miR-128 had completely opposite effects. In addition, ectopic miR-128 regulated the expression of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin (MyoG), paired box (Pax) 3 and 7. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between the expression of miR-128 and MSTN protein expression in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results reveal that there is a novel pathway in skeletal muscle development in which miR-128 regulates myostatin at CDS region to inhibit proliferation but promote differentiation of myoblast cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

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    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  11. Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Sole, Laura; Martinez-Marmol, Ramon; Villalonga, Nuria; Felipe, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here we report that, while myotube formation did not regulate Kv7 channels, Kv7.5 was up-regulated during cell cycle progression. Although, Kv7.1 mRNA also increased during the G 1 -phase, pharmacological evidence mainly involves Kv7.5 in myoblast growth. Our results indicate that the cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv7.5 is involved in skeletal muscle cell proliferation

  12. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romanazzo, Giancarlo Forte, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Koichiro Uto, Stefania Pagliari, Takao Aoyagi, Enrico Traversa and Akiyoshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ε-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  13. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population.

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    Zahari, Nor Kamalia; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-10-30

    Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber (PM) scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h -1 ) and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min), while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h -1 ) and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min). Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  14. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

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    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  15. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Kamalia Zahari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanofiber (PM scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h−1 and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min, while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h−1 and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min. Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  16. Marked heterogeneity in growth characteristics of myoblast clonal cultures and myoblast mixed cultures obtained from the same individual.

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    Maier, Andrea B; Cohen, Ron; Blom, Joke; van Heemst, Diana; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function while adjacent satellite cells are unable to compensate for this loss. However, myoblast cultures can be established even in the presence of sarcopenia. It is yet unknown whether satellite cells from failing muscle in older age are equally affected, as human satellite cells have been assessed using myoblast mixed cultures and not by using myoblast clonal cultures. We questioned to what extent myoblast mixed cultures reflect the in vivo characteristics of single satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. We established a myoblast mixed culture and three myoblast clonal cultures out of the same muscle biopsy and cultured these cells for 100 days. Replicative capacity and oxidative stress resistance were compared. We found marked heterogeneity between the myoblast clonal cultures that all had a significantly lower replicative capacity when compared to the mixed culture. Replicative capacity of the clonal cultures was inversely related to the β-galactosidase activity after exposure to oxidative stress. Addition of L-carnosine enhanced the remaining replicative capacity in all cultures with a concomitant marginal decrease in β-galactosidase activity. It is concluded that myoblast mixed cultures in vitro do not reflect the marked heterogeneity between single isolated satellite cells. The consequences of the heterogeneity on muscle performance remain to be established. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  19. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. T.; Macko, A. R.; Nearing, M.; Chen, X.; Rhoads, R. P.; Limesand, S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization. PMID:22900186

  20. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  1. Syncytin-1 in differentiating human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregard, Bolette; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Myoblasts fuse to form myotubes, which mature into skeletal muscle fibres. Recent studies indicate that an endogenous retroviral fusion gene, syncytin-1, is important for myoblast fusions in man. We have now expanded these data by examining the immunolocalization of syncytin in human myoblasts...... fusions. Thus, syncytin is involved in human myoblast fusions and is localized in areas of contact between fusing cells. Moreover, syncytin and caveolin-3 might interact at the level of the sarcolemma....

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Cemazar, Maja; Pegan, Katarina; Mars, Tomaz

    2013-01-01

    Long term effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation, cytokine signalling and stress response capacity were studied in primary cell cultures. Human skeletal muscle myoblasts obtained from muscle biopsies were cultured and irradiated with a Darpac 2000 X-ray unit at doses of 4, 6 and 8 Gy. Acute effects of radiation were studied by interleukin – 6 (IL-6) release and stress response detected by the heat shock protein (HSP) level, while long term effects were followed by proliferation capacity and cell death. Compared with non-irradiated control and cells treated with inhibitor of cell proliferation Ara C, myoblast proliferation decreased 72 h post-irradiation, this effect was more pronounced with increasing doses. Post-irradiation myoblast survival determined by measurement of released LDH enzyme activity revealed increased activity after exposure to irradiation. The acute response of myoblasts to lower doses of irradiation (4 and 6 Gy) was decreased secretion of constitutive IL-6. Higher doses of irradiation triggered a stress response in myoblasts, determined by increased levels of stress markers (HSPs 27 and 70). Our results show that myoblasts are sensitive to irradiation in terms of their proliferation capacity and capacity to secret IL-6. Since myoblast proliferation and differentiation are a key stage in muscle regeneration, this effect of irradiation needs to be taken in account, particularly in certain clinical conditions

  3. Heterogeneity among muscle precursor cells in adult skeletal muscles with differing regenerative capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlath, G K; Thaloor, D; Rando, T A; Cheong, M; English, A W; Zheng, B

    1998-08-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, although studies of muscle regeneration have heretofore been limited almost exclusively to limb musculature. Muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle are responsible for the repair of damaged muscle. Heterogeneity exists in the growth and differentiation properties of muscle precursor cell (myoblast) populations throughout limb development but whether the muscle precursor cells differ among adult skeletal muscles is unknown. Such heterogeneity among myoblasts in the adult may give rise to skeletal muscles with different regenerative capacities. Here we compare the regenerative response of a masticatory muscle, the masseter, to that of limb muscles. After exogenous trauma (freeze or crush injuries), masseter muscle regenerated much less effectively than limb muscle. In limb muscle, normal architecture was restored 12 days after injury, whereas in masseter muscle, minimal regeneration occurred during the same time period. Indeed, at late time points, masseter muscles exhibited increased fibrous connective tissue in the region of damage, evidence of ineffective muscle regeneration. Similarly, in response to endogenous muscle injury due to a muscular dystrophy, widespread evidence of impaired regeneration was present in masseter muscle but not in limb muscle. To explore the cellular basis of these different regenerative capacities, we analyzed the myoblast populations of limb and masseter muscles both in vivo and in vitro. From in vivo analyses, the number of myoblasts in regenerating muscle was less in masseter compared with limb muscle. Assessment of population growth in vitro indicated that masseter myoblasts grow more slowly than limb myoblasts under identical conditions. We conclude that the impaired regeneration in masseter muscles is due to differences in the intrinsic myoblast populations compared to limb muscles.

  4. Macrophages improve survival, proliferation and migration of engrafted myogenic precursor cells into MDX skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Lesault

    Full Text Available Transplantation of muscle precursor cells is of therapeutic interest for focal skeletal muscular diseases. However, major limitations of cell transplantation are the poor survival, expansion and migration of the injected cells. The massive and early death of transplanted myoblasts is not fully understood although several mechanisms have been suggested. Various attempts have been made to improve their survival or migration. Taking into account that muscle regeneration is associated with the presence of macrophages, which are helpful in repairing the muscle by both cleansing the debris and deliver trophic cues to myoblasts in a sequential way, we attempted in the present work to improve myoblast transplantation by coinjecting macrophages. The present data showed that in the 5 days following the transplantation, macrophages efficiently improved: i myoblast survival by limiting their massive death, ii myoblast expansion within the tissue and iii myoblast migration in the dystrophic muscle. This was confirmed by in vitro analyses showing that macrophages stimulated myoblast adhesion and migration. As a result, myoblast contribution to regenerating host myofibres was increased by macrophages one month after transplantation. Altogether, these data demonstrate that macrophages are beneficial during the early steps of myoblast transplantation into skeletal muscle, showing that coinjecting these stromal cells may be used as a helper to improve the efficiency of parenchymal cell engraftment.

  5. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Claude H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2. The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stimulated with PAR-2 agonists (tryptase, trypsin and SLIGKV was assessed. The specificity of the tryptase effect was evaluated with a specific inhibitor, APC-366. Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression and functionality of PAR-2 receptor and to assess the expression of COX-2. COX-2 activity was evaluated with a commercial activity assay kit and by measurement of PGF2α production. Proliferation assays were also performed in presence of different prostaglandins (PGs. Results Tryptase increased L6 myoblast proliferation by 35% above control group and this effect was completely inhibited by APC-366. We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. COX-2 activity was increased following stimulation with PAR-2 agonist but its expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. Finally, 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15Δ-PGJ2, a product of COX-2-derived prostaglandin D2, stimulated myoblast proliferation, but not PGE2 and PGF2α. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and this effect is part of a signaling cascade dependent on PAR-2 activation and on the downstream

  6. TIPS to manipulate myogenesis: retention of myoblast differentiation capacity using microsphere culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is an emerging option for regenerating skeletal muscle. Improved delivery methods for anchorage-dependent myoblasts are likely to improve integration and function of transplanted muscle cells. Highly porous microspheres, produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS, have features ideally suited for minimally invasive cell delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the use of TIPS microspheres as highly porous microcarriers for manipulation of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM under defined culture conditions. HSMM cells readily attached to the surface of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA TIPS microcarriers, where they were induced to continue proliferating or to be driven towards differentiation whilst under static-dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Switching from proliferation medium to differentiation medium for 7 days, resulted in increased protein expression of skeletal muscle cell contractile apparatus components, MyoD and skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, compared with cells cultured on conventional culture plasticware for the same duration (p < 0.001. Growth of myoblasts on the surface of the microcarriers and their migration following simulated delivery, caused no change to the proliferative capacity of cells over 7 days. Results from this study demonstrate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal vehicle for the expansion and delivery of myoblasts for therapeutic applications. Transplantation of myoblasts anchored to a substrate, rather than in suspension, will reduce the amount of ex vivo manipulation required during preparation of the product and allows cells to be delivered in a more natural state. This will improve the ability to control cell dosage and increase the likelihood of efficacy.

  7. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  8. Injectable scaffold materials differ in their cell instructive effects on primary human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nair, Prabha Damodaran

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds are materials used for delivery of cells for regeneration of tissues. They support three-dimensional organization and improve cell survival. For the repair of small skeletal muscles, injections of small volumes of cells are attractive, and injectable scaffolds for delivery of cells offer...... a minimally invasive technique. In this study, we examined in vitro the cell instructive effects of three types of injectable scaffolds, fibrin, alginate, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles on primary human myoblasts. The myoblast morphology and progression in the myogenic program differed......, depending on the type of scaffold material. In alginate gel, the cells obtained a round morphology, they ceased to proliferate, and entered quiescence. In the fibrin gels, differentiation was promoted, and myotubes were observed within a few days in culture, while poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid...

  9. MicroRNA-27a promotes myoblast proliferation by targeting myostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Xiaoling; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identified a myogenic role for miR-27a and a new target, myostatin. ► The miR-27a was confirmed to target myostatin 3′UTR. ► miR-27a is upregulated and myostatin is downregulated during myoblast proliferation. ► miR-27a promotes myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in myoblast proliferation remains poorly understood. Here we found that the expression of miR-27a was increased during proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts. Moreover, overexpression of miR-27a in C2C12 cells promoted myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin, a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis. In addition, the miR-27a was confirmed to target myostatin 3′UTR by a luciferase reporter analysis. Together, these results suggest that miR-27a promotes myoblast proliferation through targeting myostatin.

  10. MicroRNA-27a promotes myoblast proliferation by targeting myostatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Xiaoling; Yu, Bing; He, Jun [Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan 625014 (China); Chen, Daiwen, E-mail: dwchen@sicau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan 625014 (China)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified a myogenic role for miR-27a and a new target, myostatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The miR-27a was confirmed to target myostatin 3 Prime UTR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-27a is upregulated and myostatin is downregulated during myoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-27a promotes myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in myoblast proliferation remains poorly understood. Here we found that the expression of miR-27a was increased during proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts. Moreover, overexpression of miR-27a in C2C12 cells promoted myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin, a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis. In addition, the miR-27a was confirmed to target myostatin 3 Prime UTR by a luciferase reporter analysis. Together, these results suggest that miR-27a promotes myoblast proliferation through targeting myostatin.

  11. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  12. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jiang, Qinyang [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Deng, Changyan [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Rong, E-mail: zhengrong@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kuang, Shihuan, E-mail: skuang@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  13. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7 CreER and Mtor flox/flox mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7 CreER was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes

  14. Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghao Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of tissue morphology with inherent left–right (LR asymmetry is essential for tissue/organ functions. For skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in mammalian organisms, successful myogenesis requires the regulation of the LR asymmetry to form the appropriate muscle alignment. However, the key factor for reproducing the LR asymmetry of skeletal tissues in a controllable, engineering context remains largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that cell chirality may underlie the LR development in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we report that a rigid substrate is required for the chirality of skeletal muscle cells. By using alternating micropatterned cell-adherent and cell-repellent stripes on a rigid substrate, we found that C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts exhibited a unidirectional tilted orientation with respect to the stripe boundary. Importantly, such chiral orientation was reduced when soft substrates were used instead. In addition, we demonstrated the key role of actin stress fibers in the formation of the chiral orientation. This study reveals that a rigid substrate is required for the chiral pattern of myoblasts, paving the way for reconstructing damaged muscle tissue with inherent LR asymmetry in the future.

  15. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP 3 /calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation

  16. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  17. Skeletal Myoblast Cell Sheet Implantation Ameliorates Both Systolic and Diastolic Cardiac Performance in Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Tomonori; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Nakatani, Satoshi; Daimon, Takashi; Okita, Yutaka; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Improving both systolic and diastolic function may be the most important factor in treating heart failure. In this study, we hypothesized that cell-sheet transplantation could improve these function in the damaged heart. We generated a dilated cardiomyopathy model in beagles by continuous ventricle pacing at 240 beats per minute. After 4 weeks, the beagles underwent skeletal myoblast cell sheet transplantation (SMCST) or a sham operation, and rapid ventricle pacing continued for an additional 4 weeks. Six of the e8 beagles treated by SMCST were still alive 4 weeks after the procedure. We evaluated SMCST's cardiotherapeutic effects by comparing beagles treated by SMCST with beagles that underwent a sham operation (control, n = 5). Diastolic function, as well as systolic function improved significantly in the SMCST group as compared with the sham group (control vs SMCST group, median [interquartile range]: E/E', 16 [0.9] vs 11 [1.0]; P dilated cardiomyopathy heart.

  18. Short-hairpin Mediated Myostatin Knockdown Resulted in Altered Expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factors with Enhanced Myoblast Proliferation in Fetal Myoblast Cells of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Singh, Satyendra Pal; Mitra, Abhijit

    2018-01-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a well-known negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Reduced expression due to natural mutations in the coding region and knockout as well as knockdown of MSTN results in an increase in the muscle mass. In the present study, we demonstrated as high as 60 and 52% downregulation (p < 0.01) of MSTN mRNA and protein in the primary fetal myoblast cells of goats using synthetic shRNAs (n = 3), without any interferon response. We, for the first time, evaluated the effect of MSTN knockdown on the expression of MRFs (namely, MyoD, Myf5), follistatin (FST), and IGFs (IGF-1 & IGF-2) in goat myoblast cells. MSTN knockdown caused an upregulation (p < 0.05) of MyoD and downregulation (p < 0.01) of MYf5 and FST expression. Moreover, we report up to ∼four fold (p < 0.001) enhanced proliferation in myoblasts after four days of culture. The anti-MSTN shRNA demonstrated in the present study could be used for the production of transgenic goats to increase the muscle mass.

  19. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  20. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro

  1. The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts: Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Olga; Chang, Wen-Teh; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Blood from 7 human donors was individually processed to simultaneously create leukocyte-poor fractions: PRP, Mod-PRP, PPP, and secondarily spun PRP and Mod-PRP (PRP ss and Mod-PRP ss , respectively). Mod-PRP was produced by removing TGF-β1 and MSTN from PRP using antibodies attached to sterile beads, while a second-stage centrifugal spin of PRP was performed to remove platelets. The biologics were individually added to cell culture groups. Analysis for induction into myoblast differentiation pathways included Western blot analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, as well as confocal microscopy to assess polynucleated myotubule formation. HSMMs cultured with PRP showed an increase in proliferation but no evidence of differentiation. Western blot analysis confirmed that MSTN and TGF-β1 could be decreased in Mod-PRP using antibody-coated beads, but this modification mildly improved myoblast differentiation. However, cell culture with PPP, PRP ss , and Mod-PRP ss led to a decreased proliferation rate but a significant induction of myoblast differentiation verified by increased multinucleated

  2. Marked heterogeneity in growth characteristics of myoblast clonal cultures and myoblast mixed cultures obtained from the same individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Andrea B.; Cohen, Ron; Blom, Joke; Van Heemst, Diana; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    Background: Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function while adjacent satellite cells are unable to compensate for this loss. However, myoblast cultures can be established even in the presence of sarcopenia. Objective: It is yet unknown whether satellite

  3. Myogenic Precursors from iPS Cells for Skeletal Muscle Cell Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isart Roca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate skeletal muscle since they allow allogenic transplantation, can be produced in large quantities, and, as compared to adult myoblasts, present more embryonic-like features and more proliferative capacity in vitro, which indicates a potential for more self-renewal and regenerative capacity in vivo. Different approaches have been described to make myogenic progenitors either by gene overexpression or by directed differentiation through culture conditions, and several myopathies have already been modeled using iPSC-MP. However, even though results in animal models have shown improvement from previous work with isolated adult myoblasts, major challenges regarding host response have to be addressed and clinically relevant transplantation protocols are lacking. Despite these challenges we are closer than we think to bringing iPSC-MP towards clinical use for treating human muscle disease and sporting injuries.

  4. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Quercioli, Franco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7 + satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration

  5. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Mazzanti, Benedetta [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Haematology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Quercioli, Franco [CNR-National Institute of Optics (INO), Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Arcetri-Florence (Italy); Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Formigli, Lucia, E-mail: formigli@unifi.it [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7{sup +} satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration.

  6. Improvement of maternal vitamin D status with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol positively impacts porcine fetal skeletal muscle development and myoblast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E A; Coffey, J D; Starkey, C W; Chung, T K; Starkey, J D

    2013-09-01

    There is little information available regarding the influence of maternal vitamin D status on fetal skeletal muscle development. Therefore, we investigated the effect of improved vitamin D status resulting from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation of dams on fetal skeletal muscle developmental characteristics and myoblast activity using Camborough 22 gilts (n = 40) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) contained 2,500 IU cholecalciferol (D3)/kg diet, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 IU D3/kg diet plus 50 µg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding through d 90 of gestation. On gestational d 90 (± 1), fetal LM and semitendinosus muscle samples were collected for analysis of developmental characteristics and myoblast activity, respectively. No treatment difference was observed in fetal LM cross-sectional area (P = 0.25). Fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts had more LM fibers (P = 0.04) that tended to be smaller in cross-sectional area compared with CTL fetuses (P = 0.11). A numerical increase in the total number of Pax7+ myoblasts was also observed in fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts (P = 0.12). Myoblasts derived from the muscles of fetuses from 25OHD3-fed dams displayed an extended proliferative phase in culture compared with those from fetuses of dams fed only D3 (P importance of maternal vitamin D status on the development of fetal skeletal muscle.

  7. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: methods to form skeletal myotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined.

  8. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  9. Cardiac cell therapy: overexpression of connexin43 in skeletal myoblasts and prevention of ventricular arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Sarah; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; Forest, Virginie; Evain, Stéphane; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Mérot, Jean; Charpentier, Flavien; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Lemarchand, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have great potential for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, using a transgenic mouse model Roell et al. reported that cardiac engraftment of connexin43 (Cx43)-overexpressing myoblasts in vivo prevents post-infarct arrhythmia, a common cause of death in patients

  10. Hypomorphic Smn knockdown C2C12 myoblasts reveal intrinsic defects in myoblast fusion and myotube morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafey, Dina; Cote, Patrice D.; Kothary, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    Dosage of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein has been directly correlated with the severity of disease in patients diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is also clear that SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and atrophy of the associated skeletal muscle. What is more controversial is whether it is neuronal and/or muscle-cell-autonomous defects that are responsible for the disease per se. Although motor neuron degeneration is generally accepted as the primary event in SMA, intrinsic muscle defects in this disease have not been ruled out. To gain a better understanding of the influence of SMN protein dosage in muscle, we have generated a hypomorphic series of myoblast (C2C12) stable cell lines with variable Smn knockdown. We show that depletion of Smn in these cells resulted in a decrease in the number of nuclear 'gems' (gemini of coiled bodies), reduced proliferation with no increase in cell death, defects in myoblast fusion, and malformed myotubes. Importantly, the severity of these abnormalities is directly correlated with the decrease in Smn dosage. Taken together, our work supports the view that there is an intrinsic defect in skeletal muscle cells of SMA patients and that this defect contributes to the overall pathogenesis in this devastating disease

  11. Spatial and functional restriction of regulatory molecules during mammalian myoblast fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlath, Grace K.

    2010-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is a highly regulated process that is key for forming skeletal muscle during development and regeneration in mammals. Much remains to be understood about the molecular regulation of myoblast fusion. Some molecules that influence mammalian muscle fusion display specific cellular localization during myogenesis. Such molecules can be localized to the contact region between two fusing cells either in both cells or only in one of the cells. How distinct localization of molecules contributes to fusion is not clear. Further complexity exists as other molecules are functionally restricted to myoblasts at later stages of myogenesis to regulate their fusion with multinucleated myotubes. This review examines these three categories of molecules and discusses how spatial and functional restriction may contribute to the formation of a multinucleated cell. Understanding how and why molecules become restricted in location or function is likely to provide further insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian muscle fusion.

  12. Perturbations of NAD+ salvage systems impact mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis in mouse myoblasts and intact skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne Agerholm; Dall, Morten; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2018-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (sh......Nampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Moreover, we applied gene electrotransfer to express cre recombinase in tibialis anterior muscle of floxed Nampt mice. In shNampt KD C2C12 myoblasts, Nampt and NAD+ levels were reduced by 70% and 50%, respectively, and maximal respiratory capacity...... was reduced by 25%. Moreover, anaerobic glycolytic flux increased by 55% and 2-deoxyglucose uptake increased by 25% in shNampt KD cells. Treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside restored NAD+ levels in shNampt cells and increased maximal respiratory capacity by 18% and 32% in control and sh...

  13. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Differentiation-Associated Downregulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-1 Expression in Myoblasts Serves to Increase Their Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Oláh

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, the major isoform of the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase family, is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial protein with well-recognized roles in various essential cellular functions such as DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis, as well as in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including sepsis, diabetes and cancer. Activation of PARP-1 in response to oxidative stress catalyzes the covalent attachment of the poly (ADP-ribose (PAR groups on itself and other acceptor proteins, utilizing NAD+ as a substrate. Overactivation of PARP-1 depletes intracellular NAD+ influencing mitochondrial electron transport, cellular ATP generation and, if persistent, can result in necrotic cell death. Due to their high metabolic activity, skeletal muscle cells are particularly exposed to constant oxidative stress insults. In this study, we investigated the role of PARP-1 in a well-defined model of murine skeletal muscle differentiation (C2C12 and compare the responses to oxidative stress of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. We observed a marked reduction of PARP-1 expression as myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. This alteration correlated with an increased resistance to oxidative stress of the myotubes, as measured by MTT and LDH assays. Mitochondrial function, assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, was preserved under oxidative stress in myotubes compared to myoblasts. Moreover, basal respiration, ATP synthesis, and the maximal respiratory capacity of mitochondria were higher in myotubes than in myoblasts. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of PARP-1 by PJ34 (a phenanthridinone PARP inhibitor exerted greater protective effects in undifferentiated myoblasts than in differentiated myotubes. The above observations in C2C12 cells were also confirmed in a rat-derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6. Forced overexpression of PARP1 in C2C12 myotubes sensitized the cells to oxidant

  15. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  16. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  17. Function of skeletal muscle tissue formed after myoblast transplantation into irradiated mouse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A; Zweyer, M; Irintchev, A

    2000-01-15

    1. Pretreatment of muscles with ionising radiation enhances tissue formation by transplanted myoblasts but little is known about the effects on muscle function. We implanted myoblasts from an expanded, male-donor-derived, culture (i28) into X-ray irradiated (16 Gy) or irradiated and damaged soleus muscles of female syngeneic mice (Balb/c). Three to 6 months later the isometric contractile properties of the muscles were studied in vitro, and donor nuclei were visualised in muscle sections with a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe. 2. Irradiated sham-injected muscles had smaller masses than untreated solei and produced less twitch and tetanic force (all by about 18 %). Injection of 106 myoblasts abolished these deficiencies and innervation appeared normal. 3. Cryodamage of irradiated solei produced muscle remnants with few (1-50) or no fibres. Additional myoblast implantation led to formation of large muscles (25 % above normal) containing numerous small-diameter fibres. Upon direct electrical stimulation, these muscles produced considerable twitch (53 % of normal) and tetanic forces (35 % of normal) but innervation was insufficient as indicated by weak nerve-evoked contractions and elevated ACh sensitivity. 4. In control experiments on irradiated muscles, reinnervation was found to be less complete after botulinum toxin paralysis than after nerve crush indicating that proliferative arrest of irradiated Schwann cells may account for the observed innervation deficits. 5. Irradiation appears to be an effective pretreatment for improving myoblast transplantation. The injected cells can even produce organised contractile tissue replacing whole muscle. However, impaired nerve regeneration limits the functional performance of the new muscle.

  18. Disruption of myoblast alignment by highly motile rhabdomyosarcoma cell in tissue structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglu; Nagamori, Eiji; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor type of skeletal muscle origin, hallmarked by local invasion. Interaction between invasive tumor cells and normal cells plays a major role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Culturing tumor cells in a three-dimensional (3D) model can translate tumor malignancy relevant cell-cell interaction. To mimic tumor heterogeneity in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of a malignant embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) cell line RD and a normal human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) cell line was established by cell sheet technology. Various ratios of RDs to HSMMs were employed to understand the quantitative effect on intercellular interactions. Disruption of sheet structure was observed in heterogeneous cell sheets having a low ratio of RDs to HSMMs, whereas homogeneous HSMM or RD sheets maintained intact structure. Deeper exploration of dynamic tumor cell behavior inside HSMM sheets revealed that HSMM cell alignment was disrupted by highly motile RDs. This study demonstrated that RMS cells are capable of compromising their surrounding environment through induced decay of HSMMs alignment in a cell-based 3D system. This suggests that muscle disruption might be a major consequence of RMS cell invasion into muscles, which could be a promising target to preventing tumor invasion. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Human myoblast culture as muscle stem cells in medical and biological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, S M; Krokhina, T B; Shishkin, S S; Krakhmaleva, I N; Zakharov, S F; Ershova, E S

    2001-01-01

    The method for obtaining human myoblast culture has been modified to consider the specific histological localization of the satellite cells as well as their growth properties; the cultivation conditions have been selected to grow up to 150000 cells/cm2. At high densities, the cells remain mononuclear and preserve their typical myoblast morphology as well as the capacity for fusion and the formation of myotubes. By contrast to fibroblasts, up to 80% of the cells in the myoblast culture were positive in the acid phosphatase test, which indicates their stem nature. The obtained myoblast cultures were used in the clinical tests of cell-mediated gene therapy of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy as well as in the bioassay for the effects of biologically active compounds.

  20. β‐Taxilin participates in differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Tomohiko; Nogami, Satoru; Horii, Yukimi [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Akasaki, Kenji [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan); Shirataki, Hiromichi, E-mail: hiro-sh@dokkyomed.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Myogenesis is required for the development of skeletal muscle. Accumulating evidence indicates that the expression of several genes are upregulated during myogenesis and these genes play pivotal roles in myogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying myogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that β-taxilin, which is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle and heart tissues, was progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes, prompting us to investigate the role of β-taxilin in myogenesis. In C2C12 cells, knockdown of β-taxilin impaired the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes, and decreased the diameter of myotubes. We also found that β-taxilin interacted with dysbindin, a coiled-coil-containing protein. Knockdown of dysbindin conversely promoted the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes and increased the diameter of myotubes in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of dysbindin attenuated the inhibitory effect of β-taxilin depletion on myotube formation of C2C12 cells. These results demonstrate that β-taxilin participates in myogenesis through suppressing the function of dysbindin to inhibit the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. - Highlights: • β‐Taxilin is progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 cell. • Knockdown of β-taxilin impaired C2C12 myotube formation. • β‐Taxilin interacted with dysbindin. • Knockdown of dysbindin promoted C2C12 myotube formation. • The function of β-taxilin in C2C12 myotube formation depends on dysbindin.

  1. Live cell imaging reveals marked variability in myoblast proliferation and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the process of muscle regeneration, activated stem cells termed satellite cells proliferate, and then differentiate to form new myofibers that restore the injured area. Yet not all satellite cells contribute to muscle repair. Some continue to proliferate, others die, and others become quiescent and are available for regeneration following subsequent injury. The mechanisms that regulate the adoption of different cell fates in a muscle cell precursor population remain unclear. Methods We have used live cell imaging and lineage tracing to study cell fate in the C2 myoblast line. Results Analyzing the behavior of individual myoblasts revealed marked variability in both cell cycle duration and viability, but similarities between cells derived from the same parental lineage. As a consequence, lineage sizes and outcomes differed dramatically, and individual lineages made uneven contributions toward the terminally differentiated population. Thus, the cohort of myoblasts undergoing differentiation at the end of an experiment differed dramatically from the lineages present at the beginning. Treatment with IGF-I increased myoblast number by maintaining viability and by stimulating a fraction of cells to complete one additional cell cycle in differentiation medium, and as a consequence reduced the variability of the terminal population compared with controls. Conclusion Our results reveal that heterogeneity of responses to external cues is an intrinsic property of cultured myoblasts that may be explained in part by parental lineage, and demonstrate the power of live cell imaging for understanding how muscle differentiation is regulated. PMID:23638706

  2. Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis: a new player for insulin-like growth factor-1-induced myoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacchioni Caterina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is the most important physiological regulator of skeletal muscle progenitor cells, which are responsible for adult skeletal muscle regeneration. The ability of IGF-1 to affect multiple aspects of skeletal muscle cell biology such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and motility is well recognized, although the molecular mechanisms implicated in its complex biological action are not fully defined. Since sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P has recently emerged as a key player in skeletal muscle regeneration, we investigated the possible involvement of the sphingosine kinase (SK/S1P receptor axis on the biological effects of IGF-1 in murine myoblasts. Methods RNA interference, chemical inhibition and immunofluorescence approaches were used to assess the role of the SK/S1P axis on the myogenic and mitogenic effects of IGF-1 in C2C12 myoblasts. Results We show that IGF-1 increases SK activity in mouse myoblasts. The effect of the growth factor does not involve transcriptional regulation of SK1 or SK2, since the protein content of both isoforms is not affected; rather, IGF-1 enhances the fraction of the active form of SK. Moreover, transactivation of the S1P2 receptor induced by IGF-1 via SK activation appears to be involved in the myogenic effect of the growth factor. Indeed, the pro-differentiating effect of IGF-1 in myoblasts is impaired when SK activity is pharmacologically inhibited, or SK1 or SK2 are specifically silenced, or the S1P2 receptor is downregulated. Furthermore, in this study we show that IGF-1 transactivates S1P1/S1P3 receptors via SK activation and that this molecular event negatively regulates the mitogenic effect elicited by the growth factor, since the specific silencing of S1P1 or S1P3 receptors increases cell proliferation induced by IGF-1. Conclusions We demonstrate a dual role of the SK/S1P axis in response to myoblast challenge with IGF-1, that likely is important to

  3. Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative...... proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics...... of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188...

  4. Enhancement of contractile force generation of artificial skeletal muscle tissues by mild and transient heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kanno, Shota; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    Artificial skeletal muscle tissues composed of cells are expected to be used for applications of regenerative medicine and drug screening. Generally, however, the physical forces generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscle are lower than those of skeletal muscle tissues found in the body. Local hyperthermia is used for many diseases including muscle injuries. It was recently reported that mild heat treatment improved skeletal muscle functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of mild heat treatment on the tissue-engineered skeletal muscle tissues in vitro. We used magnetite cationic liposomes to label C2C12 myoblast cells magnetically, and constructed densely packed artificial skeletal muscle tissues by using magnetic force. Cell culture at 39°C promoted the differentiation of myoblast cells into myotubes. Moreover, the mild and transient heat treatment improved the contractile properties of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. These findings indicate that the culture method using heat treatment is a useful approach to enhance functions of artificial skeletal muscle tissue.

  5. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.dk

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  6. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [Department of Cardiac Support, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mazda, Osam, E-mail: mazda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  7. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Gojo, Satoshi; Mazda, Osam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases

  8. Let-7b Regulates Myoblast Proliferation by Inhibiting IGF2BP3 Expression in Dwarf and Normal Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shumao; Luo, Wen; Ye, Yaqiong; Bekele, Endashaw J.; Nie, Qinghua; Li, Yugu; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf chicken is caused by the mutation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene and characterized by shorter shanks, lower body weight, smaller muscle fiber diameter and fewer muscle fiber number. However, the precise regulatory pathways that lead to the inhibition of skeletal muscle growth in dwarf chickens still remain unclear. Here we found a let-7b mediated pathway might play important role in the regulation of dwarf chicken skeletal muscle growth. Let-7b has higher expression in the skeletal muscle of dwarf chicken than in normal chicken, and the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), which is a translational activator of IGF2, showed opposite expression trend to let-7b. In vitro cellular assays validated that let-7b directly inhibits IGF2BP3 expression through binding to its 3′UTR region, and the protein level but not mRNA level of IGF2 would be reduced in let-7b overexpressed chicken myoblast. Let-7b can inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest in chicken myoblast through let-7b-IGF2BP3-IGF2 signaling pathway. Additionally, let-7b can also regulate skeletal muscle growth through let-7b-GHR-GHR downstream genes pathway, but this pathway is non-existent in dwarf chicken because of the deletion mutation of GHR 3′UTR. Notably, as the loss binding site of GHR for let-7b, let-7b has enhanced its binding and inhibition on IGF2BP3 in dwarf myoblast, suggesting that the miRNA can balance its inhibiting effect through dynamic regulate its binding to target genes. Collectively, these results not only indicate that let-7b can inhibit skeletal muscle growth through let-7b-IGF2BP3-IGF2 signaling pathway, but also show that let-7b regulates myoblast proliferation by inhibiting IGF2BP3 expression in dwarf and normal chickens. PMID:28736533

  9. The Satellite Cell Niche Regulates the Balance between Myoblast Differentiation and Self-Renewal via p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Valentina; Ghadiali, Rachel S; Antczak, Philipp; Rothwell, Amy; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Pisconti, Addolorata

    2018-03-13

    Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells residing in a specialized niche that regulates their homeostasis. How niche-generated signals integrate to regulate gene expression in satellite cell-derived myoblasts is poorly understood. We undertook an unbiased approach to study the effect of the satellite cell niche on satellite cell-derived myoblast transcriptional regulation and identified the tumor suppressor p53 as a key player in the regulation of myoblast quiescence. After activation and proliferation, a subpopulation of myoblasts cultured in the presence of the niche upregulates p53 and fails to differentiate. When satellite cell self-renewal is modeled ex vivo in a reserve cell assay, myoblasts treated with Nutlin-3, which increases p53 levels in the cell, fail to differentiate and instead become quiescent. Since both these Nutlin-3 effects are rescued by small interfering RNA-mediated p53 knockdown, we conclude that a tight control of p53 levels in myoblasts regulates the balance between differentiation and return to quiescence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mirella emeregalli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies (MDs are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging.

  11. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Gojo, Satoshi; Mazda, Osam

    2013-02-08

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of muscle cell dedifferentiation after skeletal muscle injury of mice with a Cre-Lox system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Peng, Hairong; Pan, Haiying; Huard, Johnny; Li, Yong

    2011-02-03

    Dedifferentiation of muscle cells in the tissue of mammals has yet to be observed. One of the challenges facing the study of skeletal muscle cell dedifferentiation is the availability of a reliable model that can confidentially distinguish differentiated cell populations of myotubes and non-fused mononuclear cells, including stem cells that can coexist within the population of cells being studied. In the current study, we created a Cre/Lox-β-galactosidase system, which can specifically tag differentiated multinuclear myotubes and myotube-generated mononuclear cells based on the activation of the marker gene, β-galactosidase. By using this system in an adult mouse model, we found that β-galactosidase positive mononuclear cells were generated from β-galactosidase positive multinuclear myofibers upon muscle injury. We also demonstrated that these mononuclear cells can develop into a variety of different muscle cell lineages, i.e., myoblasts, satellite cells, and muscle derived stem cells. These novel findings demonstrated, for the first time, that cellular dedifferentiation of skeletal muscle cells actually occurs in mammalian skeletal muscle following traumatic injury in vivo.

