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Sample records for sk channel activity

  1. Selective activation of heteromeric SK channels contributes to action potential repolarization in mouse atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jane M; Weatherall, Kate L; Choisy, Stéphanie C; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C; Marrion, Neil V

    2015-05-01

    Activation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels is proposed to contribute to repolarization of the action potential in atrial myocytes. This role is controversial, as these cardiac SK channels appear to exhibit an uncharacteristic pharmacology. The objectives of this study were to resolve whether activation of SK channels contributes to atrial action potential repolarization and to determine the likely subunit composition of the channel. The effect of 2 SK channel inhibitors was assessed on outward current evoked in voltage clamp and on action potential duration in perforated patch and whole-cell current clamp recording from acutely isolated mouse atrial myocytes. The presence of SK channel subunits was assessed using immunocytochemistry. A significant component of outward current was reduced by the SK channel blockers apamin and UCL1684. Block by apamin displayed a sensitivity indicating that this current was carried by homomeric SK2 channels. Action potential duration was significantly prolonged by UCL1684, but not by apamin. This effect was accompanied by an increase in beat-to-beat variability and action potential triangulation. This pharmacology was matched by that of expressed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels in HEK293 cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that atrial myocytes express both SK2 and SK3 channels with an overlapping expression pattern. Only proposed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels are physiologically activated to contribute to action potential repolarization, which is indicated by the difference in pharmacology of evoked outward current and prolongation of atrial action potential duration. The effect of blocking this channel on the action potential suggests that SK channel inhibition during cardiac function has the potential to be proarrhythmic. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are voltage-insensitive channels that have been identified molecularly within the last few years. As SK channels play a fundamental role in most excitable cells and participate in afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike-frequency adapt...... at concentrations of 3 microM and above. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressive widely used clinically, inhibits SK3 channels with an IC50 of 39.1 +/- 10 microM (n=6)....

  3. Distribution, expression and functional effects of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Karen; Floyd, Rachel; Shmygol, Andre; Shmygol, Anatoly; Mobasheri, A; Wray, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels are important in a variety of smooth muscles, contributing to excitability and contractility. In the myometrium previous work has focussed on the large conductance channels (BK), and the role of small conductance channels (SK) has received scant attention, despite the finding that over-expression of an SK channel isoform (SK3) results in uterine dysfunction and delayed parturition. This study therefore characterises the expression of the three SK channel isoforms (SK1-3) in rat myometrium throughout pregnancy and investigates their effect on cytosolic [Ca] and force and compares this with that of BK channels. Consistent expression of all SK isoform transcripts and clear immunostaining of SK1-3 was found. Inhibition of SK1-3 channels (apamin, scyllatoxin) significantly inhibited outward current, caused membrane depolarisation and elicited action potentials in previously quiescent cells. Apamin or scyllatoxin increased the amplitude of [Ca] and force in spontaneously contracting myometrial strips throughout gestation. The functional effect of SK inhibition was larger than that of BK channel inhibition. Thus we show for the first time that SK1-3 channels are expressed and translated throughout pregnancy and contribute to outward current, regulate membrane potential and hence Ca signals in pregnant rat myometrium. They contribute more to quiescence that BK channels. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NS309 decreases rat detrusor smooth muscle membrane potential and phasic contractions by activating SK3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Shankar P; Hristov, Kiril L; Soder, Rupal P; Kellett, Whitney F; Petkov, Georgi V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Overactive bladder (OAB) is often associated with abnormally increased detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions. We used NS309, a selective and potent opener of the small or intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK or IK, respectively) channels, to evaluate how SK/IK channel activation modulates DSM function. Experimental Approach We employed single-cell RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, whole cell patch-clamp in freshly isolated rat DSM cells and isometric tension recordings of isolated DSM strips to explore how the pharmacological activation of SK/IK channels with NS309 modulates DSM function. Key Results We detected SK3 but not SK1, SK2 or IK channels expression at both mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in DSM single cells. NS309 (10 μM) significantly increased the whole cell SK currents and hyperpolarized DSM cell resting membrane potential. The NS309 hyperpolarizing effect was blocked by apamin, a selective SK channel inhibitor. NS309 inhibited the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, force, frequency, duration and tone of isolated DSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of NS309 on spontaneous phasic contractions was blocked by apamin but not by TRAM-34, indicating no functional role of the IK channels in rat DSM. NS309 also significantly inhibited the pharmacologically and electrical field stimulation-induced DSM contractions. Conclusions and Implications Our data reveal that SK3 channel is the main SK/IK subtype in rat DSM. Pharmacological activation of SK3 channels with NS309 decreases rat DSM cell excitability and contractility, suggesting that SK3 channels might be potential therapeutic targets to control OAB associated with detrusor overactivity. PMID:23145946

  5. SK2 channel expression and function in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosy, Eric; Piochon, Claire; Teuling, Eva; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Hansel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) regulate the excitability of neurons and their responsiveness to synaptic input patterns. SK channels contribute to the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following action potential bursts, and curtail excitatory postsynaptic potentials

  6. The small neurotoxin apamin blocks not only small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (SK type) but also the voltage dependent Kv1.3 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Patrick; Yazar, Mehtap; Lautenschläger, René; Rauh, Oliver; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Apamin is frequently used as a specific blocker of small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated (SK type) K + channels. Here we show that the small neurotoxin is not as specific as anticipated. It is also a high-affinity inhibitor with an IC 50 of 13 nM of the Kv1.3 channel; it blocks the latter with potency similar to the Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1. Since SK type channels and Kv1.3 channels are frequently coexpressed in different tissues such as cells of the immune system, apamin must be used with caution as a pharmacological tool.

  7. Activation of KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels attenuates enhanced calcium influx and inflammatory cytokine production in activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolga, Amalia M; Letsche, Till; Gold, Maike; Doti, Nunzianna; Bacher, Michael; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Dodel, Richard; Culmsee, Carsten

    2012-12-01

    In neurons, small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2) channels maintain calcium homeostasis after N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, thereby preventing excitotoxic neuronal death. So far, little is known about the function of KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels in non-neuronal cells, such as microglial cells. In this study, we addressed the question whether KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels activation affected inflammatory responses of primary mouse microglial cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. We found that N-cyclohexyl-N-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine (CyPPA), a positive pharmacological activator of KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels, significantly reduced LPS-stimulated activation of microglia in a concentration-dependent manner. The general KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel blocker apamin reverted these effects of CyPPA on microglial proliferation. Since calcium plays a central role in microglial activation, we further addressed whether KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel activation affected the changes of intracellular calcium levels, [Ca(2+)](i), in microglial cells. Our data show that LPS-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) was attenuated following activation of KCNN2/3/K(Ca)2.2/K(Ca)2.3 channels by CyPPA. Furthermore, CyPPA reduced downstream events including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 cytokine production and nitric oxide release in activated microglia. Further, we applied specific peptide inhibitors of the KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel subtypes to identify which particular channel subtype mediated the observed anti-inflammatory effects. Only inhibitory peptides targeting KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels, but not KCNN2/SK2/K(Ca)2.2 channel inhibition, reversed the CyPPA-effects on LPS-induced microglial proliferation. These findings revealed that KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels can modulate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Thus, KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels may serve as a therapeutic target for reducing microglial

  8. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    -frequency adaptation, pharmacological modulation of SK channels may be of significant clinical importance. Here we report the functional expression of SK3 in HEK293 and demonstrate a broad pharmacological profile for these channels. Brain slice studies commonly employ 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to block voltage...

  9. MiRNA-135a regulates the expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels in epilepsy-like conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit; Norwood, Braxton; Tanrioever, Gaye; Kuter, Katarzyna; Henshall, David C; Aksel-Aksoy, Ayla; Schratt, Gerhard; Pasterkamp, Jeroen; Dencher, Norbert A.; Nieweg, Katja; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia Mihalea

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive and hypersynchronous neuronal discharges are key characteristics in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Owing to their ability of regulating neuronal excitability, small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been implicated in

  10. The Ca2+ activated SK3 channel is expressed in microglia in the rat striatum and contributes to microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels are expressed in the CNS, where KCNN2/SK2/KCa2.2 and KCNN3/SK3/KCa2.3 help shape the electrical activity of some neurons. The SK3 channel is considered a potential therapeutic target for diseases and disorders involving neuron hyper-excitability but little is known about its expression and roles in non-neuronal cells in either the healthy or damaged CNS. The purpose of this study was to examine expression of KCNN3/SK3 in CNS microglia in vivo and in vitro, and to use an established in vitro model to determine if this channel contributes to the neurotoxic capacity of activated microglia. Methods KCNN3 mRNA (real-time RT-PCR and SK3 immunoreactivity were examined in rat microglia. Lipopolysaccharide was then used to activate microglia (monitored by iNOS, nitric oxide, activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK and transform them to a neurotoxic state. Microglia-mediated neuron damage (TUNEL, activated caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine levels were quantified using a two-chamber system that allowed microglia to be treated with channel blockers, washed and then added to neuron/astrocyte cultures. Contributions of SK3 to these processes were discriminated using a subtractive pharmacological approach with apamin and tamapin. ANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to assess the statistical significance of differences between treatment groups. SK3 immunoreactivity was then compared in the normal and damaged adult rat striatum, by injecting collagenase (a hemorrhagic stroke or endothelin-1 (a transient ischemic stroke. Results KCNN3 mRNA was prevalent in cultured microglia and increased after lipopolysaccharide-induced activation; SK3 channel blockade inhibited microglial activation and reduced their ability to kill neurons. SK3 immunoreactivity was prevalent in cultured microglia and throughout the adult rat striatum (except white matter tracts. After strokes, SK3 was highly expressed in activated microglia

  11. SK2 channel expression and function in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosy, Eric; Piochon, Claire; Teuling, Eva; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Hansel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) regulate the excitability of neurons and their responsiveness to synaptic input patterns. SK channels contribute to the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following action potential bursts, and curtail excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in neuronal dendrites. Here we review evidence that SK2 channels are expressed in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells during development and throughout adulthood, and play a key role in diverse cellular processes such as the regulation of the spike firing frequency and the modulation of calcium transients in dendritic spines. In Purkinje cells as well as in other types of neurons, SK2 channel plasticity seems to provide an important mechanism allowing these cells to adjust their intrinsic excitability and to alter the probabilities for the induction of synaptic learning correlates, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). PMID:21521760

  12. The small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) is a molecular target for Edelfosine to reduce the invasive potential of urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinestel, Konrad; Eder, Stefan; Ehinger, Konstantin; Schneider, Juliane; Genze, Felicitas; Winkler, Eva; Wardelmann, Eva; Schrader, Andres J; Steinestel, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is the survival-determining factor in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder. The small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) enhances tumor cell invasion in breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Since Edelfosine, a glycerophospholipid with antitumoral properties, effectively inhibits SK3 channel activity, our goal was to evaluate SK3 as a potential molecular target to inhibit the gain of an invasive phenotype in UC. SK3 protein expression was analyzed in 208 tissue samples and UC cell lines. Effects of Edelfosine on SK3 expression and intracellular calcium levels as well as on cell morphology, cell survival and proliferation were assessed using immunoblotting, potentiometric fluorescence microscopy, and clonogenic/cell survival assay; furthermore, we analyzed the effect of Edelfosine and SK3 RNAi knockdown on tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found that SK3 is strongly expressed in muscle-invasive UC and in the RT112 cellular tumor model. Higher concentrations of Edelfosine have a strong antitumoral effect on UC cells, while 1 μM effectively inhibits migration/invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo comparable to the SK3 knockdown phenotype. Taken together, our results show strong expression of SK3 in muscle-invasive UC, consistent with the postulated role of the protein in tumor cell invasion. Edelfosine is able to effectively inhibit migration and invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo in an SK3-dependent way, pointing towards a possible role for Edelfosine as an antiinvasive drug to effectively inhibit UC cell invasion and metastasis.

  13. Calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 is widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, R; Zichichi, R; Viña, E; Guerrera, M C; Vázquez, G; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A; Germanà, A

    2013-10-25

    Sensory cells contain ion channels involved in the organ-specific transduction mechanisms that convert different types of stimuli into electric energy. Here we focus on small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 1 (SK1) which plays an important role in all excitable cells acting as feedback regulators in after-hyperpolarization. This study was undertaken to analyze the pattern of expression of SK1 in the zebrafish peripheral nervous system and sensory organs using RT-PRC, Westernblot and immunohistochemistry. Expression of SK1 mRNA was observed at all developmental stages analyzed (from 10 to 100 days post fertilization, dpf), and the antibody used identified a protein with a molecular weight of 70kDa, at 100dpf (regarded to be adult). Cell expressing SK1 in adult animals were neurons of dorsal root and cranial nerve sensory ganglia, sympathetic neurons, sensory cells in neuromasts of the lateral line system and taste buds, crypt olfactory neurons and photoreceptors. Present results report for the first time the expression and the distribution of SK1 in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish, and may contribute to set zebrafish as an interesting experimental model for calcium-activated potassium channels research. Moreover these findings are of potential interest because the potential role of SK as targets for the treatment of neurological diseases and sensory disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of the Small Conductance Ca(2+)-Activated Potassium Channel Subtype 3 (SK3) in Rat Uterus after Stimulation with 17β-Estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Mette; Nazemi, Sasan; Odum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    of the myometrium. The small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel subtype 3 (SK3) has been identified in the myometrium of several species including humans, mice and rats, but with great inter species variation of the expression pattern and regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  15. Antiarrhythmic effect of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channel inhibitor ICA combined with either amiodarone or dofetilide in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Diness, Jonas Goldin; Abildgaard, Lea

    2016-01-01

    , amiodarone primarily has adverse non-cardiac effects. Pharmacological inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels has recently been reported to be antiarrhythmic in a number of animal AF models. In a Langendorff model of acutely induced AF on guinea pig hearts, it was investigated...

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Hesselkilde, Eva Zander; Pehrson, Steen Michael

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: Cardiac biopsies were analyzed to investigate the expression level of the most prominent cardiac ion channels, with special focus on SK channels, in the equine heart. Subcellular distribution of SK isoform 2 (SK2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy......, and ventricular depolarization and repolarization times. RESULTS: Analysis revealed equivalent mRNA transcript levels of the 3 SK channel isoforms in atria compared to ventricles. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy displayed a widespread distribution of SK2 in both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes....... NS8593 terminated all induced AF episodes (duration ≥15 minutes), caused pronounced prolongation of atrial effective refractory period, and reduced AF duration and vulnerability. QRS duration and QTc interval were not affected by treatment. CONCLUSION: SK channels are widely distributed in atrial...

  17. Subtype-specific, bi-component inhibition of SK channels by low internal pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Torben; Jespersen, Thomas; Jorgensen, Nanna K

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low intracellular pH (pH(i) 6.4) on cloned small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel currents of all three subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) were investigated in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique. In 400 nM internal Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, all subtypes were inhibited by pH(i) 6...

  18. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  19. Overexpression of SK2 channels enhances efferent suppression of cochlear responses without enhancing noise resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Stéphane F; Parker, Lisan L; Young, Lucy; Adelman, John P; Zuo, Jian; Liberman, M Charles

    2007-04-01

    Cochlear hair cells express SK2, a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel thought to act in concert with Ca(2+)-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha9 and alpha10 in mediating suppressive effects of the olivocochlear efferent innervation. To probe the in vivo role of SK2 channels in hearing, we examined gene expression, cochlear function, efferent suppression, and noise vulnerability in mice overexpressing SK2 channels. Cochlear thresholds, as measured by auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions, were normal in overexpressers as was overall cochlear morphology and the size, number, and distribution of efferent terminals on outer hair cells. Cochlear expression levels of SK2 channels were elevated eightfold without striking changes in other SK channels or in the alpha9/alpha10 nAChRs. Shock-evoked efferent suppression of cochlear responses was significantly enhanced in overexpresser mice as seen previously in alpha9 overexpresser mice; however, in contrast to alpha9 overexpressers, SK2 overexpressers were not protected from acoustic injury. Results suggest that efferent-mediated cochlear protection is mediated by other downstream effects of ACh-mediated Ca(2+) entry different from those involving SK2-mediated hyperpolarization and the associated reduction in outer hair cell electromotility.

  20. Antiarrhythmic Mechanisms of SK Channel Inhibition in the Rat Atrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Wang, Xiaodong; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    -clamping and two-electrode voltage-clamp was used to access INa and IK,ACh respectively. RESULTS: The SK channel inhibitor N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) exhibited antiarrhythmic effects. ICA prevented electrically induced runs of atrial fibrillation in the isolated right atrium and induced...

  1. Protective roles for potassium SK/KCa2 channels in microglia and neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia M Dolga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available New concepts on potassium channel function in neuroinflammation suggest that they regulate mechanisms of microglial activation, including intracellular calcium homeostasis, morphological alterations, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, antigen presentation, and phagocytosis. Although little is known about voltage independent potassium channels in microglia, special attention emerges on small (SK/KCNN1-3/KCa2 and intermediate (IK/KCNN4/KCa3.1-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels as regulators of microglial activation in the field of research on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In particular, recent findings suggested that SK/KCa2 channels, by regulating calcium homeostasis, may elicit a dual mechanism of action with protective properties in neurons and inhibition of inflammatory responses in microglia. Thus, modulating SK/KCa2 channels and calcium signaling may provide novel therapeutic strategies in neurological disorders, where neuronal cell death and inflammatory responses concomitantly contribute to disease progression. Here, we review the particular role of SK/KCa2 channels for [Ca2+]i regulation in microglia and neurons, and we discuss the potential impact for further experimental approaches addressing novel therapeutic strategies in neurological diseases, where neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory processes are prominent.

  2. UBE3A Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning and Memory by Controlling SK2 Channel Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gated solely by activity-induced changes in intracellular calcium, small-conductance potassium channels (SKs are critical for a variety of functions in the CNS, from learning and memory to rhythmic activity and sleep. While there is a wealth of information on SK2 gating, kinetics, and Ca2+ sensitivity, little is known regarding the regulation of SK2 subcellular localization. We report here that synaptic SK2 levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, whose deficiency results in Angelman syndrome and overexpression in increased risk of autistic spectrum disorder. UBE3A directly ubiquitinates SK2 in the C-terminal domain, which facilitates endocytosis. In UBE3A-deficient mice, increased postsynaptic SK2 levels result in decreased NMDA receptor activation, thereby impairing hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Impairments in both synaptic plasticity and fear conditioning memory in UBE3A-deficient mice are significantly ameliorated by blocking SK2. These results elucidate a mechanism by which UBE3A directly influences cognitive function.