  14. Possible role of TIEG1 as a feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} in myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Masato; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Chao, Guozheng; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Aso, Hisashi [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Takahiro, E-mail: ty1010@bios.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    Myostatin and TGF-{beta} negatively regulate skeletal muscle development and growth. Both factors signal through the Smad2/3 pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling remains unclear. TGF-{beta} inducible early gene (TIEG) 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of TIEG1 on myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling using C2C12 myoblasts. Myostatin and TGF-{beta} induced the expression of TIEG1 and Smad7 mRNAs, but not TIEG2 mRNA, in proliferating C2C12 cells. When differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated by myostatin, TIEG1 mRNA was up-regulated at a late stage of differentiation. In contrast, TGF-{beta} enhanced TIEG1 expression at an early stage. Overexpression of TIEG1 prevented the transcriptional activation of Smad by myostatin and TGF-{beta} in both proliferating or differentiating C2C12 cells, but the expression of Smad2 and Smad7 mRNAs was not affected. Forced expression of TIEG1 inhibited myogenic differentiation but did not cause more inhibition than the empty vector in the presence of myostatin or TGF-{beta}. These results demonstrate that TIEG1 is one possible feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} that prevents excess action in myoblasts.

  15. Possible role of TIEG1 as a feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-β in myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Masato; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Chao, Guozheng; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Aso, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin and TGF-β negatively regulate skeletal muscle development and growth. Both factors signal through the Smad2/3 pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of myostatin and TGF-β signaling remains unclear. TGF-β inducible early gene (TIEG) 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in the modulation of TGF-β signaling. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of TIEG1 on myostatin and TGF-β signaling using C2C12 myoblasts. Myostatin and TGF-β induced the expression of TIEG1 and Smad7 mRNAs, but not TIEG2 mRNA, in proliferating C2C12 cells. When differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated by myostatin, TIEG1 mRNA was up-regulated at a late stage of differentiation. In contrast, TGF-β enhanced TIEG1 expression at an early stage. Overexpression of TIEG1 prevented the transcriptional activation of Smad by myostatin and TGF-β in both proliferating or differentiating C2C12 cells, but the expression of Smad2 and Smad7 mRNAs was not affected. Forced expression of TIEG1 inhibited myogenic differentiation but did not cause more inhibition than the empty vector in the presence of myostatin or TGF-β. These results demonstrate that TIEG1 is one possible feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-β that prevents excess action in myoblasts.

  16. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  17. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  18. Group I Paks Promote Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation In Vivo and In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Giselle A; Lu, Min; Radu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation and involves the cadherin coreceptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42. Individual genetic deletion of Pak1 and Pak2 in mice....... Furthermore, primary myoblasts lacking Pak1 and Pak2 display delayed expression of myogenic differentiation markers and myotube formation. These results identify Pak1 and Pak2 as redundant regulators of myoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and as components of the promyogenic Ncad/Cdo/Cdc42 signaling...

  19. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2. Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation. Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for

  20. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sindhu; Sreenivas, Prethish; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Reddy, Vatrapu Rami; Shashidhara, Lingadahalli Subrahmanya; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Mylavarapu, Madhavi; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts) to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2). Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation). Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for pathological

  1. Loss of MyoD and Myf5 in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells Results in Altered Myogenic Programming and Failed Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Yamamoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: MyoD and Myf5 are fundamental regulators of skeletal muscle lineage determination in the embryo, and their expression is induced in satellite cells following muscle injury. MyoD and Myf5 are also expressed by satellite cell precursors developmentally, although the relative contribution of historical and injury-induced expression to satellite cell function is unknown. We show that satellite cells lacking both MyoD and Myf5 (double knockout [dKO] are maintained with aging in uninjured muscle. However, injured muscle fails to regenerate and dKO satellite cell progeny accumulate in damaged muscle but do not undergo muscle differentiation. dKO satellite cell progeny continue to express markers of myoblast identity, although their myogenic programming is labile, as demonstrated by dramatic morphological changes and increased propensity for non-myogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate an absolute requirement for either MyoD or Myf5 in muscle regeneration and indicate that their expression after injury stabilizes myogenic identity and confers the capacity for muscle differentiation. : In this article, Goldhamer and colleagues show that loss of both MyoD and Myf5 in skeletal muscle satellite cells results in regenerative failure following injury. Satellite cell progeny accumulate in injured muscle and continue to express markers of myoblast identity, but do not undergo muscle differentiation, and exhibit a propensity for non-myogenic differentiation. Keywords: skeletal muscle regeneration, muscle stem cell programming, muscle differentiation, satellite cell, MyoD, Myf5, adipogenesis, fibrosis, conditional knockout, Cre/loxP

  2. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Somik [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yin, Hongshan [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei (China); Nam, Deokhwa [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li, Yong [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ma, Ke, E-mail: kma@houstonmethodist.org [Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1{sup −/−} mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation.

  3. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1 −/− mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation

  4. IGF-II-mediated downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in myoblast cells involves PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Weihong; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Yun; Rong, Xiaozhi; Lu, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) can stimulate myogenesis and is critically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation. The presence of negative regulators of this process, however, is not well explored. Here, we showed that in myoblast cells, IGF-II negatively regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression, while constitutive expression of PGC-1α induced myoblast differentiation. These results suggest that the negative regulation of PGC-1α by IGF-II may act as a negative feedback mechanism in IGF-II-induced myogenic differentiation. Reporter assays demonstrated that IGF-II suppresses the basal PGC-1α promoter activity. Blocking the IGF-II signaling pathway increased the endogenous PGC-1α levels. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PI3 kinase activity prevented the downregulation of PGC-1α but the activation of mTOR was not required for this process. Importantly, further analysis showed that forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 contributes to mediating the effects of IGF-II on PGC-1 promoter activity. These findings indicate that IGF-II reduces PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle cells through a mechanism involving PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 but not p38 MAPK or Erk1/2 MAPK pathways.

  5. Myoblast replication is reduced in the IUGR fetus despite maintained proliferative capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Susan M; Blake, Amy C; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Rozance, Paul J; Barthel, Kristen B; Gao, Bifeng; Hetrick, Byron; McCurdy, Carrie E; Garza, Natalia G; Hay, William W; Leinwand, Leslie A; Friedman, Jacob E; Brown, Laura D

    2017-03-01

    Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass and insulin resistance, suggesting muscle growth may be restricted by molecular events that occur during fetal development. To explore the basis of restricted fetal muscle growth, we used a sheep model of progressive placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to assess myoblast proliferation within intact skeletal muscle in vivo and isolated myoblasts stimulated with insulin in vitro Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weights were reduced by 25% in IUGR fetuses compared to those in controls (CON). The ratio of PAX7+ nuclei (a marker of myoblasts) to total nuclei was maintained in IUGR muscle compared to CON, but the fraction of PAX7+ myoblasts that also expressed Ki-67 (a marker of cellular proliferation) was reduced by 23%. Despite reduced proliferation in vivo, fetal myoblasts isolated from IUGR biceps femoris and cultured in enriched media in vitro responded robustly to insulin in a dose- and time-dependent manner to increase proliferation. Similarly, insulin stimulation of IUGR myoblasts upregulated key cell cycle genes and DNA replication. There were no differences in the expression of myogenic regulatory transcription factors that drive commitment to muscle differentiation between CON and IUGR groups. These results demonstrate that the molecular machinery necessary for transcriptional control of proliferation remains intact in IUGR fetal myoblasts, indicating that in vivo factors such as reduced insulin and IGF1, hypoxia and/or elevated counter-regulatory hormones may be inhibiting muscle growth in IUGR fetuses. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Biomarker-free dielectrophoretic sorting of differentiating myoblast multipotent progenitor cells and their membrane analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Downes, Andrew; Pethig, Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Myoblasts are muscle derived mesenchymal stem cell progenitors that have great potential for use in regenerative medicine, especially for cardiomyogenesis grafts and intracardiac cell transplantation. To utilise such cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications, and especially for personalized medicine, it is essential to generate a synchronised, homogenous, population of cells that display phenotypic and genotypic homogeneity within a population of cells. We demonstrate that the biomarker-free technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to discriminate cells between stages of differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast multipotent mouse model. Terminally differentiated myotubes were separated from C2C12 myoblasts to better than 96% purity, a result validated by flow cytometry and Western blotting. To determine the extent to which cell membrane capacitance, rather than cell size, determined the DEP response of a cell, C2C12 myoblasts were co-cultured with GFP-expressing MRC-5 fibroblasts of comparable size distributions (mean diameter ∼10 μm). A DEP sorting efficiency greater than 98% was achieved for these two cell types, a result concluded to arise from the fibroblasts possessing a larger membrane capacitance than the myoblasts. It is currently assumed that differences in membrane capacitance primarily reflect differences in the extent of folding or surface features of the membrane. However, our finding by Raman spectroscopy that the fibroblast membranes contained a smaller proportion of saturated lipids than those of the myoblasts suggests that the membrane chemistry should also be taken into account.

  7. Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Desdouits

    Full Text Available Besides the classical respiratory and systemic symptoms, unusual complications of influenza A infection in humans involve the skeletal muscles. Numerous cases of acute myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis have been reported, particularly following the outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009. The pathogenesis of these influenza-associated myopathies (IAM remains unkown, although the direct infection of muscle cells is suspected. Here, we studied the susceptibility of cultured human primary muscle cells to a 2009 pandemic and a 2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1 isolate. Using cells from different donors, we found that differentiated muscle cells (i. e. myotubes were highly susceptible to infection by both influenza A(H1N1 isolates, whereas undifferentiated cells (i. e. myoblasts were partially resistant. The receptors for influenza viruses, α2-6 and α2-3 linked sialic acids, were detected on the surface of myotubes and myoblasts. Time line of viral nucleoprotein (NP expression and nuclear export showed that the first steps of the viral replication cycle could take place in muscle cells. Infected myotubes and myoblasts exhibited budding virions and nuclear inclusions as observed by transmission electron microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Myotubes, but not myoblasts, yielded infectious virus progeny that could further infect naive muscle cells after proteolytic treatment. Infection led to a cytopathic effect with the lysis of muscle cells, as characterized by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by muscle cells was not affected following infection. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a direct muscle infection causing rhabdomyolysis in IAM patients.

  8. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Electrotransfection and lipofection show comparable efficiency for in vitro gene delivery of primary human myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Tomaz; Strazisar, Marusa; Mis, Katarina; Kotnik, Nejc; Pegan, Katarina; Lojk, Jasna; Grubic, Zoran; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-04-01

    Transfection of primary human myoblasts offers the possibility to study mechanisms that are important for muscle regeneration and gene therapy of muscle disease. Cultured human myoblasts were selected here because muscle cells still proliferate at this developmental stage, which might have several advantages in gene therapy. Gene therapy is one of the most sought-after tools in modern medicine. Its progress is, however, limited due to the lack of suitable gene transfer techniques. To obtain better insight into the transfection potential of the presently used techniques, two non-viral transfection methods--lipofection and electroporation--were compared. The parameters that can influence transfection efficiency and cell viability were systematically approached and compared. Cultured myoblasts were transfected with the pEGFP-N1 plasmid either using Lipofectamine 2000 or with electroporation. Various combinations for the preparation of the lipoplexes and the electroporation media, and for the pulsing protocols, were tested and compared. Transfection efficiency and cell viability were inversely proportional for both approaches. The appropriate ratio of Lipofectamine and plasmid DNA provides optimal conditions for lipofection, while for electroporation, RPMI medium and a pulsing protocol using eight pulses of 2 ms at E = 0.8 kV/cm proved to be the optimal combination. The transfection efficiencies for the optimal lipofection and optimal electrotransfection protocols were similar (32 vs. 32.5%, respectively). Both of these methods are effective for transfection of primary human myoblasts; however, electroporation might be advantageous for in vivo application to skeletal muscle.

  10. Deficient leukemia inhibitory factor signaling in muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Brandt, Claus; Schultz, Ninna S

    2012-01-01

    The cytokine leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) is expressed by skeletal muscle and induces proliferation of muscle precursor cells, an important feature of skeletal muscle maintenance and repair. We hypothesized that muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes had a deficient response...... nor proliferation rate was affected. In conclusion, although LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in muscle tissue and myoblasts from diabetic patients, LIF signaling and LIF-stimulated cell proliferation were impaired in diabetic myoblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which muscle function......RNA knockdown of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 in myoblast cultures established from healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Myoblast proliferation rate was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in both muscle tissue and cultured myoblasts...

  11. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair is mediated primarily by the muscle stem cell, the satellite cell. Several factors, including extracellular matrix, are known to regulate satellite cell function and regeneration. One factor, the matricellular Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is highly up......-regulated during skeletal muscle disease, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate a prominent yet transient increase in SPARC mRNA and protein content during skeletal muscle regeneration that correlates with the expression profile of specific muscle factors like MyoD, Myf5, Myf6......, Myogenin, NCAM, CD34, and M-Cadherin, all known to be implicated in satellite cell activation/proliferation following muscle damage. This up regulation was detected in more cell types. Ectopic expression of SPARC in the muscle progenitor cell line C2C12 was performed to mimic the high levels of SPARC seen...

  12. Membrane glycoproteins of differentiating skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Remy, C.N.; Smith, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides was studied in myoblasts and myotubes of the C2 muscle cell line. Oligosaccharides were radioactively labelled for 15 hr with [ 3 H] mannose and plasma membranes isolated. Ten glycopeptides were detected by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The extent of labelling was 4-6 fold greater in myoblasts vs myotubes. A glycopeptide of Mr > 100,000 was found exclusively in myoblast membranes. Lectin chromatography revealed that the proportion of tri-, tetranntenary, biantennary and high mannose chains was similar throughout differentiation. The high mannose chain fraction was devoid of hybrid chains. The major high mannose chain contained nine mannose residues. The higher level of glycopeptide labelling in myoblasts vs myotubes corresponded to a 5-fold greater rate of protein synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments were used to follow the synthesis of the Dol-oligosaccharides. Myoblasts and myotubes labelled equivalently the glucosylated tetradecasaccharide but myoblasts labelled the smaller intermediates 3-4 greater than myotubes. Myoblasts also exhibited a 2-3 fold higher Dol-P dependent glycosyl transferase activity for chain elongation and Dol-sugar synthesis. Together these results show that the degree of protein synthesis and level of Dol-P are contributing factors in the higher capacity of myoblasts to produce N-glycoproteins compared to myotubes

  13. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiao Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  14. Long-Term Endurance Exercise in Humans Stimulates Cell Fusion of Myoblasts along with Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Genes In Vivo.

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    Sebastian Frese

    Full Text Available Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human

  15. PKC-Mediated ZYG1 Phosphorylation Induces Fusion of Myoblasts as well as of Dictyostelium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Amagai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that a novel protein ZYG1 induces sexual cell fusion (zygote formation of Dictyostelium cells. In the process of cell fusion, involvements of signal transduction pathways via Ca2+ and PKC (protein kinase C have been suggested because zygote formation is greatly enhanced by PKC activators. In fact, there are several deduced sites phosphorylated by PKC in ZYG1 protein. Thereupon, we designed the present work to examine whether or not ZYG1 is actually phosphorylated by PKC and localized at the regions of cell-cell contacts where cell fusion occurs. These were ascertained, suggesting that ZYG1 might be the target protein for PKC. A humanized version of zyg1 cDNA (mzyg1 was introduced into myoblasts to know if ZYG1 is also effective in cell fusion of myoblasts. Quite interestingly, enforced expression of ZYG1 in myoblasts was found to induce markedly their cell fusion, thus strongly suggesting the existence of a common signaling pathway for cell fusion beyond the difference of species.

  16. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  17. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Young Woo [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin [Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Jin [Dr. Park' s Aesthetic Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong In, E-mail: oncochem@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo, E-mail: khsmd@unitel.co.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  18. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Won Jin; Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  19. FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate intermediate filament protein vimentin during myogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipinski M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant hereditary neuromuscular disorder. The clinical features of FSHD include weakness of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles followed by wasting of skeletal muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Although FSHD myoblasts grown in vitro can be induced to differentiate into myotubes by serum starvation, the resulting FSHD myotubes have been shown previously to be morphologically abnormal. Aim. In order to find the cause of morphological anomalies of FSHD myotubes we compared in vitro myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts at the protein level. Methods. We induced myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts by serum starvation. We then compared protein extracts from proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identification of differentially expressed proteins. Results. We demonstrated that the expression of vimentin was elevated at the protein and mRNA levels in FSHD myotubes as compared to normal myotubes. Conclusions. We demonstrate for the first time that in contrast to normal myoblasts, FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate vimentin after induction of in vitro myogenic differentiation. We suggest that vimentin could be an easily detectable marker of FSHD myotubes

  20. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells.

  1. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are crucial in the regulation of cell morphology and function. At the cellular level, these forces influence myoblast differentiation and fusion. In this study we applied mechanical stimuli to embryonic muscle cells using magnetic microbeads, a method shown to apply stress...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  2. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  3. Myomaker, Regulated by MYOD, MYOG and miR-140-3p, Promotes Chicken Myoblast Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of myoblasts is an important step during skeletal muscle differentiation. A recent study in mice found that a transmembrane protein called Myomaker, which is specifically expressed in muscle, is critical for myoblast fusion. However, the cellular mechanism of its roles and the regulatory mechanism of its expression remain unclear. Chicken not only plays an important role in meat production but is also an ideal model organism for muscle development research. Here, we report that Myomaker is also essential for chicken myoblast fusion. Forced expression of Myomaker in chicken primary myoblasts promotes myoblast fusion, whereas knockdown of Myomaker by siRNA inhibits myoblast fusion. MYOD and MYOG, which belong to the family of myogenic regulatory factors, can bind to a conserved E-box located proximal to the Myomaker transcription start site and induce Myomaker transcription. Additionally, miR-140-3p can inhibit Myomaker expression and myoblast fusion, at least in part, by binding to the 3ʹ UTR of Myomaker in vitro. These findings confirm the essential roles of Myomaker in avian myoblast fusion and show that MYOD, MYOG and miR-140-3p can regulate Myomaker expression.

  4. Identification of gene expression modifications in myostatin-stimulated myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Zhang Yong; Ma Guoda; Zhao Xinyi; Chen Yan; Zhu Dahai

    2005-01-01

    Myostatin belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and has been shown to function as an inhibitor of skeletal muscle proliferation and differentiation. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of myostatin function during myogenesis, differential display reverse transcription PCR was employed to identify altered gene expressions associated with myostatin inhibitory function in chicken fetal myoblasts (CFMs). In this work, we have identified seven up-regulated and 12 down-regulated genes in myostatin stimulated CFMs. Those genes are involved in myogenic differentiation, cell architecture, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and apoptosis. The down-regulation of muscle creatine kinase B, troponin C, and myosin regulatory light chain is in agreement with the myostatin negative role in myocyte differentiation. In addition, the expression alteration of skeletal muscle-specific cardiac ankyrin repeat protein and the bcl-2 related anti-apoptotic protein Nr-13 suggests possible unique roles for myostatin in regulating myogenesis by controlling cofactors participated transcriptional regulation and apoptosis

  5. Human skeletal muscle drug transporters determine local exposure and toxicity of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Michael J; Urquhart, Bradley L; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Schwarz, Ute I; Lemke, Christopher J; Leake, Brenda F; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2010-02-05

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, are important drugs used in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although statins are well tolerated, many patients develop myopathy manifesting as muscle aches and pain. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but severe toxicity of statins. Interindividual differences in the activities of hepatic membrane drug transporters and metabolic enzymes are known to influence statin plasma pharmacokinetics and risk for myopathy. Interestingly, little is known regarding the molecular determinants of statin distribution into skeletal muscle and its relevance to toxicity. We sought to identify statin transporters in human skeletal muscle and determine their impact on statin toxicity in vitro. We demonstrate that the uptake transporter OATP2B1 (human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1) and the efflux transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)1, MRP4, and MRP5 are expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of human skeletal muscle fibers and that atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are substrates of these transporters when assessed using a heterologous expression system. In an in vitro model of differentiated, primary human skeletal muscle myoblast cells, we demonstrate basal membrane expression and drug efflux activity of MRP1, which contributes to reducing intracellular statin accumulation. Furthermore, we show that expression of human OATP2B1 in human skeletal muscle myoblast cells by adenoviral vectors increases intracellular accumulation and toxicity of statins and such effects were abrogated when cells overexpressed MRP1. These results identify key membrane transporters as modulators of skeletal muscle statin exposure and toxicity.

  6. Comparison of arrhythmogenicity and proinflammatory activity induced by intramyocardial or epicardial myoblast sheet delivery in a rat model of ischemic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Pätilä

    Full Text Available Although cell therapy of the failing heart by intramyocardial injections of myoblasts to results in regenerative benefit, it has also been associated with undesired and prospectively fatal arrhythmias. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injections of myoblasts could enhance inflammatory reactivity and facilitate electrical cardiac abnormalities that can be reduced by epicardial myoblast sheet delivery. In a rat model of ischemic heart failure, myoblast therapy either by intramyocardial injections or epicardial cell sheets was given 2 weeks after occlusion of the coronary artery. Ventricular premature contractions (VPCs were assessed, using an implanted three-lead electrocardiograph at 1, 7, and 14 days after therapy, and 16-point epicardial electropotential mapping (EEPM was used to evaluate ventricular arrhythmogenicity under isoproterenol stress. Cardiac functioning was assessed by echocardiography. Both transplantation groups showed therapeutic benefit over sham therapy. However, VPCs were more frequent in the Injection group on day 1 and day 14 after therapy than in animals receiving epicardial or sham therapy (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. EEPM under isoproterenol stress showed macroreentry at the infarct border area, leading to ventricular tachycardias in the Injection group, but not in the myoblast sheet- or sham-treated groups (p = 0.045. Both transplantation types modified the myocardial cytokine expression profile. In animals receiving epicardial myoblast therapy, selective reductions in the expressions of interferon gamma, interleukin (IL-1β and IL12 were observed, accompanied by reduced infiltration of inflammatory CD11b- and CD68-positive leukocytes, compared with animals receiving myoblasts as intramyocardial injections. Intramyocardial myoblast delivery was associated with enhanced inflammatory and immunomodulatory reactivity and increased frequency of VPCs. In comparison to intramyocardial injection, the epicardial

  7. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  8. Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C₂C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warita, Katsuhiko; Oshima, Nana; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-10-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C 12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time. After immunostaining of the formed myotubes with an anti-MHC antibody, we counted the number of nuclei in the myotubes and then calculated the fusion index (FI) as a measure of myotube differentiation. The FI values of all the CS-treated groups were lower than the FI value of the control group, especially the group treated with CS-E, which displayed notable suppression of myotube formation. To confirm that the sugar chain in CS-E is important in the suppression of differentiation, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which catabolizes CS, was added to the media. The addition of ChABC led to the degradation of CS-E, and neutralized the suppression of myotube formation by CS-E. Collectively, it can be concluded that the degree of suppression of differentiation depends on the subtype of CS and that CS-E strongly suppresses myogenic differentiation. We conclude that the CS sugar chain has inhibitory action against myoblast cell fusion.

  9. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

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    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  10. Defective myoblasts identified in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, H M; Webster, C; Pavlath, G K

    1983-01-01

    A defect in the proliferative capacity of satellite cells, mononucleated precursors of mature muscle fibers, was found in clonal analyses of cells cultured from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. The total yield of myoblasts per gram of muscle biopsy was decreased to 5% of normal. Of the DMD myoblast clones obtained, a large proportion contained a morphological class of flat distended cells that had an increased generation time and ceased to proliferate beyond 100-1,000 cells but cou...

  11. Use of Flow Focusing Technique for Microencapsulation of Myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza, J; Saenz del Burgo, L; Hernández, R M; Orive, G; Pedraz, J L

    2017-01-01

    Alginate cell microencapsulation implies the immobilization of cells within a polymeric membrane that allows the bidirectional diffusion of nutrients and oxygen inside the microcapsules and the release of waste and therapeutic molecules outside them. This technology has been applied to several cell types and it has been extensively described with pancreatic islets. However, other cells such as myoblasts are being currently studied and showing high interest. Moreover, different systems and approaches have been developed for cell encapsulation such as electrostatic extrusion and Flow focusing technology. When Flow focusing technology is applied for myoblast encapsulation, several factors should be considered, such as the pressure, the flow of the system, or the diameter size of the nebulizer, which will determine the final diameter size and shape of the microcapsules containing the myoblasts. Finally, viability of encapsulated myoblasts needs to be assessed before further studies are performed.

  12. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies

  13. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail: akeita@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  14. The role of Na+/K+-ATPase during chick skeletal myogenesis.

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    Taissa Neustadt Oliveira

    Full Text Available The formation of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber involves a series of sequential and interdependent events that occurs during embryogenesis. One of these events is myoblast fusion which has been widely studied, yet not completely understood. It was previously shown that during myoblast fusion there is an increase in the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase. This fact prompted us to search for a role of the enzyme during chick in vitro skeletal myogenesis. Chick myogenic cells were treated with the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain in four different concentrations (0.01-10 μM and analyzed. Our results show that 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μM ouabain did not induce changes in cell viability, whereas 10 μM induced a 45% decrease. We also observed a reduction in the number and thickness of multinucleated myotubes and a decrease in the number of myoblasts after 10 μM ouabain treatment. We tested the involvement of MEK-ERK and p38 signaling pathways in the ouabain-induced effects during myogenesis, since both pathways have been associated with Na+/K+-ATPase. The MEK-ERK inhibitor U0126 alone did not alter cell viability and did not change ouabain effect. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alone or together with 10 μM ouabain did not alter cell viability. Our results show that the 10 μM ouabain effects in myofiber formation do not involve the MEK-ERK or the p38 signaling pathways, and therefore are probably related to the pump activity function of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

  15. Isolation of human foetal myoblasts and its application for microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anna Aihua; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Potter, Murray; Chang, Patricia L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Foetal cells secrete more growth factors, generate less immune response, grow and proliferate better than adult cells. These characteristics make them desirable for recombinant modification and use in microencapsulated cellular gene therapeutics. We have established a system in vitro to obtain a pure population of primary human foetal myoblasts under several rounds of selection with non-collagen coated plates and identified by desmin staining. These primary myoblasts presented good proliferation ability and better differentiation characteristics in monolayer and after microencapsulation compared to murine myoblast C2C12 cells based on creatine phosphokinase (CPK), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and multi-nucleated myotubule determination. The lifespan of primary myoblasts was 70 population doublings before entering into senescent state, with a population time of 18–24 hrs. Hence, we have developed a protocol for isolating human foetal primary myoblasts with excellent differentiation potential and robust growth and longevity. They should be useful for cell-based therapy in human clinical applications with microencapsulation technology. PMID:18366454

  16. Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Qingnian; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-02-10

    Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy. This blunted hypertrophic response was associated with a reduction in Akt and p70s6k signaling and protein synthesis, suggesting a link between myonuclear accretion and activation of pro-hypertrophic pathways. Furthermore, fusion-incompetent muscle exhibited increased fibrosis after muscle overload, indicating a protective role for normal stem cell activity in reducing myofiber strain associated with hypertrophy. These findings reveal an essential contribution of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion during physiological adult muscle hypertrophy.

  17. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  18. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Secreted IGF-1 Protects Myoblasts from the Negative Effect of Myostatin

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    Sebastian Gehmert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, a TGF-β family member, is associated with inhibition of muscle growth and differentiation and might interact with the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Since IGF-1 is secreted at a bioactive level by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs, these cells (ASCs provide a therapeutic option for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. But the protective effect of stem cell secreted IGF-1 on myoblast under high level of myostatin remains unclear. In the present study murine myoblasts were exposed to myostatin under presence of ASCs conditioned medium and investigated for proliferation and apoptosis. The protective effect of IGF-1 was further examined by using IGF-1 neutralizing and receptor antibodies as well as gene silencing RNAi technology. MyoD expression was detected to identify impact of IGF-1 on myoblasts differentiation when exposed to myostatin. IGF-1 was accountable for 43.6% of the antiapoptotic impact and 48.8% for the proliferative effect of ASCs conditioned medium. Furthermore, IGF-1 restored mRNA and protein MyoD expression of myoblasts under risk. Beside fusion and transdifferentiation the beneficial effect of ASCs is mediated by paracrine secreted cytokines, particularly IGF-1. The present study underlines the potential of ASCs as a therapeutic option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other dystrophic muscle diseases.

  19. Injectable skeletal muscle matrix hydrogel promotes neovascularization and muscle cell infiltration in a hindlimb ischemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA DeQuach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD currently affects approximately 27 million patients in Europe and North America, and if untreated, may progress to the stage of critical limb ischemia (CLI, which has implications for amputation and potential mortality. Unfortunately, few therapies exist for treating the ischemic skeletal muscle in these conditions. Biomaterials have been used to increase cell transplant survival as well as deliver growth factors to treat limb ischemia; however, existing materials do not mimic the native skeletal muscle microenvironment they are intended to treat. Furthermore, no therapies involving biomaterials alone have been examined. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix and examine its potential for treating PAD as a stand-alone therapy by studying the material in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. We tested the mitogenic activity of the scaffold’s degradation products using an in vitro assay and measured increased proliferation rates of smooth muscle cells and skeletal myoblasts compared to collagen. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, the femoral artery was ligated and resected, followed by injection of 150 µL of skeletal muscle matrix or collagen 1 week post-injury. We demonstrate that the skeletal muscle matrix increased arteriole and capillary density, as well as recruited more desmin-positive and MyoD-positive cells compared to collagen. Our results indicate that this tissue-specific injectable hydrogel may be a potential therapy for treating ischemia related to PAD, as well as have potential beneficial effects on restoring muscle mass that is typically lost in CLI.

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through homophilic trans-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Francis X; Martin, Ryan A; Springer, Evan M; Leffler, Maxwell S; Woelmer, Bryce R; Recker, Isaac J; Leaman, Douglas W

    2017-07-11

    The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and fusing myoblasts, as well as triggered lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts through the signaling function of the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. Rac inhibition negated ICAM-1 mediated lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts. The fusogenic property of ICAM-1-ICAM-1 interactions was restricted to myogenic cells, as forced expression of ICAM-1 by fibroblasts did not augment their fusion to ICAM-1+ myoblasts/myotubes. We conclude that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through its ability to self-associate and initiate Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  1. Liposome-based vascular endothelial growth factor-165 transfection with skeletal myoblast for treatment of ischaemic limb disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Haider, Husnain Kh; Esa, Wahidah Bte; Su, Liping; Law, Peter K; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Yeanteng; Poh, Kian Keong; Sim, Eugene K W

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to use cholesterol (Chol) + DOTAP liposome (CD liposome) based human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer into skeletal myoblasts (SkMs) for treatment of acute hind limb ischaemia in a rabbit model. The feasibility and efficacy of CD liposome mediated gene transfer with rabbit SkMs were characterized using plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) and assessed by flow cytometry. After optimization, SkMs were transfected with CD lipoplexes carrying plasmid-VEGF(165) (CD-pVEGF(165)) and transplanted into rabbit ischaemic limb. Animals were randomized to receive intramuscular injection of Medium199 (M199; group 1), non-transfected SkM (group 2) or CD-pVEGF(165) transfected SkM (group 3). Flow cytometry revealed that up to 16% rabbit SkMs were successfully transfected with pEGFP. Based on the optimized transfection condition, transfected rabbit SkM expressed VEGF(165) up to day 18 with peak at day 2. SkMs were observed in all cell-transplanted groups, as visualized with 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and bromodeoxyuridine. Angiographic blood vessel score revealed increased collateral vessel development in group 3 (39.7 +/- 2.0) compared with group 2 (21.6 +/- 1.1%, P limb and may serve as a safe and new therapeutic modality for the repair of acute ischaemic limb disease.

  2. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

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    Maide Ö. Raeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  3. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeker, Maide Ö.; Russell, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues. PMID:22190853

  4. Effects of heat stimulation and l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate supplementation on myogenic differentiation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazushi; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kanno, Shota; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-05-01

    Although skeletal muscle tissue engineering has been extensively studied, the physical forces produced by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles remain to be improved for potential clinical utility. In this study, we examined the effects of mild heat stimulation and supplementation of a l-ascorbic acid derivative, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AscP), on myoblast differentiation and physical force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Compared with control cultures at 37°C, mouse C2C12 myoblast cells cultured at 39°C enhanced myotube diameter (skeletal muscle hypertrophy), whereas mild heat stimulation did not promote myotube formation (differentiation rate). Conversely, AscP supplementation resulted in an increased differentiation rate but did not induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Following combined treatment with mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation, both skeletal muscle hypertrophy and differentiation rate were enhanced. Moreover, the active tension produced by the tissue-engineered skeletal muscles was improved following combined treatment. These findings indicate that tissue culture using mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation is a promising approach to enhance the function of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  6. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein, is involved in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Masashi; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ogata, Takehiro; Takehara, Naofumi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Asada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal myogenesis is a multistep process by which multinucleated mature muscle fibers are formed from undifferentiated, mononucleated myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identified muscle-restricted coiled-coil (MURC) protein as a positive regulator of myogenesis. In skeletal muscle, MURC was localized to the cytoplasm with accumulation in the Z-disc of the sarcomere. In C2C12 myoblasts, MURC expression occurred coincidentally with myogenin expression and preceded sarcomeric myosin expression during differentiation into myotubes. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of MURC impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, which was accompanied by impaired myogenin expression and ERK activation. Overexpression of MURC in C2C12 myoblasts resulted in the promotion of differentiation with enhanced myogenin expression and ERK activation during differentiation. During injury-induced muscle regeneration, MURC expression increased, and a higher abundance of MURC was observed in immature myofibers compared with mature myofibers. In addition, ERK was activated in regenerating tissue, and ERK activation was detected in MURC-expressing immature myofibers. These findings suggest that MURC is involved in the skeletal myogenesis that results from modulation of myogenin expression and ERK activation. MURC may play pivotal roles in the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenic differentiation.

  7. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Louise H.; Petersson, Stine J.; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Andersen, Ditte C.; Thayssen, Susanne; Sant, Dorte J.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Schrøder, Henrik D.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin is expressed in different tissues during remodeling and repair, suggesting a function in regeneration. Several gene expression studies indicated that SPARC was expressed in response to muscle damage. Studies on myoblasts further indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis patients to analyze SPARC expression in a selected range of inherited and idiopathic muscle wasting diseases. SPARC-positive cells were observed both in fetal and neonatal muscle, and in addition, fetal myofibers were observed to express SPARC at the age of 15–16 weeks. SPARC protein was detected in the majority of analyzed muscle biopsies (23 of 24), mainly in mononuclear cells of which few were pax7 positive. Myotubes and regenerating myofibers also expressed SPARC. The expression-degree seemed to reflect the severity of the lesion. In accordance with these in vivo findings, primary human-derived satellite cells were found to express SPARC both during proliferation and differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows SPARC expression both during muscle development and in regenerating muscle. The expression is detected both in satellite cells/myoblasts and in myotubes and muscle fibers, indicating a role for SPARC in the skeletal muscle compartment. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:29–39, 2009) PMID:18796407

  8. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A Paredes

    Full Text Available Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2 causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  9. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, João A; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Höglund, Stefan; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  10. Angiotensin II Evokes Angiogenic Signals within Skeletal Muscle through Co-ordinated Effects on Skeletal Myocytes and Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Sammy T. K.; Slopack, Dara; Shariati, Khashayar; Hasanee, Adam; Olenich, Sara; Olfert, I. Mark; Haas, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle overload induces the expression of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, leading to new capillary growth. We found that the overload-induced increase in angiogenesis, as well as increases in VEGF, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcripts were abrogated in muscle VEGF KO mice, highlighting the critical role of myocyte-derived VEGF in controlling this process. The upstream mediators that contribute to overload-induced expression of VEGF have yet to be ascertained. We found that muscle overload increased angiotensinogen expression, a precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, and that Ang II signaling played an important role in basal VEGF production in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, matrix-bound VEGF released from myoblasts induced the activation of endothelial cells, as evidenced by elevated endothelial cell phospho-p38 levels. We also found that exogenous Ang II elevates VEGF expression, as well as MMP-2 transcript levels in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, these responses also were observed in skeletal muscle endothelial cells in response to Ang II treatment, indicating that these cells also can respond directly to the stimulus. The involvement of Ang II in muscle overload-induced angiogenesis was assessed. We found that blockade of AT1R-dependent Ang II signaling using losartan did not attenuate capillary growth. Surprisingly, increased levels of VEGF protein were detected in overloaded muscle from losartan-treated rats. Similarly, we observed elevated VEGF production in cultured endothelial cells treated with losartan alone or in combination with Ang II. These studies conclusively establish the requirement for muscle derived VEGF in overload-induced angiogenesis and highlight a role for Ang II in basal VEGF production in skeletal muscle. However, while Ang II signaling is activated following overload and plays a role in muscle VEGF production, inhibition of this pathway is not sufficient to halt overload

  11. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahjahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages and post-hatch (five ages development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21 and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21 muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7 increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1, both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle development of chicken skeletal muscle.