  3. SK2 channel modulation contributes to compartment-specific dendritic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Gen; Piochon, Claire; Adelman, John P.; Hansel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) modulate excitability and curtail excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in neuronal dendrites. Here, we demonstrate long-lasting plasticity of intrinsic excitability (IE) in dendrites that results from changes in the gain of this regulatory mechanism. Using dendritic patch-clamp recordings from rat cerebellar Purkinje cells, we find that somatic depolarization or parallel fiber (PF) burst stimulation induce long-term amplification of synaptic responses to climbing fiber (CF) or PF stimulation, and enhance the amplitude of passively propagated sodium spikes. Dendritic plasticity is mimicked and occluded by the SK channel blocker apamin, and is absent in Purkinje cells from SK2 null mice. Triple-patch recordings from two dendritic sites and the soma, and confocal calcium imaging studies show that local stimulation limits dendritic plasticity to the activated compartment of the dendrite. This plasticity mechanism allows Purkinje cells to adjust the SK2-mediated control of dendritic excitability in an activity-dependent manner. PMID:22794265

  4. Apamin-Sensitive Calcium-Activated Potassium Currents (SK) Are Activated by Persistent Calcium Currents in Rat Motoneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; Bennett, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Low voltage–activated persistent inward calcium currents (Ca PICs) occur in rat motoneurons and are mediated by Cav1.3 L-type calcium channels (L-Ca current). The objectives of this paper were to determine whether this L-Ca current activates a sustained calcium-activated potassium current (SK current) and examine how such SK currents change with spinal injury. For comparison, the SK current that produces the postspike afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) was also quantified. Intracellular recordings...

  5. Kit-negative fibroblast-like cells expressing SK3, a Ca2+-activated K+ channel, in the gut musculature in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Rumessen, Jüri J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban

    2002-01-01

    CD34-ir fibroblast-like cells adjacent to, but distinct from, the cells of Cajal remains elusive. The distribution of SK3 was studied by immunohistochemistry in the normal human gut, in motility disorders with a lack of cells of Cajal (infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and Hirschsprung...

  6. Genetic deficit of SK3 and IK1 channels disrupts the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor vasodilator pathway and causes hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brähler, Sebastian; Kaistha, Anuradha; Schmidt, Volker J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that activation of endothelial SK3 (K(Ca)2.3) and IK1 (K(Ca)3.1) K+ channels plays a role in the arteriolar dilation attributed to an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). However, our understanding of the precise function of SK3 and IK1 in the EDHF d...

  7. Effect of the SK/IK channel modulator 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591) on contractile force in rat, pig and human detrusor smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Rode, Frederik; Rahbek, Mette

    2011-01-01

    • To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced by electri......• To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced...

  8. CyPPA, a Positive SK3/SK2 Modulator, Reduces Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons, Inhibits Dopamine Release, and Counteracts Hyperdopaminergic Behaviors Induced by Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrik, Kjartan F; Redrobe, John P; Holst, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    modulation of DA receptors and transporters are well established approaches for treatment of DA-related disorders. Direct modulation of the DA system by influencing the discharge pattern of these autonomously firing neurons has yet to be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy. Small conductance Ca(2......Dopamine (DA) containing midbrain neurons play critical roles in several psychiatric and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the substantia nigra pars compacta neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacological......]-amine (CyPPA), a subtype-selective positive modulator of SK channels (SK3¿>¿SK2¿>¿>¿>¿SK1, IK), decreased spontaneous firing rate, increased the duration of the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization, and caused an activity-dependent inhibition of current-evoked action potentials in DA neurons from both...

  9. Inhibition of SK4 Potassium Channels Suppresses Cell Proliferation, Migration and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panshi Zhang

    Full Text Available Treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC are limited; intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK4 channels are closely involved in tumor progression, but little is known about these channels in TNBC. We aimed to investigate whether SK4 channels affect TNBC. First, by immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB, increased SK4 protein expression in breast tumor tissues was detected relative to that in non-tumor breast tissues, but there was no apparent expression difference between various subtypes of breast cancer (p>0.05. Next, functional SK4 channels were detected in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using WB, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and patch-clamp recording. By employing SK4 specific siRNAs and blockers, including TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, in combination with an MTT assay, a colony-formation assay, flow cytometry and a cell motility assay, we found that the suppression of SK4 channels significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05. Further investigation revealed that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF/basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF caused MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and to show increased SK4 mRNA expression. In addition, the down-regulation of SK4 expression inhibited the EMT markers Vimentin and Snail1. Collectively, our findings suggest that SK4 channels are expressed in TNBC and are involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and EMT processes of TNBC cells.

  10. SK2 and SK3 Expression Differentially Affect Firing Frequency and Precision in Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Jason; Luján, Rafael; Bond, Chris; Riegel, Arthur; Watanabe, Masahiko; Williams, John T.; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The firing properties of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta are strongly influenced by the activity of apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Of the three SK channel genes expressed in central neurons, only SK3 expression has been identified in DA neurons. The present findings show that SK2 was also expressed in DA neurons. Immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) showed that SK2 was primarily expressed in the distal dendrites, while SK3 was heavily expressed in the soma and, to a lesser extent, throughout the dendritic arbor. Electrophysiological recordings of the effects of the SK channel blocker apamin on DA neurons from wild type and SK−/− mice show that SK2-containing channels contributed to the precision of action potential (AP) timing, while SK3-containing channels influenced AP frequency. The expression of SK2 in DA neurons may endow distinct signaling and subcellular localization to SK2-containing channels. Keywords: Substantia Nigra, Dopamine, SK channels, spontaneous activity, pacemaker PMID:22554781

  11. Role of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels expressed in PVN in regulating sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Le; LaGrange, Lila P.; Larson, Robert A.; Gu, Mingjun; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels regulate membrane properties of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) projecting hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons and inhibition of SK channels increases in vitro excitability. Here, we determined in vivo the role of PVN SK channels in regulating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In anesthetized rats, bilateral PVN microinjection of SK channel blocker with peptide apamin (0, 0.125, 1.25, 3.75, ...

  12. Termination of Vernakalant-Resistant Atrial Fibrillation by Inhibition of Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Skibsbye, Lasse; Simó-Vicens, Rafel

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence has emerged that small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels constitute a new target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). SK channels are predominantly expressed in the atria as compared with the ventricles. Various marketed antiarrhythmic drugs are limited......-resistant porcine model of AF. These results suggest SK channel blockers as potentially interesting anti-AF drugs....

  13. Small and intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A.; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J. Paul; Michel, Martin C.; Tate, Simon N.; Trezise, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in

  14. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 m...... muscle cells, and that the molecular expression of SK3 channels is higher in non-pregnant compared to pregnant myometrium. On the basis of our previous study and the present findings, we propose that SK3 activators reduce contractility in human myometrium by modulating telocyte function....... This is the first report to provide evidence for a possible role of SK3 channels in human uterine telocytes....

  15. Role of calcium activated potassium channels in atrial fibrillation pathophysiology and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas G.; Bentzen, Bo H.; S. Sørensen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK) channels are relative newcomers within the field of cardiac electrophysiology. In recent years, an increased focus has been given to these channels since they might constitute a relatively atrial selective target. The present review will give...... a general introduction to SK channels followed by their proposed function in the heart under normal and pathophysiological conditions. It is revealed how anti-arrhythmic effects can be obtained by SK channel inhibition in a number of species in situations of atrial fibrillation. On the contrary......, the beneficial effects of SK channel inhibition in situations of heart failure are questionable and still needs investigation. The understanding of cardiac SK channels is rapidly increasing these years, and hopefully this will clarify whether SK channel inhibition has potential as a new anti-atrial fibrillation...

  16. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium type 2 channels regulate the formation of contextual fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana R K Murthy

    Full Text Available Small-conductance, Ca2+ activated K+ channels (SK channels are expressed at high levels in brain regions responsible for learning and memory. In the current study we characterized the contribution of SK2 channels to synaptic plasticity and to different phases of hippocampal memory formation. Selective SK2 antisense-treatment facilitated basal synaptic transmission and theta-burst induced LTP in hippocampal brain slices. Using the selective SK2 antagonist Lei-Dab7 or SK2 antisense probes, we found that hippocampal SK2 channels are critical during two different time windows: 1 blockade of SK2 channels before the training impaired fear memory, whereas, 2 blockade of SK2 channels immediately after the training enhanced contextual fear memory. We provided the evidence that the post-training cleavage of the SK2 channels was responsible for the observed bidirectional effect of SK2 channel blockade on memory consolidation. Thus, Lei-Dab7-injection before training impaired the C-terminal cleavage of SK2 channels, while Lei-Dab7 given immediately after training facilitated the C-terminal cleavage. Application of the synthetic peptide comprising a leucine-zipper domain of the C-terminal fragment to Jurkat cells impaired SK2 channel-mediated currents, indicating that the endogenously cleaved fragment might exert its effects on memory formation by blocking SK2 channel-mediated currents. Our present findings suggest that SK2 channel proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory not only as ion channels but also by additionally generating a SK2 C-terminal fragment, involved in both processes. The modulation of fear memory by down-regulating SK2 C-terminal cleavage might have applicability in the treatment of anxiety disorders in which fear conditioning is enhanced.