  12. Elastic hydrogel substrate supports robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhances their engraftment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ke; Yang, Zhong; Xu, Jian-zhong; Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Lin, Sen

    2015-01-01

    The application of satellite cell-derived myoblasts in regenerative medicine has been restricted by the rapid loss of stemness during in vitro cell expansion using traditional culture systems. However, studies published in the past decade have highlighted the influence of substrate elasticity on stem cell fate and revealed that culture on a soft hydrogel substrate can promote self-renewal and prolong the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells. Whether hydrogel substrates have similar effects after long-term robust expansion remains to be determined. Herein we prepared an elastic chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogel mimicking the soft microenvironment of muscle tissues for use as the substrate for satellite cell culture and investigated its influence on long-term cell expansion. After 20 passages in culture, satellite cell-derived myoblasts cultured on our hydrogel substrate exhibited significant improvements in proliferation capability, cell viability, colony forming frequency, and potential for myogenic differentiation compared to those cultured on a routine rigid culture surface. Immunochemical staining and western blot analysis both confirmed that myoblasts cultured on the hydrogel substrate expressed higher levels of several differentiation-related markers, including Pax7, Pax3, and SSEA-1, and a lower level of MyoD compared to myoblasts cultured on rigid culture plates (all p<0.05). After transplantation into the tibialis anterior of nude mice, myoblasts that had been cultured on the hydrogel substrate demonstrated a significantly greater engraftment efficacy than those cultured on the traditional surface. Collectively, these results indicate that the elastic hydrogel substrate supported robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhanced their engraftment in vivo. - Highlights: • An elastic hydrogel was designed to mimic the pliable muscle tissue microenvironment. • Myoblasts retained their stemness in long-term culture on the elastic

  13. Elastic hydrogel substrate supports robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhances their engraftment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dk1118@yeah.net [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Yang, Zhong [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Lin, Sen [Department of Anatomy and Histology & Embryology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610500 (China)

    2015-09-10

    The application of satellite cell-derived myoblasts in regenerative medicine has been restricted by the rapid loss of stemness during in vitro cell expansion using traditional culture systems. However, studies published in the past decade have highlighted the influence of substrate elasticity on stem cell fate and revealed that culture on a soft hydrogel substrate can promote self-renewal and prolong the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells. Whether hydrogel substrates have similar effects after long-term robust expansion remains to be determined. Herein we prepared an elastic chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogel mimicking the soft microenvironment of muscle tissues for use as the substrate for satellite cell culture and investigated its influence on long-term cell expansion. After 20 passages in culture, satellite cell-derived myoblasts cultured on our hydrogel substrate exhibited significant improvements in proliferation capability, cell viability, colony forming frequency, and potential for myogenic differentiation compared to those cultured on a routine rigid culture surface. Immunochemical staining and western blot analysis both confirmed that myoblasts cultured on the hydrogel substrate expressed higher levels of several differentiation-related markers, including Pax7, Pax3, and SSEA-1, and a lower level of MyoD compared to myoblasts cultured on rigid culture plates (all p<0.05). After transplantation into the tibialis anterior of nude mice, myoblasts that had been cultured on the hydrogel substrate demonstrated a significantly greater engraftment efficacy than those cultured on the traditional surface. Collectively, these results indicate that the elastic hydrogel substrate supported robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhanced their engraftment in vivo. - Highlights: • An elastic hydrogel was designed to mimic the pliable muscle tissue microenvironment. • Myoblasts retained their stemness in long-term culture on the elastic

  14. Mitophagy is required for mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jon; Andres, Allen M; Taylor, David J R; Weston, Thomas; Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Stotland, Aleksandr; Kim, Brandon J; Huang, Chengqun; Doran, Kelly S; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2016-01-01

    Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.

  15. A Simplified Method for Tissue Engineering Skeletal Muscle Organoids in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph; Vandenburgh, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Tissue-engineered three dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures have been formed in vitro from primary myoblasts by several different techniques. This report describes a simplified method for generating large numbers of muscle organoids from either primary embryonic avian or neonatal rodent myoblasts, which avoids the requirements for stretching and other mechanical stimulation.

  16. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  17. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  18. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette I Öberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Mizuki; Tajika, Yuki; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (id est (i.e.) phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells. (author)

  1. Enhanced glucose metabolism in cultured human skeletal muscle after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Emmani B M; Riedl, Isabelle; Jiang, Lake Qunfeng; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Näslund, Erik; Krook, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery rapidly increases whole body insulin sensitivity, with changes in several organs including skeletal muscle. Objectives were to determine whether improvements in insulin action in skeletal muscle may occur directly at the level of the myocyte or secondarily from changes in systemic factors associated with weight loss. Myotubes were derived before and after RYGB surgery. The setting was Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Eight patients (body mass index (BMI) 41.8 kg/m(2); age 41 yr) underwent RYGB surgery. Before and 6 months after RYGB surgery, skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis muscle. Satellite cells derived from skeletal muscle biopsies were propagated in vitro as myoblasts and differentiated into myotubes. Expression of myogenic markers is increased in myoblasts derived from biopsies taken 6 months after bypass surgery, compared with their respective presurgery condition. Furthermore, glycogen synthesis, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IRS)-1-Tyr612 and Interleukin (IL)-8 secretion were increased, while fatty acid oxidation and circulating IL8 levels remain unaltered. Myotubes derived from muscle biopsies obtained after RYGB surgery displayed increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB)-Thr308 and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40)-Thr246. RYGB surgery is accompanied by enhanced glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, altered IL8 secretion and changes in mRNA levels and myogenic markers in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Thus, RYGB surgery involves intrinsic reprogramming of skeletal muscle to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts through the Toll-like receptor 4-nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway and myoblast-derived tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ono

    Full Text Available Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism. Here, we used the C2C12 myoblast cell line to investigate the effects of LPS on myogenesis.C2C12 myoblasts were grown to 80% confluence and induced to differentiate in the absence or presence of LPS (0.1 or 1 μg/mL; TAK-242 (1 μM, a specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling; and a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α neutralizing antibody (5 μg/mL. Expression of a skeletal muscle differentiation marker (myosin heavy chain II, two essential myogenic regulatory factors (myogenin and MyoD, and a muscle negative regulatory factor (myostatin was analyzed by western blotting. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB DNA-binding activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.LPS dose-dependently and significantly decreased the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the expression of myosin heavy chain II, myogenin, and MyoD, and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity and myostatin expression. The inhibitory effect of LPS on myogenic differentiation was reversible, suggesting that it was not caused by nonspecific toxicity. Both TAK-242 and anti-TNF-α reduced the LPS-induced increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity, downregulation of myogenic regulatory factors, and upregulation of myostatin, thereby partially rescuing the impairment of myogenesis.Our data suggest that LPS inhibits myogenic differentiation via a TLR4-NF-κB-dependent pathway and an autocrine/paracrine TNF-α-induced pathway. These pathways

  3. G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of activated T-cell-mediated signalling but is not essential for muscle development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Melissa P; Doyle, Jamie R; Barry, Brenda; Beauvais, Ariane; Rozkalne, Anete; Piao, Xianhua; Lawlor, Michael W; Kopin, Alan S; Walsh, Christopher A; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian muscle cell differentiation is a complex process of multiple steps for which many of the factors involved have not yet been defined. In a screen to identify the regulators of myogenic cell fusion, we found that the gene for G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) was transiently up-regulated during the early fusion of human myoblasts. Human mutations in the gene for GPR56 cause the disease bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria; however, the consequences of receptor dysfunction on muscle development have not been explored. Using knockout mice, we defined the role of GPR56 in skeletal muscle. GPR56(-/-) myoblasts have decreased fusion and smaller myotube sizes in culture. In addition, a loss of GPR56 expression in muscle cells results in decreases or delays in the expression of myogenic differentiation 1, myogenin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)c2. Our data suggest that these abnormalities result from decreased GPR56-mediated serum response element and NFAT signalling. Despite these changes, no overt differences in phenotype were identified in the muscle of GPR56 knockout mice, which presented only a mild but statistically significant elevation of serum creatine kinase compared to wild-type. In agreement with these findings, clinical data from 13 bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria patients revealed mild serum creatine kinase increase in only two patients. In summary, targeted disruption of GPR56 in mice results in myoblast abnormalities. The absence of a severe muscle phenotype in GPR56 knockout mice and human patients suggests that other factors may compensate for the lack of this G-protein coupled receptor during muscle development and that the motor delay observed in these patients is likely not a result of primary muscle abnormalities. © 2013 FEBS.

  4. Analysis of differential lipofection efficiency in primary and established myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampinella, Francesca; Lechardeur, Delphine; Zanetti, Elena; MacLachlan, Ian; Benharouga, Mohammed; Lukacs, Gergely L; Vitiello, Libero

    2002-02-01

    In this study we have compared the process of lipid-mediated transfection in primary and established myoblasts, in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the scarce transfectability of the former. We determined the metabolic stability of cytoplasmically injected and lipofected DNA in primary and established myoblasts and carried out a comparative time course analysis of luciferase reporter-gene expression and DNA stability. The efficiency of the transcription-translation machinery of the two cell types was compared by intranuclear injection of naked plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Subcellular colocalization of fluorescein-labeled lipopolyplexes with specific endosomal and lysosomal markers was performed by confocal microscopy to monitor the intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA during transfection. The metabolic stability of plasmid DNA was similar in primary and established myoblasts after both lipofection and cytoplasmic injection. In both cell types, lipofection had no detectable effect on the rate of cell proliferation. Confocal analysis showed that nuclear translocation of transfected DNA coincided with localization in a compartment devoid of endosome- or lysosome-specific marker proteins. The residency time of plasmid DNA in this compartment differed for primary and established myoblasts. Our findings suggest that the lower transfectability of primary myoblasts is mostly due to a difference in the intracellular delivery pathway that correlates with more rapid delivery of internalized complex to the lysosomal compartment.

  5. Growth of Limb Muscle is Dependent on Skeletal-Derived Indian Hedgehog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Hausburg, Melissa; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2011-01-01

    During embryogenesis, muscle and bone develop in close temporal and spatial proximity. We show that Indian Hedgehog, a bone-derived signaling molecule, participates in growth of skeletal muscle. In Ihh−/− embryos, skeletal muscle development appears abnormal at embryonic day 14.5 and at later ages through embryonic day 20.5, dramatic losses of hindlimb muscle occur. To further examine the role of Ihh in myogenesis, we manipulated Ihh expression in the developing chick hindlimb. Reduction of Ihh in chicken embryo hindlimbs reduced skeletal muscle mass similar to that seen in Ihh−/− mouse embryos. The reduction in muscle mass appears to be a direct effect of Ihh since ectopic expression of Ihh by RCAS retroviral infection of chicken embryo hindlimbs restores muscle mass. These effects are independent of bone length, and occur when Shh is not expressed, suggesting Ihh acts directly on fetal myoblasts to regulate secondary myogenesis. Loss of muscle mass in Ihh null mouse embryos is accompanied by a dramatic increase in myoblast apoptosis accompanied by a loss of p21 protein. Our data suggest that Ihh promotes fetal myoblast survival during their differentiation into secondary myofibers by maintaining p21 protein levels. PMID:21683695

  6. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  7. Proliferation and skeletal myotube formation capability of C2C12 and H9c2 cells on isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous PHB scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Genchi, Giada G; Menciassi, Arianna; Polini, Alessandro; Iandolo, Donata; Pisignano, Dario; Ciofani, Gianni; Mattoli, Virgilio; Vazão, Helena; Ferreira, Lino

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the proliferation and skeletal muscle differentiation capability of two myoblastic cell lines, C2C12 and H9c2, on both isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) scaffolds, as well as on PHB films and polystyrene controls. After a careful characterization of the matrices in terms of surface morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties, the proliferation rate and the capability of the two cell lines to form skeletal myotubes were evaluated. Genetic analyses were also performed in order to assess the differentiation level of the cells on the different substrates. We demonstrated that the aligned nanofibrous mesh decreases the proliferation activity and provides a higher differentiative stimulus. We also clarified how the nanofibrous substrate influences myotube formation, and quantified a series of myotube-related parameters for both C2C12 and H9c2 cells. (paper)

  8. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. → smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. → The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. → The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. → smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  9. The effect of low intensity shockwave treatment (Li-SWT) on human myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise K; Schrøder, Henrik D; Lund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    , proliferation and differentiation were tested. Cardiotoxin induced injury was created in tibialis anterior muscles of 28 mice, and two days later, the lesions were treated with 500 impulses of Li-SWT on one of the legs. The treatment was repeated every third day of the period and ended on day 14 after...... incremental effect on expression of pro-angiogenic genes. However, we found no changes in the number of PAX7 positive cells or blood vessel density in Li-SWT treated and control muscle. Furthermore, Li-SWT in the selected doses did not decrease survival, proliferation or differentiation of myoblasts in vitro....

  10. Skeletal Muscle Cell Induction from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Kodaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle. A key to the generation of skeletal muscle cells from ESCs/iPSCs is the mimicking of embryonic mesodermal induction followed by myogenic induction. Thus, current approaches of skeletal muscle cell induction of ESCs/iPSCs utilize techniques including overexpression of myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD or Pax3, using small molecules to induce mesodermal cells followed by myogenic progenitor cells, and utilizing epigenetic myogenic memory existing in muscle cell-derived iPSCs. This review summarizes the current methods used in myogenic differentiation and highlights areas of recent improvement.

  11. HGF potentiates extracellular matrix-driven migration of human myoblasts: involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mariela Natacha; de Mello, Wallace; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Silva-Barbosa, Suse Dayse; Mouly, Vincent; Savino, Wilson; Riederer, Ingo

    2017-10-10

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is required for the activation of muscle progenitor cells called satellite cells (SC), plays a role in the migration of proliferating SC (myoblasts), and is present as a soluble factor during muscle regeneration, along with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. In this study, we aimed at determining whether HGF is able to interact with ECM proteins, particularly laminin 111 and fibronectin, and to modulate human myoblast migration. We evaluated the expression of the HGF-receptor c-Met, laminin, and fibronectin receptors by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, or immunofluorescence and used Transwell assays to analyze myoblast migration on laminin 111 and fibronectin in the absence or presence of HGF. Zymography was used to check whether HGF could modulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases by human myoblasts, and the activation of MAPK/ERK pathways was evaluated by immunoblotting. We demonstrated that human myoblasts express c-Met, together with laminin and fibronectin receptors. We observed that human laminin 111 and fibronectin have a chemotactic effect on myoblast migration, and this was synergistically increased when low doses of HGF were added. We detected an increase in MMP-2 activity in myoblasts treated with HGF. Conversely, MMP-2 inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulation of cell migration triggered by laminin or fibronectin. HGF treatment also induced in human myoblasts activation of MAPK/ERK pathways, whose specific inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulus of cell migration triggered by laminin 111 or fibronectin. We demonstrate that HGF induces ERK phosphorylation and MMP production, thus stimulating human myoblast migration on ECM molecules. Conceptually, these data state that the mechanisms involved in the migration of human myoblasts comprise both soluble and insoluble moieties. This should be taken into account to optimize the design of therapeutic cell transplantation strategies by improving

  12. [Molecular mechanism for ET-1-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Mazaki, Yuichi; Terada, Koji; Miwa, Soichi

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition where the sensitivity to insulin of the tissues expressing insulin receptor (InsR) is decreased due to a functional disturbance of InsR-mediated intracellular signaling. Insulin promotes the entry of glucose into the tissues and skeletal muscle is the most important tissue responsible for the insulin's action of decreasing blood glucose levels. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory peptide, induces insulin resistance through a direct action on skeletal muscle. However, the signaling pathways of ET-1-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remain unclear. Here we show molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of ET-1 on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in myotubes of rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line. mRNA expression levels of differentiation marker genes, MyoD and myogenin, were increased during L6 myoblasts differentiation into myotubes. Some of myotubes possessed the ability to spontaneously contract. In myotubes, insulin promoted Akt phosphorylation at Thr 308 and Ser 473 , and [ 3 H]-labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 3 H]2-DG) uptake. The insulin-facilitated Akt phosphorylation and [ 3 H]2-DG uptake were inhibited by ET-1. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was counteracted by blockade of ET type A receptor (ET A R), inhibition of G q/11 protein, and siRNA knockdown of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). The exogenously overexpressed GRK2 directly bound to endogenous Akt and their association was facilitated by ET-1. In summary, activation of ET A R with ET-1 inhibits insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and [ 3 H]2-DG uptake in a G q/11 protein- and GRK2-dependent manner in skeletal muscle. These findings indicate that ET A R and GRK2 are potential targets for insulin resistance.

  13. Novel Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Akt2 Protein Interaction Partners in L6 Myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caruso

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are marked by an aberrant response in the insulin signaling network. The phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinase, Akt2, plays a key role in insulin signaling and glucose uptake, most notably within skeletal muscle. Protein-protein interaction regulates the functional consequence of Akt2 and in turn, Akt2's role in glucose uptake. However, only few insulin-responsive Akt2 interaction partners have been identified in skeletal muscle cells. In the present work, rat L6 myoblasts, a widely used insulin sensitive skeletal muscle cell line, were used to examine endogenous, insulin-stimulated Akt2 protein interaction partners. Akt2 co-immunoprecipitation was coupled with 1D-SDS-PAGE and fractions were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to reveal Akt2 protein-protein interactions. The pull-down assay displayed specificity for the Akt2 isoform; Akt1 and Akt3 unique peptides were not detected. A total of 49 were detected with a significantly increased (47 or decreased (2 association with Akt2 following insulin administration (n = 4; p<0.05. Multiple pathways were identified for the novel Akt2 interaction partners, such as the EIF2 and ubiquitination pathways. These data suggest that multiple new endogenous proteins may associate with Akt2 under basal as well as insulin-stimulated conditions, providing further insight into the insulin signaling network. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002557.

  14. Role of an inward rectifier K+ current and of hyperpolarization in human myoblast fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J-H; Bijlenga, P; Fischer-Lougheed, J; Occhiodoro, T; Kaelin, A; Bader, C R; Bernheim, L

    1998-01-01

    The role of K+ channels and membrane potential in myoblast fusion was evaluated by examining resting membrane potential and timing of expression of K+ currents at three stages of differentiation of human myogenic cells: undifferentiated myoblasts, fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMBs), and freshly formed myotubes. Two K+ currents contribute to a hyperpolarization of myoblasts prior to fusion: IK(NI), a non-inactivating delayed rectifier, and IK(IR), an inward rectifier. IK(NI) density is low in undifferentiated myoblasts, increases in FCMBs and declines in myotubes. On the other hand, IK(IR) is expressed in 28 % of the FCMBs and in all myotubes. IK(IR) is reversibly blocked by Ba2+ or Cs+. Cells expressing IK(IR) have resting membrane potentials of −65 mV. A block by Ba2+ or Cs+ induces a depolarization to a voltage determined by IK(NI) (−32 mV). Cs+ and Ba2+ ions reduce myoblast fusion. It is hypothesized that the IK(IR)-mediated hyperpolarization allows FCMBs to recruit Na+, K+ and T-type Ca2+ channels which are present in these cells and would otherwise be inactivated. FCMBs, rendered thereby capable of firing action potentials, could amplify depolarizing signals and may accelerate fusion. PMID:9705997

  15. Neonatal epicardial-derived progenitors aquire myogenic traits in skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Skovrind, Ida

    2016-01-01

    heart missing regenerative signals essential for directed differentiation of EPDCs. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the myogenic potential of neonatal EPDCs in adult and neonatal mouse myocardium, as well as in skeletal muscle. The two latter tissues have an intrinsic capability to develop and regenerate......, in contrast to the adult heart. METHODS: Highly purified mouse EPDCs were transplanted into damaged neonatal and adult myocardium as well as regenerating skeletal muscle. Co-cultures with skeletal myoblasts were used to distinguish fusion independent myogenic conversion. RESULTS: No donor EPDC...... that EPDCs may be more myogenic than previously anticipated. But, the heart may lack factors for induction of myogenesis of EPDCs, a scenario that should be taken into consideration when aiming for repair of damaged myocardium by stem cell transplantation....

  16. Inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase partially attenuates caffeine-dependent cell death without alleviating the caffeine-induced reduction in mitochondrial respiration in C2C12 skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, R.M.; Hughes, M.A.; Kinsey, S.T.; Johnson, M.C.; Baumgarner, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant that has previously been shown to promote cytotoxic stress and even cell death in numerous mammalian cell lines. Thus far there is little information available regarding the toxicity of caffeine in skeletal muscle cells. Our preliminary data revealed that treating C2C12 myotubes with 5 mM caffeine for 6 h increased nuclear fragmentation and reduced basal and maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in skeletal myotubes. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the pathways by which caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration. We specifically examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which has previously been shown to simultaneously increase caspase-dependent cell death and reduce mitochondrial respiration in other mammalian cell lines. We found that caffeine promoted a dose-dependent increase in cell death in multinucleated myotubes but did not in mononucleated myoblasts. The addition of 10 μM Z-DEVD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of executioner caspases, completely inhibited caffeine-dependent cell death. Further, the addition of 400 μM dantrolene, a specific ryanodine receptor (RYR) inhibitor, prevented the caffeine-dependent increase in cell death and the reduction in basal and maximal OCR. We also discovered that caffeine treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of JNK and that the addition of 30 μM SP600125 (JNKi), a specific JNK inhibitor, partially attenuated caffeine-induced cell death without preventing the caffeine-dependent reduction in basal and maximal OCR. Our results suggest that JNK partially mediates the increase in caspase-dependent cell death but does not contribute to reduced mitochondrial respiration in caffeine-treated skeletal muscle cells. We conclude that caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration in a calcium-dependent manner by activating the RYR and promoting reticular calcium release. - Highlights: • Caffeine

  17. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2+/− mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation. PMID:29231808

  18. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-12-12

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2 +/- mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation.

  19. Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a skeletal muscle cell line model of mitochondrial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial toxicity is increasingly being implicated as a contributing factor to many xenobiotic-induced organ toxicities, including skeletal muscle toxicity. This has necessitated the need for predictive in vitro models that are able to sensitively detect mitochondrial toxicity of chemical entities early in the research and development process. One such cell model involves substituting galactose for glucose in the culture media. Since cells cultured in galactose are unable to generate sufficient ATP from glycolysis they are forced to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation and consequently are more sensitive to mitochondrial perturbation than cells grown in glucose. The aim of this study was to characterise cellular growth, bioenergetics and mitochondrial toxicity of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line cultured in either high glucose or galactose media. L6 myoblasts proliferated more slowly when cultured in galactose media, although they maintained similar levels of ATP. Galactose cultured L6 cells were significantly more sensitive to classical mitochondrial toxicants than glucose-cultured cells, confirming the cells had adapted to galactose media. Analysis of bioenergetic function with the XF Seahorse extracellular flux analyser demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR was significantly increased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measure of glycolysis, was decreased in cells grown in galactose. Mitochondria operated closer to state 3 respiration and had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial O2·– level compared to cells in the glucose model. An antimycin A (AA dose response revealed that there was no difference in the sensitivity of OCR to AA inhibition between glucose and galactose cells. Importantly, cells in glucose were able to up-regulate glycolysis, while galactose cells were not. These results confirm that L6 cells are able to adapt to growth in a

  20. Creation of Dystrophin Expressing Chimeric Cells of Myoblast Origin as a Novel Stem Cell Based Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, M; Cwykiel, J; Heydemann, A; Garcia-Martinez, J; Siemionow, K; Szilagyi, E

    2018-04-01

    Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression. This proof of concept study tested feasibility of myoblast fusion for Dystrophin Expressing. Chimeric Cell (DEC) therapy through in vitro characterization and in vivo assessment of engraftment, survival, and efficacy in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Murine DEC were created via ex vivo fusion of normal (snj) and dystrophin-deficient (mdx) myoblasts using polyethylene glycol. Efficacy of myoblast fusion was confirmed by flow cytometry and dystrophin immunostaining, while proliferative and myogenic differentiation capacity of DEC were assessed in vitro. Therapeutic effect after DEC transplant (0.5 × 10 6 ) into the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of mdx mice was assessed by muscle functional tests. At 30 days post-transplant dystrophin expression in GM of injected mdx mice increased to 37.27 ± 12.1% and correlated with improvement of muscle strength and function. Our study confirmed feasibility and efficacy of DEC therapy and represents a novel SC based approach for treatment of muscular dystrophies.

  1. Stem cell antigen-1 in skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Harold S; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1 in normal, post-natal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. We systematically compared Sca-1-/- (KO) and Sca-1+/+ (WT) mice and hindlimb muscles to elucidate the tissue, contractile, and functional effects of Sca-1 in young and aging animals. Comparison of muscle volume, fibrosis, myofiber cross-sectional area, and Pax7+ myoblast number showed little differences between ages or genotypes. Exercise protocols, however, demonstrated decreased stamina in KO versus WT mice, with young KO mice achieving results similar to aging WT animals. In addition, KO mice did not improve with practice, while WT animals demonstrated conditioning over time. Surprisingly, myomechanical analysis of isolated muscles showed that KO young muscle generated more force and experienced less fatigue. However, KO muscle also demonstrated incomplete relaxation with fatigue. These findings suggest that Sca-1 is necessary for muscle conditioning with exercise, and that deficient conditioning in Sca-1 KO animals becomes more pronounced with age.

  2. First intron of nestin gene regulates its expression during C2C12 myoblast ifferentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhong; Zhigang Jin; Yongfeng Chen; Ting Zhang; Wei Bian; Xing Cui; Naihe Jing

    2008-01-01

    Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural progenitor cells and in developing skeletal muscle. Nestin has been widely used as a neural progenitor cell marker. It is well established that the specific expression of the nestin gene in neural progenitor cells is conferred by the neural-specific enhancer located in the second intron of the nestin gene. However, the transcriptional mechanism of nestin expression in developing muscle is still unclear. In this study, we identified a muscle cell-specific enhancer in the first intron of mouse nestin gene in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.We localized the core enhancer activity to the 291-661 region of the first intron, and showed that the two E-boxes in the core enhancer region were important for enhancer activity in differentiating C2C12 cells. We also showed that MyoD protein was involved in the regulation of nestin expression in the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

  3. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  4. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  5. TNF inhibits Notch-1 in skeletal muscle cells by Ezh2 and DNA methylation mediated repression: implications in duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Acharyya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical NF-kappaB signaling functions as a negative regulator of skeletal myogenesis through potentially multiple mechanisms. The inhibitory actions of TNFalpha on skeletal muscle differentiation are mediated in part through sustained NF-kappaB activity. In dystrophic muscles, NF-kappaB activity is compartmentalized to myofibers to inhibit regeneration by limiting the number of myogenic progenitor cells. This regulation coincides with elevated levels of muscle derived TNFalpha that is also under IKKbeta and NF-kappaB control.Based on these findings we speculated that in DMD, TNFalpha secreted from myotubes inhibits regeneration by directly acting on satellite cells. Analysis of several satellite cell regulators revealed that TNFalpha is capable of inhibiting Notch-1 in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, which was also found to be dependent on NF-kappaB. Notch-1 inhibition occurred at the mRNA level suggesting a transcriptional repression mechanism. Unlike its classical mode of action, TNFalpha stimulated the recruitment of Ezh2 and Dnmt-3b to coordinate histone and DNA methylation, respectively. Dnmt-3b recruitment was dependent on Ezh2.We propose that in dystrophic muscles, elevated levels of TNFalpha and NF-kappaB inhibit the regenerative potential of satellite cells via epigenetic silencing of the Notch-1 gene.

  6. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Yun, Youngeun; Kim, In-San

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. ► CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. ► The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. ► Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  7. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Yoon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dongguk University and Medical Institute of Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Youngeun [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-San, E-mail: iskim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  8. Impact of Hepatocyte Growth Factor on Skeletal Myoblast Transplantation Late after Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy B. O'blenes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical studies, skeletal myoblast (SKMB transplantation late after myocardial infarction (MI has minimal impact on left ventricular (LV function. This may be related to our previous observation that the extent of SKMB engraftment is minimal in chronic MI when compared to acute MI, which correlates with decreased hepatocyte growth factor (HGF expression, an important regulator of SKMB function. Here, we investigated delivery of exogenous HGF as a strategy for augmenting SKMB engraftment late after MI. Rats underwent SKMB transplantation 4 weeks after coronary ligation. HGF or vehicle control was delivered intravenously during the subsequent 2 weeks. LV function was assessed by MRI before and 2 weeks after SKMB transplantation. We evaluated HGF delivery, SKMB engraftment, and expression of genes associated with post-MI remodeling. Serum HGF was 6.2 ± 2.4 ng/mL after 2 weeks of HGF infusion (n = 7, but undetectable in controls (n = 7. LV end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction did not improve with HGF treatment (321 ± 27 mm 3 , 42% ± 2% vs. 285 ± 33 mm 3 , 43% ± 2%, HGF vs. control. MIs were larger in HGF-treated animals (50 ± 7 vs. 30 ± 6 mm 3 , P = 0.046, but the volume of engrafted SKMBs or percentage of MIs occupied by SKMBs did not increase with HGF (1.7 ± 0.3 mm 3 , 4.7% ± 1.9% vs. 1.4 ± 0.4 mm 3 , 5.3% ± 1.6%, HGF vs. control. Expression of genes associated with post-infarction remodeling was not altered by HGF. Delivery of exogenous HGF failed to augment SKMB engraftment and functional recovery in chronic MI. Expression of genes associated with LV remodeling was not altered by HGF. Alternative strategies to enhance engraftment of SKMB must be explored to optimize the clinical efficacy of SKMB transplantation.

  9. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the prolif......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...... number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity indicating...... that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength....

  10. Use of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine and irradiation for the estimation of the myoblast and myocyte content of primary rat heart cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, M.J.O.; Harary, I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for killing dividing cells was adapted for the elimination of dividing heart muscle cells (myoblasts) in cultures. We have used this method to demonstrate their presence and to estimate their number as well as the number of nondividing heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the neo-natal rat heart. Cells were cultivated in BUdR (5-bromodeoxyuridine) 10 -4 M for 3 days and then irradiated with long uv light. The selective elimination of dividing cells led to a loss of myosin Ca 2+ -activated ATPase in the cultures. The percent of ATPase left after irradiation was 32% of the control in cultures derived from 1-day postnatal rats and 48% in cultures from 4-day postnatal rats. This reflects an in vivo shift of myoblasts to myocytes in the muscle cell population as the rat ages

  11. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  12. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  13. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  14. α-linolenic acid reduces TNF-induced apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts by regulating expression of apoptotic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Carotenuto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired regeneration and consequent muscle wasting is a major feature of muscle degenerative diseases. Nutritional interventions as adjuvant strategy for preventing such conditions are recently gaining increasing attention. Ingestion of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to have a positive impact on muscle diseases. We recently demonstrated that the dietary n3-fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, exerts potent beneficial effects in preserving skeletal muscle regeneration in models of muscle dystrophy. To better elucidate the underlying mechanism we investigate here on the expression level of the anti- and pro-apototic proteins, as well as caspase-3 activity, in C2C12 myoblasts challenged with pathological levels of TNF. The results demonstrated that ALA protective effect on C2C12 myoblasts was associated to an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Indeed, the effect of ALA was directed to rescue Bcl-2 expression and decrease Bax expression both affected in an opposite way by TNF treatment. This effect was associated with a decrease in caspase-3 activity by ALA. TNF is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in damaged skeletal muscle, therefore, counteract inflammatory signals in the muscle microenvironment represents a critical strategy to ameliorate skeletal muscle pathologies

  15. Phosphorylation of Lbx1 controls lateral myoblast migration into the limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Wouter; Masaki, Megumi; Sieiro, Daniel; Marcelle, Christophe; Currie, Peter D

    2017-10-15

    The migration of limb myogenic precursors from limb level somites to their ultimate site of differentiation in the limb is a paradigmatic example of a set of dynamic and orchestrated migratory cell behaviours. The homeobox containing transcription factor ladybird homeobox 1 (Lbx1) is a central regulator of limb myoblast migration, null mutations of Lbx1 result in severe disruptions to limb muscle formation, particularly in the distal region of the limb in mice (Gross et al., 2000). As such Lbx1 has been hypothesized to control lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb anlage. It acts as a core regulator of the limb myoblast migration machinery, controlled by Pax3. A secondary role for Lbx1 in the differentiation and commitment of limb musculature has also been proposed (Brohmann et al., 2000; Uchiyama et al., 2000). Here we show that lateral migration, but not differentiation or commitment of limb myoblasts, is controlled by the phosphorylation of three adjacent serine residues of LBX1. Electroporation of limb level somites in the chick embryo with a dephosphomimetic form of Lbx1 results in a specific defect in the lateral migration of limb myoblasts. Although the initial delamination and migration of myoblasts is unaffected, migration into the distal limb bud is severely disrupted. Interestingly, myoblasts undergo normal differentiation independent of their migratory status, suggesting that the differentiation potential of hypaxial muscle is not regulated by the phosphorylation state of LBX1. Furthermore, we show that FGF8 and ERK mediated signal transduction, both critical regulators of the developing limb bud, have the capacity to induce the phosphorylation of LBX1 at these residues. Overall, this suggests a mechanism whereby the phosphorylation of LBX1, potentially through FGF8 and ERK signalling, controls the lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb bud. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. TNF Inhibits Notch-1 in Skeletal Muscle Cells by Ezh2 and DNA Methylation Mediated Repression: Implications in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Swarnali; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Cheng, Alfred S.; Ladner, Katherine J.; He, Wei; Kline, William; Wang, Huating; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Huang, Tim H.; Guttridge, Denis C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical NF-κB signaling functions as a negative regulator of skeletal myogenesis through potentially multiple mechanisms. The inhibitory actions of TNFα on skeletal muscle differentiation are mediated in part through sustained NF-κB activity. In dystrophic muscles, NF-κB activity is compartmentalized to myofibers to inhibit regeneration by limiting the number of myogenic progenitor cells. This regulation coincides with elevated levels of muscle derived TNFα that is also under IKKβ and NF-κB control. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on these findings we speculated that in DMD, TNFα secreted from myotubes inhibits regeneration by directly acting on satellite cells. Analysis of several satellite cell regulators revealed that TNFα is capable of inhibiting Notch-1 in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, which was also found to be dependent on NF-κB. Notch-1 inhibition occurred at the mRNA level suggesting a transcriptional repression mechanism. Unlike its classical mode of action, TNFα stimulated the recruitment of Ezh2 and Dnmt-3b to coordinate histone and DNA methylation, respectively. Dnmt-3b recruitment was dependent on Ezh2. Conclusions/Significance We propose that in dystrophic muscles, elevated levels of TNFα and NF-κB inhibit the regenerative potential of satellite cells via epigenetic silencing of the Notch-1 gene. PMID:20814569

  17. Maintenance of DNA repair capacity in differentiating rat muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at several times during the differentiation of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells in response to exposures to 254 nm UV light. There was no change in the amount of repair DNA synthesis as the cells fuse and differentiate from postmitotic prefusion myoblasts to multinucleated contracting myotubes. (author)

  18. MiRNA-199a-3p Regulates C2C12 Myoblast Differentiation through IGF-1/AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs constitute a class of ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs. They modulate gene expression by associating with the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs of messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Although multiple miRNAs are known to be regulated during myoblast differentiation, their individual roles in muscle development are still not fully understood. In this study, we showed that miR-199a-3p was highly expressed in skeletal muscle and was induced during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. We also identified and confirmed several genes of the IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway, including IGF-1, mTOR, and RPS6KA6, as important cellular targets of miR-199a-3p in myoblasts. Overexpression of miR-199a-3p partially blocked C2C12 myoblast differentiation and the activation of AKT/mTOR signal pathway, while interference of miR-199a-3p by antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Thus, our studies have established miR-199a-3p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through the suppression of IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  19. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P skeletal muscle growth factors prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  20. Oxidative stress induces caveolin 1 degradation and impairs caveolae functions in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mougeolle

    Full Text Available Increased level of oxidative stress, a major actor of cellular aging, impairs the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle and leads to the reduction in the number and size of muscle fibers causing sarcopenia. Caveolin 1 is the major component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in signaling and endocytic trafficking. Their role has recently expanded to mechanosensing and to the regulation of oxidative stress-induced pathways. Here, we increased the amount of reactive oxidative species in myoblasts by addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at non-toxic concentrations. The expression level of caveolin 1 was significantly decreased as early as 10 min after 500 μM H2O2 treatment. This reduction was not observed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that caveolin 1 was rapidly degraded by the proteasome. In spite of caveolin 1 decrease, caveolae were still able to assemble at the plasma membrane. Their functions however were significantly perturbed by oxidative stress. Endocytosis of a ceramide analog monitored by flow cytometry was significantly diminished after H2O2 treatment, indicating that oxidative stress impaired its selective internalization via caveolae. The contribution of caveolae to the plasma membrane reservoir has been monitored after osmotic cell swelling. H2O2 treatment increased membrane fragility revealing that treated cells were more sensitive to an acute mechanical stress. Altogether, our results indicate that H2O2 decreased caveolin 1 expression and impaired caveolae functions. These data give new insights on age-related deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

  1. Efficient non-viral reprogramming of myoblasts to stemness with a single small molecule to generate cardiac progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Pasha

    Full Text Available The current protocols for generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells involve genome integrating viral vectors which may induce tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a non-viral method without genetic manipulation for reprogramming of skeletal myoblasts (SMs using small molecules.SMs from young male Oct3/4-GFP(+ transgenic mouse were treated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT inhibitor, RG108. Two weeks later, GFP(+ colonies of SM derived iPS cells (SiPS expressing GFP and with morphological similarity of mouse embryonic stem (ESCs were formed and propagated in vitro. SiPS were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, expressed SSEA1, displayed ES cell specific pluripotency markers and formed teratoma in nude mice. Optimization of culture conditions for embryoid body (EBs formation yielded spontaneously contracting EBs having morphological, molecular, and ultra-structural similarities with cardiomyocytes and expressed early and late cardiac markers. miR profiling showed abrogation of let-7 family and upregulation of ESCs specific miR-290-295 cluster thus indicating that SiPS were similar to ESCs in miR profile. Four weeks after transplantation into the immunocompetent mice model of acute myocardial infarction (n = 12 per group, extensive myogenesis was observed in SiPS transplanted hearts as compared to DMEM controls (n = 6 per group. A significant reduction in fibrosis and improvement in global heart function in the hearts transplanted with SiPS derived cardiac progenitor cells were observed.Reprogramming of SMs by DNMT inhibitor is a simple, reproducible and efficient technique more likely to generate transgene integration-free iPS cells. Cardiac progenitors derived from iPS cells propagated extensively in the infarcted myocardium without tumorgenesis and improved cardiac function.

  2. The Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Is Superior to Tocopherol in Promoting Myogenic Differentiation in the Prevention of Replicative Senescence of Myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    Full Text Available Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF and α-tocopherol (ATF in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts.

  3. Myosin heavy chain-like localizes at cell contact sites during Drosophila myoblast fusion and interacts in vitro with Rolling pebbles 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, Bettina R.; Rudolf, Anja; Hornbruch-Freitag, Christina; Daum, Gabor; Kuckwa, Jessica; Kastl, Lena; Buttgereit, Detlev [Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate, E-mail: renkawit@biologie.uni-marburg.de [Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35037 Marburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Besides representing the sarcomeric thick filaments, myosins are involved in many cellular transport and motility processes. Myosin heavy chains are grouped into 18 classes. Here we show that in Drosophila, the unconventional group XVIII myosin heavy chain-like (Mhcl) is transcribed in the mesoderm of embryos, most prominently in founder cells (FCs). An ectopically expressed GFP-tagged Mhcl localizes in the growing muscle at cell–cell contacts towards the attached fusion competent myoblast (FCM). We further show that Mhcl interacts in vitro with the essential fusion protein Rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7), which is part of a protein complex established at cell contact sites (Fusion-restricted Myogenic-Adhesive Structure or FuRMAS). Here, branched F-actin is likely needed to widen the fusion pore and to integrate the myoblast into the growing muscle. We show that the localization of Mhcl is dependent on the presence of Rols7, and we postulate that Mhcl acts at the FuRMAS as an actin motor protein. We further show that Mhcl deficient embryos develop a wild-type musculature. We thus propose that Mhcl functions redundantly to other myosin heavy chains in myoblasts. Lastly, we found that the protein is detectable adjacent to the sarcomeric Z-discs, suggesting an additional function in mature muscles. - Highlights: ► The class XVIII myosin encoding gene Mhcl is transcribed in the mesoderm. ► Mhcl localization at contact sites of fusing myoblasts depends on Rols7. ► Mhcl interacts in vitro with Rols7 which is essential for myogenesis. ► Functional redundancy with other myosins is likely as mutants show no muscle defects. ► Mhcl localizes adjacent to Z-discs of sarcomeres and might support muscle integrity.

  4. Myosin heavy chain-like localizes at cell contact sites during Drosophila myoblast fusion and interacts in vitro with Rolling pebbles 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, Bettina R.; Rudolf, Anja; Hornbruch-Freitag, Christina; Daum, Gabor; Kuckwa, Jessica; Kastl, Lena; Buttgereit, Detlev; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Besides representing the sarcomeric thick filaments, myosins are involved in many cellular transport and motility processes. Myosin heavy chains are grouped into 18 classes. Here we show that in Drosophila, the unconventional group XVIII myosin heavy chain-like (Mhcl) is transcribed in the mesoderm of embryos, most prominently in founder cells (FCs). An ectopically expressed GFP-tagged Mhcl localizes in the growing muscle at cell–cell contacts towards the attached fusion competent myoblast (FCM). We further show that Mhcl interacts in vitro with the essential fusion protein Rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7), which is part of a protein complex established at cell contact sites (Fusion-restricted Myogenic-Adhesive Structure or FuRMAS). Here, branched F-actin is likely needed to widen the fusion pore and to integrate the myoblast into the growing muscle. We show that the localization of Mhcl is dependent on the presence of Rols7, and we postulate that Mhcl acts at the FuRMAS as an actin motor protein. We further show that Mhcl deficient embryos develop a wild-type musculature. We thus propose that Mhcl functions redundantly to other myosin heavy chains in myoblasts. Lastly, we found that the protein is detectable adjacent to the sarcomeric Z-discs, suggesting an additional function in mature muscles. - Highlights: ► The class XVIII myosin encoding gene Mhcl is transcribed in the mesoderm. ► Mhcl localization at contact sites of fusing myoblasts depends on Rols7. ► Mhcl interacts in vitro with Rols7 which is essential for myogenesis. ► Functional redundancy with other myosins is likely as mutants show no muscle defects. ► Mhcl localizes adjacent to Z-discs of sarcomeres and might support muscle integrity

  5. Irisin is a pro-myogenic factor that induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and rescues denervation-induced atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Musarrat Maisha; Subramaniyam, Nathiya; Sim, Chu Ming; Ge, Xiaojia; Sathiakumar, Durgalakshmi; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2017-10-24

    Exercise induces expression of the myokine irisin, which is known to promote browning of white adipose tissue and has been shown to mediate beneficial effects following exercise. Here we show that irisin induces expression of a number of pro-myogenic and exercise response genes in myotubes. Irisin increases myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion via activation of IL6 signaling. Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy. The effects of irisin on hypertrophy are due to activation of satellite cells and enhanced protein synthesis. In addition, irisin injection rescues loss of skeletal muscle mass following denervation by enhancing satellite cell activation and reducing protein degradation. These data suggest that irisin functions as a pro-myogenic factor in mice.

  6. Transdifferentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts - possible use for bone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daphne P L; Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arun; Dass, Crispin R

    2017-12-01

    Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one cell type to another and is an ever-expanding field with a growing number of cells found to be capable of such a process. To date, the fact remains that there are limited treatment options for fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. Hence, this review focuses on the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast as a means to further understand the transdifferentiation process and to investigate a potential therapeutic option if successful. The potent osteoinductive effects of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 are largely implicated in the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced activation of the Smad1 protein ultimately results in JunB synthesis, the first transcriptional step in myoblast dedifferentiation. The upregulation of the activating protein-1 binding activity triggers the transcription of the runt-related transcription factor 2 gene, a transcription factor that plays a major role in osteoblast differentiation. This potential transdifferentiation treatment may be utilised for dental implants, fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Anticancer activity of biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles on mouse myoblast cancer cells and their toxicity against embryonic zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Rajan; Krishnaraj, Chandran; Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan; Prasannakumar, Palaniappan; Abhay Kumar, V.K.; Shim, Kwan Seob; Song, Chul-Gyu; Yun, Soon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of bioinspired silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mouse myoblast cancer cells (C 2 C 12 ). Both AgNPs and AuNPs were biologically synthesized using Spinacia oleracea Linn., aqueous leaves extract. UV–Vis. spectrophotometer, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies supported the successful synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs. Both these NPs have shown cytotoxicity against C 2 C 12 cells even at very low concentration (5 μg/mL). Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining confirmed the apoptotic morphological features. The levels of caspase enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-7) were significantly up-regulated in NPs treated myoblast cells than the plant extract. Furthermore, in zebrafish embryo toxicity study, AgNPs showed 100% mortality at 3 μg/mL concentration while AuNPs exhibited the same at much higher concentration (300 mg/mL). Taken together, these results provide a preliminary guidance for the development of biomaterials based drugs to fight against the fatal diseases for example cancer. - Highlights: • Anticancer activity was done for the first time against mouse myoblast cells. • AgNPs showed 100% growth inhibition against C 2 C 12 cells at 20 μg/mL concentration. • AO/EB dual staining and caspase assays confirmed the apoptotic features. • Nanoparticles treated embryos showed yolk sac edema and tail malformation. • AgNPs were found to be more toxic to embryonic zebrafishes than the AuNPs.

  8. Anticancer activity of biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles on mouse myoblast cancer cells and their toxicity against embryonic zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, Rajan [Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnaraj, Chandran [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); M/s. Eureka Forbes Ltd, R & D Centre, Kudlu, Bangalore (India); Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Prasannakumar, Palaniappan [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Center, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Abhay Kumar, V.K. [M/s. Eureka Forbes Ltd, R & D Centre, Kudlu, Bangalore (India); Shim, Kwan Seob [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chul-Gyu [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Center, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Soon-Il, E-mail: siyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of bioinspired silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mouse myoblast cancer cells (C{sub 2}C{sub 12}). Both AgNPs and AuNPs were biologically synthesized using Spinacia oleracea Linn., aqueous leaves extract. UV–Vis. spectrophotometer, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies supported the successful synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs. Both these NPs have shown cytotoxicity against C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells even at very low concentration (5 μg/mL). Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining confirmed the apoptotic morphological features. The levels of caspase enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-7) were significantly up-regulated in NPs treated myoblast cells than the plant extract. Furthermore, in zebrafish embryo toxicity study, AgNPs showed 100% mortality at 3 μg/mL concentration while AuNPs exhibited the same at much higher concentration (300 mg/mL). Taken together, these results provide a preliminary guidance for the development of biomaterials based drugs to fight against the fatal diseases for example cancer. - Highlights: • Anticancer activity was done for the first time against mouse myoblast cells. • AgNPs showed 100% growth inhibition against C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells at 20 μg/mL concentration. • AO/EB dual staining and caspase assays confirmed the apoptotic features. • Nanoparticles treated embryos showed yolk sac edema and tail malformation. • AgNPs were found to be more toxic to embryonic zebrafishes than the AuNPs.

  9. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  10. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin α2 upon transplantation to dy3k/dy3k mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin α2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin α2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin α2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin α2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin α2-producing cells in CD90 + cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90 + cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin α2 in CD90 + cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90 + cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy

  11. Feasibility of dual reporter gene in rat myoblast cell line using human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To develop a non-invasive combined imaging method of gamma camera and optical imaging to assess rat myoblast cell line, H9c2, we constructed retrovirus containing hNIS and EGFP gene, and transfected to rat myoblast cell and monitored hNIS and EGFP expression. Rat myoblast cell line, H9C2, was transfected with hNIS and EGFP gene using retrovirus (H9C2-NG). The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was determined by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The uptake and efflux of I-125 were measured in the transfected and wild type cell lines. Each cell line was injected to 4 flank sites (H9c2: 1X107 or 2X107, H9C2-NG: 1X107 or 2X107) in nude mouse. Scintigraphic image was performed at 3h, 1 day after H9C2 and H9C2-NG cell inoculation. We performed gamma camera and animal PET imaging to evaluate NIS expression. Also, GFP image obtained using optical imaging system. The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. In iodide uptake, H9C2-NG cells accumulated 274.52.2 pmol/ mg protein at 30 min. But wild type cell line did not uptake iodide. In fluorescent microscopy, H9C2-NG cells were highly fluorescent than that of H9C2 cells. In iodide efflux study, 50% of radioactivity flowed out during the first 10min. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake of Tc-99m in H9c2-NG than in H9C2 for 1 day. Also, H9C2-NG cells showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots in animal body. In this study, NIS and EGFP reporter gene were successfully transfected by a retrovirus in myoblast cell line, and the transfected cell can be easily visualized in vivo. These results suggest that NIS and EGFP gene has an excellent feasibility as a reporter gene, and it can be used to monitor cell trafficking for monitoring.

  12. hHGF overexpression in myoblast sheets enhances their angiogenic potential in rat chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Siltanen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After severe myocardial infarction (MI, heart failure results from ischemia, fibrosis, and remodeling. A promising therapy to enhance cardiac function and induce therapeutic angiogenesis via a paracrine mechanism in MI is myoblast sheet transplantation. We hypothesized that in a rat model of MI-induced chronic heart failure, this therapy could be further improved by overexpression of the antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and proangiogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in the myoblast sheets. We studied the ability of wild type (L6-WT and human HGF-expressing (L6-HGF L6 myoblast sheet-derived paracrine factors to stimulate cardiomyocyte, endothelial cell, or smooth muscle cell migration in culture. Further, we studied the autocrine effect of hHGF-expression on myoblast gene expression profiles by use of microarray analysis. We induced MI in Wistar rats by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation and allowed heart failure to develop for 4 weeks. Thereafter, we administered L6-WT (n = 15 or L6-HGF (n = 16 myoblast sheet therapy. Control rats (n = 13 underwent LAD ligation and rethoracotomy without therapy, and five rats underwent a sham operation in both surgeries. We evaluated cardiac function with echocardiography at 2 and 4 weeks after therapy, and analyzed cardiac angiogenesis and left ventricular architecture from histological sections at 4 weeks. Paracrine mediators from L6-HGF myoblast sheets effectively induced migration of cardiac endothelial and smooth muscle cells but not cardiomyocytes. Microarray data revealed that hHGF-expression modulated myoblast gene expression. In vivo, L6-HGF sheet therapy effectively stimulated angiogenesis in the infarcted and non-infarcted areas. Both L6-WT and L6-HGF therapies enhanced cardiac function and inhibited remodeling in a similar fashion. In conclusion, L6-HGF therapy effectively induced angiogenesis in the chronically failing heart. Cardiac function, however, was not further

  13. An integrated strategy for analyzing the unique developmental programs of different myoblast subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available An important but largely unmet challenge in understanding the mechanisms that govern the formation of specific organs is to decipher the complex and dynamic genetic programs exhibited by the diversity of cell types within the tissue of interest. Here, we use an integrated genetic, genomic, and computational strategy to comprehensively determine the molecular identities of distinct myoblast subpopulations within the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm at the time that cell fates are initially specified. A compendium of gene expression profiles was generated for primary mesodermal cells purified by flow cytometry from appropriately staged wild-type embryos and from 12 genotypes in which myogenesis was selectively and predictably perturbed. A statistical meta-analysis of these pooled datasets--based on expected trends in gene expression and on the relative contribution of each genotype to the detection of known muscle genes--provisionally assigned hundreds of differentially expressed genes to particular myoblast subtypes. Whole embryo in situ hybridizations were then used to validate the majority of these predictions, thereby enabling true-positive detection rates to be estimated for the microarray data. This combined analysis reveals that myoblasts exhibit much greater gene expression heterogeneity and overall complexity than was previously appreciated. Moreover, it implicates the involvement of large numbers of uncharacterized, differentially expressed genes in myogenic specification and subsequent morphogenesis. These findings also underscore a requirement for considerable regulatory specificity for generating diverse myoblast identities. Finally, to illustrate how the developmental functions of newly identified myoblast genes can be efficiently surveyed, a rapid RNA interference assay that can be scored in living embryos was developed and applied to selected genes. This integrated strategy for examining embryonic gene expression and function provides

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  15. Effect of oxygen tension on bioenergetics and proteostasis in young and old myoblast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, M; Pérez, V I; Ríos, C; Liu, Y; Lee, S; Shi, Y; Van Remmen, H

    2013-01-01

    In the majority of studies using primary cultures of myoblasts, the cells are maintained at ambient oxygen tension (21% O2), despite the fact that physiological O2 at the tissue level in vivo is much lower (~1-5% O2). We hypothesized that the cellular response in presence of high oxygen concentration might be particularly important in studies comparing energetic function or oxidative stress in cells isolated from young versus old animals. To test this, we asked whether oxygen tension plays a role in mitochondrial bioenergetics (oxygen consumption, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation) or oxidative damage to proteins (protein disulfides, carbonyls and aggregates) in myoblast precursor cells (MPCs) isolated from young (3-4 m) and old (29-30 m) C57BL/6 mice. MPCs were grown under physiological (3%) or ambient (21%) O2 for two weeks prior to exposure to an acute oxidative insult (H2O2). Our results show significantly higher basal mitochondrial respiration in young versus old MPCs, an increase in basal respiration in young MPCs maintained at 3% O2 compared to cells maintained at 21% O2, and a shift toward glycolytic metabolism in old MPCs grown at 21% O2. H2O2 treatment significantly reduced respiration in old MPCs grown at 3% O2 but did not further repress respiration at 21% O2 in old MPCs. Oxidative damage to protein was higher in cells maintained at 21% O2 and increased in response to H2O2 in old MPCs. These data underscore the importance of understanding the effect of ambient oxygen tension in cell culture studies, in particular studies measuring oxidative damage and mitochondrial function.

  16. Method of cell transplantation promoting the organization of intraarterial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Koji; Shimono, Takatsugu; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Fujinaga, Kazuya; Kajimoto, Masaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Uchida, Atsumasa; Shimpo, Hideto; Yada, Isao; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2005-08-30

    Endovascular aortic repairs have been developed as less invasive treatments for aortic aneurysms. Some aneurismal cavities, however, remain without organization, causing a re-expansion of the aneurysms. We studied cell transplantation into the aneurismal sac to promote the organization of thrombus for the complete healing of aneurysms. Skin fibroblasts and skeletal myoblasts were isolated from rats for cell transplantation. An intraarterial thrombus model was made by ligation of the carotid artery. Culture medium (medium group, n=11), collagen gel (gel group, n=11), fibroblasts with collagen gel (F group, n=15), myoblasts with collagen gel (M group, n=12), or mixture of fibroblasts and myoblasts with collagen gel (F+M group, n=14) were injected into the thrombus. After 28 days, histologically, the arterial lumens of the F and M groups were partly filled with fibrous tissues, whereas in the F+M group organization was almost completed and luminal sizes diminished. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were more abundantly contained in the organized area of the F+M group than in the other groups. We also analyzed cellular function in vitro with immunofluorescence; coculture of fibroblasts and myoblasts showed that the fraction of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts increased. This phenomenon accounts for the rapid organization of thrombus in the F+M group in vivo. Cell transplantation accelerated thrombus organization. Especially, myoblasts enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributing to rapid thrombus organization. Cell transplantation into unorganized spaces seems applicable to endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  17. Generation of a vascularized organoid using skeletal muscle as the inductive source.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Messina, Aurora

    2005-09-01

    The technology required for creating an in vivo microenvironment and a neovasculature that can grow with and service new tissue is lacking, precluding the possibility of engineering complex three-dimensional organs. We have shown that when an arterio-venous (AV) loop is constructed in vivo in the rat groin, and placed inside a semisealed chamber, an extensive functional vasculature is generated. To test whether this unusually angiogenic environment supports the survival and growth of implanted tissue or cells, we inserted various preparations of rat and human skeletal muscle. We show that after 6 weeks incubation of muscle tissue, the chamber filled with predominantly well-vascularized recipient-derived adipose tissue, but some new donor-derived skeletal muscle and connective tissue were also evident. When primary cultured myoblasts were inserted into the chamber with the AV loop, they converted to mature striated muscle fibers. Furthermore, we identify novel adipogenesis-inducing properties of skeletal muscle. This represents the first report of a specific three-dimensional tissue grown on its own vascular supply.

  18. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Dunham, Ian [EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H., E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  19. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko; Dunham, Ian; Murai, Kasumi; Jones, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  20. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  1. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  2. Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reedik Pääsuke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ageing is associated with suppressed regenerative potential of muscle precursor cells due to decrease of satellite cells and suppressive intramuscular milieu on their activation, associated with ageing-related low-grade inflammation. The aim of the study was to characterize the function of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, glycolysis, adenylate kinase (AK, and creatine kinase (CK mediated systems in young and older individuals. Materials and Methods. Myoblasts were cultivated from biopsies taken by transcutaneous conchotomy from vastus lateralis muscle in young (20–29 yrs, n=7 and older (70–79 yrs, n=7 subjects. Energy metabolism was assessed in passages 2 to 6 by oxygraphy and enzyme analysis. Results. In myoblasts of young and older subjects the rate of OXPHOS decreased during proliferation from passages 2 to 6. The total activities of CK and AK decreased. Myoblasts of passage 2 cultivated from young muscle showed higher rate of OXPHOS and activities of CK and AK compared to myoblasts from older subjects while hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were not affected by ageing. Conclusions. Proliferation of myoblasts in vitro is associated with downregulation of OXPHOS and energy storage and transfer systems. Ageing in vivo exerts an impact on satellite cells which results in altered metabolic profile in favour of the prevalence of glycolytic pathways over mitochondrial OXPHOS of myoblasts.

  3. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  4. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  5. Delta-like 1 homolog (dlk1: a marker for rhabdomyosarcomas implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Dlk1, a member of the Epidermal Growth Factor family, is expressed in multiple tissues during development, and has been detected in carcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors. Dlk1 is paternally expressed and belongs to a group of imprinted genes associated with rhabdomyosarcomas but not with other primitive childhood tumors to date. Here, we investigate the possible roles of Dlk1 in skeletal muscle tumor formation. We analyzed tumors of different mesenchymal origin for expression of Dlk1 and various myogenic markers and found that Dlk1 was present consistently in myogenic tumors. The coincident observation of Dlk1 with a highly proliferative state in myogenic tumors led us to subsequently investigate the involvement of Dlk1 in the control of the adult myogenic programme. We performed an injury study in Dlk1 transgenic mice, ectopically expressing ovine Dlk1 (membrane bound C2 variant under control of the myosin light chain promotor, and detected an early, enhanced formation of myotubes in Dlk1 transgenic mice. We then stably transfected the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, with full-length Dlk1 (soluble A variant and detected an inhibition of myotube formation, which could be reversed by adding Dlk1 antibody to the culture supernatant. These results suggest that Dlk1 is involved in controlling the myogenic programme and that the various splice forms may exert different effects. Interestingly, both in the Dlk1 transgenic mice and the DLK1-C2C12 cells, we detected reduced myostatin expression, suggesting that the effect of Dlk1 on the myogenic programme might involve the myostatin signaling pathway. In support of a relationship between Dlk1 and myostatin we detected reciprocal expression of these two transcripts during different cell cycle stages of human myoblasts. Together our results suggest that Dlk1 is a candidate marker for skeletal muscle tumors and might be involved directly in skeletal muscle tumor formation through a modulatory effect on the

  6. Loss of niche-satellite cell interactions in syndecan-3 null mice alters muscle progenitor cell homeostasis improving muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisconti, Addolorata; Banks, Glen B; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Rossi, Fabio M V; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Olwin, Bradley B

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts. Additionally, muscle aging is improved in syndecan-3 null mice. Since syndecan-3 null myofiber-associated satellite cells downregulate Pax7 and migrate away from the niche more readily than wild type cells, syxndecan-3 appears to regulate satellite cell homeostasis and satellite cell homing to the niche. Manipulating syndecan-3 provides a promising target for development of therapies to enhance muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophies and in aged muscle.

  7. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  8. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  9. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  10. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.

  11. Regulation of promyogenic signal transduction by cell-cell contact and adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal myoblast differentiation involves acquisition of the muscle-specific transcriptional program and morphological changes, including fusion into multinucleated myofibers. Differentiation is regulated by extracellular signaling cues, including cell-cell contact and adhesion. Cadherin and Ig adhesion receptors have been implicated in distinct but overlapping stages of myogenesis. N-cadherin signals through the Ig receptor Cdo to activate p38 MAP kinase, while the Ig receptor neogenin signals to activate FAK; both processes promote muscle-specific gene expression and myoblast fusion. M-cadherin activates Rac1 to enhance fusion. Specific Ig receptors (Kirre and Sns) are essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila, also signaling through Rac, and vertebrate orthologs of Kirre and Sns have partially conserved function. Mice lacking specific cytoplasmic signaling factors activated by multiple receptors (e.g., Rac1) have strong muscle phenotypes in vivo. In contrast, mice lacking individual adhesion receptors that lie upstream of these factors have modest phenotypes. Redundancy among receptors may account for this. Many of the mammalian Ig receptors and cadherins associate with each other, and multivalent interactions within these complexes may require removal of multiple components to reveal dramatic defects in vivo. Nevertheless, it is possible that the murine adhesion receptors rate-limiting in vivo have not yet been identified or fully assessed.

  12. Regulation of promyogenic signal transduction by cell-cell contact and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Robert S., E-mail: Robert.Krauss@mssm.edu [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal myoblast differentiation involves acquisition of the muscle-specific transcriptional program and morphological changes, including fusion into multinucleated myofibers. Differentiation is regulated by extracellular signaling cues, including cell-cell contact and adhesion. Cadherin and Ig adhesion receptors have been implicated in distinct but overlapping stages of myogenesis. N-cadherin signals through the Ig receptor Cdo to activate p38 MAP kinase, while the Ig receptor neogenin signals to activate FAK; both processes promote muscle-specific gene expression and myoblast fusion. M-cadherin activates Rac1 to enhance fusion. Specific Ig receptors (Kirre and Sns) are essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila, also signaling through Rac, and vertebrate orthologs of Kirre and Sns have partially conserved function. Mice lacking specific cytoplasmic signaling factors activated by multiple receptors (e.g., Rac1) have strong muscle phenotypes in vivo. In contrast, mice lacking individual adhesion receptors that lie upstream of these factors have modest phenotypes. Redundancy among receptors may account for this. Many of the mammalian Ig receptors and cadherins associate with each other, and multivalent interactions within these complexes may require removal of multiple components to reveal dramatic defects in vivo. Nevertheless, it is possible that the murine adhesion receptors rate-limiting in vivo have not yet been identified or fully assessed.

  13. Expression of Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy L; St-Pierre, Marie-Eve; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Parks, Tara E C; Langlois, Stéphanie; Penuela, Silvia; Jasmin, Bernard J; Cowan, Kyle N

    2018-05-10

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. We also report that Panx1/PANX1 and Panx3/PANX3 are co-expressed in mouse and human satellite cells, which play crucial roles in skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, Panx1 and Panx3 levels were modulated in muscle degeneration/regeneration, similar to the pattern seen during skeletal muscle development. As Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration and impaired regeneration, we next used mild and severe mouse models of this disease and found a significant dysregulation of Panx1 and Panx3 levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Together, our results are the first demonstration that Panx1 and Panx3 are differentially expressed amongst skeletal muscle types with their levels being highly modulated during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and dystrophy. These findings suggest that Panx1 and Panx3 channels may play important and distinct roles in healthy and diseased skeletal muscles. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-01-01

    After injection of 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with 125 I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle

  15. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takanori; Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells

  16. Bioenergetic Profile Experiment using C2C12 Myoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David G.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Wu, Min; Jensen, Per Bo; Rogers, George W.; Ferrick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to measure cellular metabolism and understand mitochondrial dysfunction, has enabled scientists worldwide to advance their research in understanding the role of mitochondrial function in obesity, diabetes, aging, cancer, cardiovascular function and safety toxicity. Cellular metabolism is the process of substrate uptake, such as oxygen, glucose, fatty acids, and glutamine, and subsequent energy conversion through a series of enzymatically controlled oxidation and reduction reactions. These intracellular biochemical reactions result in the production of ATP, the release of heat and chemical byproducts, such as lactate and CO2 into the extracellular environment. Valuable insight into the physiological state of cells, and the alteration of the state of those cells, can be gained through measuring the rate of oxygen consumed by the cells, an indicator of mitochondrial respiration - the Oxygen Consumption Rate - or OCR. Cells also generate ATP through glycolysis, i.e.: the conversion of glucose to lactate, independent of oxygen. In cultured wells, lactate is the primary source of protons. Measuring the lactic acid produced indirectly via protons released into the extracellular medium surrounding the cells, which causes acidification of the medium provides the Extra-Cellular Acidification Rate - or ECAR. In this experiment, C2C12 myoblast cells are seeded at a given density in Seahorse cell culture plates. The basal oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR) rates are measured to establish baseline rates. The cells are then metabolically perturbed by three additions of different compounds (in succession) that shift the bioenergetic profile of the cell. This assay is derived from a classic experiment to assess mitochondria and serves as a framework with which to build more complex experiments aimed at understanding both physiologic and pathophysiologic function of mitochondria and to predict the ability of cells to respond to stress and

  17. Functional evaluation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Ito, Akira; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is currently applied in a variety of research fields, including regenerative medicine, drug screening, and bioactuator development, all of which require the fabrication of biomimic and functional skeletal muscle tissues. In the present study, magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of three-dimensional artificial skeletal muscle tissues by an applied magnetic force. Skeletal muscle functions, such as biochemical and contractile properties, were evaluated for the artificial tissue constructs. Histological studies revealed that elongated and multinucleated myotubes were observed within the tissue. Expression of muscle-specific markers, such as myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected in the tissue constructs by western blot analysis. Further, creatine kinase activity increased during differentiation. In response to electric pulses, the artificial tissue constructs contracted to generate a physical force (the maximum twitch force, 33.2 μN [1.06 mN/mm2]). Rheobase and chronaxie of the tissue were determined as 4.45 V and 0.72 ms, respectively. These results indicate that the artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated in this study were physiologically functional and the data obtained for the evaluation of their functional properties may provide useful information for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering studies.

  18. Epiblast cells that express MyoD recruit pluripotent cells to the skeletal muscle lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Jacquelyn; Neely, Christine; Stewart, Benjamin; Perlman, Jordanna; Beckmann, David; Wallon, Margaretha; Knudsen, Karen; George-Weinstein, Mindy

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are derived from the epiblast. A subpopulation of epiblast cells expresses MyoD mRNA and the G8 antigen in vivo. G8 positive (G8pos) and G8 negative (G8neg) populations were isolated by magnetic cell sorting. Nearly all G8pos cells switched from E- to N-cadherin and differentiated into skeletal muscle in culture. G8neg cells were impaired in their ability to switch cadherins and few formed skeletal muscle. Medium conditioned by G8pos cells stimulated skeletal myogenesis and N-cadherin synthesis in G8neg cultures. The effect of conditioned medium from G8pos cultures was inhibited by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4. Treatment of G8neg cells with a soluble form of the BMP receptor-IA or Noggin promoted N-cadherin synthesis and skeletal myogenesis. These results demonstrate that MyoD-positive epiblast cells recruit pluripotent cells to the skeletal muscle lineage. The mechanism of recruitment involves blocking the BMP signaling pathway. PMID:14981095

  19. Functional analysis of SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 during the myogenic differentiation of quail myoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Owing to the public availability of complete genome sequences, including avian species, massive bioinformatics analyses may be conducted for computational gene prediction and the identification of gene regulatory networks through various informatics tools. However, to evaluate the biofunctional activity of a predicted target gene, in vivo and in vitro functional genomic analyses should be a prerequisite. Methods Due to a lack of quail genomic sequence information, we first identified the partial genomic structure and sequences of the quail SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 (SH3RF2 gene. Subsequently, SH3RF2 was knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived SH3RF2 mutant sublines were established to study the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in quail myoblast (QM7 cells during muscle differentiation. Results Through a T7 endonuclease I assay and genotyping analysis, we established an SH3RF2 knockout (KO QM7#4 subline with 61 and 155 nucleotide deletion mutations in SH3RF2. After the induction of myotube differentiation, the expression profiles were analyzed and compared between regular QM7 and SH3RF2 KO QM7#4 cells by global RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion We did not detect any statistically significant role of SH3RF2 during myotube differentiation in QM7 myoblast cells. However, additional experiments are necessary to examine the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in cell proliferation and muscle growth.

  20. Effects of creatine and its analog, β-guanidinopropionic acid, on the differentiation of and nucleoli in myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Yoshinobu; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Kawano, Fuminori; Ogura, Akihiko; Higo, Yoko; Ohira, Takashi; Terada, Masahiro; Oke, Yoshihiko; Nakai, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with creatine (Cr) and its analog, β-guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA), on the differentiation of myoblasts and the numbers of nucleoli were studied in C2C12 cells. The cells were cultured in differentiation medium for 4 d. Then Cr (1 mM) or β-GPA (1 mM) was added to the cells, and the mixture was cultured for an additional 2 d. Although the number of myotubes was not different among the groups, myotube diameters and nuclear numbers in myotubes were increased by Cr and β-GPA treatment respectively. The expression of differentiation marker proteins, myogenin, and the myosine heavy chain, was increased in the β-GPA group. Supplementation with β-GPA also increased the percentage of p21 (inhibitor for cell cycle progression)-positive myoblasts. Supplementation with Cr inhibited the decrease in nucleoli numbers, whereas β-GPA increased nucleolar sizes in the myotubes. These results suggest that β-GPA supplementation stimulated the differentiation of myoblasts into multi-nucleated myotubes through induction of p21 expression.

  1. Activation of estrogen response elements is mediated both via estrogen and muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, A.; Hellsten, Ylva; Berthelson, P.

    2009-01-01

    is ER independent. The muscle contraction-induced transactivation of ERE and increase in ERbeta mRNA were instead found to be MAP kinase (MAPK) dependent. This study demonstrates for the first time that muscle contractions have a similar functional effect as estrogen in skeletal muscle myotubes, causing......The aim of the present study was to investigate the activation of estrogen response elements (EREs) by estrogen and muscle contractions in rat myotubes in culture and to assess whether the activation is dependent on the estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition, the effect of estrogen and contraction...... on the mRNA levels of ERalpha and ERbeta was studied to determine the functional consequence of the transactivation. Myoblasts were isolated from rat skeletal muscle and transfected with a vector consisting of sequences of EREs coupled to the gene for luciferase. The transfected myoblasts were...