  17. Definitive Endoderm Formation from Plucked Human Hair-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and SK Channel Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Illing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells present an extraordinary powerful tool to investigate embryonic development in humans. Essentially, they provide a unique platform for dissecting the distinct mechanisms underlying pluripotency and subsequent lineage commitment. Modest information currently exists about the expression and the role of ion channels during human embryogenesis, organ development, and cell fate determination. Of note, small and intermediate conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels have been reported to modify stem cell behaviour and differentiation. These channels are broadly expressed throughout human tissues and are involved in various cellular processes, such as the after-hyperpolarization in excitable cells, and also in differentiation processes. To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs generated from plucked human hair keratinocytes have been exploited in vitro to recapitulate endoderm formation and, concomitantly, used to map the expression of the SK channel (SKCa subtypes over time. Thus, we report the successful generation of definitive endoderm from hiPSCs of ectodermal origin using a highly reproducible and robust differentiation system. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that SKCas subtypes are dynamically regulated in the transition from a pluripotent stem cell to a more lineage restricted, endodermal progeny.

  18. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  19. Targeting the Small- and Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels: The Drug-Binding Pocket at the Channel/Calmodulin Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK/IK channels play important roles in the regulation of excitable cells in both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Evidence from animal models has implicated SK/IK channels in neurological conditions such as ataxia and alcohol use disorders. Further, genome-wide association studies have suggested that cardiovascular abnormalities such as arrhythmias and hypertension are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur within the genes encoding the SK/IK channels. The Ca2+ sensitivity of the SK/IK channels stems from a constitutively bound Ca2+-binding protein: calmodulin. Small-molecule positive modulators of SK/IK channels have been developed over the past decade, and recent structural studies have revealed that the binding pocket of these positive modulators is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. SK/IK channel positive modulators can potentiate channel activity by enhancing the coupling between Ca2+ sensing via calmodulin and mechanical opening of the channel. Here, we review binding pocket studies that have provided structural insight into the mechanism of action for SK/IK channel positive modulators. These studies lay the foundation for structure-based drug discovery efforts that can identify novel SK/IK channel positive modulators. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Inhibition of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels terminates and protects against atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Sørensen, Ulrik S; Nissen, Jakob Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Recently, evidence has emerged that small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels are predominantly expressed in the atria in a number of species including human. In rat, guinea pig, and rabbit ex vivo and in vivo models of atrial fibrillation (AF), we used 3 different SK channel inhibitors...

  1. Confirming a Role for α9nAChRs and SK Potassium Channels in Type II Hair Cells of the Turtle Posterior Crista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Xu Parks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In turtle posterior cristae, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons (VENs synapse on type II hair cells, bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells, and afferent calyces innervating type I hair cells. Electrical stimulation of VENs releases acetylcholine (ACh at these synapses to exert diverse effects on afferent background discharge including rapid inhibition of bouton afferents and excitation of calyx-bearing afferents. Efferent-mediated inhibition is most pronounced in bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells near the torus, but becomes progressively smaller and briefer when moving longitudinally through the crista toward afferents innervating the planum. Sharp-electrode recordings have inferred that efferent-mediated inhibition of bouton afferents requires the sequential activation of alpha9-containing nicotinic ACh receptors (α9*nAChRs and small-conductance, calcium-dependent potassium channels (SK in type II hair cells. Gradations in the strength of efferent-mediated inhibition across the crista likely reflect variations in α9*nAChRs and/or SK activation in type II hair cells from those different regions. However, in turtle cristae, neither inference has been confirmed with direct recordings from type II hair cells. To address these gaps, we performed whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings from type II hair cells within a split-epithelial preparation of the turtle posterior crista. Here, we can easily visualize and record hair cells while maintaining their native location within the neuroepithelium. Consistent with α9*nAChR/SK activation, ACh-sensitive currents in type II hair cells were inward at hyperpolarizing potentials but reversed near −90 mV to produce outward currents that typically peaked around −20 mV. ACh-sensitive currents were largest in torus hair cells but absent from hair cells near the planum. In current clamp recordings under zero-current conditions, ACh robustly hyperpolarized type II hair cells. ACh

  2. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels: form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, John P; Maylie, James; Sah, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. These channels are activated solely by increases in intracellular Ca(2+). SK channels are stable macromolecular complexes of the ion pore-forming subunits with calmodulin, which serves as the intrinsic Ca(2+) gating subunit, as well as with protein kinase CK2 and protein phosphatase 2A, which modulate Ca(2+) sensitivity. Well-known for their roles in regulating somatic excitability in central neurons, SK channels are also expressed in the postsynaptic membrane of glutamatergic synapses, where their activation and regulated trafficking modulate synaptic transmission and the induction and expression of synaptic plasticity, thereby affecting learning and memory. In this review we discuss the molecular and functional properties of SK channels and their physiological roles in central neurons.

  3. NaCl-activated extracellular proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK37 isolated from fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, S; Rodtong, S; Yongsawatdigul, J

    2007-06-01

    Virgibacillus sp. SK37 exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity in skim milk broth containing 10% NaCl. Optimum conditions of the crude proteinase were at pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C. The proteinase was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-AMC, suggesting the serine proteinase with a subtilisin-like characteristic. Proteolytic activity increased with NaCl concentration up to 20%. Ca(2+) activated the enzyme activity but reduced enzyme stability at 65 degrees C. Several proteinases with dominant molecular mass (MW) of 81, 67, 63, 50, 38, and 18 kDa were detected on native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) activity staining in the absence and presence of 25% NaCl. These results demonstrated that Virgibacillus sp. SK37 produced salt-activated extracellular proteinases. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 could be a promising strain for starter culture development used in fish sauce fermentation.

  4. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  5. Protein kinase CK2 is coassembled with small conductance ca(2+)-activated k(+) channels and regulates channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildl, Wolfgang; Strassmaier, Tim; Thurm, Henrike

    2004-01-01

    and serves as the Ca2+ sensor. Here we show that, in addition, the cytoplasmic N and C termini of the channel protein form a polyprotein complex with the catalytic and regulatory subunits of protein kinase CK2 and protein phosphatase 2A. Within this complex, CK2 phosphorylates calmodulin at threonine 80......, reducing by 5-fold the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity and accelerating channel deactivation. The results show that native SK channels are polyprotein complexes and demonstrate that the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities within the protein complex shapes the hyperpolarizing response mediated by SK...

  6. Contribution of small conductance K+ channels to sinoatrial node pacemaker activity: insights from atrial-specific Na+ /Ca2+ exchange knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Angelo G; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Heidi; Zaini, Audrey; Kim, Brian; Yue, Xin; Philipson, Kenneth D; Goldhaber, Joshua I

    2017-06-15

    Repolarizing currents through K + channels are essential for proper sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking, but the influence of intracellular Ca 2+ on repolarization in the SAN is uncertain. We identified all three isoforms of Ca 2+ -activated small conductance K + (SK) channels in the murine SAN. SK channel blockade slows repolarization and subsequent depolarization of SAN cells. In the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) knockout mouse, cellular Ca 2+ accumulation during spontaneous SAN pacemaker activity produces intermittent hyperactivation of SK channels, leading to arrhythmic pauses alternating with bursts of pacing. These findings suggest that Ca 2+ -sensitive SK channels can translate changes in cellular Ca 2+ into a repolarizing current capable of modulating pacemaking. SK channels are a potential pharmacological target for modulating SAN rate or treating SAN dysfunction, particularly under conditions characterized by abnormal increases in diastolic Ca 2+ . Small conductance K + (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity has been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells. Apamin also slowed diastolic depolarization and reduced pacemaker rate in isolated SAN cells and intact tissue. We investigated whether the Ca 2+ -sensitive nature of SK channels could explain arrhythmic SAN pacemaker activity in the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) knockout (KO) mouse, a model of cellular Ca 2+ overload. SAN cells isolated from the NCX KO exhibited higher SK current than wildtype (WT) and apamin

  7. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...... that stretch and volume sensitivity can be considered two independent regulatory mechanisms....