  2. Microfluidic-enhanced 3D bioprinting of aligned myoblast-laden hydrogels leads to functionally organized myofibers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marco; Testa, Stefano; Mozetic, Pamela; Barbetta, Andrea; Fuoco, Claudia; Fornetti, Ersilia; Tamiro, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Trombetta, Marcella; Castagnoli, Luisa; Seliktar, Dror; Garstecki, Piotr; Cesareni, Gianni; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers. After 3-5 days of culture, the encapsulated myoblasts started migrating and fusing, forming multinucleated myotubes within the 3D bioprinted fibers. The obtained myotubes showed high degree of alignment along the direction of hydrogel fiber deposition, further revealing maturation, sarcomerogenesis, and functionality. Following subcutaneous implantation in the back of immunocompromised mice, bioprinted constructs generated organized artificial muscle tissue in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that our microfluidic printing head allows to design three dimensional multi-cellular assemblies with an exquisite compartmentalization of the encapsulated cells. Our results demonstrate an enhanced myogenic differentiation with the formation of parallel aligned long-range myotubes. The approach that we report here represents a robust and valid candidate for the fabrication of macroscopic artificial muscle to scale up skeletal muscle tissue engineering for human clinical application. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  4. Photobiomodulation Protects and Promotes Differentiation of C2C12 Myoblast Cells Exposed to Snake Venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miato Gonçalves Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites is a neglected disease and in Brazil is considered a serious health problem, with the majority of the snakebites caused by the genus Bothrops. Antivenom therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse local myonecrose which is the main sequel caused by the envenomation. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of low level laser (LLL therapy in reducing local myonecrosis induced by Bothropic venoms, however the mechanism involved in this effect is unknown. In this in vitro study, we aimed to analyze the effect of LLL irradiation against cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom on myoblast C2C12 cells.C2C12 were utilized as a model target and were incubated with B. jararacussu venom (12.5 μg/mL and immediately irradiated with LLL at wavelength of red 685 nm or infrared 830 nm with energy density of 2.0, 4.6 and 7.0 J/cm2. Effects of LLL on cellular responses of venom-induced cytotoxicity were examined, including cell viability, measurement of cell damage and intra and extracellular ATP levels, expression of myogenic regulatory factors, as well as cellular differentiation.In non-irradiated cells, the venom caused a decrease in cell viability and a massive release of LDH and CK levels indicating myonecrosis. Infrared and red laser at all energy densities were able to considerably decrease venom-induced cytotoxicity. Laser irradiation induced myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes and this effect was accompanied by up regulation of MyoD and specially myogenin. Moreover, LLL was able to reduce the extracellular while increased the intracellular ATP content after venom exposure. In addition, no difference in the intensity of cytotoxicity was shown by non-irradiated and irradiated venom.LLL irradiation caused a protective effect on C2C12 cells against the cytotoxicity caused by B. jararacussu venom and promotes differentiation of these cells by up regulation of myogenic factors. A modulatory effect of ATP synthesis may

  5. Inhibition of Na+ channel currents in rat myoblasts by 4-aminopyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Boxun; Liu Linyun; Liao Lei; Zhang Zhihong; Mei Yanai

    2005-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a specific blocker of A-type current, could also inhibit inward Na + currents (I Na ) with a state-independent mechanism in rat cerebellar granule cells. In the present study, we report an inhibitory effect of 4-AP on voltage-gated and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive I Na recorded from cultured rat myoblasts. 4-AP inhibited I Na amplitude in a dose-dependent manner between the concentrations of 0.5 and 10 mM without significant alteration in the activation or inactivation kinetics of the channel. By comparison to the 4-AP-induced inhibitory effect on cerebellum neurons, the inhibitory effect on myoblasts was enhanced through repetitive pulse and inflected by changing frequency. Specifically, the lower the frequency of pulse, the higher the inhibition observed, suggesting that block manner is inversely use-dependent. Moreover, experiments adding 4-AP to the intracellular solution indicate that the inhibitory effects are localized inside the cell. Additionally, 4-AP significantly modifies the properties of steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel. Our data suggest that the K + channel blocker 4-AP inhibits both neuron and myoblast Na + channels via different mechanisms. These findings may also provide information regarding 4-AP-induced pharmacological and toxicological effects in clinical use and experimental research

  6. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells

  7. MicroRNA-27a Is Induced by Leucine and Contributes to Leucine-Induced Proliferation Promotion in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leucine, a branched chain amino acid, is well known to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. However, the role of leucine in myoblast proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we found that leucine could promote proliferation of C2C12 cells. Moreover, expressions of miR-27a and myostatin (a bona fide target of miR-27a were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, following leucine treatment. We also found that miR-27a loss-of-function by transfection of a miR-27a inhibitor suppressed the promotion of myoblast proliferation caused by leucine. Our results suggest that miR-27a is induced by leucine and contributes to leucine-induced proliferation promotion of myoblast.

  8. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  9. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines. Thimerosal has also been reported to be markedly cytotoxic to neural tissue. However, little is known regarding thimerosal-induced toxicity in muscle tissue. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of thimerosal and its possible mechanisms on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study showed that C2C12 myoblast cells underwent inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis after exposure to thimerosal (125-500 nM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Thimerosal caused S phase arrest and induced apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining and immunoblotting. The data revealed that thimerosal could trigger the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and that an inhibitor of caspase could suppress thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Thimerosal inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt(ser473 and survivin expression. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited Akt activity and decreased survivin expression, resulting in increased thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells, while the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway by mIGF-I (50 ng/ml increased the expression of survivin and attenuated apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of survivin expression by siRNA enhanced thimerosal-induced cell apoptosis, while overexpression of survivin prevented thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data show that the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway plays an important role in the thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that in C2C12 myoblast cells, thimerosal induces S phase arrest and finally causes apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/survivin signaling followed by activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic

  10. Creating Interactions between Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle and the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alec S T; Passey, Samantha L; Martin, Neil R W; Player, Darren J; Mudera, Vivek; Greensmith, Linda; Lewis, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Effective models of mammalian tissues must allow and encourage physiologically (mimetic) correct interactions between co-cultured cell types in order to produce culture microenvironments as similar as possible to those that would normally occur in vivo. In the case of skeletal muscle, the development of such a culture model, integrating multiple relevant cell types within a biomimetic scaffold, would be of significant benefit for investigations into the development, functional performance, and pathophysiology of skeletal muscle tissue. Although some work has been published regarding the behaviour of in vitro muscle models co-cultured with organotypic slices of CNS tissue or with stem cell-derived neurospheres, little investigation has so far been made regarding the potential to maintain isolated motor neurons within a 3D biomimetic skeletal muscle culture platform. Here, we review the current state of the art for engineering neuromuscular contacts in vitro and provide original data detailing the development of a 3D collagen-based model for the co-culture of primary muscle cells and motor neurons. The devised culture system promotes increased myoblast differentiation, forming arrays of parallel, aligned myotubes on which areas of nerve-muscle contact can be detected by immunostaining for pre- and post-synaptic proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicate that motor neuron presence has a positive effect on myotube maturation, suggesting neural incorporation influences muscle development and maturation in vitro. The importance of this work is discussed in relation to other published neuromuscular co-culture platforms along with possible future directions for the field. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Mediates IFN-γ-Induced Immune Behaviors in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuiCai Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV plays a role in regulating immunologic features of muscle cells in inflammatory environment, as it does for immune cells, remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous CaMKIV on the immunological characteristics of myoblasts and myotubes received IFN-γ stimulation. Methods: C2C12 and murine myogenic precursor cells (MPCs were cultured and differentiated in vitro, in the presence of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ. CaMKIV shRNA lentivirus transfection was performed to knockdown CaMKIV gene in C2C12 cells. pEGFP-N1-CaMKIV plasmid was delivered into knockout cells for recovering intracellular CaMKIV gene level. CREB1 antagonist KG-501 was used to block CREB signal. qPCR, immunoblot analysis, or immunofluorescence was used to detect mRNA and protein levels of CaMKIV, immuno-molecules, or pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Co-stimulatory molecules expression was assessed by FACS analysis. Results: IFN-γ induces the expression or up-regulation of MHC-I/II and TLR3, and the up-regulation of CaMKIV level in muscle cells. In contrast, CaMKIV knockdown in myoblasts and myotubes leads to expression inhibition of the above immuno-molecules. As well, CaMKIV knockdown selectively inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and co-stimulatory molecules expression in IFN-γ treated myoblasts and myotubes. Finally, CaMKIV knockdown abolishes IFN-γ induced CREB pathway molecules accumulation in differentiated myotubes. Conclusions: CaMKIV can be induced to up-regulate in muscle cells under inflammatory condition, and positively mediates intrinsic immune behaviors of muscle cells triggered by IFN-γ.

  12. A novel whole-cell lysate kinase assay identifies substrates of the p38 MAPK in differentiating myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight James DR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is a critical mediator of myoblast differentiation, and does so in part through the phosphorylation and regulation of several transcription factors and chromatin remodelling proteins. However, whether p38α is involved in processes other than gene regulation during myogenesis is currently unknown, and why other p38 isoforms cannot compensate for its loss is unclear. Methods To further characterise the involvement of p38α during myoblast differentiation, we developed and applied a simple technique for identifying relevant in vivo kinase substrates and their phosphorylation sites. In addition to identifying substrates for one kinase, the technique can be used in vitro to compare multiple kinases in the same experiment, and we made use of this to study the substrate specificities of the p38α and β isoforms. Results Applying the technique to p38α resulted in the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites on six proteins, four of which are cytoplasmic, in lysate derived from differentiating myoblasts. An in vitro comparison with p38β revealed that substrate specificity does not discriminate these two isoforms, but rather that their distinguishing characteristic appears to be cellular localisation. Conclusion Our results suggest p38α has a novel cytoplasmic role during myogenesis and that its unique cellular localisation may be why p38β and other isoforms cannot compensate for its absence. The substrate-finding approach presented here also provides a necessary tool for studying the hundreds of protein kinases that exist and for uncovering the deeper mechanisms of phosphorylation-dependent cell signalling.

  13. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavati, Satyakam; Xu Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells

  14. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

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    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  15. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase....... 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P Skeletal muscle cells were...... in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P contracted, but not in the moderately contracted muscle cells...

  16. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong A; Woo, Joo Hong; Kim, Hye Sun

    2008-09-01

    In this study, it was found that undifferentiated myoblasts were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress than differentiated myotubes. Cell death occurred with a relatively low concentration of menadione in myoblasts compared to myotubes. With the same concentration of menadione, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased and nuclei containing condensed chromatin were observed in myoblasts to a greater extent than in myotubes. However, myotubes became increasingly susceptible to menadione when phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) was blocked by pre-incubation with LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor. Actually, PI3-K activity was reduced by menadione in myoblasts but not in myotubes. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of PI3-K, was inhibited in myoblasts by menadione but increased in myotubes. Both LY294002 and API-2, an Akt inhibitor, decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in menadione-exposed myotubes. These results suggest that the differential activity of PI3-K/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our “chemical-compound-based” strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological “dual-SMAD” inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form “rescued” multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human “DMD-in-a-dish” model using hiPSC-based disease modeling.

  18. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  19. Ductile electroactive biodegradable hyperbranched polylactide copolymers enhancing myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meihua; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Myotube formation is crucial to restoring muscular functions, and biomaterials that enhance the myoblast differentiation into myotubes are highly desirable for muscular repair. Here, we report the synthesis of electroactive, ductile, and degradable copolymers and their application in enhancing the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. A hyperbranched ductile polylactide (HPLA) was synthesized and then copolymerized with aniline tetramer (AT) to produce a series of electroactive, ductile and degradable copolymers (HPLAAT). The HPLA and HPLAAT showed excellent ductility with strain to failure from 158.9% to 42.7% and modulus from 265.2 to 758.2 MPa. The high electroactivity of the HPLAAT was confirmed by UV spectrometer and cyclic voltammogram measurements. These HPLAAT polymers also showed improved thermal stability and controlled biodegradation rate compared to HPLA. Importantly, when applying these polymers for myotube formation, the HPLAAT significantly improved the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro compared to HPLA. Furthermore, these polymers greatly promoted myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells as measured by quantitative analysis of myotube number, length, diameter, maturation index, and gene expression of MyoD and TNNT. Together, our study shows that these electroactive, ductile and degradable HPLAAT copolymers represent significantly improved biomaterials for muscle tissue engineering compared to HPLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Pancreatic Cancer-Induced Cachexia Using a Fluorescent Myoblast Reporter System and Analysis of Metabolite Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnard, Paul T; Bharti, Santosh K; Penet, Marie-France; Marik, Radharani; Mironchik, Yelena; Wildes, Flonne; Maitra, Anirban; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2016-03-15

    The dire effects of cancer-induced cachexia undermine treatment and contribute to decreased survival rates. Therapeutic options for this syndrome are limited, and therefore efforts to identify signs of precachexia in cancer patients are necessary for early intervention. The applications of molecular and functional imaging that would enable a whole-body "holistic" approach to this problem may lead to new insights and advances for diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. Here we have developed a myoblast optical reporter system with the purpose of identifying early cachectic events. We generated a myoblast cell line expressing a dual tdTomato:GFP construct that was grafted onto the muscle of mice-bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts to provide noninvasive live imaging of events associated with cancer-induced cachexia (i.e., weight loss). Real-time optical imaging detected a strong tdTomato fluorescent signal from skeletal muscle grafts in mice with weight losses of only 1.2% to 2.7% and tumor burdens of only approximately 79 to 170 mm(3). Weight loss in cachectic animals was also associated with a depletion of lipid, cholesterol, valine, and alanine levels, which may provide informative biomarkers of cachexia. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the utility of a reporter system that is capable of tracking tumor-induced weight loss, an early marker of cachexia. Future studies incorporating resected tissue from human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma into a reporter-carrying mouse may be able to provide a risk assessment of cachexia, with possible implications for therapeutic development. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Stem cell route to neuromuscular therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Terence A

    2003-02-01

    As applied to skeletal muscle, stem cell therapy is a reincarnation of myoblast transfer therapy that has resulted from recent advances in the cell biology of skeletal muscle. Both strategies envisage the reconstruction of damaged muscle from its precursors, but stem cell therapy employs precursors that are earlier in the developmental hierarchy. It is founded on demonstrations of apparently multipotential cells in a wide variety of tissues that can assume, among others, a myogenic phenotype. The main demonstrated advantage of such cells is that they are capable of colonizing many tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle via the blood vascular system, thereby providing the potential for a body-wide distribution of myogenic progenitors. From a practical viewpoint, the chief disadvantage is that such colonization has been many orders of magnitude too inefficient to be useful. Proposals for overcoming this drawback are the subject of much speculation but, so far, relatively little experimentation. This review attempts to give some perspective to the status of the stem cell as a therapeutic instrument for neuromuscular disease and to identify issues that need to be addressed for application of this technology.

  2. The MSX1 homeoprotein recruits G9a methyltransferase to repressed target genes in myoblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the significance of lysine modifications of core histones for regulating gene expression is widely appreciated, the mechanisms by which these modifications are incorporated at specific regulatory elements during cellular differentiation remains largely unknown. In our previous studies, we have shown that in developing myoblasts the Msx1 homeoprotein represses gene expression by influencing the modification status of chromatin at its target genes. We now show that genomic binding by Msx1 promotes enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark on repressed target genes via recruitment of G9a histone methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this histone mark. Interaction of Msx1 with G9a is mediated via the homeodomain and is required for transcriptional repression and regulation of cellular differentiation, as well as enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark in proximity to Msx1 binding sites on repressed target genes in myoblast cells as well as the developing limb. We propose that regulation of chromatin status by Msx1 recruitment of G9a and other histone modifying enzymes to regulatory regions of target genes represents an important means of regulating the gene expression during development.

  3. Tissue-specific stem cells: Lessons from the skeletal muscle satellite cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Andrew S.; Rando, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1961, the satellite cell was first identified when electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle demonstrated a cell wedged between the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber and the basement membrane. In recent years it has been conclusively demonstrated that the satellite cell is the primary cellular source for muscle regeneration and is equipped with the potential to self renew, thus functioning as a bone fide skeletal muscle stem cell (MuSC). As we move past the 50th anniversary of the satellite cell, we take this opportunity to discuss the current state of the art and dissect the unknowns in the MuSC field. PMID:22560074

  4. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  5. Detection of satellite cells during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats: time-dependent expressions of Pax7 and MyoD in relation to wound age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study was focused on time-dependent expressions of paired-box transcription factor 7 (Pax7) and myoblast determination protein (MyoD) during skeletal muscle wound healing. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 21 days after injury, respectively (five rats in each posttraumatic interval). Five rats were employed as control. By morphometric analysis, the data based on the number of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-), Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), and Pax7(-)/MyoD(+) cells were highly correlated with the wound age. Pax7 and MyoD expressions were upregulated after injury by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR assays. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein peaked at 5 days after injury, which was >1.13, and decreased thereafter. Similarly, the relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression peaked at 3 days after injury, which was >2.59. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein >0.73 or mRNA expression >2.38 or the relative quantity of MyoD protein >1.33 suggested a wound age of 3 to 7 days. The relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression >2.02 suggested a wound age of 1 to 7 days post-injury. In conclusion, the expressions of Pax7 and MyoD are upregulated in a time-dependent manner during skeletal muscle wound healing, suggesting that Pax7 and MyoD may be potential markers for wound age estimation in skeletal muscle.

  6. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Lim, HoTae; Estrellas, Kenneth; Mula, Jyothi; Cohen, Tatiana V; Zhang, Yuanfan; Donnelly, Christopher J; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Kim, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyesoo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Li, Hongmei Lisa; Hotta, Akitsu; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Maragakis, Nicholas; Wagner, Kathryn R; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-06-07

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our "chemical-compound-based" strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological "dual-SMAD" inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form "rescued" multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human "DMD-in-a-dish" model using hiPSC-based disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation.

  8. The effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle anabolic signaling and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy M; Mortensen, Xavier M; Ashby, Conrad K; Harris, Alexander M; Kump, Karson J; Laird, David W; Adams, Aaron J; Bray, Jeremy K; Chen, Ting; Thomson, David M

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis, and muscle growth. In cultured C2C12 muscle cells, physiological levels of caffeine failed to impact mTOR activation or myoblast proliferation or differentiation. We found that caffeine administration to mice did not significantly enhance the phosphorylation of AMPK or inhibit signaling proteins downstream of mTOR (p70S6k, S6, or 4EBP1) or protein synthesis after a bout of electrically stimulated contractions. Skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, the primary AMPK activator in skeletal muscle, on the other hand, eliminated AMPK activation by contractions and enhanced S6k, S6, and 4EBP1 activation before and after contractions. In rats, the addition of caffeine did not affect plantaris hypertrophy induced by the tenotomy of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In conclusion, caffeine administration does not impair skeletal muscle load-induced mTOR signaling, protein synthesis, or muscle hypertrophy.

  9. Heterokaryon analysis of muscle differentiation: regulation of the postmitotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, C H; Hauschka, S D

    1987-08-01

    MM14 mouse myoblasts withdraw irreversibly from the cell cycle and become postmitotic within a few hours of being deprived of fibroblast growth factor (Clegg, C. H., T. A. Linkhart, B. B. Olwin, and S. D. Hauschka, 1987, J. Cell Biol., 105:949-956). To examine the mechanisms that may regulate this developmental state of skeletal muscle, we tested the mitogen responsiveness of various cell types after their polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion with post-mitotic myocytes. Heterokaryons containing myocytes and quiescent nonmyogenic cells such as 3T3, L cell, and a differentiation-defective myoblast line (DD-1) responded to mitogen-rich medium by initiating DNA synthesis. Myonuclei replicated DNA and reexpressed thymidine kinase. In contrast, (myocyte x G1 myoblast) heterokaryons failed to replicate DNA in mitogen-rich medium and became postmitotic. This included cells with a nuclear ratio of three myoblasts to one myocyte. Proliferation dominance in (myocyte x 3T3 cell) and (myocyte x DD-1) heterokaryons was conditionally regulated by the timing of mitogen treatment; such cells became postmitotic when mitogen exposure was delayed for as little as 6 h after cell fusion. In addition, (myocyte x DD-1) heterokaryons expressed a muscle-specific trait and lost epidermal growth factor receptors when they became postmitotic. These results demonstrate that DNA synthesis is not irreversibly blocked in skeletal muscle; myonuclei readily express proliferation-related functions when provided with a mitogenic signal. Rather, myocyte-specific repression of DNA synthesis in heterokaryons argues that the postmitotic state of skeletal muscle is regulated by diffusible factors that inhibit processes of cellular mitogenesis.

  10. Efficient direct conversion of human fibroblasts into myogenic lineage induced by co-transduction with MYCL and MYOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Junko; Kishida, Tsunao; Fumino, Shigehisa; Kimura, Koseki; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kotani, Shin-Ichiro; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Mazda, Osam

    2017-06-24

    The skeletal muscle consists of contractile myofibers and plays essential roles for maintenance of body posture, movement, and metabolic regulation. During the development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle tissue, the myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes that subsequently form myofibers. Transplantation of myoblasts may make possible a novel regenerative therapy against defects or dysfunction of the skeletal muscle. It is reported that rodent fibroblasts are converted into myoblast-like cells and fuse to form syncytium after forced expression of exogenous myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) that is a key transcription factor for myoblast differentiation. But human fibroblasts are less efficiently converted into myoblasts and rarely fused by MYOD1 alone. Here we found that transduction of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene lung carcinoma derived homolog (MYCL) gene in combination with MYOD1 gene induced myoblast-like phenotypes in human fibroblasts more strongly than MYOD1 gene alone. The rate of conversion was approximately 90%. The directly converted myoblasts (dMBs) underwent fusion in an ERK5 pathway-dependent manner. The dMBs also formed myofiber-like structure in vivo after an inoculation into mice at the subcutaneous tissue. The present results strongly suggest that the combination of MYCL plus MYOD1 may promote direct conversion of human fibroblasts into functional myoblasts that could potentially be used for regenerative therapy for muscle diseases and congenital muscle defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Molly N; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-04-19

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML. Satellite cells are the native precursors to skeletal muscle tissue, and are thus the most commonly studied starting source for SMTE. However, satellite cells are difficult to isolate and purify, and it is presently unknown whether they would be a practical source in clinical SMTE applications. Alternative myogenic stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, each have myogenic potential and have been identified as possible starting sources for SMTE, although they have yet to be studied in detail for this purpose. These alternative stem cell varieties offer unique advantages and disadvantages that are worth exploring further to advance the SMTE field toward highly functional, safe, and practical VML treatments. The following review summarizes the current state of satellite cell-based SMTE, details the properties and practical advantages of alternative myogenic stem cells, and offers guidance to tissue engineers on how alternative myogenic stem cells can be incorporated into SMTE research.

  12. FHL1 reduces dystrophy in transgenic mice overexpressing FSHD muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Feeney

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1.

  13. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyo Oishi

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is defined as the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue outside the skeletal tissue. HO is thought to result from aberrant differentiation of osteogenic progenitors within skeletal muscle. However, the precise origin of HO is still unclear. Skeletal muscle contains two kinds of progenitor cells, myogenic progenitors and mesenchymal progenitors. Myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors in human skeletal muscle can be identified as CD56(+ and PDGFRα(+ cells, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitors. Both CD56(+ cells and PDGFRα(+ cells showed comparable osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. However, in an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, PDGFRα(+ cells formed bone-like tissue and showed successful engraftment, while CD56(+ cells did not form bone-like tissue and did not adapt to an osteogenic environment. Immunohistological analysis of human HO sample revealed that many PDGFRα(+ cells were localized in proximity to ectopic bone formed in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes including osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the participation of miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells by using microarray. We identified miRNAs that had not been known to be involved in osteogenesis but showed dramatic changes during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells. Upregulation of miR-146b-5p and -424 and downregulation of miR-7 during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of upregulated miRNAs, miR-146b-5p and -424, resulted in the suppression of osteocyte maturation, suggesting that these two miRNAs have the positive role in the osteogenesis of PDGFRα(+ cells. Our results suggest that PDGFRα(+ cells may be the major source of HO and that the newly identified mi

  14. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  15. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. © 2013.

  16. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B.; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  17. Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Ruonan; Ge, Juan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-30

    It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young's modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.

  18. Establishment and cryopreservation of a giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang-Jian; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Xiong, Tie-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, He-Min

    2015-06-01

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an endangered species and is a symbol for wildlife conservation. Although efforts have been made to protect this rare and endangered species through breeding and conservative biology, the long-term preservation of giant panda genome resources (gametes, tissues, organs, genomic libraries, etc.) is still a practical option. In this study, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line was successfully established via primary explants culture and cryopreservation techniques. The population doubling time of giant panda skeletal cells was approximately 33.8 h, and this population maintained a high cell viability before and after cryopreservation (95.6% and 90.7%, respectively). The two skeletal muscle-specific genes SMYD1 and MYF6 were expressed and detected by RT-PCR in the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line. Karyotyping analysis revealed that the frequencies of giant panda skeletal muscle cells showing a chromosome number of 2n=42 ranged from 90.6∼94.2%. Thus, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line provides a vital resource and material platform for further studies and is likely to be useful for the protection of this rare and endangered species.

  19. Biodistribution studies of 99mTc-labeled myoblasts in a murine model of muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, F.R.; Torrente, Y.; Casati, R.; Benti, R.; Corti, S.; Salani, S.; D'Angelo, M.G.; DeLiso, A.; Scarlato, G.; Bresolin, N.; Gerundini, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the myoblast labeling of various 99m Tc complexes and to select the complex that best accomplishes this labeling, and second to evaluate the biodistribution of myoblasts labeled with this complex using mice with MDX muscular dystrophy (the murine homologue of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy). The following ligands were used to prepare the corresponding 99m Tc complexes: hexakis-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), bis(2-ethoxyethyl)diphosphinoethane (Tf), (RR,SS)-4,8-diaza-3,6,6,9-tetramethyl-undecane-2,10-dione-bisoxime (HM-PAO), bis(N-ethyl)dithiocarbamate (NEt), and bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl)dithiocarbamate (NOEt). One million murine myoblasts were incubated for 30-60 minutes with 5 mCi of each of the 99mTc complexes prepared from the above ligands. Viability was assessed by microscopic counting after trypan blue staining, and the radioactivity absorbed in the cells was measured after centrifugation. The compound with the highest uptake in cellular pellets was [ 99m Tc]N-NOEt. The biodistribution of myoblasts labeled with this complex was evaluated after intraaortic injection in dystrophic mice. Such an approach has the potential of effecting widespread gene transfer through the bloodstream to muscles lacking dystrophin

  20. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 Regulates Myoblast Proliferation and Controls Muscle Fiber Length

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Steven; Lee, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among muscles. Here, we show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm and other muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of available myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but expansion of the diaphragm ...

  1. Complex interactions between human myoblasts and the surrounding 3D fibrin-based matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chiron

    Full Text Available Anchorage of muscle cells to the extracellular matrix is crucial for a range of fundamental biological processes including migration, survival and differentiation. Three-dimensional (3D culture has been proposed to provide a more physiological in vitro model of muscle growth and differentiation than routine 2D cultures. However, muscle cell adhesion and cell-matrix interplay of engineered muscle tissue remain to be determined. We have characterized cell-matrix interactions in 3D muscle culture and analyzed their consequences on cell differentiation. Human myoblasts were embedded in a fibrin matrix cast between two posts, cultured until confluence, and then induced to differentiate. Myoblasts in 3D aligned along the longitudinal axis of the gel. They displayed actin stress fibers evenly distributed around the nucleus and a cortical mesh of thin actin filaments. Adhesion sites in 3D were smaller in size than in rigid 2D culture but expression of adhesion site proteins, including α5 integrin and vinculin, was higher in 3D compared with 2D (p<0.05. Myoblasts and myotubes in 3D exhibited thicker and ellipsoid nuclei instead of the thin disk-like shape of the nuclei in 2D (p<0.001. Differentiation kinetics were faster in 3D as demonstrated by higher mRNA concentrations of α-actinin and myosin. More important, the elastic modulus of engineered muscle tissues increased significantly from 3.5 ± 0.8 to 7.4 ± 4.7 kPa during proliferation (p<0.05 and reached 12.2 ± 6.0 kPa during differentiation (p<0.05, thus attesting the increase of matrix stiffness during proliferation and differentiation of the myocytes. In conclusion, we reported modulations of the adhesion complexes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear shape in 3D compared with routine 2D muscle culture. These findings point to complex interactions between muscle cells and the surrounding matrix with dynamic regulation of the cell-matrix stiffness.

  2. L6E9 Myoblasts Are Deficient of Myostatin and Additional TGF- Members Are Candidates to Developmentally Control Their Fiber Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides evidence that the robust myoblast differentiation observed in L6E9 cells is causally linked to deficiency of myostatin, which, conversely, has been found to be expressed in C2C12 cells. However, despite the absence of endogenous myostatin, L6E9 myoblasts expressed functional Activin receptors type II (ActRIIs and follistatin as well as the highly related TGF- members Activins and GDF11, suggesting that in this cell line the regulation of fiber size might be under the control of multiple regulators regardless of myostatin. In line with this hypothesis, delivery of a dominant-negative ActRIIb form or the increase of follistatin, as obtained via Trichostatin treatment or stable transfection of a short human follistatin form, enhanced the L6E9 cell differentiation and further increased the size of myotubes, suggesting that L6E9 myoblasts provide a spontaneous myostatin knock-out in vitro model to study TGF- ligands involved in developmental regulation of fiber size.

  3. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  4. Engineered matrices for skeletal muscle satellite cell engraftment and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojin M; Jang, Young C; García, Andrés J

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration of traumatically injured skeletal muscles is severely limited. Moreover, the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with aging, further exacerbating the problem. Recent evidence supports that delivery of muscle satellite cells to the injured muscles enhances muscle regeneration and reverses features of aging, including reduction in muscle mass and regenerative capacity. However, direct delivery of satellite cells presents a challenge at a translational level due to inflammation and donor cell death, motivating the need to develop engineered matrices for muscle satellite cell delivery. This review will highlight important aspects of satellite cell and their niche biology in the context of muscle regeneration, and examine recent progresses in the development of engineered cell delivery matrices designed for skeletal muscle regeneration. Understanding the interactions of muscle satellite cells and their niche in both native and engineered systems is crucial to developing muscle pathology-specific cell- and biomaterial-based therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Skeletal myogenic differentiation of human urine-derived cells as a potential source for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xie, Minkai; Yang, Bin; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Song, Lujie; Liu, Guihua; Yi, Shanhong; Ye, Gang; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells are regarded as possible cell therapy candidates for skeletal muscle regeneration. However, invasive harvesting of those cells can cause potential harvest-site morbidity. The goal of this study was to assess whether human urine-derived stem cells (USCs), obtained through non-invasive procedures, can differentiate into skeletal muscle linage cells (Sk-MCs) and potentially be used for skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, USCs were harvested from six healthy individuals aged 25-55. Expression profiles of cell-surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry. To optimize the myogenic differentiation medium, we selected two from four different types of myogenic differentiation media to induce the USCs. Differentiated USCs were identified with myogenic markers by gene and protein expression. USCs were implanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of nude mice for 1 month. The results showed that USCs displayed surface markers with positive staining for CD24, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD146, SSEA-4 and STRO-1, and negative staining for CD14, CD31, CD34 and CD45. After myogenic differentiation, a change in morphology was observed from 'rice-grain'-like cells to spindle-shaped cells. The USCs expressed specific Sk-MC transcripts and protein markers (myf5, myoD, myosin, and desmin) after being induced with different myogenic culture media. Implanted cells expressed Sk-MC markers stably in vivo. Our findings suggest that USCs are able to differentiate into the Sk-MC lineage in vitro and after being implanted in vivo. Thus, they might be a potential source for cell injection therapy in the use of skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Deletion of the Ste20-like kinase SLK in skeletal muscle results in a progressive myopathy and muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Benjamin R; Al-Zahrani, Khalid N; Dufresne, Sébastien; Belkina, Natalya; Labrèche, Cédrik; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Frenette, Jérôme; Shaw, Stephen; Sabourin, Luc A

    2017-02-02

    The Ste20-like kinase, SLK, plays an important role in cell proliferation and cytoskeletal remodeling. In fibroblasts, SLK has been shown to respond to FAK/Src signaling and regulate focal adhesion turnover through Paxillin phosphorylation. Full-length SLK has also been shown to be essential for embryonic development. In myoblasts, the overexpression of a dominant negative SLK is sufficient to block myoblast fusion. In this study, we crossed the Myf5-Cre mouse model with our conditional SLK knockout model to delete SLK in skeletal muscle. A thorough analysis of skeletal muscle tissue was undertaken in order to identify defects in muscle development caused by the lack of SLK. Isometric force analysis was performed on adult knockout mice and compared to age-matched wild-type mice. Furthermore, cardiotoxin injections were performed followed by immunohistochemistry for myogenic markers to assess the efficiency muscle regeneration following SLK deletion. We show here that early deletion of SLK from the myogenic lineage does not markedly impair skeletal muscle development but delays the regenerative process. Interestingly, adult mice (~6 months) display an increase in the proportion of central nuclei and increased p38 activation. Furthermore, mice as young as 3 months old present with decreased force generation, suggesting that the loss of SLK impairs myofiber stability and function. Assessment of structural components revealed aberrant localization of focal adhesion proteins, such as FAK and paxillin. Our data show that the loss of SLK results in unstable myofibers resulting in a progressive myopathy. Additionally, the loss of SLK resulted in a delay in muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin injections. Our results show that SLK is dispensable for muscle development and regeneration but is required for myofiber stability and optimal force generation.

  7. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  8. PGC-1α regulates alanine metabolism in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Qian, Kun; Gong, Da-Wei; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2018-01-01

    The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting. In C2C12 myoblast cells overexpressing PGC-1α, ALT2 expression was increased concomitant with an increased alanine level in the cells and medium. In addition, PGC-1α, along with nuclear receptor ERR, dose-dependently enhanced the ALT2 promoter activity in reporter assay using C2C12 cells. In the absence of glucose in the culture medium, mRNA levels of PGC-1α and ALT2 increased. Endogenous PGC-1α knockdown in C2C12 cells reduced ALT2 gene expression level, induced by the no-glucose medium. Taken together, in the skeletal muscle, PGC-1α activates ALT2 gene expression, and alanine production may play roles in adaptation to fasting.

  9. Topologically Micropatterned Collagen and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Struts Fabricated Using the Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibrillation/Leaching Process To Develop Efficiently Engineered Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, WonJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-12-20

    Optimally designed three-dimensional (3D) biomedical scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration pose significant research challenges. Currently, most studies on scaffolds focus on the two-dimensional (2D) surface structures that are patterned in the micro-/nanoscales with various repeating sizes and shapes to induce the alignment of myoblasts and myotube formation. The 2D patterned surface clearly provides effective analytical results of pattern size and shape of the myoblast alignment and differentiation. However, it is inconvenient in terms of the direct application for clinical usage due to the limited thickness and 3D shapeability. Hence, the present study suggests an innovative hydrogel or synthetic structure that consists of uniaxially surface-patterned cylindrical struts for skeleton muscle regeneration. The alignment of the pattern on the hydrogel (collagen) and poly(ε-caprolactone) struts was attained with the fibrillation of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the leaching process. Various cell culture results indicate that the C2C12 cells on the micropatterned collagen structure were fully aligned, and that a significantly high level of myotube formation was achieved when compared to the collagen structures that were not treated with the micropatterning process.

  10. α-Syntrophin stabilizes catalase to reduce endogenous reactive oxygen species levels during myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Yun; Choi, Su Jin; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung; Kim, Hye Sun

    2017-07-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that interacts with various intracellular signaling proteins in muscle cells. The α-syntrophin knock-down C2 cell line (SNKD), established by infecting lentivirus particles with α-syntrophin shRNA, is characterized by a defect in terminal differentiation and increase in cell death. Since myoblast differentiation is accompanied by intensive mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also increased during myogenesis. Two-photon microscopy imaging showed that excessive intracellular ROS accumulated during the differentiation of SNKD cells as compared with control cells. The formation of 4-hydroxynonenal adduct, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, significantly increased in differentiated SNKD myotubes and was dramatically reduced by epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a well-known ROS scavenger. Among antioxidant enzymes, catalase was significantly decreased during differentiation of SNKD cells without changes at the mRNA level. Of interest was the finding that the degradation of catalase was rescued by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, in the SNKD cells. This study demonstrates a novel function of α-syntrophin. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress from endogenously generated ROS during myoblast differentiation by modulating the protein stability of catalase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Myoblast sensitivity and fibroblast insensitivity to osteogenic conversion by BMP-2 correlates with the expression of Bmpr-1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    North Kathryn N

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoblasts are considered to primarily arise from osseous progenitors within the periosteum or bone marrow. We have speculated that cells from local soft tissues may also take on an osteogenic phenotype. Myoblasts are known to adopt a bone gene program upon treatment with the osteogenic bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2,-4,-6,-7,-9, but their osteogenic capacity relative to other progenitor types is unclear. We further hypothesized that the sensitivity of cells to BMP-2 would correlate with BMP receptor expression. Methods We directly compared the BMP-2 sensitivity of myoblastic murine cell lines and primary cells with osteoprogenitors from osseous tissues and fibroblasts. Fibroblasts forced to undergo myogenic conversion by transduction with a MyoD-expressing lentiviral vector (LV-MyoD were also examined. Outcome measures included alkaline phosphatase expression, matrix mineralization, and expression of osteogenic genes (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-1A as measured by quantitative PCR. Results BMP-2 induced a rapid and robust osteogenic response in myoblasts and osteoprogenitors, but not in fibroblasts. Myoblasts and osteoprogenitors grown in osteogenic media rapidly upregulated Bmpr-1a expression. Chronic BMP-2 treatment resulted in peak Bmpr-1a expression at day 6 before declining, suggestive of a negative feedback mechanism. In contrast, fibroblasts expressed low levels of Bmpr-1a that was only weakly up-regulated by BMP-2 treatment. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the presence of myogenic responsive elements in the proximal promoter region of human and murine BMPR-1A/Bmpr-1a. Forced myogenic gene expression in fibroblasts was associated with a significant increase in Bmpr-1a expression and a synergistic increase in the osteogenic response to BMP-2. Conclusion These data demonstrate the osteogenic sensitivity of muscle progenitors and provide a mechanistic insight into the

  12. Biodistribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled myoblasts in a murine model of muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, F.R. E-mail: colombof@policlinico.mi.it; Torrente, Y.; Casati, R.; Benti, R.; Corti, S.; Salani, S.; D' Angelo, M.G.; DeLiso, A.; Scarlato, G.; Bresolin, N.; Gerundini, P

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the myoblast labeling of various {sup 99m}Tc complexes and to select the complex that best accomplishes this labeling, and second to evaluate the biodistribution of myoblasts labeled with this complex using mice with MDX muscular dystrophy (the murine homologue of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy). The following ligands were used to prepare the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc complexes: hexakis-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), bis(2-ethoxyethyl)diphosphinoethane (Tf), (RR,SS)-4,8-diaza-3,6,6,9-tetramethyl-undecane-2,10-dione-bisoxime (HM-PAO), bis(N-ethyl)dithiocarbamate (NEt), and bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl)dithiocarbamate (NOEt). One million murine myoblasts were incubated for 30-60 minutes with 5 mCi of each of the 99mTc complexes prepared from the above ligands. Viability was assessed by microscopic counting after trypan blue staining, and the radioactivity absorbed in the cells was measured after centrifugation. The compound with the highest uptake in cellular pellets was [{sup 99m}Tc]N-NOEt. The biodistribution of myoblasts labeled with this complex was evaluated after intraaortic injection in dystrophic mice. Such an approach has the potential of effecting widespread gene transfer through the bloodstream to muscles lacking dystrophin.

  13. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Roles of Notch1 Signaling in Regulating Satellite Cell Fates Choices and Postnatal Skeletal Myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Wu, Weiche; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-11-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells, are indispensable for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of the postnatal skeletal muscle. Satellite cells, predominantly quiescent in mature resting muscles, are activated after skeletal muscle injury or degeneration. Notch1 signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays crucial roles in satellite cells homeostasis and postnatal skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Activation of Notch1 signaling promotes the muscle satellite cells quiescence and proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of muscle satellite cells. Notably, the new roles of Notch1 signaling during late-stage of skeletal myogenesis including in post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes have been recently reported. Here, we mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of Notch1 in regulating satellite cell fates choices and skeletal myogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2964-2967, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and the abundance of the mRNA translation initiation repressor PDCD4 are inversely regulated by fasting and refeeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Sana; Moreira, Tracy S; Samimi-Seisan, Helena; Jeganathan, Senthure; Kakade, Dhanshri; Islam, Nushaba; Campbell, Jonathan; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal skeletal muscle mass is vital to human health, because defects in muscle protein metabolism underlie or exacerbate human diseases. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 is critical in the regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis. These functions are mediated in part by the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) through mechanisms that are poorly understood. The tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) has been identified as a novel substrate of S6K1. Here, we examined 1) the expression of PDCD4 in skeletal muscle and 2) its regulation by feed deprivation (FD) and refeeding. Male rats (~100 g; n = 6) were subjected to FD for 48 h; some rats were refed for 2 h. FD suppressed muscle fractional rates of protein synthesis and Ser(67) phosphorylation of PDCD4 (-50%) but increased PDCD4 abundance (P muscle fractional rates of protein synthesis and reduced PDCD4 abundance relative to FD. Finally, when myoblasts were grown in amino acid- and serum-free medium, phenylalanine incorporation into proteins in cells depleted of PDCD4 more than doubled the values in cells with a normal level of PDCD4 (P skeletal muscle in parallel with the reduction of the abundance of this mRNA translation inhibitor.

  16. Ionizing radiation increases primary cilia incidence and induces multiciliation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, A.; Diaz-Garcia, D.; Bezrouk, A.; Čížková, D.; Havelek, R.; Vávrová, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Řezáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2015), s. 943-953 ISSN 1065-6995 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell line * ionizing radiation * multiple cilia * myoblast * primary cilium * serum starvation stress Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2015

  17. Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Baubak; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2018-06-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Lipofection of cultured mouse muscle cells: a direct comparison of Lipofectamine and DOSPER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, E; Dunckley, M G; Naujoks, K; Michaelis, U; Dickson, G

    1998-04-01

    Cationic lipid-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) have been widely used as gene transfer vectors which avoid the adverse immunogenicity and potential for viraemia of viral vectors. With the long-term aim of gene transfer into skeletal muscle in vivo, we describe a direct in vitro comparison of two commercially available cationic lipid formulations, Lipofectamine and DOSPER. Optimisation of transfection was performed in the C2C12 mouse muscle cell line, before further studies in primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 myotubes. Reporter gene constructs expressing either E. coli beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used in order to evaluate transfection efficiency by histochemical staining or FACS analysis, respectively. Both lipid formulations were able to promote efficient, reproducible gene transfer in C2C12 cells, and to transfect primary mouse myoblast cultures successfully. However, DOSPER exhibited the important advantage of being able to transfect cells in the presence of serum of both bovine and murine origin. This feature allowed increased cell survival during in vitro transfections, and may be advantageous for direct in vivo gene transfer efficacy.

  19. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  20. Analysis of Mitochondrial Network Morphology in Cultured Myoblasts from Patients with Mitochondrial Disorders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládková, J.; Spáčilová, J.; Čapek, Martin; Tesařová, M.; Hansíková, H.; Honzík, T.; Martínek, J.; Zámečník, J.; Kostková, O.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2015), s. 340-350 ISSN 0191-3123 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cristae * Fiji * image analysis * mitochondrial disorders * myoblasts * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2015

  1. SPARC Interacts with Actin in Skeletal Muscle in Vitro and in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Jepsen, Pia Lørup; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to actin. This interaction is present in regenerating myofibers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and compartment syndrome. Analysis of the α-, β-, and γ-actin isoforms in SPARC knockout myoblasts reveals a changed expression pattern with dominance of γ-actin. In SPARC knockout......The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed...... intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds...

  2. The Recent Understanding of the Neurotrophin's Role in Skeletal Muscle Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the various effects of neurotrophins in skeletal muscle and how these proteins act as potential regulators of the maintenance, function, and regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers. Increasing evidence suggests that this family of neurotrophic factors influence not only the survival and function of innervating motoneurons but also the development and differentiation of myoblasts and muscle fibers. Muscle contractions (e.g., exercise produce BDNF mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle, and the BDNF seems to play a role in enhancing glucose metabolism and may act for myokine to improve various brain disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and major depression. In adults with neuromuscular disorders, variations in neurotrophin expression are found, and the role of neurotrophins under such conditions is beginning to be elucidated. This paper provides a basis for a better understanding of the role of these factors under such pathological conditions and for treatment of human neuromuscular disease.

  3. Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) overexpression increases reactive oxygen species production and inhibits murine muscle satellite cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Shelley D E; Kennedy, Karen A M; Xie, Xiaojun; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Li, Shawn S C

    2014-01-11

    Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) has been associated with the maturation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzyme, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in the adult thyroid. However, ROS have also been implicated in the development of several tissues. We found that activated muscle satellite cells and primary myoblasts isolated from mice express robust levels of DUOXA1 and that its levels are altered as cells differentiate. To determine whether DUOXA1 levels affect muscle differentiation, we used an adenoviral construct (pCMV5-DUOXA1-GFP) to drive constitutive overexpression of this protein in primary myoblasts. High levels of DUOXA1 throughout myogenesis resulted in enhanced H2O2 production, fusion defects, reduced expression of early (myogenin) and late (myosin heavy chain) markers of differentiation, and elevated levels of apoptosis compared to control cells infected with an empty adenoviral vector (pCMV5-GFP). DUOXA1 knockdown (using a DUOXA1 shRNA construct) resulted in enhanced differentiation compared to cells subjected to a control shRNA, and subjecting DUOXA1 overexpressing cells to siRNAs targeting DUOX1 or apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) rescued the phenotype. This study represents the first to demonstrate the importance of DUOXA1 in skeletal muscle myoblasts and that DUOXA1 overexpression in muscle stem cells induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation through DUOX1 and ASK1.

  4. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  5. Functional dysregulation of stem cells during aging: a focus on skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Sousa-Victor, Pedro; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2013-09-01

    Aging of an organism is associated with the functional decline of tissues and organs, as well as a sharp decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. A prevailing view holds that the aging rate of an individual depends on the ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Therefore, manipulations that favor the balance towards regeneration may prevent or delay aging. Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue composed of postmitotic myofibers that contract to generate force. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration. Recent studies on the biology of skeletal muscle and satellite cells in aging have uncovered the critical impact of systemic and niche factors on stem cell functionality and demonstrated the capacity of aged satellite cells to rejuvenate and increase their regenerative potential when exposed to a youthful environment. Here we review the current literature on the coordinated relationship between cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the function of satellite cells, and ultimately determine tissue homeostasis and repair during aging, and which encourage the search for new anti-aging strategies. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  6. DNA replication timing is maintained genome-wide in primary human myoblasts independent of D4Z4 contraction in FSH muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Pope

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4 at 4q35.2 from 11-100 copies to 1-10 copies. The extent to which D4Z4 contraction at 4q35.2 affects overall 4q35.2 chromatin organization remains unclear. Because DNA replication timing is highly predictive of long-range chromatin interactions, we generated genome-wide replication-timing profiles for FSHD and control myogenic precursor cells. We compared non-immortalized myoblasts from four FSHD patients and three control individuals to each other and to a variety of other human cell types. This study also represents the first genome-wide comparison of replication timing profiles in non-immortalized human cell cultures. Myoblasts from both control and FSHD individuals all shared a myoblast-specific replication profile. In contrast, male and female individuals were readily distinguished by monoallelic differences in replication timing at DXZ4 and other regions across the X chromosome affected by X inactivation. We conclude that replication timing is a robust cell-type specific feature that is unaffected by FSHD-related D4Z4 contraction.

  7. Dual roles of palladin protein in in vitro myogenesis: inhibition of early induction but promotion of myotube maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Uyen-Nhi Nguyen

    Full Text Available Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro.

  8. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Ikemoto, Madoka; Masuda, Satoru; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31 - CD45 - SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31 - CD45 - SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31 - CD45 - SP cells participate in muscle regeneration

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Saleem, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair....../regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/serum or by loading onto repair/induction supportive resorb-able scaffolds. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting a wide range...

  10. Diabetic Myopathy: Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M D'Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases that are associated with the presence of a hyperglycemic state due to impairments in insulin function. While the development of each form of diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2 drastically differs, resultant pathologies often overlap. In each diabetic condition a failure to maintain healthy muscle is often observed, and is termed diabetic myopathy. This significant, but often overlooked, complication is believed to contribute to the progression of additional diabetic pathologies due to the vital importance of skeletal muscle for our physical and metabolic well-being. While studies have investigated the link between changes to skeletal muscle metabolic health following diabetes mellitus onset (particularly Type 2 diabetes mellitus, few have examined the negative impact of diabetes mellitus on the growth and reparative capacities of skeletal muscle that often coincides with disease development. Importantly, evidence is accumulating that the muscle progenitor cell population (particularly the muscle satellite cell population is also negatively affected by the diabetic environment, and as such, likely contributes to the declining skeletal muscle health observed in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge surrounding the influence of diabetes mellitus on skeletal muscle growth and repair, with a particular emphasis on the impact of diabetes mellitus on the progenitor cell population of skeletal muscle.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Wan [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un, E-mail: gbae@sookmyung.ac.kr [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  13. Signals of Ezh2, Src, and Akt Involve in Myostatin-Pax7 Pathways Regulating the Myogenic Fate Determination during the Sheep Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin and Pax7 have been well documented individually, however, the mechanism by which Myostatin regulates Pax7 is seldom reported. Here, based on muscle transcriptome analysis in Texel (Myostatin mutant) and Ujumqin (wild type) sheep across the five fetal stages, we constructed and examined the Myostatin-Pax7 pathways in muscle. Then we validated the signals by RNAi in the proliferating and differentiating sheep myoblasts in vitro at mRNA, protein, and cell morphological levels. We reveal that Myostatin signals to Pax7 at least through Ezh2, Src, and Akt during the sheep myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Other signals such as p38MAPK, mTOR, Erk1/2, Wnt, Bmp2, Smad, Tgfb1, and p21 are most probably involved in the Myostatin-affected myogenic events. Myostatin knockdown significantly reduces the counts of nucleus and myotube, but not the fusion index of myoblasts during cell differentiation. In addition, findings also indicate that Myostatin is required for normal myogenic differentiation of the sheep myoblasts, which is different from the C2C12 myoblasts. We expand the regulatory network of Myostatin-Pax7 pathways and first illustrate that Myostatin as a global regulator participates in the epigenetic events involved in myogenesis, which contributes to understand the molecular mechanism of Myostatin in regulation of myogenesis. PMID:25811841

  14. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of heat stress on contractility of tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shunya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Fujisato, Toshia

    2018-01-23

    The effects of heat stress on tissue like skeletal muscle have been widely studied. However, the mechanism responsible for the effect of heat stress is still unclear. A useful experimental tissue model is necessary because muscle function in cell culture may differ from native muscle and measuring its contractility is difficult. We previously reported three-dimensional tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle (TEM) that can be easily set in a measurement apparatus for quantitative evaluation of contractility. We have now applied TEM to the investigation of heat stress. We analyzed contractility immediately after thermal exposure at 39 °C for 24 or 48 h to evaluate the acute effects and after thermal exposure followed by normal culture to evaluate the aftereffects. Peak twitch contractile force and time-to-peak twitch were used as contractile parameters. Heat stress increased the TCF in the early stage (1 week) after normal culture; the TCF decreased temporarily in the middle to late stages (2-3 weeks). These results suggest that heat stress may affect both myoblast fusion and myotube differentiation in the early stage of TEM culture, but not myotube maturation in the late stage. The TCF increase rate with thermal exposure was significantly higher than that without thermal exposure. Although detailed analysis at the molecular level is necessary for further investigation, our artificial skeletal muscle may be a promising tool for heat stress investigation.

  16. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myobla...

  17. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    KEY POINT: Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we......-receptor interaction. Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD(+) SCs. Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long......-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed...

  18. Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Higuchi, Sayaka; Kawauchi, Keiko; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Change in the epigenetic landscape during myogenesis was optically investigated. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins was used to state the epigenetic status of the cell. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins decreased as myogenesis progressed in C2C12. ► Differentiation state diagram was developed using parameters obtained. -- Abstract: Skeletal muscle undergoes complicated differentiation steps that include cell-cycle arrest, cell fusion, and maturation, which are controlled through sequential expression of transcription factors. During muscle differentiation, remodeling of the epigenetic landscape is also known to take place on a large scale, determining cell fate. In an attempt to determine the extent of epigenetic remodeling during muscle differentiation, we characterized the plasticity of the chromatin structure using C2C12 myoblasts. Differentiation of C2C12 cells was induced by lowering the serum concentration after they had reached full confluence, resulting in the formation of multi-nucleated myotubes. Upon induction of differentiation, the nucleus size decreased whereas the aspect ratio increased, indicating the presence of force on the nucleus during differentiation. Movement of the nucleus was also suppressed when differentiation was induced, indicating that the plasticity of chromatin changed upon differentiation. To evaluate the histone dynamics during differentiation, FRAP experiment was performed, which showed an increase in the immobile fraction of histone proteins when differentiation was induced. To further evaluate the change in the histone dynamics during differentiation, FCS was performed, which showed a decrease in histone mobility on differentiation. We here show that the plasticity of chromatin decreases upon differentiation, which takes place in a stepwise manner, and that it can be used as an index for the differentiation stage during myogenesis using the state diagram developed with the parameters obtained in this study.

  19. Skeletal Muscle-derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Muscular Dystrophy Therapy by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    For postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle, satellite cells, a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells, give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells that contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. In addition to this key myogenic cell class, adult skeletal muscle also contains hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell populations which can be purified as a side population (SP) fraction or as a hematopoietic marker CD45-positive cell population. These muscle-derived he...

  20. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle. PMID:25875203

  1. α-Syntrophin is involved in the survival signaling pathway in myoblasts under menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Choi, Su Jin; Moon, Jae Yun; Kim, Hye Sun

    2016-05-15

    Dystrophin-deficient muscle is known to be more vulnerable to oxidative stress, but not much is known about the signaling pathway(s) responsible for this phenomenon. α-Syntrophin, a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, can function as a scaffold protein because of its multiple protein interaction domains. In this study, we investigated the role of α-syntrophin in C2 myoblasts under menadione-induced oxidative stress. We found that the protein level of α-syntrophin was elevated when cells were exposed to menadione. To investigate the function of α-syntrophin during oxidative stress, we established α-syntrophin-overexpressing and knockdown cell lines. The α-syntrophin-overexpressing cells were resistant to the menadione-induced oxidative stress. In addition, survival signalings such as protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and the Bcl-2/BAX ratio were increased in these cells. On the other hand, apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) were increased in the α-syntrophin knockdown cells. Furthermore, Ca(2+)influx, which is known to increase when cells are exposed to oxidative stress, decreased in the α-syntrophin-overexpressing cells, but increased in the knockdown cells. These results suggest that α-syntrophin plays a pivotal role in the survival pathway triggered by menadione-induced oxidative stress in cultured myoblasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velleman Sandra G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia, 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy, and 16wk (market age from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2 maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of

  3. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle repair is regulated by satellite cells, adult skeletal muscle stem cells that control muscle regeneration by proliferating and fusing with injured myofibers. MyoD is required for muscle regeneration; however, the mechanisms regulating MyoD expression in satellite cells are unclear. In this study, Olson and colleagues have demonstrated that deletion of MASTR and MRTF-A, two members of the Myocardin family of transcription factors, leads to skeletal muscle regeneration defects and down-r...

  4. * Tissue-Specific Extracellular Matrix Enhances Skeletal Muscle Precursor Cell Expansion and Differentiation for Potential Application in Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deying; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yi, Hualin; Wang, Zhan; Wu, Rongpei; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Wei, Shicheng; Hu, Yun; Deng, Junhong; Criswell, Tracy; Yoo, James; Zhou, Yu; Atala, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are considered a key candidate for cell therapy in the treatment of skeletal muscle dysfunction due to injury, disease, or age. However, expansion of a sufficient number of functional skeletal muscle cells in vitro from a small tissue biopsy has been challenging due to changes in phenotypic expression of these cells under traditional culture conditions. Thus, the aim of the study was to develop a better culture system for the expansion and myo-differentiation of MPCs that could further be used for therapy. For this purpose, we developed an ideal method of tissue decellularization and compared the ability of different matrices to support MPC growth and differentiation. Porcine-derived skeletal muscle and liver and kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) were generated by decellularization methods consisting of distilled water, 0.2 mg/mL DNase, or 5% fetal bovine serum. Acellular matrices were further homogenized, dissolved, and combined with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel decorated with heparin (ECM-HA-HP). The cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of human MPCs were assessed when grown on gel alone, ECM, or each ECM-HA-HP substrate. Human MPC proliferation was significantly enhanced when cultured on the ECM-HA-HP substrates compared to the other substrates tested, with the greatest proliferation on the muscle ECM-HA-HP (mECM-HA-HP) substrate. The number of differentiated myotubes was significantly increased on the mECM-HA-HP substrate compared to the other gel-ECM substrates, as well as the numbers of MPCs expressing specific myogenic cell markers (i.e., myosin, desmin, myoD, and myf5). In conclusion, skeletal mECM-HA-HP as a culture substrate provided an optimal culture microenvironment potentially due to its similarity to the in vivo environment. These data suggest a potential use of skeletal muscle-derived ECM gel for the expansion and differentiation of human MPCs for cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle

  5. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway.

  6. Absence of muscle regeneration after implantation of a collagen matrix seeded with myoblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Brouwer, LA; van Luyn, MJA

    Collagens are widely used as biomaterials for e.g. soft tissue reconstruction. The present study was aimed at reconstruction of abdominal wall muscle using processed dermal sheep collagen (DSC) and myoblast seeding. Myoblasts were harvested from foetal quadriceps muscle of an inbred rat strain,

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  10. Temperature-responsive poly(ε-caprolactone) cell culture platform with dynamically tunable nano-roughness and elasticity for control of myoblast morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Koichiro; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-21

    We developed a dynamic cell culture platform with dynamically tunable nano-roughness and elasticity. Temperature-responsive poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films were successfully prepared by crosslinking linear and tetra-branched PCL macromonomers. By optimizing the mixing ratios, the crystal-amorphous transition temperature (Tm) of the crosslinked film was adjusted to the biological relevant temperature (~33 °C). While the crosslinked films are relatively stiff (50 MPa) below the Tm, they suddenly become soft (1 MPa) above the Tm. Correspondingly, roughness of the surface was decreased from 63.4-12.4 nm. It is noted that the surface wettability was independent of temperature. To investigate the role of dynamic surface roughness and elasticity on cell adhesion, cells were seeded on PCL films at 32 °C. Interestingly, spread myoblasts on the film became rounded when temperature was suddenly increased to 37 °C, while significant changes in cell morphology were not observed for fibroblasts. These results indicate that cells can sense dynamic changes in the surrounding environment but the sensitivity depends on cell types.

  11. Mechanical stimuli activation of calpain is required for myoblast differentiation and occurs via an ERK/MAP kinase signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2006-01-01

    a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have shown that mechanical signals transmitted through the C2C12 cells interaction with laminin cause an increase in cellular differentiation. This signaling results in an increase in the number of myotubes formed in the cultures...

  12. A novel in vitro model for studying quiescence and activation of primary isolated human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellathurai, Jeeva; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    term exponentially proliferating cultures normally used for in vitro studies. Human myoblasts cultured through many passages inevitably consist of a mixture of proliferating and non-proliferating cells, while cells activated from G0 are in a synchronously proliferating phase, and therefore may...... be a better model for in vivo proliferating satellite cells. Furthermore, the temporal propagation of proliferation in these synchronized cultures resembles the pattern seen in vivo during regeneration. We therefore present this culture model as a useful and novel condition for molecular analysis...

  13. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Willkomm

    Full Text Available Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs. Lactate (La-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3 known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD vs. high intensity RE (HIT. Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.

  15. p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkomm, Lena; Gehlert, Sebastian; Jacko, Daniel; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs). Lactate (La)-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM) and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE) associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD) vs. high intensity RE (HIT). Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.

  16. Perspectives on stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration. Advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hyun; Jung, Seok Yun; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Baek, Sang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) accelerates cardiomyocyte loss, but the developing stem cell research could be useful for regenerating a variety of tissue cells, including cardiomyocytes. Diverse sources of stem cells for IHD have been reported, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cardiac stem cells. However, stem cells have unique advantages and disadvantages for cardiac tissue regeneration, which are important considerations in determining the specific cells for improving cell survival and long-term engraftment after transplantation. Additionally, the dosage and administration method of stem cells need to be standardized to increase stability and efficacy for clinical applications. Accordingly, this review presents a summary of the stem cell therapies that have been studied for cardiac regeneration thus far, and discusses the direction of future cardiac regeneration research for stem cells.

  17. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  18. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasyutina, Elena; Martarelli, Benedetta; Brakebusch, Cord

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 and Cdc42 are small G-proteins that regulate actin dynamics and affect plasma membrane protrusion and vesicle traffic. We used conditional mutagenesis in mice to demonstrate that Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in vivo and in vitro. The deficit in fusion of Rac1 or Cdc42 mut...... genetic analysis demonstrates thus that the function of Rac in myoblast fusion is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and that Cdc42, a molecule hitherto not implicated in myoblast fusion, is essential for the fusion of murine myoblasts....

  19. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Enxuan; Emanuelli, Brice; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout...... mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species......, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  20. Early de novo DNA methylation and prolonged demethylation in the muscle lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumagari, Koji; Baribault, Carl; Terragni, Jolyon; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Pradhan, Sirharsa; Badoo, Melody; Crain, Charlene M; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Myers, Richard M; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    Myogenic cell cultures derived from muscle biopsies are excellent models for human cell differentiation. We report the first comprehensive analysis of myogenesis-specific DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation throughout the genome for human muscle progenitor cells (both myoblasts and myotubes) and skeletal muscle tissue vs. 30 non-muscle samples using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We also focused on four genes with extensive hyper- or hypo-methylation in the muscle lineage (PAX3, TBX1, MYH7B/MIR499 and OBSCN) to compare DNA methylation, DNaseI hypersensitivity, histone modification, and CTCF binding profiles. We found that myogenic hypermethylation was strongly associated with homeobox or T-box genes and muscle hypomethylation with contractile fiber genes. Nonetheless, there was no simple relationship between differential gene expression and myogenic differential methylation, rather only for subsets of these genes, such as contractile fiber genes. Skeletal muscle retained ~30% of the hypomethylated sites but only ~3% of hypermethylated sites seen in myogenic progenitor cells. By enzymatic assays, skeletal muscle was 2-fold enriched globally in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) vs. myoblasts or myotubes and was the only sample type enriched in 5-hmC at tested myogenic hypermethylated sites in PAX3/CCDC140 andTBX1. TET1 and TET2 RNAs, which are involved in generation of 5-hmC and DNA demethylation, were strongly upregulated in myoblasts and myotubes. Our findings implicate de novo methylation predominantly before the myoblast stage and demethylation before and after the myotube stage in control of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing. They also suggest that, in muscle, TET1 or TET2 are involved in active demethylation and in formation of stable 5-hmC residues.

  1. Celastrol Protects against Antimycin A-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.

  2. Cartilage and bone cells do not participate in skeletal regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Catherine D; Diaz-Castillo, Carlos; Sosnik, Julian; Q Phan, Anne; Gardiner, David M

    2016-08-01

    The Mexican Axolotl is one of the few tetrapod species that is capable of regenerating complete skeletal elements in injured adult limbs. Whether the skeleton (bone and cartilage) plays a role in the patterning and contribution to the skeletal regenerate is currently unresolved. We tested the induction of pattern formation, the effect on cell proliferation, and contributions of skeletal tissues (cartilage, bone, and periosteum) to the regenerating axolotl limb. We found that bone tissue grafts from transgenic donors expressing GFP fail to induce pattern formation and do not contribute to the newly regenerated skeleton. Periosteum tissue grafts, on the other hand, have both of these activities. These observations reveal that skeletal tissue does not contribute to the regeneration of skeletal elements; rather, these structures are patterned by and derived from cells of non-skeletal connective tissue origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  4. Myogenesis in the sea urchin embryo: the molecular fingerprint of the myoblast precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchin larvae the circumesophageal fibers form a prominent muscle system of mesodermal origin. Although the morphology and later development of this muscle system has been well-described, little is known about the molecular signature of these cells or their precise origin in the early embryo. As an invertebrate deuterostome that is more closely related to the vertebrates than other commonly used model systems in myogenesis, the sea urchin fills an important phylogenetic gap and provides a unique perspective on the evolution of muscle cell development. Results Here, we present a comprehensive description of the development of the sea urchin larval circumesophageal muscle lineage beginning with its mesodermal origin using high-resolution localization of the expression of several myogenic transcriptional regulators and differentiation genes. A few myoblasts are bilaterally distributed at the oral vegetal side of the tip of the archenteron and first appear at the late gastrula stage. The expression of the differentiation genes Myosin Heavy Chain, Tropomyosin I and II, as well as the regulatory genes MyoD2, FoxF, FoxC, FoxL1, Myocardin, Twist, and Tbx6 uniquely identify these cells. Interestingly, evolutionarily conserved myogenic factors such as Mef2, MyoR and Six1/2 are not expressed in sea urchin myoblasts but are found in other mesodermal domains of the tip of the archenteron. The regulatory states of these domains were characterized in detail. Moreover, using a combinatorial analysis of gene expression we followed the development of the FoxF/FoxC positive cells from the onset of expression to the end of gastrulation. Our data allowed us to build a complete map of the Non-Skeletogenic Mesoderm at the very early gastrula stage, in which specific molecular signatures identify the precursors of different cell types. Among them, a small group of cells within the FoxY domain, which also express FoxC and SoxE, have been identified as plausible myoblast

  5. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. ► CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. ► CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  6. Biphasic regulation of intracellular calcium by gemfibrozil contributes to inhibiting L6 myoblast differentiation: implications for clinical myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J; Cheng, Gary Q; Dai, Renke

    2011-02-18

    Gemfibrozil is the most myotoxic fibrate drug commonly used for dyslipidemia, but the mechanism is poorly understood. The current study revealed that gemfibrozil inhibits myoblast differentiation through the regulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) as revealed in L6 myoblasts by use of laser scan confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using Fluo-4 AM as a probe. Gemfibrozil at 20-400 μM, could regulate [Ca(2+)]i in L6 cells in a biphasic manner, and sustained reduction was observed when the concentration reached 200 μM. Inhibition of L6 differentiation by gemfibrozil was concentration-dependent with maximal effect noted between 200 and 400 μM, as indicated by creatine kinase activities and the differentiation index, respectively. In differentiating L6 myoblasts, gemfibrozil at concentrations below 400 μM led to no significant signs of apoptosis or cytotoxicity, whereas differentiation, inhibited by 200 μM gemfibrozil, was only partially recovered. A good correlation was noted between gemfibrozil concentrations that regulate [Ca(2+)]i and inhibit L6 myoblasts differentiation, and both are within the range of total serum concentrations found in the clinic. These data suggest a potential pharmacodynamic effect of gemfibrozil on myogenesis as a warning sign, in addition to the complex pharmacokinetic interactions. It is also noteworthy that mobilization of [Ca(2+)]i by gemfibrozil may trigger complex biological responses besides myocyte differentiation. Information revealed in this study explores the mechanism of gemfibrozil-induced myotoxicity through the regulation of intracellular calcium.

  7. Antifibrotic effects of Smad4 small interfering RNAs in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, J; Chen, S; Zhang, Q; Chen, S

    2011-10-01

    Muscle injuries are common musculoskeletal problems encountered in sports medicine clinics. In this study, we examined the effect of lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Smad4 on the suppression of the fibrosis in injured skeletal muscles. We found that Smad4-siRNA could efficiently knock down the expression of Smad4 in the C2C12 myoblast cells and in the contunded mice gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of mRNA level of Smad4 decreased to 11% and 49% compared to the control group, respectively, and the expression of protein level decreased to 13% and 57% respectively. Moreover, the lentivirus-mediated siRNA was stably transfected only into the skeletal muscle and not into the liver of the animals. In contunded mice gastrocnemius, the collagenous and vimentin-positive area in the Smad4 siRNA group reduced to 36% and 37% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the scrambled Smad4 siRNA-injected mice and PBS control-injected mice, the muscle function of the mice injected with lentivirus-mediated Smad4 siRNA improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength (P<0.05). The results suggest that the gene therapy of inhibiting Smad4 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be a useful approach to prevent scar tissue formation and improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid mediates pleiotropic responses in skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Gael; Yang Zhao; Khoury, Chamel; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent modulator of growth, cell survival, and apoptosis. Although all four LPA receptors are expressed in skeletal muscle, very little is known regarding the role they play in this tissue. We used RT-PCR to demonstrate that cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 cells endogenously express multiple LPA receptor subtypes. The demonstration that LPA mediates the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase and Akt/PKB in C2C12 cells is consistent with the widely observed mitogenic properties of LPA. In spite of these observations, LPA did not induce proliferation in C2C12 cells. Paradoxically, we found that prolonged treatment of C2C12 cells with LPA led to caspase 3 and PARP cleavage as well as the activation of stress-associated MAP kinases JNK and p38. In spite of these typically pro-apoptotic responses, LPA did not induce cell death. Blocking ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB activation with specific pharmacological inhibitors, nevertheless, stimulated LPA-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that both mitogenic and apoptotic responses serve to counterbalance the effects of LPA in cultured C2C12 cells

  9. Type II iodothyronine deiodinase provides intracellular 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine to normal and regenerating mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Alessandro; Tang, Dan; Harney, John W.; Singh, Prabhat; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Dentice, Monica; Salvatore, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The FoxO3-dependent increase in type II deiodinase (D2), which converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), is required for normal mouse skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. This implies a requirement for an increase in D2-generated intracellular T3 under these conditions, which has not been directly demonstrated despite the presence of D2 activity in skeletal muscle. We directly show that D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion increases during differentiation in C2C12 myoblast and primary cultures of mouse neonatal skeletal muscle precursor cells, and that blockade of D2 eliminates this. In adult mice given 125I-T4 and 131I-T3, the intracellular 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is significantly higher than in serum in both the D2-expressing cerebral cortex and the skeletal muscle of wild-type, but not D2KO, mice. In D1-expressing liver and kidney, the 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio does not differ from that in serum. Hypothyroidism increases D2 activity, and in agreement with this, the difference in 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is increased further in hypothyroid wild-type mice but not altered in the D2KO. Notably, in wild-type but not in D2KO mice, the muscle production of 125I-T3 is doubled after skeletal muscle injury. Thus, D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion generates significant intracellular T3 in normal mouse skeletal muscle, with the increased T3 required for muscle regeneration being provided by increased D2 synthesis, not by T3 from the circulation. PMID:21771965

  10. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    , we explored both in vitro and in vivo, in human, the interactions of differentially activated MPs with myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) during adult myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. We showed in vitro that through the differential secretion of cytokines and growth factors, proinflammatory...... anti-inflammatory markers. These data demonstrate for the first time in human that MPs sequentially orchestrate adult myogenesis during regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle. These results support the emerging concept that inflammation, through MP activation, controls stem cell fate and coordinates......Macrophages (MPs) exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for adult skeletal muscle repair, notably by acting on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions have not been fully characterized. Here...

  11. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  12. Novel lncRNAs in myogenesis: a miR-31 overlapping transcript controls myoblast differentiation.

    KAUST Repository

    Ballarino, Monica; Cazzella, Valentina; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Bisceglie, Lavinia; Cipriano, Andrea; Santini, Tiziana; Pinnarò , Chiara; Morlando, Mariangela; Tramontano, Anna; Bozzoni, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis allowed the identification of new long noncoding RNAs differentially expressed during murine myoblast differentiation. These transcripts were classified on the basis of their expression under proliferating versus differentiated conditions, muscle-restricted activation, and subcellular localization. Several species displayed preferential expression in dystrophic (mdx) versus wild-type muscles, indicating their possible link with regenerative processes. One of the identified transcripts, lnc-31, even if originating from the same nuclear precursor of miR-31, is produced by a pathway mutually exclusive. We show that lnc-31 and its human homologue hsa-lnc-31 are expressed in proliferating myoblasts, where they counteract differentiation. In line with this, both species are more abundant in mdx muscles and in human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) myoblasts, than in their normal counterparts. Altogether, these data suggest a crucial role for lnc-31 in controlling the differentiation commitment of precursor myoblasts and indicate that its function is maintained in evolution despite the poor sequence conservation with the human counterpart.

  13. Novel lncRNAs in myogenesis: a miR-31 overlapping transcript controls myoblast differentiation.

    KAUST Repository

    Ballarino, Monica

    2014-12-15

    Transcriptome analysis allowed the identification of new long noncoding RNAs differentially expressed during murine myoblast differentiation. These transcripts were classified on the basis of their expression under proliferating versus differentiated conditions, muscle-restricted activation, and subcellular localization. Several species displayed preferential expression in dystrophic (mdx) versus wild-type muscles, indicating their possible link with regenerative processes. One of the identified transcripts, lnc-31, even if originating from the same nuclear precursor of miR-31, is produced by a pathway mutually exclusive. We show that lnc-31 and its human homologue hsa-lnc-31 are expressed in proliferating myoblasts, where they counteract differentiation. In line with this, both species are more abundant in mdx muscles and in human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) myoblasts, than in their normal counterparts. Altogether, these data suggest a crucial role for lnc-31 in controlling the differentiation commitment of precursor myoblasts and indicate that its function is maintained in evolution despite the poor sequence conservation with the human counterpart.

  14. Wnt/β-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. ► Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ► Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. ► Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/β-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  15. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of an olive oil total polyphenolic fraction and hydroxytyrosol from a Greek Olea europea variety in endothelial cells and myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouka, Paraskevi; Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Angelis, Apostolis; Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Xinos, Nikos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-09-01

    Olive oil (OO) constitutes the basis of the Mediterranean diet, and it seems that its biophenols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT) may scavenge free radicals, attracting distinct attention due to their beneficial effects in many pathological conditions, such as cancer. To the best of our knowedge, this is the first study in which the functional properties of an OO total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) and pure HT were examined in order to determine their antioxidant effects at a cellular level in endothelial cells and myoblasts. The test compounds were isolated using a green gradient‑elution centrifugal partition chromatography‑based method that allows the isolation of large volumes of OO in a continuous extraction procedure and with extremely low solvent consumption. For the isolation of HT, a combination of two chromatographic techniques was used, which is effective for the recovery of pure compounds from complex natural extracts. Moreover, TPF and HT exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro. The cells were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations and their redox status [in terms of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels] was assessed. TPF extract was less cytotoxic than HT, and the observed differences between the two cell lines used suggest a tissue‑specific activity. Finally, flow cytometric analysis revealed that both TPF and HT improved the redox status by increasing the levels of GSH, one of the most important antioxidant molecules, in both endothelial cells and myoblasts, while the ROS levels were not significantly affected.