  8. Novel selective positive modulator of calcium-activated potassium channels exerts beneficial effects in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, AW; Hougaard, C; Rode, F; Jacobsen, TA; Sabatier, JM; Eriksen, BL; Strøbæk, D; Liang, X; Egorova, P; Vorontsova, D; Christophersen, P; Rønn, LCB; Bezprozvanny, I

    2012-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion within the Ataxin-2 (Atxn2) protein. Purkinje cells (PC) of the cerebellum fire irregularly and eventually die in SCA2. We show here that the type 2 small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK2) play a key role in control of normal PC activity. Using cerebellar slices from transgenic SCA2 mice we demonstrate that SK channel modulators restore regular pacemaker activity of SCA2 PCs. Furthermore, we also show that oral delivery of a novel selective positive modulator of SK2/3 channels (NS13001) alleviates behavioural and neuropathological phenotypes of aging SCA2 transgenic mice. We conclude that SK2 channels constitute a novel target for SCA2 treatment and that the developed selective SK2/3 modulator NS13001 holds promise as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of SCA2 and possibly other cerebellar ataxias. PMID:23102227

  9. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  10. A novel subtilase with NaCl-activated and oxidant-stable activity from Virgibacillus sp. SK37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrommao, Ekkarat; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2011-06-09

    Microbial proteases are one of the most commercially valuable enzymes, of which the largest market share has been taken by subtilases or alkaline proteases of the Bacillus species. Despite a large amount of information on microbial proteases, a search for novel proteases with unique properties is still of interest for both basic and applied aspects of this highly complex class of enzymes. Oxidant stable proteases (OSPs) have been shown to have a wide application in the detergent and bleaching industries and recently have become one of the most attractive enzymes in various biotechnological applications. A gene encoding a novel member of the subtilase superfamily was isolated from Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a protease-producing bacterium isolated from Thai fish sauce fermentation. The gene was cloned by an activity-based screening of a genomic DNA expression library on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates containing 1 mM IPTG and 3% skim milk. Of the 100,000 clones screened, all six isolated positive clones comprised one overlapping open reading frame of 45% identity to the aprX gene from Bacillus species. This gene, designated aprX-sk37 was cloned into pET21d(+) and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The enzyme product, designated AprX-SK37, was purified by an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The AprX-SK37 enzyme showed optimal catalytic conditions at pH 9.5 and 55°C, based on the azocasein assay containing 5 mM CaCl2. Maximum catalytic activity was found at 1 M NaCl with residual activity of 30% at 3 M NaCl. Thermal stability of the enzyme was also enhanced by 1 M NaCl. The enzyme was absolutely calcium-dependent, with optimal concentration of CaCl2 at 15 mM. Inhibitory effects by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid indicated that this enzyme is a metal-dependent serine protease. The enzyme activity was sensitive towards reducing agents, urea, and SDS, but relatively stable up to 5

  11. A novel subtilase with NaCl-activated and oxidant-stable activity from Virgibacillus sp. SK37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamabhai Montarop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial proteases are one of the most commercially valuable enzymes, of which the largest market share has been taken by subtilases or alkaline proteases of the Bacillus species. Despite a large amount of information on microbial proteases, a search for novel proteases with unique properties is still of interest for both basic and applied aspects of this highly complex class of enzymes. Oxidant stable proteases (OSPs have been shown to have a wide application in the detergent and bleaching industries and recently have become one of the most attractive enzymes in various biotechnological applications. Results A gene encoding a novel member of the subtilase superfamily was isolated from Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a protease-producing bacterium isolated from Thai fish sauce fermentation. The gene was cloned by an activity-based screening of a genomic DNA expression library on Luria-Bertani (LB agar plates containing 1 mM IPTG and 3% skim milk. Of the 100,000 clones screened, all six isolated positive clones comprised one overlapping open reading frame of 45% identity to the aprX gene from Bacillus species. This gene, designated aprX-sk37 was cloned into pET21d(+ and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3. The enzyme product, designated AprX-SK37, was purified by an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The AprX-SK37 enzyme showed optimal catalytic conditions at pH 9.5 and 55°C, based on the azocasein assay containing 5 mM CaCl2. Maximum catalytic activity was found at 1 M NaCl with residual activity of 30% at 3 M NaCl. Thermal stability of the enzyme was also enhanced by 1 M NaCl. The enzyme was absolutely calcium-dependent, with optimal concentration of CaCl2 at 15 mM. Inhibitory effects by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid indicated that this enzyme is a metal-dependent serine protease. The enzyme activity was sensitive towards reducing agents

  12. Cell swelling activates cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels: a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Nanna K; Pedersen, Stine F; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2003-01-01

    -induced activation of hIK channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D (CD), in concentrations that caused depolymerization of F-actin filaments, indicating a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in modulation of hIK by changes in cell volume. In conclusion, hIK and rSK3 channels are activated by cell swelling......Cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels of intermediate (hIK) or small (rSK3) conductance were expressed in HEK 293 cells, and channel activity was monitored using whole-cell patch clamp. hIK and rSK3 currents already activated by intracellular calcium were further increased by 95% and 125......%, respectively, upon exposure of the cells to a 33% decrease in extracellular osmolarity. hIK and rSK3 currents were inhibited by 46% and 32%, respectively, by a 50% increase in extracellular osmolarity. Cell swelling and channel activation were not associated with detectable increases in [Ca(2+)](i), evidenced...

  13. Effects on atrial fibrillation in aged hypertensive rats by Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    hypertensive rats were more vulnerable to AF induction both by S2 stimulation and burst pacing. Vehicle affected neither the atrial effective refractory period nor AF duration. SK channel inhibition with NS8593 and UCL1684 significantly increased the atrial effective refractory period and decreased AF duration......We have shown previously that inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels is antiarrhythmic in models of acutely induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These models, however, do not take into account that AF derives from a wide range of predisposing factors, the most prevalent...... being hypertension. In this study we assessed the effects of two different SK channel inhibitors, NS8593 and UCL1684, in aging, spontaneously hypertensive rats to examine their antiarrhythmic properties in a setting of hypertension-induced atrial remodeling. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats...

  14. Complete genome analysis of Lactobacillus fermentum SK152 from kimchi reveals genes associated with its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, DongAhn; Bagon, Bernadette B; Valeriano, Valerie Diane V; Oh, Ju Kyoung; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2017-10-02

    Research findings on probiotics highlight their importance in repressing harmful bacteria, leading to more extensive research on their potential applications. We analysed the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum SK152, which was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented vegetable dish kimchi, to determine the genetic makeup and genetic factors responsible for the antimicrobial activity of L. fermentum SK152 and performed a comparative genome analysis with other L. fermentum strains. The genome of L. fermentum SK152 was found to comprise a complete circular chromosome of 2092 273 bp, with an estimated GC content of 51.9% and 2184 open reading frames. It consisted of 2038 protein-coding genes and 73 RNA-coding genes. Moreover, a gene encoding a putative endolysin was found. A comparative genome analysis with other L. fermentum strains showed that SK152 is closely related to L. fermentum 3872 and F-6. An evolutionary analysis identified five positively selected genes that encode proteins associated with transport, survival and stress resistance. These positively selected genes may be essential for L. fermentum to colonise and survive in the stringent environment of the human gut and exert its beneficial effects. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of SK152. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Ulrike

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulosa cells (GCs represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa of big conductance (BKCa, which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression and functions of KCa channels (including BKCa beta-subunits, and 2. biophysical properties of BKCa channels. Methods GCs were obtained from in vitro-fertilization patients and cultured. Expression of mRNA was determined by standard RT-PCR and protein expression in human ovarian slices was detected by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone production was measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISAs. Single channels were recorded in the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Results We identified two KCa types in human GCs, the intermediate- (IK and the small-conductance KCa (SK. Their functionality was concluded from attenuation of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by KCa blockers (TRAM-34, apamin. Functional IK channels were also demonstrated by electrophysiological recording of single KCa channels with distinctive features. Both, IK and BKCa channels were found to be simultaneously active in individual GCs. In agreement with functional data, we identified mRNAs encoding IK, SK1, SK2 and SK3 in human GCs and proteins of IK and SK2 in corresponding human ovarian cells. Molecular characterization of the BKCa channel revealed the presence of mRNAs encoding several BKCa beta-subunits (beta2, beta3, beta4 in human GCs. The multitude of beta-subunits detected might contribute to variations in Ca2+ dependence of individual BKCa channels which we observed in electrophysiological recordings. Conclusion Functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of active IK and SK

  16. Identification of critical residues for the activity and thermostability of Streptomyces sp. SK glucose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hlima, Hajer; Bejar, Samir; Riguet, Jonas; Haser, Richard; Aghajari, Nushin

    2013-11-01

    The role of residue 219 in the physicochemical properties of D-glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. SK strain (SKGI) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and structural studies. Mutants G219A, G219N, and G219F were generated and characterized. Comparative studies of their physicochemical properties with those of the wild-type enzyme highlighted that mutant G219A displayed increased specific activity and thermal stability compared to that of the wild-type enzyme, while for G219N and G219F, these properties were considerably decreased. A double mutant, SKGI F53L/G219A, displayed a higher optimal temperature and a higher catalytic efficiency than both the G219A mutant and the wild-type enzyme and showed a half-life time of about 150 min at 85 °C as compared to 50 min for wild-type SKGI. Crystal structures of SKGI wild-type and G219A enzymes were solved to 1.73 and 2.15 Å, respectively, and showed that the polypeptide chain folds into two structural domains. The larger domain consists of a (β/α)8 unit, and the smaller domain forms a loop of α helices. Detailed analyses of the three-dimensional structures highlighted minor but important changes in the active site region as compared to that of the wild-type enzyme leading to a displacement of both metal ions, and in particular that in site M2. The structural analyses moreover revealed how the substitution of G219 by an alanine plays a crucial role in improving the thermostability of the mutant enzyme.

  17. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P bound proteinases from Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation.

  18. Cell swelling activates cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels: a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Nanna K; Pedersen, Stine F; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2003-01-01

    -induced activation of hIK channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D (CD), in concentrations that caused depolymerization of F-actin filaments, indicating a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in modulation of hIK by changes in cell volume. In conclusion, hIK and rSK3 channels are activated by cell swelling...... and inhibited by shrinkage. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in the swelling-induced activation of hIK channels is suggested....

  19. Apamin-Sensitive Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels were Negatively Regulated by Captopril in Volume-Overload Heart Failure Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyuan, Bai; Xin, Dong; Jingwen, Zhang; Li, Gao; Yajuan, Ni

    2016-08-01

    In heart failure (HF), the malignant arrhythmias occur frequently; a study demonstrated that upregulation of I KAS resulted in recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation in HF. However, the regulation of SK channels was poorly understood. The activation of SK channels depended on [Ca(2+)]i and PP2A; studies suggested that angiotensin II can regulate them. So, we hypothesized that in HF, the excess of angiotensin may regulate the SK channels and result in the remodeling of SK channels. To test the hypothesis, we used volume-overload-induced HF rat model, treated with captopril, performed whole-cell patch clamp to record apamin-sensitive currents (I KAS), and I-V curve was studied. The sensitivity of I KAS to [Ca(2+)]i was also explored by setting various [Ca(2+)]i (10, 100, 500, 900, 1000, and 10,000 nM), and the steady-state Ca(2+) response of I KAS was attained and performed Hill fitting with the equation (y = 1/[1 + (EC50/x) (n) ]). Immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, Western blot were also carried out to furtherly investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the regulation. Captopril significantly decreased the mean density of I KAS when [Ca(2+)]i was 500, 900, 1000, and 10000 nM. The Hill fitting showed significantly different EC50 values and the Hill coefficients and showed captopril significantly shifted rightward the steady-state Ca(2+) response of I KAS. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot demonstrated captopril decreased the mRNA and protein expression of SK3 channels. Captopril significantly downregulated the sensitivity of SK channels to [Ca(2+)]i and the SK3 channels expression in HF, and reversed the SK channels remodeling.

  20. Biological activity and binding of estradiol to SK-Mel 23 human melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarti M.S.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients expressing estradiol receptors in melanoma cells have been reported to have a better prognosis. We therefore decided to investigate the in vitro effects of ß-estradiol and tamoxifen on the growth and tyrosinase activity of SK-Mel 23 human melanoma cells. Twenty-four-hour treatment with 0.4 nM ß-estradiol inhibited cell proliferation in 30% (0.70 ± 0.03 x 10(5 cells and increased tyrosinase activity in 50% (7130.5 ± 376.5 cpm/10(5 cells, as compared to untreated cells (1.0 ± 0.05 x 10(5 cells and 4769 ± 25.5 cpm/10(5 cells, respectively. Both responses were completely (100% blocked by 1 µM tamoxifen. Higher concentrations (up to 1.6 nM or longer treatments (up to 72 h did not result in a larger effect of the hormone on proliferation or tyrosinase activity. Competition binding assays demonstrated the presence of binding sites to [2,4,6,7-³H]-ß-estradiol, and that the tritiated analogue was displaced by the unlabeled hormone (1 nM to 100 µM, Kd = 0.14 µM, maximal displacement of 93% or by 10 µM tamoxifen (displacement of 60%. ß-estradiol also increased the phosphorylated state of two proteins of 16 and 46 kDa, after 4-h treatment, as determined by Western blot. The absorbance of each band was 1.9- and 4-fold the controls, respectively, as determined with Image-Pro Plus software. Shorter incubation periods with ß-estradiol did not enhance phosporylation; after 6-h treatment with the hormone, the two proteins returned to the control phosphorylation levels. The growth inhibition promoted by estradiol may explain the better prognosis of melanoma-bearing women as compared to men, and open new perspectives for drug therapy.

  1. Performance Analysis of Heterodyne-Detected OCDMA Systems Using PolSK Modulation over a Free-Space Optical Turbulence Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel model of heterodyne-detected optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems employing polarization shift keying (PolSK modulation over a free-space optical (FSO turbulence channel. In this article, a new transceiver configuration and detailed analytical model for the proposed system are provided and discussed, taking into consideration the potential of heterodyne detection on mitigating the impact of turbulence-induced irradiance fluctuation on the performance of the proposed system under the gamma-gamma turbulence channel. Furthermore, we derived the closed-form expressions for the system error probability and outage probability, respectively. We determine the advantages of the proposed modeling by performing a comparison with a direct detection scheme obtained from an evaluation of link performance under the same environment conditions. The presented work also shows the most significant impact factor that degrades the performance of the proposed system and indicates that the proposed approach offers an optimum link performance compared to conventional cases.

  2. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    remodeling. In rats, mesenteric arteries were exposed to increased [+90%, high flow (HF)] or reduced blood flow [-90%, low flow (LF)] and analyzed 24 h later. There were no detectable changes in arterial structure or in expression level of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, SK3, or IK1. Arterial relaxing......We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...... arteries, the balance between the NO/prostanoid versus EDHF response was unaltered. However, the contribution of IK1 to the EDHF response was enhanced, as indicated by a larger effect of TRAM-34 and a larger residual NS309-induced relaxation in the presence of UCL 1684. Reduction of blood flow selectively...

  3. Small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J Paul; Michel, Martin C; Tate, Simon N; Trezise, Derek J

    2004-06-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in human tissues and their cellular localisation in samples of colon and corpus cavernosum. SK1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in neuronal tissues. SK2 mRNA distribution was restricted but more widespread than SK1, and was detected in adrenal gland, brain, prostate, bladder, liver and heart. SK3 mRNA was detected in almost every tissue examined. It was highly expressed in brain and in smooth muscle-rich tissues including the clitoris and the corpus cavernosum, and expression in the corpus cavernosum was upregulated up to 5-fold in patients undergoing sex-change operations. IK1 mRNA was present in surface-rich, secretory and inflammatory cell-rich tissues, highest in the trachea, prostate, placenta and salivary glands. In detailed immunohistochemical studies of the colon and the corpus cavernosum, SK1-like immunoreactivity was observed in the enteric neurons. SK3-like immunoreactivity was observed strongly in smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. IK1-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in inflammatory cells and enteric neurons of the colon, but absent in corpus cavernosum. These distinctive patterns of distribution suggest that these channels are likely to have different biological functions and could be specifically targeted for a number of human diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

  4. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent.

  5. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK...

  6. Regulation of cloned, Ca2+-activated K+ channels by cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; MacAulay, Nanna; Jorgensen, Nanna K

    2002-01-01

    IK/rSK3 and hBK channels suggest that the significant stimulation of hIK and rSK3 channels during swelling is not mediated by changes in intracellular Ca2+, but rather through interactions with the cytoskeleton, provided that a sufficient basal concentration of intracellular Ca2+ or Cd2+ is present....

  7. Blockade of IP[subscript 3]-Mediated SK Channel Signaling in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Avis R.; Dolinsky, Beth; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Stanley, Marion; Yeckel, Mark F.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2008-01-01

    Planning and directing thought and behavior require the working memory (WM) functions of prefrontal cortex. WM is compromised by stress, which activates phosphatidylinositol (PI)-mediated IP[subscript 3]-PKC intracellular signaling. PKC overactivation impairs WM operations and in vitro studies indicate that IP[subscript 3] receptor (IP[subscript…

  8. Selective cognitive deficits and reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J P R; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, H H

    2009-01-01

    performed equally well in passive avoidance, object recognition and the Morris water maze. Thus, some aspects of working/short-term memory are disrupted in T/T mice. Using in situ hybridization, we further found the cognitive deficits in T/T mice to be paralleled by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor......Small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels 1-3 (SK1-3) are important for neuronal firing regulation and are considered putative CNS drug targets. For instance non-selective SK blockers improve performance in animal models of cognition. The SK subtype(s) involved herein awaits identification...... and the question is difficult to address pharmacologically due to the lack of subtype-selective SK-channel modulators. In this study, we used doxycycline-induced conditional SK3-deficient (T/T) mice to address the cognitive consequences of selective SK3 deficiency. In T/T mice SK3 protein is near-eliminated from...

  9. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C B

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases...... in intracellular calcium to outward hyperpolarizing potassium currents. Consequently, the channel has many important physiological roles including regulation of smooth muscle tone, neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Additionally, cardioprotective roles have been revealed in recent years. After...... a short introduction to the structure, function and regulation of BK channels, we review the small organic molecules activating BK channels and how these tool compounds have helped delineate the roles of BK channels in health and disease....

  10. Bioproduction and anticancer activity of biosurfactant produced by the dematiaceous fungus Exophiala dermatitidis SK80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiewpattanakul, Paramaporn; Phonnok, Sirinet; Durand, Alain; Marie, Emmanuelle; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2010-12-01

    A new biosurfactant producer was isolated from palm-oilcontaminated soil and later identified through morphology and DNA sequencing as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. Biosurfactant production was catalyzed by vegetable oil, supplemented with a basal medium. The culture conditions that provided the biosurfactant with the highest surface activity were found to be 5% palm oil with 0.08% NH4NO3, at a pH of 5.3, with shaking at 200 rpm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C for a 14-day period of incubation. The biosurfactant was purified, in accordance with surfactant properties, by solvent fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The chemical structure of the strongest surface-active compound was elucidated through the use of NMR and mass spectroscopy, and noted to be monoolein, which then went on to demonstrate antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer (HeLa) and leukemia (U937) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, no cytotoxicity was observed with normal cells even when high concentrations were used. Cell and DNA morphological changes, in both cancer cell lines, were observed to be cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling, and DNA fragmentation.