  16. Cell death induced by gamma irradiation of developing skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, M.; Blanco, R.; Rivera, R.; Cinos, C.; Ferrer, I.

    1995-01-01

    Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a single dose of 2 Gy gamma rays and killed from 6 h to 5 d later. Increased numbers of dying cells, characterised by their extreme chromatin condensation and often nuclear fragmentation were seen in skeletal muscle 6 h after irradiation. Dying cells decreased to nearly normal values 48 h later. In situ labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation identified individual cells bearing fragmented DNA. The effects of gamma rays were suppressed following cycloheximide i.p. at a dose of 1 μg/g body weight given at the time of irradiation. Taken together, the present morphological and pharmacological results suggest that gamma ray induced cell death in skeletal muscle is apoptotic, and that the process is associated with protein synthesis. Finally, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunoreactive cells, which were abundant in control rats, decreased in number 48 h after irradiation. However, a marked increase significantly above normal age values was observed at the 5th day, thus suggesting that regeneration occurs following irradiation-induced cell death in developing muscle. (author)

  17. Water-Hydrogel Binding Affinity Modulates Freeze-Drying-Induced Micropore Architecture and Skeletal Myotube Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Marshall, Nicholas; Clay, Nicholas; Chen, Jinrong; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-08-10

    Freeze-dried hydrogels are increasingly used to create 3D interconnected micropores that facilitate biomolecular and cellular transports. However, freeze-drying is often plagued by variance in micropore architecture based on polymer choice. We hypothesized that water-polymer binding affinity plays a significant role in sizes and numbers of micropores formed through freeze-drying, influencing cell-derived tissue quality. Poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels with alginate methacrylate (AM) were used due to AM's higher binding affinity for water than PEGDA. PEGDA-AM hydrogels with larger AM concentrations resulted in larger sizes and numbers of micropores than pure PEGDA hydrogels, attributed to the increased mass of water binding to the PEGDA-AM gel. Skeletal myoblasts loaded in microporous PEGDA-AM hydrogels were active to produce 3D muscle-like tissue, while those loaded in pure PEGDA gels were localized on the gel surface. We propose that this study will be broadly useful in designing and improving the performance of various microporous gels.

  18. Impact of Perturbed Pancreatic β-Cell Cholesterol Homeostasis on Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Blake J.; Hou, Liming; Manavalan, Anil Paul Chirackal; Moore, Benjamin M.; Tabet, Fatiha; Sultana, Afroza; Cuesta Torres, Luisa; Tang, Shudi; Shrestha, Sudichhya; Senanayake, Praween; Patel, Mili; Ryder, William J.; Bongers, Andre; Maraninchi, Marie; Wasinger, Valerie C.; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R.; Barter, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated pancreatic β-cell cholesterol levels impair insulin secretion and reduce plasma insulin levels. This study establishes that low plasma insulin levels have a detrimental effect on two major insulin target tissues: adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice with increased β-cell cholesterol levels were generated by conditional deletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, in β-cells (β-DKO mice). Insulin secretion was impaired in these mice under basal and high-glucose conditions, and glucose disposal was shifted from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. The β-DKO mice also had increased body fat and adipose tissue macrophage content, elevated plasma interleukin-6 and MCP-1 levels, and decreased skeletal muscle mass. They were not, however, insulin resistant. The adipose tissue expansion and reduced skeletal muscle mass, but not the systemic inflammation or increased adipose tissue macrophage content, were reversed when plasma insulin levels were normalized by insulin supplementation. These studies identify a mechanism by which perturbation of β-cell cholesterol homeostasis and impaired insulin secretion increase adiposity, reduce skeletal muscle mass, and cause systemic inflammation. They further identify β-cell dysfunction as a potential therapeutic target in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:27702832

  19. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  20. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators, MASTR and MRTF-A, are up-regulated in satellite cells in response to skeletal muscle injury and muscular dystrophy. Global and satellite cell-specific deletion of MASTR in mice impairs skeletal muscle regeneration. This impairment is substantially greater when MRTF-A is also deleted and is due to aberrant differentiation and excessive proliferation of satellite cells. These abnormalities mimic those associated with genetic deletion of MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis, which is down-regulated in the absence of MASTR and MRTF-A. Consistent with an essential role of MASTR in transcriptional regulation of MyoD expression, MASTR activates a muscle-specific postnatal MyoD enhancer through associations with MEF2 and members of the Myocardin family. Our results provide new insights into the genetic circuitry of muscle regeneration and identify MASTR as a central regulator of this process. PMID:22279050

  1. Patterning Muscles Using Organizers: Larval Muscle Templates and Adult Myoblasts Actively Interact to Pattern the Dorsal Longitudinal Flight Muscles of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipto; VijayRaghavan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pattern formation in muscle development is often mediated by special cells called muscle organizers. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, a set of larval muscles function as organizers and provide scaffolding for the development of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles. These organizers undergo defined morphological changes and dramatically split into templates as adult fibers differentiate during pupation. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in the use of larval fibers as templates. Using molecular markers that label myoblasts and the larval muscles themselves, we show that splitting of the larval muscles is concomitant with invasion by imaginal myoblasts and the onset of differentiation. We show that the Erect wing protein, an early marker of muscle differentiation, is not only expressed in myoblasts just before and after fusion, but also in remnant larval nuclei during muscle differentiation. We also show that interaction between imaginal myoblasts and larval muscles is necessary for transformation of the larval fibers. In the absence of imaginal myoblasts, the earliest steps in metamorphosis, such as the escape of larval muscles from histolysis and changes in their innervation, are normal. However, subsequent events, such as the splitting of these muscles, fail to progress. Finally, we show that in a mutant combination, null for Erect wing function in the mesoderm, the splitting of the larval muscles is aborted. These studies provide a genetic and molecular handle for the understanding of mechanisms underlying the use of muscle organizers in muscle patterning. Since the use of such organizers is a common theme in myogenesis in several organisms, it is likely that many of the processes that we describe are conserved. PMID:9606206

  2. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific skeletal mechano-transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Faming; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical loading preserves bone mass and stimulates bone formation, whereas skeletal unloading leads to bone loss. In addition to osteocytes, which are considered the primary sensor of mechanical load, osteoblasts, and bone specific mesenchymal stem cells also are involved. The skeletal response to mechanical signals is a complex process regulated by multiple signaling pathways including that of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Conditional osteocyte deletion of IGF-1 ablates the osteogenic response to mechanical loading. Similarly, osteocyte IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression is necessary for reloading-induced periosteal bone formation. Transgenic overexpression of IGF-1 in osteoblasts results in enhanced responsiveness to in vivo mechanical loading in mice, a response which is eliminated by osteoblastic conditional disruption of IGF-1 in vivo. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) from unloaded bone fail to respond to IGF-1 in vitro. IGF-1R is required for the transduction of a mechanical stimulus to downstream effectors, transduction which is lost when the IGF-1R is deleted. Although the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated, the IGF signaling pathway and its interactions with potentially interlinked signaling cascades involving integrins, the estrogen receptor, and wnt/β-catenin play an important role in regulating adaptive response of cancer bone cells to mechanical stimuli. In this review, we discuss recent advances investigating how IGF-1 and other interlinked molecules and signaling pathways regulate skeletal mechano-transduction involving different bone cells, providing an overview of the IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific response to mechanical stimuli. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:576-583, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Estrogens enhance myoblast differentiation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by antagonizing DUX4 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Teveroni, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Marsha; Sacconi, Sabrina; Calandra, Patrizia; Cascino, Isabella; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Puma, Angela; Garibaldi, Matteo; Morosetti, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Ricci, Enzo; Trevisan, Carlo Pietro; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Crescenzi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by extreme variability in symptoms, with females being less severely affected than males and presenting a higher proportion of asymptomatic carriers. The sex-related factors involved in the disease are not known. Here, we have utilized myoblasts isolated from FSHD patients (FSHD myoblasts) to investigate the effect of estrogens on muscle properties. Our results demonstrated that...

  5. Reduced Notch signalling leads to postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy in Pofut1cax/cax mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaam, Bilal; Heu, Katy; Pennarubia, Florian; Segelle, Alexandre; Magnol, Laetitia; Germot, Agnès; Legardinier, Sébastien; Blanquet, Véronique; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2016-09-01

    Postnatal skeletal muscle growth results from the activation of satellite cells and/or an increase in protein synthesis. The Notch signalling pathway maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state, and once activated, sustains their proliferation and commitment towards differentiation. In mammals, POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation regulates the interactions between NOTCH receptors and ligands of the DELTA/JAGGED family, thus initiating the activation of canonical Notch signalling. Here, we analysed the consequences of downregulated expression of the Pofut1 gene on postnatal muscle growth in mutant Pofut1(cax/cax) (cax, compact axial skeleton) mice and differentiation of their satellite cell-derived myoblasts (SCDMs). Pofut1(cax/cax) mice exhibited muscle hypertrophy, no hyperplasia and a decrease in satellite cell numbers compared with wild-type C3H mice. In agreement with these observations, Pofut1(cax/cax) SCDMs differentiated earlier concomitant with reduced Pax7 expression and decrease in PAX7(+)/MYOD(-) progenitor cells. In vitro binding assays showed a reduced interaction of DELTA-LIKE 1 ligand (DLL1) with NOTCH receptors expressed at the cell surface of SCDMs, leading to a decreased Notch signalling as seen by the quantification of cleaved NICD and Notch target genes. These results demonstrated that POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation of NOTCH receptors regulates myogenic cell differentiation and affects postnatal muscle growth in mice. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Myoblast transplantation for heart repair: A review of the state of the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard J. Leonhardt; Michael Brown

    2006-01-01

    Over 200 humans have been treated with myoblast transplantation for heart muscle repair since June 2000. Bioheart sponsored percutaneous delivery studies began in May 2001 in Europe. Approximately one third of the patients have exhibited substantial improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of over 30% and two heart failure class improvements. Over 80% of the patients have exhibited one heart failure class improvement with moderate improvement of LVEF. Clinical trials seem to demonstrate a marked reduction in emergency hospitalizations in myoblast treated patients. Many years of careful studies have lead to randomized controlled studies that are enrolling patients now at numerous centers worldwide. A firm conclusion on the safety and efficacy of myoblast transplantation cannot be determined until these randomized studies are completed. Final results from randomized controlled studies should be available soon. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2006;3:165-7.)

  7. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  8. Effects of curcumin and ursolic acid on the mitochondrial coupling efficiency and hydrogen peroxide emission of intact skeletal myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, Daniel J; Harley, Jackson S; Hancock, Chad R

    2017-10-21

    Curcumin may improve blood glucose management, but the mechanism is not fully established. We demonstrated that curcumin (40 μM) reduced the mitochondrial coupling efficiency (percentage of oxygen consumption coupled to ATP synthesis) of intact skeletal muscle cells. A 30-minute pretreatment with curcumin reduced mitochondrial coupling efficiency by 17.0 ± 0.4% relative to vehicle (p Curcumin pretreatment also decreased the rate of hydrogen peroxide emission by 43 ± 13% compared to vehicle (p curcumin revealed a 40 ± 4% increase in the rate of oxygen consumption upon curcumin administration (p curcumin-pretreated cells after permeabilization of cell membranes (p > 0.7). The interaction between curcumin and ursolic acid, another natural compound that may improve blood glucose management, was also examined. Pretreatment with ursolic acid (0.12 μM) increased the mitochondrial coupling efficiency of intact cells by 4.1 ± 1.1% relative to vehicle (p curcumin when the two compounds were used in combination. The observed changes to mitochondrial coupling efficiency and hydrogen peroxide emission were consistent with the established effects of curcumin on blood glucose control. Our findings also show that changes to mitochondrial coupling efficiency after curcumin pretreatment may go undetected unless cells are assessed in the intact condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Galectin-3 and N-acetylglucosamine promote myogenesis and improve skeletal muscle function in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Ann; Dufresne, Sébastien S; St-Pierre, Guillaume; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Nakamura, Haruka; Kikuchi, Yodai; Satoh, Masahiko S; Frenette, Jérôme; Sato, Sachiko

    2018-06-12

    The muscle membrane, sarcolemma, must be firmly attached to the basal lamina. The failure of proper attachment results in muscle injury, which is the underlying cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), in which mutations in the dystrophin gene disrupts the firm adhesion. In patients with DMD, even moderate contraction causes damage, leading to progressive muscle degeneration. The damaged muscles are repaired through myogenesis. Consequently, myogenesis is highly active in patients with DMD, and the repeated activation of myogenesis leads to the exhaustion of the myogenic stem cells. Therefore, approaches to reducing the risk of the exhaustion are to develop a treatment that strengthens the interaction between the sarcolemma and the basal lamina and increases the efficiency of the myogenesis. Galectin-3 is an oligosaccharide-binding protein and is known to be involved in cell-cell interactions and cell-matrix interactions. Galectin-3 is expressed in myoblasts and skeletal muscle, although its function in muscle remains elusive. In this study, we found evidence that galectin-3 and the monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine, which increases the synthesis of binding partners (oligosaccharides) of galectin-3, promote myogenesis in vitro. Moreover, in the mdx mouse model of DMD, treatment with N-acetylglucosamine increased muscle-force production. The results suggest that treatment with N-acetylglucosamine might mitigate the burden of DMD.-Rancourt, A., Dufresne, S. S., St-Pierre, G., Lévesque, J.-C., Nakamura, H., Kikuchi, Y., Satoh, M. S., Frenette, J., Sato, S. Galectin-3 and N-acetylglucosamine promote myogenesis and improve skeletal muscle function in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  10. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  11. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  12. Tenascin-Y, a component of distinctive connective tissues, supports muscle cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagios, C; Brown-Luedi, M; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R

    1999-12-15

    Chicken tenascin-Y is an extracellular matrix protein most closely related to the mammalian tenascin-X. It is highly expressed in the connective tissue of skeletal muscle (C. Hagios, M. Koch, J. Spring, M. Chiquet, and R. Chiquet-Ehrismann, 1996, J. Cell Biol. 134, 1499-1512). Here we demonstrate the presence of tenascin-Y in specific areas of the connective tissues in developing lung, kidney, and skin. In skin tenascin-Y shows a complementary expression pattern to tenascin-C, whereas in the lung and kidney the sites of expression are partly overlapping. Tenascin-Y is also present in embryonic skeletal muscle where it is expressed in the developing connective tissue in between the muscle fibers. This connective tissue is also the major site of alpha5 integrin expression. We purified recombinantly expressed tenascin-Y and tested its effect on cell adhesion and its influence on muscle cell growth and differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were able to adhere to tenascin-Y and showed extensive formation of actin-rich processes without generation of stress fibers. Furthermore, we found that tenascin-Y influenced cell morphology of chick embryo fibroblasts over prolonged times in culture and that it supports primary muscle cell growth and restricts muscle cell differentiation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Interaction of Wnt Signaling with BMP/Smad Signaling during the Transition from Cell Proliferation to Myogenic Differentiation in Mouse Myoblast-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wnt signaling is involved in muscle formation through β-catenin-dependent or -independent pathways, but interactions with other signaling pathways including transforming growth factor β/Smad have not been precisely elucidated. Results. As Wnt4 stimulates myogenic differentiation by antagonizing myostatin (GDF8 activity, we examined the role of Wnt4 signaling during muscle differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast cell line. Among several extrinsic signaling molecules examined in a microarray analysis of C2C12 cells during the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation after mitogen deprivation, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 expression was prominently increased. Wnt4 overexpression had similar effects on BMP4 expression. BMP4 was able to inhibit muscle differentiation when added to the culture medium. BMP4 and noggin had no effects on the cellular localization of β-catenin induced by Wnt3a; however, the BMP4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Wnt4, but not by Wnt3a. The BMP antagonist noggin effectively stimulated muscle differentiation through binding to endogenous BMPs, and the effect of noggin was enhanced by the presence of Wnt3a and Wnt4. Conclusion. These results suggest that BMP/Smad pathways are modified through Wnt signaling during the transition from progenitor cell proliferation to myogenic differentiation, although Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not modified with BMP/Smad signaling.

  14. Low Oxygen Tension Enhances Expression of Myogenic Genes When Human Myoblasts Are Activated from G0 Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nielsen, Joachim; Hejbøl, Eva Kildall

    2016-01-01

    -PCR, immunocytochemistry and western blot. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in proliferation rate of myoblasts when activated at a low oxygen tension (1% O2) compared to 21% O2. In addition, the gene expression studies showed up regulation of the myogenesis related genes PAX3, PAX7, MYOD, MYOG (myogenin), MET......, NCAM, DES (desmin), MEF2A, MEF2C and CDH15 (M-cadherin), however, the fraction of DES and MYOD positive cells was not increased by low oxygen tension, indicating that 1% O2 may not have a functional effect on the myogenic response. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in the TGFβ, Notch...... and Wnt signaling pathways were also up regulated in low oxygen tension. The differences in gene expression were most pronounced at day one after activation from G0-arrest, thus the initial activation of myoblasts seemed most sensitive to changes in oxygen tension. Protein expression of HES1 and β...

  15. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45+ and CD45- skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditte Caroline Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we desc...... a satellite cell subpopulation) remain in the mSPCD45(-) fraction, and we show that these cells express high levels of many of the known myogenic precursor/stem cell related markers, including Pax7 and Myf5.......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  16. Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Kirby, Tyler J; Kosmac, Kate; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-05

    Satellite cells, the predominant stem cell population in adult skeletal muscle, are activated in response to hypertrophic stimuli and give rise to myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds myofibers. This ECM is composed largely of collagens secreted by interstitial fibrogenic cells, which influence satellite cell activity and muscle repair during hypertrophy and aging. Here we show that MPCs interact with interstitial fibrogenic cells to ensure proper ECM deposition and optimal muscle remodeling in response to hypertrophic stimuli. MPC-dependent ECM remodeling during the first week of a growth stimulus is sufficient to ensure long-term myofiber hypertrophy. MPCs secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which represses Rrbp1, a master regulator of collagen biosynthesis, in fibrogenic cells to prevent excessive ECM deposition. These findings provide insights into how skeletal stem and progenitor cells interact with other cell types to actively regulate their extracellular environments for tissue maintenance and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contraction induced secretion of VEGF from skeletal muscle cells is mediated by adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Olsen, Karina; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2010-01-01

    and that the contraction induced secretion of VEGF is partially mediated via adenosine acting on A(2B) adenosine receptors. Moreover, the contraction induced secretion of VEGF protein from muscle is dependent on both PKA and MAPK activation, but only the MAPK pathway appears to be adenosine dependent.......The role of adenosine and contraction for secretion of VEGF in skeletal muscle was investigated in human subjects and rat primary skeletal muscle cells. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the thigh muscle of seven male subjects and dialysate was collected at rest, during infusion of adenosine...... and contraction caused secretion of VEGF (pcontraction induced secretion of VEGF protein was abolished by the A(2B) antagonist enprofyllin and markedly reduced by inhibition of PKA or MAPK. The results demonstrate that adenosine causes secretion of VEGF from human skeletal muscle cells...

  18. HEXIM1 controls satellite cell expansion after injury to regulate skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Chen, Kang; Huang, Bihui; Liu, Min; Cui, Miao; Rozenberg, Inna; Chaqour, Brahim; Pan, Xiaoyue; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The native capacity of adult skeletal muscles to regenerate is vital to the recovery from physical injuries and dystrophic diseases. Currently, the development of therapeutic interventions has been hindered by the complex regulatory network underlying the process of muscle regeneration. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, we identified hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1, also referred to as CLP-1), the inhibitory component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, as a pivotal regulator of skeletal muscle regeneration. Hexim1-haplodeficient muscles exhibited greater mass and preserved function compared with those of WT muscles after injury, as a result of enhanced expansion of satellite cells. Transplanted Hexim1-haplodeficient satellite cells expanded and improved muscle regeneration more effectively than WT satellite cells. Conversely, HEXIM1 overexpression restrained satellite cell proliferation and impeded muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, dissociation of HEXIM1 from P-TEFb and subsequent activation of P-TEFb are required for satellite cell proliferation and the prevention of early myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest a crucial role for the HEXIM1/P-TEFb pathway in the regulation of satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration and identify HEXIM1 as a potential therapeutic target for degenerative muscular diseases. PMID:23023707

  19. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  20. Development of an in vitro potency assay for human skeletal muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Marco; Asim, Faheem; Garczarczyk-Asim, Dorota; Janke, Katrin; Deutsch, Martin; Margreiter, Eva; Troppmair, Jakob; Marksteiner, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Potency is a quantitative measure of the desired biological function of an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) and is a prerequisite for market approval application (MAA). To assess the potency of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (SMDCs), which are currently investigated in clinical trials for the regeneration of skeletal muscle defects, we evaluated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is expressed in skeletal muscle and nervous tissue of all mammals. CD56+ SMDCs were separated from CD56- SMDCs by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and both differentiated in skeletal muscle differentiation medium. AChE activity of in vitro differentiated SMDCs was correlated with CD56 expression, fusion index, cell number, cell doubling numbers, differentiation markers and compared to the clinical efficacy in patients treated with SMDCs against fecal incontinence. CD56- SMDCs did not form multinucleated myotubes and remained low in AChE activity during differentiation. CD56+ SMDCs generated myotubes and increased in AChE activity during differentiation. AChE activity was found to accurately reflect the number of CD56+ SMDCs in culture, their fusion competence, and cell doubling number. In patients with fecal incontinence responding to SMDCs treatment, the improvement of clinical symptoms was positively linked with the AChE activity of the SMDCs injected. AChE activity was found to truly reflect the in vitro differentiation status of SMDCs and to be superior to the mere use of surface markers as it reflects not only the number of myogenic SMDCs in culture but also their fusion competence and population doubling number, thus combining cell quality and quantification of the expected mode of action (MoA) of SMDCs. Moreover, the successful in vitro validation of the assay proves its suitability for routine use. Most convincingly, our results demonstrate a link between clinical efficacy and the AChE activity of the SMDCs preparations used for the treatment of fecal

  1. Akirin1 (Mighty), a novel promyogenic factor regulates muscle regeneration and cell chemotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, Monica Senna; Dyer, Kelly; Bracegirdle, Jeremy; Platt, Leanne; Thomas, Mark; Siriett, Victoria [Functional Muscle Genomics, AgResearch, Hamilton (New Zealand); Kambadur, Ravi [Functional Muscle Genomics, AgResearch, Hamilton (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Sharma, Mridula, E-mail: bchmridu@nus.edu.sg [Functional Muscle Genomics, AgResearch, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-07-15

    Akirin1 (Mighty) is a downstream target gene of myostatin and has been shown to be a promyogenic factor. Although expressed in many tissues, akirin1 is negatively regulated by myostatin specifically in skeletal muscle tissue. In this manuscript we have characterized the possible function of akirin1 in postnatal muscle growth. Molecular and immunohistological analyses indicated that while low levels of akirin1 are associated with quiescent satellite cells (SC), higher levels of akirin1 are detected in activated proliferating SC indicating that akirin1 could be associated with satellite cell activation. In addition to SC, macrophages also express akirin1, and increased expression of akirin1 resulted in more efficient chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts. Akirin1 appears to regulate chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts by reorganising actin cytoskeleton, leading to more efficient lamellipodia formation via a PI3 kinase dependent pathway. Expression analysis during muscle regeneration also indicated that akirin1 expression is detected very early (day 2) in regenerating muscle, and expression gradually peaks to coincide the nascent myotube formation stage of muscle regeneration. Based on these results we propose that akirin1 could be acting as a transducer of early signals of muscle regeneration. Thus, we speculate that myostatin regulates key steps of muscle regeneration including chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, SC activation and migration through akirin1.

  2. Akirin1 (Mighty), a novel promyogenic factor regulates muscle regeneration and cell chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salerno, Monica Senna; Dyer, Kelly; Bracegirdle, Jeremy; Platt, Leanne; Thomas, Mark; Siriett, Victoria; Kambadur, Ravi; Sharma, Mridula

    2009-01-01

    Akirin1 (Mighty) is a downstream target gene of myostatin and has been shown to be a promyogenic factor. Although expressed in many tissues, akirin1 is negatively regulated by myostatin specifically in skeletal muscle tissue. In this manuscript we have characterized the possible function of akirin1 in postnatal muscle growth. Molecular and immunohistological analyses indicated that while low levels of akirin1 are associated with quiescent satellite cells (SC), higher levels of akirin1 are detected in activated proliferating SC indicating that akirin1 could be associated with satellite cell activation. In addition to SC, macrophages also express akirin1, and increased expression of akirin1 resulted in more efficient chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts. Akirin1 appears to regulate chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts by reorganising actin cytoskeleton, leading to more efficient lamellipodia formation via a PI3 kinase dependent pathway. Expression analysis during muscle regeneration also indicated that akirin1 expression is detected very early (day 2) in regenerating muscle, and expression gradually peaks to coincide the nascent myotube formation stage of muscle regeneration. Based on these results we propose that akirin1 could be acting as a transducer of early signals of muscle regeneration. Thus, we speculate that myostatin regulates key steps of muscle regeneration including chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, SC activation and migration through akirin1.

  3. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family

  4. A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Leslie; Kher, Devaki; Lee, Kian Leong; McKernan, Robert; Dumevska, Biljana; Hidalgo, Alejandro; Li, Jia; Yang, Henry; Main, Heather; Ferri, Giulia; Petek, Lisa M; Poellinger, Lorenz; Miller, Daniel G; Gabellini, Davide; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-09-01

    : Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) represents a major unmet clinical need arising from the progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. The dearth of adequate experimental models has severely hampered our understanding of the disease. To date, no treatment is available for FSHD. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) potentially represent a renewable source of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and provide an alternative to invasive patient biopsies. We developed a scalable monolayer system to differentiate hESCs into mature SkMCs within 26 days, without cell sorting or genetic manipulation. Here we show that SkMCs derived from FSHD1-affected hESC lines exclusively express the FSHD pathogenic marker double homeobox 4 and exhibit some of the defects reported in FSHD. FSHD1 myotubes are thinner when compared with unaffected and Becker muscular dystrophy myotubes, and differentially regulate genes involved in cell cycle control, oxidative stress response, and cell adhesion. This cellular model will be a powerful tool for studying FSHD and will ultimately assist in the development of effective treatments for muscular dystrophies. This work describes an efficient and highly scalable monolayer system to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and demonstrates disease-specific phenotypes in SkMCs derived from both embryonic and induced hPSCs affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. This study represents the first human stem cell-based cellular model for a muscular dystrophy that is suitable for high-throughput screening and drug development. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    Full Text Available Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4. Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2 was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes (type I collagen α1 and type I collagen α2 along with myostatin (MSTN, was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new

  6. Tissue Engineered Skeletal Myofibers can Directly "Sense" Gravitational Force Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, J.; DelTatto, M.; Lee, Peter; Meir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term manned space flight requires a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity. Atrophy most likely results from changes at both the systemic level (e.g. decreased circulating growth hormone, increased circulating glucocorticoids) and locally (e.g. decreased myofiber resting tension). Differentiated skeletal myofibers in tissue culture have provided a model system over the last decade for gaining a better understanding of the interactions of exogenous growth factors, endogenous growth factors, and muscle fiber tension in regulating protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Tissue engineering these cells into three dimensional bioartificial muscle (BAM) constructs has allowed us to extend their use to Space flight studies for the potential future development of countermeasures. Embryonic avian muscle cells were isolated and BAMs tissue engineered as described previously. The myoblasts proliferate and fuse into aligned postmitotic myofibers after ten to fourteen days in vitro. A cylindrical muscle-like structure containing several thousand myofibers is formed which is approximately 30 mm in length, 2-3 mm in diameter, and attached at each end. For the Space Shuttle experiments, the BAMs were transferred to 55 mL bioreactor cartridges (6 BAMs/cartridge). At Kennedy Space Center, the cartridges were mounted in two Space Tissue Loss (STL) Modules (three to four cartridges per Module) and either maintained as ground controls or loaded in a Mid-Deck locker of the Space Shuttle. The BAM cartridges were continuously perfused during the experiment at 1.5 mL/ min with tissue culture medium. Eighteen BAMs were flown for nine days on Mission STS66 while eighteen BAMs served as ground controls. The complete experiment was repeated on Mission STS77 with twenty four BAMs in each group. BAMs could be maintained in a healthy state for at least 30 days in the perfusion bioreactor cartridges. The BAM muscle fibers directly detected both the

  7. Muscle satellite cells are functionally impaired in myasthenia gravis: consequences on muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed; Maurer, Marie; Robinet, Marieke; Le Grand, Fabien; Fadel, Elie; Le Panse, Rozen; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease caused in most cases by anti-acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular signal transmission and affect skeletal muscle homeostasis. Myogenesis is carried out by muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs). However, myogenesis in MG had never been explored. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of myasthenic SCs as well as their abilities in muscle regeneration. SCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of MG patients and age-matched controls. We first showed that the number of Pax7+ SCs was increased in muscle sections from MG and its experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) mouse model. Myoblasts isolated from MG muscles proliferate and differentiate more actively than myoblasts from control muscles. MyoD and MyoG were expressed at a higher level in MG myoblasts as well as in MG muscle biopsies compared to controls. We found that treatment of control myoblasts with MG sera or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies increased the differentiation and MyoG mRNA expression compared to control sera. To investigate the functional ability of SCs from MG muscle to regenerate, we induced muscle regeneration using acute cardiotoxin injury in the EAMG mouse model. We observed a delay in maturation evidenced by a decrease in fibre size and MyoG mRNA expression as well as an increase in fibre number and embryonic myosin heavy-chain mRNA expression. These findings demonstrate for the first time the altered function of SCs from MG compared to control muscles. These alterations could be due to the anti-AChR antibodies via the modulation of myogenic markers resulting in muscle regeneration impairment. In conclusion, the autoimmune attack in MG appears to have unsuspected pathogenic effects on SCs and muscle regeneration, with potential consequences on myogenic signalling pathways, and subsequently on clinical outcome, especially in the case of muscle stress.

  8. Skeletal stem cell and bone implant interactions are enhanced by LASER titanium modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisti, Karin E., E-mail: karinellensisti@gmail.com [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Biomaterials Group, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Box 355, Araraquara (Brazil); Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande (Brazil); Andrés, María C. de; Johnston, David [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Almeida-Filho, Edson; Guastaldi, Antonio C. [Biomaterials Group, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Box 355, Araraquara (Brazil); Oreffo, Richard O.C. [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-06

    Purpose: To evaluate the osteo-regenerative potential of Titanium (Ti) modified by Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) beam (Yb-YAG) upon culture with human Skeletal Stem Cells (hSSCs{sup 1}). Methods: Human skeletal cell populations were isolated from the bone marrow of haematologically normal patients undergoing primary total hip replacement following appropriate consent. STRO-1{sup +} hSSC{sup 1} function was examined for 10 days across four groups using Ti discs: i) machined Ti surface group in basal media (Mb{sup 2}), ii) machined Ti surface group in osteogenic media (Mo{sup 3}), iii) LASER-modified Ti group in basal media (Lb{sup 4}) and, iv) LASER-modified Ti group in osteogenic media (Lo{sup 5}). Molecular analysis and qRT-PCR as well as functional analysis including biochemistry (DNA, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP{sup 6}) specific activity), live/dead immunostaining (Cell Tracker Green (CTG{sup 7})/Ethidium Homodimer-1 (EH-1{sup 8})), and fluorescence staining (for vinculin and phalloidin) were undertaken. Inverted, confocal and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) approaches were used to characterise cell adherence, proliferation, and phenotype. Results: Enhanced cell spreading and morphological rearrangement, including focal adhesions were observed following culture of hSSCs{sup 1} on LASER surfaces in both basal and osteogenic conditions. Biochemical analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP{sup 6} specific activity on the hSSCs{sup 1}-seeded on LASER-modified surface in basal culture media. Molecular analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP{sup 6} and osteopontin expression on titanium LASER treated surfaces in basal conditions. SEM, inverted microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed extensive proliferation and migration of human bone marrow stromal cells on all surfaces evaluated. Conclusions: LASER-modified Ti surfaces modify the behaviour of hSSCs.{sup 1} In particular, SSC{sup 1} adhesion, osteogenic gene expression, cell

  9. Primary skeletal muscle myoblasts from chronic heart failure patients exhibit loss of anti-inflammatory and proliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sente, T.; Berendoncks, A.M. Van; Jonckheere, A.I.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Lauwers, P.; Hoof, V. Van; Wouters, A.; Lardon, F.; Hoymans, V.Y.; Vrints, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral skeletal muscle wasting is a common finding with adverse effects in chronic heart failure (HF). Whereas its clinical relevance is beyond doubt, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. We aimed to introduce and characterize the primary culture

  10. Strategies for cell manipulation and skeletal tissue engineering using high-throughput polymer blend formulation and microarray techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ferdous; Tare, Rahul S; Kanczler, Janos M; Oreffo, Richard O C; Bradley, Mark

    2010-03-01

    A combination of high-throughput material formulation and microarray techniques were synergistically applied for the efficient analysis of the biological functionality of 135 binary polymer blends. This allowed the identification of cell-compatible biopolymers permissive for human skeletal stem cell growth in both in vitro and in vivo applications. The blended polymeric materials were developed from commercially available, inexpensive and well characterised biodegradable polymers, which on their own lacked both the structural requirements of a scaffold material and, critically, the ability to facilitate cell growth. Blends identified here proved excellent templates for cell attachment, and in addition, a number of blends displayed remarkable bone-like architecture and facilitated bone regeneration by providing 3D biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. This study demonstrates a unique strategy to generate and identify innovative materials with widespread application in cell biology as well as offering a new reparative platform strategy applicable to skeletal tissues. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Support Culture of Murine Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Improves Their Cardiogenic Potential In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Neef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death in western countries and its burden is increasing worldwide. It typically involves irreversible degeneration and loss of myocardial tissue leading to poor prognosis and fatal outcome. Autologous cells with the potential to regenerate damaged heart tissue would be an ideal source for cell therapeutic approaches. Here, we compared different methods of conditional culture for increasing the yield and cardiogenic potential of murine skeletal muscle-derived stem cells. A subpopulation of nonadherent cells was isolated from skeletal muscle by preplating and applying cell culture conditions differing in support of cluster formation. In contrast to static culture conditions, dynamic culture with or without previous hanging drop preculture led to significantly increased cluster diameters and the expression of cardiac specific markers on the protein and mRNA level. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies revealed similarities to pacemaker action potentials and responsiveness to cardiac specific pharmacological stimuli. This data indicates that skeletal muscle-derived stem cells are capable of adopting enhanced cardiac muscle cell-like properties by applying specific culture conditions. Choosing this route for the establishment of a sustainable, autologous source of cells for cardiac therapies holds the potential of being clinically more acceptable than transgenic manipulation of cells.

  12. An Antibody Blocking Activin Type II Receptors Induces Strong Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Protects from Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Giulia C.; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N.; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings. PMID:24298022

  13. Malignant B-cell lymphoma in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency with short-limbed skeletal dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; Wage, K.; Burggraaf, J. D.; Peters, M.