  11. Antiarrhythmic effect of either negative modulation or blockade of small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels on ventricular fibrillation in guinea pig Langendorff perfused heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    channels are predominantly coming into play during arrhythmogenic events where intracellular concentration of Ca is increased. During ventricular fibrillation a surge of [Ca]i has the potential to bind to and open SK channels. To obtain mechanistic insight into possible roles of SK channels during...... ventricular fibrillation we conducted experiments with a SK channel pore blocker (ICA) and a negatively allosteric modulator (NS8395) in a Langendorff perfused heart model. Both compounds increased the action potential duration (APD), effective refractory period (ERP) and Wenckebach cycle length (WCL......) to comparable extents. Despite these similarities, the SK channel modulator was found to revert and prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF) more efficiently than the SK channel pore blocker. In conclusion, either negative allosteric modulation of the SK channel with NS8593 is more favorable than pure channel...

  12. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2017-09-13

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na + /K + -ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K + channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K + channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K + channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-SK Ca ), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-BK Ca ), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na + /K + -ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SK Ca and BK Ca ) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na + /K + -ATPase activity.

  13. Whitening and anti-wrinkle activities of ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides in B16F10 melanoma and CCD-986sk fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Cho, Jun-Hyo; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Kim, Dong-Hee; Jung, Hee-Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Cho, Young-Je

    2018-01-01

    Ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides was tested for its whitening effect on the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and its anti-wrinkle activity on the CCD-986sk human dermal fibroblast cell line. Ferulic acid, one of the primary phenolic compounds that can be isolated from T. tetragonioides, has been reported to show potential as a functional food, for its whitening effect and anti-wrinkle activity. To measure its whitening and anti-wrinkle activities, cells were treated with ferulic acid isolated from T. tetragonioides at concentrations between 5 and 20 μM. Ferulic acid showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 20 μM. Ferulic acid inhibited melanin synthesis, tyrosinase expression, and microphthalmia transcription factor expression in B16F10 cells stimulated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Ferulic acid induced procollagen synthesis, hyaluronic acid synthesis, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase synthesis, and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 expression in CCD-986sk cells stimulated with UV-B. On the basis of these results, we conclude that ferulic acid isolated from T. tetragonioides shows potential for use as a functional food, with whitening and anti-wrinkle activities.

  14. Relaxant effect of a novel calcium-activated potassium channel modulator on human myometrial spontaneous contractility in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, S.T.; Larsen, T.; Joergensen, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a novel SK/IK channels positive modulator, on human myometrial activity. Methods: Organ bath studies were performed on myometrial preparations obtained from women undergoing elective caesarean....... Simultaneous vehicle controls were performed for all experiments. The effects of drugs were studied on spontaneous contractions. Results: NS4591 exerted an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractions in muscle strips from non-pregnant and pregnant women. The contractility in non-pregnant and pregnant...

  15. Single Na+ channels activated by veratridine and batrachotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive Na+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles were inserted into planar lipid bilayers in the presence of either of the alkaloid toxins veratridine (VT) or batrachotoxin (BTX). Both of these toxins are known to cause persistent activation of Na+ channels. With BTX as the channel activator, single channels remain open nearly all the time. Channels activated with VT open and close on a time scale of 1-10 s. Increasing the VT concentration enhances the probability of channel opening, primarily by increasing the rate constant of opening. The kinetics and voltage dependence of channel block by 21-sulfo-11-alpha-hydroxysaxitoxin are identical for VT and BTX, as is the ionic selectivity sequence determined by bi-ionic reversal potential (Na+ approximately Li+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+). However, there are striking quantitative differences in open channel conduction for channels in the presence of the two activators. Under symmetrical solution conditions, the single channel conductance for Na+ is about twice as high with BTX as with VT. Furthermore, the symmetrical solution single channel conductances show a different selectivity for BTX (Na+ greater than Li+ greater than K+) than for VT (Na+ greater than K+ greater than Li+). Open channel current-voltage curves in symmetrical Na+ and Li+ are roughly linear, while those in symmetrical K+ are inwardly rectifying. Na+ currents are blocked asymmetrically by K+ with both BTX and VT, but the voltage dependence of K+ block is stronger with BTX than with VT. The results show that the alkaloid neurotoxins not only alter the gating process of the Na+ channel, but also affect the structure of the open channel. We further conclude that the rate-determining step for conduction by Na+ does not occur at the channel's "selectivity filter," where poorly permeating ions like K+ are excluded. PMID:2435846

  16. Decreased expression of BRCA1 in SK-BR-3 cells is the result of aberrant activation of the GABP Beta promoter by an NRF-1-containing complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Gwen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA1 has recently been identified as a potential regulator of mammary stem/progenitor cell differentiation, and this function may explain the high prevalence of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers, as well as the downregulation of BRCA1 in a large proportion of sporadic breast cancers. That is, loss of BRCA1 function results in blocked differentiation with expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cells. Because BRCA1 also maintains genomic integrity, its loss could produce a pool of genetically unstable stem/progenitor cells that are prime targets for further transforming events. Thus, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of BRCA1 expression is important to our understanding of normal and malignant breast differentiation. Results Loss of BRCA1 expression in the ErbB2-amplified SK-BR-3 cell line was found to be the result of loss of activity of the ets transcription factor GABP, a previously characterized regulator of BRCA1 transcription. The expression of the non-DNA binding GABPβ subunit was shown to be deficient, while the DNA binding subunit, GABPα was rendered unstable by the absence of GABPβ. Deletion analysis of the GABPβ proximal promoter identified a potential NRF-1 binding site as being critical for expression. Supershift analysis, the binding of recombinant protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the role of NRF-1 in regulating the expression of GABPβ. The siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 resulted in decreased GABPβ and BRCA1 expression in MCF-7 cells indicating that they form a transcriptional network. NRF-1 levels and activity did not differ between SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells, however the NRF-1 containing complex on the GABPβ promoter differed between the two lines and appears to be the result of altered coactivator binding. Conclusions Both NRF-1 and GABP have been linked to the regulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, and the results of this study suggest their expression is

  17. Resveratrol attenuates cortical neuron activity: roles of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jean; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Linyi; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Hwei-Hisen

    2016-05-21

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and red wine, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. However, relatively little is known about whether resveratrol modulates the ion channels in cortical neurons. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) and voltage-gated sodium channels were expressed in cortical neurons and play important roles in regulation of neuronal excitability. The present study aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on BKCa currents and voltage-gated sodium currents in cortical neurons. Resveratrol concentration-dependently increased the current amplitude and the opening activity of BKCa channels, but suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated sodium currents. Similar to the BKCa channel opener NS1619, resveratrol decreased the firing rate of action potentials. In addition, the enhancing effects of BKCa channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and paxilline on action potential firing were sensitive to resveratrol. Our results indicated that the attenuation of action potential firing rate by resveratrol might be mediated through opening the BKCa channels and closing the voltage-gated sodium channels. As BKCa channels and sodium channels are critical molecular determinants for seizure generation, our findings suggest that regulation of these two channels in cortical neurons probably makes a considerable contribution to the antiseizure activity of resveratrol.

  18. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Poulet, Claire; Diness, Jonas Goldin

    2014-01-01

    (+) currents by ∼15% and prolonged action potential duration (APD), but no effect was observed in myocytes from AF patients. In trabeculae muscle strips from right atrial appendages of SR patients, both compounds increased APD and effective refractory period, and depolarized the resting membrane potential...

  19. Active Brownian motion in a narrow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, X.; Ghosh, P. K.; Li, Y.; Schmid, G.; Hänggi, P.; Marchesoni, F.

    2014-12-01

    We review recent advances in rectification control of artificial microswimmers, also known as Janus particles, diffusing along narrow, periodically corrugated channels. The swimmer self-propulsion mechanism is modeled so as to incorporate a nonzero torque (propulsion chirality). We first summarize the effects of chirality on the autonomous current of microswimmers freely diffusing in channels of different geometries. In particular, left-right and upside-down asymmetric channels are shown to exhibit different transport properties. We then report new results on the dependence of the diffusivity of chiral microswimmers on the channel geometry and their own self-propulsion mechanism. The self-propulsion torque turns out to play a key role as a transport control parameter.

  20. Opening of small and intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels induces relaxation mainly mediated by nitric-oxide release in large arteries and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in small arteries from rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolar......This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium...... in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and calcium concentrations were investigated in both HUVECs and mesenteric arterial endothelial cells. In both superior (∼1093 μm) and small mesenteric (∼300 μm) arteries, NS309 evoked endothelium- and concentration-dependent relaxations. In superior....... In small mesenteric arteries, NS309 relaxations were reduced slightly by ADMA, whereas apamin plus an IK(Ca) channel blocker almost abolished relaxation. Iberiotoxin did not change NS309 relaxation. HUVECs expressed mRNA for SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels, and NS309 induced increases in calcium, outward...