    1997-01-01

    In an infant with skeletal anomalies and haemolytic disease, intestinal perforation was caused by necrosis of an as yet undetected B-cell lymphoma. Severe combined immunodeficiency with short-limbed skeletal dysplasia was diagnosed. This is the first published report of a patient with this syndrome

  14. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  15. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the pelvis in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Motoi; Machinami, Rikuo; Goto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Aiichiro

    1999-01-01

    We report on a case of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) of the left iliac bone in a 12-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed an aggressive osteolytic lesion with areas of mineralization. Fluid-fluid levels were seen on T2-weighted MR images. Laboratory data showed slight elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. The biopsy specimen showed histological features of CCCS with some resemblance to osteosarcoma, such as prominent irregular osteoid formation among clear tumor cells. Surgical treatment was accomplished without pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Because of the patient's age, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and histopathology with prominent osteoid production, this case could be confused with osteosarcoma. Although CCCS is an extremely rare bone tumor in children, it is important to be aware that it may arise in a skeletally immature patient. CCCS, unlike osteosarcoma, is not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  16. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Christopher P.; Nelson, Scott D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  18. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  19. Reconstruction of radical prostatectomy-induced urethral damage using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Akio; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Akatsuka, Akira; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2008-06-15

    Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) and neurovascular bundle (NVB) is a major operative complication of radical prostatectomy. It is generally recognized to be caused by unavoidable surgical damage to the muscle-nerve-blood vessel units around the urethra. We attempted to treat this damage using skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which are able to reconstitute muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Cells were enzymatically extracted and sorted by flow cytometry as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN) cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and rats. URS-NVB damage was induced by manually removing one-third of the total URS and unilateral invasion of NVB in wild-type Sprague-Dawley and node rats. Freshly isolated Sk-34, Sk-34+Sk-DN cells, and cultured Sk-DN cells were directly transplanted into the damaged portion. At 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation, urethral pressure profile by electrical stimulation through the sacral surface (L6-S1) was evaluated as functional recovery. The recovery ratio in the control and transplanted groups was 37.6% and 72.9%, at 4 weeks, and 41.6% and 78.4% at 12 weeks, respectively (Pcells differentiated into numerous skeletal muscle fibers having neuromuscular junctions (innervation) and nerve bundle-related Schwann cells and perineurium, and blood vessel-related endothelial cells and pericyte around the urethra. Thus, we conclude that transplantation of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of postoperative damage of URS and NVB after radical prostatectomy.

  20. Bimodal effect on pancreatic β-cells of secretory products from normal or insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzakri, Karim; Plomgaard, Peter; Berney, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. This study explored the potential communication between insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle and primary (human and rat) β-cells.......Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. This study explored the potential communication between insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle and primary (human and rat) β-cells....

  1. Effect of nano- and micro-scale topological features on alignment of muscle cells and commitment of myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Soumen; Leung, Matthew; Zhang, Miqin; Chang, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury can lead to severe motor deficits that adversely affect movement and quality of life. Current surgical treatments for skeletal muscle are hindered by the poor formation of organized myotube bundles at the wound site. Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs to date have been unable to generate high degrees of myotube density and alignment. Generating a suitable in vitro tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construct requires the design of a scaffold that recapitulates the structural combination of nanoscale collagen fibrils and aligned microscale basal lamina tracks present in the native extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that a 3D aligned tubular porous scaffold containing aligned nanofibers inside the pores can mimic the native muscle tissue environment. We constructed a laminar section of the hypothesized scaffold with aligned chitosan-PCL nanofibers arranged co-axially with the aligned microscale chitosan scaffold bands to mimic the required myogenic environment. A 6-day study of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells cultured on this hybrid scaffold indicated that the nanofibers and scaffold bands in the scaffold played a synergetic role in directing cell orientation, interaction, migration and organization. Our results showed that aligned nanofibers mediated cell alignment and the aligned scaffold bands induced the formation of a more compact assembly of myotube cells as compared to various control substrates including chitosan films, nanofibers, and chitosan bands. The expression levels of both early and late-stage myogenic differentiation genes associated with myogenin and myosin heavy chain, respectively, were higher on the hybrid substrate than on control substrates. Our study suggests that the combination of nano and microscale topological features in the ECM can direct myogenic differentiation, and the hybrid material has the potential to improve the outcome of skeletal tissue engineering. (papers)

  2. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Repair and Remodelling in Aging: The Importance of Muscle Stem Cells and Vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Sophie; Nederveen, Joshua P; Snijders, Tim; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan. It is well established that SC are essential in skeletal muscle regeneration, and it has been hypothesized that a reduction and/or dysregulation of the SC pool, may contribute to accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass that is observed with advancing age. The preservation of skeletal muscle tissue and its ability to respond to stimuli may be impacted by reduced SC content and impaired function observed with aging. Aging is also associated with a reduction in capillarization of skeletal muscle. We have recently demonstrated that the distance between type II fibre-associated SC and capillaries is greater in older compared to younger adults. The greater distance between SC and capillaries in older adults may contribute to the dysregulation in SC activation ultimately impairing muscle's ability to remodel and, in extreme circumstances, regenerate. This viewpoint will highlight the importance of optimal SC activation in addition to skeletal muscle capillarization to maximize the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in older adults. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Single molecular image of cytosolic free Ca2+ of skeletal muscle cells in rats pre- and post-exercise-induced fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Heming; Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Zhiming

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca2+. The fluorescent of Ca2+ was recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that, the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of cells from the rat of exercise-induced fatigue group was significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue.

  4. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production.

  5. Sodium arsenite represses the expression of myogenin in C2C12 mouse myoblast cells through histone modifications and altered expression of Ezh2, Glp, and Igf-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gia-Ming [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Present address: The University of Chicago, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 900 E. 57th Street, Room 7134, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic is a toxicant commonly found in water systems and chronic exposure can result in adverse developmental effects including increased neonatal death, stillbirths, and miscarriages, low birth weight, and altered locomotor activity. Previous studies indicate that 20 nM sodium arsenite exposure to C2C12 mouse myocyte cells delayed myoblast differentiation due to reduced myogenin expression, the transcription factor that differentiates myoblasts into myotubes. In this study, several mechanisms by which arsenic could alter myogenin expression were examined. Exposing differentiating C2C12 cells to 20 nM arsenic increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) by 3-fold near the transcription start site of myogenin, which is indicative of increased repressive marks, and reduced H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) by 0.5-fold, indicative of reduced permissive marks. Protein expression of Glp or Ehmt1, a H3-K9 methyltransferase, was also increased by 1.6-fold in arsenic-exposed cells. In addition to the altered histone remodeling status on the myogenin promoter, protein and mRNA levels of Igf-1, a myogenic growth factor, were significantly repressed by arsenic exposure. Moreover, a 2-fold induction of Ezh2 expression, and an increased recruitment of Ezh2 (3.3-fold) and Dnmt3a (∼ 2-fold) to the myogenin promoter at the transcription start site (− 40 to + 42), were detected in the arsenic-treated cells. Together, we conclude that the repressed myogenin expression in arsenic-exposed C2C12 cells was likely due to a combination of reduced expression of Igf-1, enhanced nuclear expression and promoter recruitment of Ezh2, and altered histone remodeling status on myogenin promoter (− 40 to + 42). -- Highlights: ► Igf-1 expression is decreased in C2C12 cells after 20 nM arsenite exposure. ► Arsenic exposure alters histone remodeling on the myogenin promoter. ► Glp expression, a H3–K9 methyltransferase, was increased in arsenic-exposed cells. ► Ezh2

  6. Spot light on skeletal muscles: optogenetic stimulation to understand and restore skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bremen, Tobias; Send, Thorsten; Sasse, Philipp; Bruegmann, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential. Herein we summarize the current knowledge about the use of this technology to control skeletal muscle function with the focus on the direct, non-neuronal stimulation of muscle fibers. The high temporal flexibility of using light pulses allows new stimulation patterns to investigate skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, the high spatial precision of focused illumination was shown to be beneficial for selective stimulation of distinct nearby muscle groups. Finally, the cell-type specific expression of the light-sensitive effector proteins in muscle fibers will allow pain-free stimulation and open new options for clinical treatments. Therefore, we believe that direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscles is a very potent method for basic scientists that also harbors several distinct advantages over electrical stimulation to be considered for clinical use in the future.

  7. Glucocorticoid actions on L6 muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, S.R.; Konagaya, M.; Konagaya, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids exert striking catabolic effects on skeletal muscle. The mechanism of these effects remains poorly understood. They employed L6 muscle cells in culture to ascertain whether intracellular glucocorticoid receptors are involved. Studies in vitro permit exploration of glucocorticoid effects in the absence of other hormonal influences. L6 myoblasts were induced to form differentiated myotubes by growth in 1% serum. L6 myotubes were found to possess a high-affinity, limited capacity intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (apparent K/sub D/ = 5 x 10 -10 M; B/sub max/ = 711 pmols/g protein) with ligand specificity similar to that of glucocorticoid receptors from classical glucocorticoid target tissues. Further, [ 3 H] triamcinolone acetonide specific binding to L6 cell homogenates was blocked by a glucocorticoid antagonist, RU38486 (11β-(4-dimethyl-aminophenyl)-17β-hydroxy-17α-(prop-l-ynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one). Dexamethasone (10 -5 M) caused a 10-fold increase in the activity of gluatmine synthetase in L6 myotubes; this increase was prevented by RU38486. Similarly, dexamethasone (10 -5 M) caused a 20% decrease in [ 12 C] leucine incorporation into protein. This effect also was blocked by RU38486. Thus, induction of glutamine synthetase and diminution of protein synthesis by dexamethasone require intracellular glucocorticoid receptors. L6 cells should prove particularly valuable for further studies of glucocorticoid actions on skeletal muscle

  8. Biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions enhance the paracrine function of MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Duda, Georg N; Geissler, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts. We report that compared to MSCs encapsulated in hydrogels, scaffold seeded MSCs show an enhanced secretion profile and exert beneficial paracrine effects on various myoblast functions including migration and proliferation. Additionally, we show that the heightened paracrine effects of scaffold seeded cells can in part be attributed to N-cadherin mediated cell-cell interactions during culture. In hydrogels, this physical interaction between cells is prevented by the encapsulating matrix. Functionally blocking N-cadherin negatively affected the secretion profile and paracrine effects of MSCs on myoblasts, with stronger effects observed for scaffold seeded compared to hydrogel encapsulated cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that the therapeutic potency of MSCs can be enhanced by biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Wang, Ligang; Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy.

  10. Abnormalities of AMPK activation and glucose uptake in cultured skeletal muscle cells from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E Brown

    Full Text Available Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects.Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise.In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16 h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16 h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured.EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets.

  11. A New In Vitro Co-Culture Model Using Magnetic Force-Based Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanari, Hiroki; Miwa, Keiko; Fu, Xianming; Nakai, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ino, Kousuke; Honda, Hiroyuki; Tonomura, Wataru; Konishi, Satoshi; Opthof, Tobias; van der Heyden, Marcel Ag; Kodama, Itsuo; Lee, Jong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myoblast (SkMB) transplantation has been conducted as a therapeutic strategy for severe heart failure. However, arrhythmogenicity following transplantation remains unsolved. We developed an in vitro model of myoblast transplantation with "patterned" or "randomly-mixed" co-culture of SkMBs

  12. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Charifi, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...

  13. NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 Regulatory Circuitry in Skeletal Myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huating; Garzon, Ramiro; Sun, Hao; Ladner, Katherine J.; Singh, Ravi; Dahlman, Jason; Cheng, Alfred; Hall, Brett M.; Qualman, Stephen J.; Chandler, Dawn S.; Croce, Carlo M.; Guttridge, Denis C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies support the importance of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe the regulation and function of miR-29 in myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Results demonstrate that in myoblasts miR-29 is repressed by NF-κB acting through YY1 and the Polycomb. During myogenesis, NF-κB and YY1 downregulation causes derepression of miR-29, which in turn accelerates differentiation by targeting its repressor YY1. However, in RMS cells and primary tumors that possess impaired differentiation, miR-29 is epigenetically silenced by an activated NF-κB-YY1 pathway. Reconstitution of miR-29 in RMS in mice inhibits tumor growth and stimulates differentiation, suggesting that miR-29 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-myogenic function. Together, results identify a NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 regulatory circuit whose disruption may contribute to RMS. SIGNIFICANCE MicroRNAs regulate skeletal myogenesis, but their impact in muscle diseases is not well understood. Here we describe miR-29 as an enhancer of myogenic differentiation and a suppressor of RMS. We find that miR-29 exists in a regulatory circuit involving NF-κB and YY1. In myoblasts NF-B acts through YY1 to epigenetically suppress miR-29, while during differentiation miR-29 is induced to facilitate myogenesis by a negative feedback on YY1. Significantly, RMS tumors lose miR-29 due to an elevation in NF-B and YY1, and readjustment of miR-29 levels in RMS stimulates differentiation. Thus, myogenesis is dependent on NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 circuitry whose dysfunction may contribute to RMS pathogenesis. Such findings offer potential avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of muscle relevant cancers. PMID:18977326

  14. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  15. MicroRNA, miR-374b, directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates C2C12 myoblasts differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaorui; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo, E-mail: zuobo@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    Myogenesis is a complex process including myoblast proliferation, differentiation and myotube formation and is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MyoD, MyoG, Myf5 and Myf6 (also known as MRF4). MicroRNA is a kind of ∼22 nt-long non-coding small RNAs, and act as key transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Identification of miRNAs involved in the regulation of muscle genes could improve our understanding of myogenesis process. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Myf6 gene by miRNAs. We showed that miR-374b specifically bound to the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of Myf6 and down-regulated the expression of Myf6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, miR-374b is ubiquitously expressed in the tissues of adult C57BL6 mouse, and the mRNA abundance increases first and then decreases during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. Over-expression of miR-374b impaired C2C12 cell differentiation, while inhibiting miR-374b expression by 2′-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings identified miR-374b directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates myogenesis. - Highlights: • MiR-374b directly targets 3′UTR of Myf6. • MiR-374b negatively regulates Myf6 in C2C12 cells. • MiR-374b abundance significiently changes during C2C12 cells differentiation. • MiR-374b negatively regulates C2C12 cells differentiation.

  16. Vitamin K2 improves proliferation and migration of bovine skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Sissel Beate; Pedersen, Mona Elisabeth; Berg, Ragnhild Stenberg; Kirkhus, Bente; Rødbotten, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate, however, during ageing or disease, the proliferative capacity is reduced, leading to loss of muscle function. We have previously demonstrated the presence of vitamin K2 in bovine skeletal muscles, but whether vitamin K has a role in muscle regulation and function is unknown. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to assess a potential effect of vitamin K2 (MK-4) during myogenesis of muscle cells. Cell viability experiments demonstrate that the amount of ATP produced by the cells was unchanged when MK-4 was added, indicating viable cells. Cytotoxicity analysis show that MK-4 reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the media, suggesting that MK-4 was beneficial to the muscle cells. Cell migration, proliferation and differentiation was characterised after MK-4 incubation using wound scratch analysis, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Adding MK-4 to the cells led to an increased muscle proliferation, increased gene expression of the myogenic transcription factor myod as well as increased cell migration. In addition, we observed a reduction in the fusion index and relative gene expression of muscle differentiation markers, with fewer complex myotubes formed in MK-4 stimulated cells compared to control cells, indicating that the MK-4 plays a significant role during the early phases of muscle proliferation. Likewise, we see the same pattern for the relative gene expression of collagen 1A, showing increased gene expression in proliferating cells, and reduced expression in differentiating cells. Our results also suggest that MK-4 incubation affect low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) with a peak in gene expression after 45 min of MK-4 incubation. Altogether, our experiments show that MK-4 has a positive effect on muscle cell migration and

  17. Influence of exercise and aging on extracellular matrix composition in the skeletal muscle stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Koyal; Boppart, Marni D

    2016-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is endowed with a remarkable capacity for regeneration, primarily due to the reserve pool of muscle resident satellite cells. The satellite cell is the physiologically quiescent muscle stem cell that resides beneath the basal lamina and adjacent to the sarcolemma. The anatomic location of satellite cells is in close proximity to vasculature where they interact with other muscle resident stem/stromal cells (e.g., mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes) through paracrine mechanisms. This mini-review describes the components of the muscle stem cell niche, as well as the influence of exercise and aging on the muscle stem cell niche. Although exercise promotes ECM reorganization and stem cell accumulation, aging is associated with dense ECM deposition and loss of stem cell function resulting in reduced regenerative capacity and strength. An improved understanding of the niche elements will be valuable to inform the development of therapeutic interventions aimed at improving skeletal muscle regeneration and adaptation over the life span. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Spectrum of musculo-skeletal disorders in sickle cell disease in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Ogo Chidiebere N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a common genetic disease in Nigeria. Past studies from West Africa focused on isolated aspects of its medical and surgical presentations. To the best of our knowledge, the musculo-skeletal presentations amongst Nigerians with SCA have not been documented in a single all encompassing study. This work aims to prospectively document the musculo-skeletal disease burden among SCA patients. Methods In a prospective study of 318 consecutive patients with genotype-confirmed SCA at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, the musculo-skeletal pathologies, anatomic sites, grade of disease, age at presentation and management outcome were recorded over a one-year period. Data obtained were analyzed using Epi-Info software version 6.0. Data are presented as frequencies (% and mean values (SD as appropriate. Results The HbSS genotype occurred in 296 (93.0%, while 22 (7.0% were HbSC. 100 (31.4% patients with average presenting haemoglobin concentration of 8.2 g/100 ml in the study group, presented with 131 musculo-skeletal pathologies in 118 anatomic sites. Osteomyelitis 31 (31% and septic arthritis 19 (19% were most commonly observed in children less than 10 years. Skin ulcers and avascular necrosis (AVN occurred predominantly in the older age groups, with frequencies of 13 (13.0% and 26 (26.0% respectively. 20 (71.5% of diagnosed cases of AVN presented with radiological grade 4 disease. The lower limbs were involved in 84 (71.1% of sites affected. Lesions involving the spine were rare 11 (0.9%. Multiple presentations occurred in 89 (28.0% of patients; 62 (69.7% of which were children below 10 years. Conclusions Musculo-skeletal complications are common features of sickle cell anaemia seen in 31.4%. Infectious aetiologies predominate with long bones and joints of lower limbs more commonly affected by osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Healthcare providers managing SCA should be aware of the potential

  19. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles and Muscle-Abundant miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206 in C2C12 Myocytes and mdx Mice.

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    Yasunari Matsuzaka

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. Here, we show that the CD63 antigen, which is located on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs, is associated with increased levels of muscle-abundant miRNAs, namely myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206, in the sera of DMD patients and mdx mice. Furthermore, the release of EVs from the murine myoblast C2C12 cell line was found to be modulated by intracellular ceramide levels in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Next, to investigate the effects of EVs on cell survival, C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes were cultured with EVs from the sera of mdx mice or C2C12 cells overexpressing myomiRs in presence of cellular stresses. Both the exposure of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes to EVs from the serum of mdx mice, and the overexpression of miR-133a in C2C12 cells in presence of cellular stress resulted in a significant decrease in cell death. Finally, to assess whether miRNAs regulate skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo, we intraperitoneally injected GW4869 (an inhibitor of exosome secretion into mdx mice for 5 and 10 days. Levels of miRNAs and creatine kinase in the serum of GW4869-treated mdx mice were significantly downregulated compared with those of controls. The tibialis anterior muscles of the GW4869-treated mdx mice showed a robust decrease in Evans blue dye uptake. Collectively, these results indicate that EVs and myomiRs might protect the skeletal muscle of mdx mice from degeneration.

  20. Edible Scaffolds Based on Non-Mammalian Biopolymers for Myoblast Growth

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    Javier Enrione

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro meat has recently emerged as a new concept in food biotechnology. Methods to produce in vitro meat generally involve the growth of muscle cells that are cultured on scaffolds using bioreactors. Suitable scaffold design and manufacture are critical to downstream culture and meat production. Most current scaffolds are based on mammalian-derived biomaterials, the use of which is counter to the desire to obviate mammal slaughter in artificial meat production. Consequently, most of the knowledge is related to the design and control of scaffold properties based on these mammalian-sourced materials. To address this, four different scaffold materials were formulated using non-mammalian sources, namely, salmon gelatin, alginate, and additives including gelling agents and plasticizers. The scaffolds were produced using a freeze-drying process, and the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the scaffolds were evaluated. The most promising scaffolds were produced from salmon gelatin, alginate, agarose, and glycerol, which exhibited relatively large pore sizes (~200 μm diameter and biocompatibility, permitting myoblast cell adhesion (~40% and growth (~24 h duplication time. The biodegradation profiles of the scaffolds were followed, and were observed to be less than 25% after 4 weeks. The scaffolds enabled suitable myogenic response, with high cell proliferation, viability, and adequate cell distribution throughout. This system composed of non-mammalian edible scaffold material and muscle-cells is promising for the production of in vitro meat.

  1. A New In Vitro Co-Culture Model Using Magnetic Force-Based Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanari, Hiroki; Miwa, Keiko; Fu, Xian Ming; Nakai, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ino, Kousuke; Honda, Hiroyuki; Tonomura, Wataru; Konishi, Satoshi; Opthof, Tobias; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kodama, Itsuo; Lee, Jong Kook

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myoblast (SkMB) transplantation has been conducted as a therapeutic strategy for severe heart failure. However, arrhythmogenicity following transplantation remains unsolved. We developed an in vitro model of myoblast transplantation with “patterned” or “randomly-mixed” co-culture of SkMBs

  2. Concise review: bridging the gap: bone regeneration using skeletal stem cell-based strategies-where are we now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Jonathan I; Kanczler, Janos; Kassem, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal stem cells confer to bone its innate capacity for regeneration and repair. Bone regeneration strategies seek to harness and enhance this regenerative capacity for the replacement of tissue damaged or lost through congenital defects, trauma, functional/esthetic problems, and a broad range...... for musculoskeletal regeneration. Stem Cells 2014;32:35-44...... of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo expansion...

  3. Evaluation of the effects of different culture media on the myogenic differentiation potential of adipose tissue- or bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern-Straeter, Jens; Bonaterra, Gabriel Alejandro; Juritz, Stephanie; Birk, Richard; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart; Bieback, Karen; Bugert, Peter; Schultz, Johannes; Hörmann, Karl; Kinscherf, Ralf; Faber, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The creation of functional muscles/muscle tissue from human stem cells is a major goal of skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fat/adipose tissue (AT-MSCs), as well as bone marrow (BM-MSCs) have been shown to bear myogenic potential, which makes them candidate stem cells for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to analyse the myogenic differentiation potential of human AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs cultured in six different cell culture media containing different mixtures of growth factors. The following cell culture media were used in our experiments: mesenchymal stem cell growth medium (MSCGM)™ as growth medium, MSCGM + 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), skeletal muscle myoblast cell growth medium (SkGM)-2 BulletKit™, and 5, 30 and 50% conditioned cell culture media, i.e., supernatant of human satellite cell cultures after three days in cell culture mixed with MSCGM. Following the incubation of human AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs for 0, 4, 8, 11, 16 or 21 days with each of the cell culture media, cell proliferation was measured using the alamarBlue® assay. Myogenic differentiation was evaluated by quantitative gene expression analyses, using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemical staining (ICC), using well-defined skeletal markers, such as desmin (DES), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myosin, heavy chain 8, skeletal muscle, perinatal (MYH8), myosin, heavy chain 1, skeletal muscle, adult (MYH1) and skeletal muscle actin-α1 (ACTA1). The highest proliferation rates were observed in the AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs cultured with SkGM-2 BulletKit medium. The average proliferation rate was higher in the AT-MSCs than in the BM-MSCs, taking all six culture media into account. qRT-PCR revealed the expression levels of the myogenic markers, ACTA1, MYH1 and MYH8, in the AT-MSC cell cultures, but not in the BM-MSC cultures. The muscle-specific intermediate filament, DES, was only detected (by ICC) in the AT-MSCs, but not in the BM

  4. Regulatory T cells and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Pereira, Marcelo G; Ciciliot, Stefano; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2017-02-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration results from the activation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells, called satellite cells, located beneath the basal lamina of the muscle fibers. Inflammatory and immune cells have a crucial role in the regeneration process. Acute muscle injury causes an immediate transient wave of neutrophils followed by a more persistent infiltration of M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/proregenerative) macrophages. New studies show that injured muscle is also infiltrated by a specialized population of regulatory T (Treg) cells, which control both the inflammatory response, by promoting the M1-to-M2 switch, and the activation of satellite cells. Treg cells accumulate in injured muscle in response to specific cytokines, such as IL-33, and promote muscle growth by releasing growth factors, such as amphiregulin. Muscle repair during aging is impaired due to reduced number of Treg cells and can be enhanced by IL-33 supplementation. Migration of Treg cells could also contribute to explain the effect of heterochronic parabiosis, whereby muscle regeneration of aged mice can be improved by a parabiotically linked young partners. In mdx dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, muscle injury, and inflammation is mitigated by expansion of the Treg-cell population but exacerbated by Treg-cell depletion. These findings support the notion that immunological mechanisms are not only essential in the response to pathogenic microbes and tumor cells but also have a wider homeostatic role in tissue repair, and open new perspectives for boosting muscle growth in chronic muscle disease and during aging. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Delta-like 1 homolog (dlk1): a marker for rhabdomyosarcomas implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Davis, Erica E

    2013-01-01

    of the myosin light chain promotor, and detected an early, enhanced formation of myotubes in Dlk1 transgenic mice. We then stably transfected the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, with full-length Dlk1 (soluble A variant) and detected an inhibition of myotube formation, which could be reversed by adding Dlk1...... antibody to the culture supernatant. These results suggest that Dlk1 is involved in controlling the myogenic programme and that the various splice forms may exert different effects. Interestingly, both in the Dlk1 transgenic mice and the DLK1-C2C12 cells, we detected reduced myostatin expression......, suggesting that the effect of Dlk1 on the myogenic programme might involve the myostatin signaling pathway. In support of a relationship between Dlk1 and myostatin we detected reciprocal expression of these two transcripts during different cell cycle stages of human myoblasts. Together our results suggest...

  6. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress affects GLUT4 expression via activating transcription factor 6 in rat and human skeletal muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raciti, G A; Iadicicco, C; Ulianich, L

    2010-01-01

    Glucosamine, generated during hyperglycaemia, causes insulin resistance in different cells. Here we sought to evaluate the possible role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine in skeletal muscle cells.......Glucosamine, generated during hyperglycaemia, causes insulin resistance in different cells. Here we sought to evaluate the possible role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine in skeletal muscle cells....

  7. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal and Mesenchymal) Stem-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M.; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S.; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  8. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45(+) and CD45(-) skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvistgaard; Jensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    transcripts associated with endothelial cells, Notch signaling and myogenic precursors. By comparing the mRNA signatures of mSPs with those of adipose tissue-derived SP populations, a common endothelial component seemed to reside in both muscle and fat-derived SPCD45(-) entities. However, each SP subset......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  9. Interaction and cystogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii within skeletal muscle cells in vitro

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    Erick Vaz Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals. To prevent human infection, all meat should be well cooked before consumption, since the parasite is present in skeletal muscle. In this context, the use of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs as a cellular model opens up new approaches to investigate T. gondii-host cell interactions. Immunofluorescent detection of proteins that are stage-specific for bradyzoites indicated that complete cystogenesis of T. gondii in in vitro cultures of SkMCs occurs after 96 h of infection. Ultrastructural analysis showed that, after 48 h of interaction, there were alterations on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, including greater thickness and increased electron density at the inner face of the membrane. The present study demonstrates the potential use of primary cultures of SkMCs to evaluate different molecular aspects of T. gondii invasion and cystogenesis and presents a promising in vitro model for the screening of drug activities toward tissue cysts and bradyzoites.

  10. ADAM 12 protease induces adipogenesis in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Xu, Xiufeng; Tajima, Rie

    2002-01-01

    ADAM 12 (meltrin-alpha) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. ADAM 12 functions as an active metalloprotease, supports cell adhesion, and has been implicated in myoblast differentiation and fusion. Human ADAM 12 exists in two forms: the prototype membrane-anchored pr......ADAM 12 (meltrin-alpha) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. ADAM 12 functions as an active metalloprotease, supports cell adhesion, and has been implicated in myoblast differentiation and fusion. Human ADAM 12 exists in two forms: the prototype membrane......-anchored protein, ADAM 12-L, and a shorter secreted form, ADAM 12-S. Here we report the occurrence of adipocytes in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice in which overexpression of either form is driven by the muscle creatine kinase promoter. Cells expressing a marker of early adipogenesis were apparent...

  11. The fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into immunocompetent neonatal mice: implications for skeletal gene therapy via stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyibizi, Christopher; Wang, Sujing; Mi, Zhibao; Robbins, Paul D

    2004-06-01

    To explore the feasibility of skeletal gene and cell therapies, we transduced murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a retrovirus carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein and zeocin-resistance genes prior to transplantation into 2-day-old immunocompetent neonatal mice. Whole-body imaging of the recipient mice at 7 days post-systemic cell injection demonstrated a wide distribution of the cells in vivo. Twenty-five days posttransplantation, most of the infused cells were present in the lung as assessed by examination of the cells cultured from the lungs of the recipient mice. The cells persisted in lung and maintained a high level of gene expression and could be recovered from the recipient mice at 150 days after cell transplantation. A significant number of GFP-positive cells were also present in the bones of the recipient mice at 35 days post-cell transplantation. Recycling of the cells recovered from femurs of the recipient mice at 25 days posttransplantation by repeated injections into different neonatal mice resulted in the isolation of a clone of cells that was detected in bone and cartilage, but not in lung and liver after systemic injection. These data demonstrate that MSCs persist in immunocompetent neonatal mice, maintain a high level of gene expression, and may participate in skeletal growth and development of the recipient animals.

  12. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  13. Adult Murine Skeletal Muscle Contains Cells That Can Differentiate into Beating Cardiomyocytes In Vitro

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    Winitsky Steve O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  14. Adult murine skeletal muscle contains cells that can differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O Winitsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  15. MT1-MMP and type II collagen specify skeletal stem cells and their bone and cartilage progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabova, L.; Yamada, S.S.; Wimer, H.

    2009-01-01

    -expressing cells of the skeleton rescues not only diminished chondrocyte proliferation, but surprisingly, also results in amelioration of the severe skeletal dysplasia associated with MT1-MMP deficiency through enhanced bone formation. Consistent with this increased bone formation, type II collagen was identified...... from nontransgenic MT1-MMP-deficient littermates. These observations show that type II collagen is not stringently confined to the chondrocyte but is expressed in skeletal stem/progenitor cells (able to regenerate bone, cartilage, myelosupportive stroma, marrow adipocytes) and in the chondrogenic...

  16. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regeneration: interplay between the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanou, Nadège; Gailly, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Adult skeletal muscle can regenerate in response to muscle damage. This ability is conferred by the presence of myogenic stem cells called satellite cells. In response to stimuli such as injury or exercise, these cells become activated and express myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), i.e., transcription factors of the myogenic lineage including Myf5, MyoD, myogenin, and Mrf4 to proliferate and differentiate into myofibers. The MRF family of proteins controls the transcription of important muscle-specific proteins such as myosin heavy chain and muscle creatine kinase. Different growth factors are secreted during muscle repair among which insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are the only ones that promote both muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and that play a key role in muscle regeneration and hypertrophy. Different isoforms of IGFs are expressed during muscle repair: IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb, or IGF-IEc (also known as mechano growth factor, MGF) and IGF-II. MGF is expressed first and is observed in satellite cells and in proliferating myoblasts whereas IGF-Ia and IGF-II expression occurs at the state of muscle fiber formation. Interestingly, several studies report the induction of MRFs in response to IGFs stimulation. Inversely, IGFs expression may also be regulated by MRFs. Various mechanisms are proposed to support these interactions. In this review, we describe the general process of muscle hypertrophy and regeneration and decipher the interactions between the two groups of factors involved in the process.

  17. Protective effect of Rhus coriaria fruit extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in muscle progenitors and zebrafish embryos

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    Fadia Najjar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits. The composition of sumac ethyl acetate EtOAc fraction was studied by 1H NMR. The viability of human myoblasts treated with CE and the EtOAc fraction was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Oxidative stress, cell cycle and adhesion were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Results The EtOAc fraction (IC50 2.57 µg/mL had the highest antioxidant activity and exhibited the best protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It also restored cell adhesion. This effect was mediated by superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase. Pre-treatment of zebrafish embryos with low concentrations of the EtOAc fraction protected them from hydrogen peroxide-induced death in vivo. 1H NMR analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid in this fraction. Conclusion Rhus coriaria extracts inhibited or slowed down the progress of skeletal muscle atrophy by decreasing oxidative stress via superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase-dependent mechanisms.

  18. Zinc stimulates glucose oxidation and glycemic control by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in human and mouse skeletal muscle cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Shaghayegh; Adulcikas, John; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Myers, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is a metal ion that is an essential cell signaling molecule. Highlighting this, zinc is an insulin mimetic, activating cellular pathways that regulate cellular homeostasis and physiological responses. Previous studies have linked dysfunctional zinc signaling with several disease states including cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The present study evaluated the insulin-like effects of zinc on cell signaling molecules including tyrosine, PRSA40, Akt, ERK1/2, SHP-2, GSK-3β and p38, and glucose oxidation in human and mouse skeletal muscle cells. Insulin and zinc independently led to the phosphorylation of these proteins over a 60-minute time course in both mouse and human skeletal muscle cells. Similarly, utilizing a protein array we identified that zinc could active the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and GSK-3B in human and ERK1/2 and GSK-3B in mouse skeletal muscle cells. Glucose oxidation assays were performed on skeletal muscle cells treated with insulin, zinc, or a combination of both and resulted in a significant induction of glucose consumption in mouse (pzinc alone. Insulin, as expected, increased glucose oxidation in mouse (pzinc and insulin did not augment glucose consumption in these cells. Zinc acts as an insulin mimetic, activating key molecules implicated in cell signaling to maintain glucose homeostasis in mouse and human skeletal muscle cells. Zinc is an important metal ion implicated in several biological processes. The role of zinc as an insulin memetic in activating key signaling molecules involved in glucose homeostasis could provide opportunities to utilize this ion therapeutically in treating disorders associated with dysfunctional zinc signaling.

  19. Telmisartan ameliorates insulin sensitivity by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in skeletal muscle of obese db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiota Asuka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telmisartan is a well-established angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker that improves insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance, as well as in humans. Telmisartan has been reported to function as a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, which is also targeted by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD-dependent deacetylase (SIRT1. Here, we investigated the pathways through which telmisartan acts on skeletal muscle, in vitro as well as in vivo. Methods Nine-week-old male db/db mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet, with orally administrated either vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose, CMC, 5 mg/kg telmisartan, or 5 mg/kg telmisartan and 1 mg/kg GW9662, a selective irreversible antagonist of PPARγ, for 5 weeks. Effects of telmisartan on Sirt1 mRNA, AMPK phosphorylation, and NAD+/NADH ratio were determined in C2C12 cultured myocytes. Results and discussion Telmisartan treatment improved insulin sensitivity in obese db/db mice fed a high-fat diet and led to reduction in the size of hypertrophic pancreatic islets in these mice. Moreover, in vitro treatment with telmisartan led to increased expression of Sirt1 mRNA in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells; the increase in Sirt1 mRNA in telmisartan-treated C2C12 myoblasts occurred concomitantly with an increase in AMPK phosphorylation, an increase in NAD+/NADH ratio, and increases in the mRNA levels of PGC1α, FATP1, ACO, and GLUT4. Conclusions Our results indicate that telmisartan acts through a PPARγ-independent pathway, but at least partially exerts its effects by acting directly on skeletal muscle AMPK/SIRT1 pathways.

  20. The use of mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells for treatment of degenerative diseases: current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Human bone marrow derived-mesenchymal (skeletal) stem (MSC) cells are a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells residing in the perivascular niches in bone marrow. These cells have the capacity to differentiate mainly into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes and pos...

  1. Cobalt triggers necrotic cell death and atrophy in skeletal C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovetta, Francesca; Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Faggi, Fiorella; Catalani, Simona; Apostoli, Pietro; Fanzani, Alessandro; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Severe poisoning has recently been diagnosed in humans having hip implants composed of cobalt–chrome alloys due to the release of particulate wear debris on polyethylene and ceramic implants which stimulates macrophagic infiltration and destroys bone and soft tissue, leading to neurological, sensorial and muscular impairments. Consistent with this premise, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Co(II) ions on skeletal muscle using mouse skeletal C2C12 myotubes as an in vitro model. As detected using propidium iodide incorporation, increasing CoCl 2 doses (from 5 to 200 μM) affected the viability of C2C12 myotubes, mainly by cell necrosis, which was attenuated by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of the necroptotic branch of the death domain receptor signaling pathway. On the other hand, apoptosis was hardly detectable as supported by the lack of caspase-3 and -8 activation, the latter resulting in only faint activation after exposure to higher CoCl 2 doses for prolonged time points. Furthermore, CoCl 2 treatment resulted in atrophy of the C2C12 myotubes which was characterized by the increased expression of HSP25 and GRP94 stress proteins and other typical 'pro-atrophic molecular hallmarks, such as early activation of the NF-kB pathway and down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation, followed by the activation of the proteasome and autophagy systems. Overall, these results suggested that cobalt may impact skeletal muscle homeostasis as an inducer of cell necrosis and myofiber atrophy. - Highlights: • The effects of cobalt on muscle myofibers in vitro were investigated. • Cobalt treatment mainly causes cell necrosis in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. • Cobalt impacts the PI3K/AKT and NFkB pathways and induces cell stress markers. • Cobalt induce