  1. SK3/TRPC1/Orai1 complex regulates SOCE-dependent colon cancer cell migration: a novel opportunity to modulate anti-EGFR mAb action by the alkyl-lipid Ohmline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguinou, Maxime; Harnois, Thomas; Crottes, David; Uguen, Arnaud; Deliot, Nadine; Gambade, Audrey; Chantôme, Aurélie; Haelters, Jean Pierre; Jaffrès, Paul Alain; Jourdan, Marie Lise; Weber, Günther; Soriani, Olivier; Bougnoux, Philippe; Mignen, Olivier; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Constantin, Bruno; Lecomte, Thierry; Vandier, Christophe; Potier-Cartereau, Marie

    2016-06-14

    Barely 10-20% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receive a clinical benefit from the use of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We hypothesized that this could depends on their efficiency to reduce Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) that are known to enhance cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that SOCE promotes migration of colon cancer cell following the formation of a lipid raft ion channel complex composed of TRPC1/Orai1 and SK3 channels. Formation of this complex is stimulated by the phosphorylation of the reticular protein STIM1 by EGF and activation of the Akt pathway. Our data show that, in a positive feedback loop SOCE activates both Akt pathway and SK3 channel activity which lead to SOCE amplification. This amplification occurs through the activation of Rac1/Calpain mediated by Akt. We also show that Anti-EGFR mAbs can modulate SOCE and cancer cell migration through the Akt pathway. Interestingly, the alkyl-lipid Ohmline, which we previously showed to be an inhibitor of SK3 channel, can dissociated the lipid raft ion channel complex through decreased phosphorylation of Akt and modulation of mAbs action. This study demonstrates that the inhibition of the SOCE-dependent colon cancer cell migration trough SK3/TRPC1/Orai1 channel complex by the alkyl-lipid Ohmline may be a novel strategy to modulate Anti-EGFR mAb action in mCRC.

  2. Channel sialic acids limit hERG channel activity during the ventricular action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norring, Sarah A; Ednie, Andrew R; Schwetz, Tara A; Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Bennett, Eric S

    2013-02-01

    Activity of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1 voltage-gated K(+) channels is responsible for portions of phase 2 and phase 3 repolarization of the human ventricular action potential. Here, we questioned whether and how physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in surface N-glycosylation modified hERG channel function. Voltage-dependent hERG channel gating and activity were evaluated as expressed in a set of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines under conditions of full glycosylation, no sialylation, no complex N-glycans, and following enzymatic deglycosylation of surface N-glycans. For each condition of reduced glycosylation, hERG channel steady-state activation and inactivation relationships were shifted linearly by significant depolarizing ∼9 and ∼18 mV, respectively. The hERG window current increased significantly by 50-150%, and the peak shifted by a depolarizing ∼10 mV. There was no significant change in maximum hERG current density. Deglycosylated channels were significantly more active (20-80%) than glycosylated controls during phases 2 and 3 of action potential clamp protocols. Simulations of hERG current and ventricular action potentials corroborated experimental data and predicted reduced sialylation leads to a 50-70-ms decrease in action potential duration. The data describe a novel mechanism by which hERG channel gating is modulated through physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in N-glycosylation; reduced channel sialylation increases hERG channel activity during the action potential, thereby increasing the rate of action potential repolarization.

  3. KCNQ4 channel activation by BMS-204352 and retigabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Rikke Louise K.; Jespersen, Thomas; Christophersen, P

    2001-01-01

    and concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range 0.1-10 microM. Both compounds shifted the KCNQ4 channel activation curves towards more negative potentials by about 10 mV. Further, the maximal current obtainable at large positive voltages was also increased concentration-dependently by both compounds....... Finally, a pronounced slowing of the deactivation kinetics was induced in particular by BMS-204352. The M-current blocker linopirdine inhibited the baseline current, as well as the BMS-204352-induced activation of the KCNQ4 channels. KCNQ2, KCNQ2/Q3, and KCNQ3/Q4 channels were activated to a similar...

  4. Imaging large cohorts of single ion channels and their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eHiersemenzel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As calcium is the most important signaling molecule in neurons and secretory cells, amongst many other cell types, it follows that an understanding of calcium channels and their regulation of exocytosis is of vital importance. Calcium imaging using calcium dyes such as Fluo3, or FRET-based dyes that have been used widely has provided invaluable information, which combined with modeling has estimated the sub-types of channels responsible for triggering the exocytotic machinery as well as inferences about the relative distances away from vesicle fusion sites these molecules adopt. Importantly, new super-resolution microscopy techniques, combined with novel Ca2+ indicators and imaginative imaging approaches can now define directly the nanoscale locations of very large cohorts of single channel molecules in relation to single vesicles. With combinations of these techniques the activity of individual channels can be visualized and quantified using novel Ca2+ indicators. Fluorescently labeled specific channel toxins can also be used to localize endogenous assembled channel tetramers. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and other single-photon-resolution spectroscopic approaches offer the possibility to quantify protein-protein interactions between populations of channels and the SNARE protein machinery for the first time. Together with simultaneous electrophysiology, this battery of quantitative imaging techniques has the potential to provide unprecedented detail describing the locations, dynamic behaviours, interactions and conductance activities of many thousands of channel molecules and vesicles in living cells.

  5. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  6. Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of combining inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Goldin Diness, Jonas; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    )thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in a Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart model in which AF was induced after acetylcholine application and burst pacing. RESULTS: AF duration was reduced when both flecainide and ranolazine were combined with ICA in doses that did not reduce AF as monotherapy. At higher...

  7. β-adrenergic Receptor Blocker ICI 118,551 Selectively Increases Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa)-Mediated Relaxations in Rat Main Mesenteric Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Melike Hacer; Uma, Serdar

    2017-12-26

    Endothelial IK C a and/or SK C a channels play an important role in the control of vascular tone by participating in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Whether β-AR antagonists, mainly used in hypertension, affect endothelial K C a channel function is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of the β2-AR antagonist and inverse agonist ICI 118,551 on the IK C a /SK C a channel activity by assessing functional relaxation responses to several agonists that stimulate these channels. Mesenteric arterial rings isolated from male Sprague Dawley mounted to organ baths. Acetylcholine elicited IK C a - and SK C a -mediated relaxations that were abolished by TRAM-34 and apamin, respectively. ICI 118,551, which did not dilate the arteries per se, increased the IK C a -mediated relaxations, whereas SK C a -mediated relaxations remained unaltered. Same potentiating effect was also detected on the IK C a -mediated relaxations to carbachol and A23187, but not to NS309. Neither acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide-mediated relaxations nor SNP relaxations changed with ICI 118,551. The PKA inhibitor KT-5720, the selective β2-AR agonist salbutamol, the selective β2-AR antagonist butoxamine, the non-selective β-AR antagonist propranolol, and the inverse agonists carvedilol or nadolol failed to affect the IK C a -mediated relaxations. ICI 118,551-induced increase was not reversed by salbutamol or propranolol as well. Besides, low potassium-induced relaxations in endothelium-removed arteries remained the same in the presence of ICI 118,551. These data demonstrate a previously unrecognized action of ICI 118,551, the ability to potentiate endothelial IK C a channel-mediated vasodilation, through a mechanism independent of β2-AR antagonistic or inverse agonistic action. Instead, the enhancement of acetylcholine relaxation seems likely to occur by a mechanism secondary to endothelial calcium increase. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic

  8. Parallel Evolution of Sperm Hyper-Activation Ca2+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jacob C; Phadnis, Nitin

    2017-07-01

    Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence. Here, we use a comprehensive phylogenomic approach to investigate the selective pressures on these sperm hyper-activation channels. First, we find that the entire CatSper complex evolves rapidly under recurrent positive selection in primates. Second, we find that pkd2 has parallel patterns of adaptive evolution in Drosophila. Third, we show that this adaptive evolution of pkd2 is driven by its role in sperm hyper-activation. These patterns of selection suggest that the evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery is driven by sexual conflict with antagonistic ligands that modulate channel activity. Together, our results add sperm hyper-activation channels to the class of fast evolving reproductive proteins and provide insights into the mechanisms used by the sexes to manipulate sperm behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Calcium influx through hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (I(h) channels) contributes to activity-evoked neuronal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Duan, Kai-Lai; Shang, Chun-Feng; Yu, Han-Gang; Zhou, Zhuan

    2004-01-27

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (I(h)) play a distinct role in rhythmic activities in a variety of tissues, including neurons and cardiac cells. In the present study, we investigated whether Ca(2+) can permeate through the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker channels (HCN) expressed in HEK293 cells and I(h) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Using combined measurements of whole-cell currents and fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging, we found that there is a Ca(2+) influx in proportion to I(h) induced by hyperpolarization in HEK293 cells. The I(h) channel blockers Cs(+) and ZD7288 inhibit both HCN current and Ca(2+) influx. Measurements of the fractional Ca(2+) current showed that it constitutes 0.60 +/- 0.02% of the net inward current through HCN4 at -120 mV. This fractional current is similar to that of the low Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA-R (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor) channels in Purkinje neurons. In DRG neurons, activation of I(h) for 30 s also resulted in a Ca(2+) influx and an elevated action potential-induced secretion, as assayed by the increase in membrane capacitance. These results suggest a functional significance for I(h) channels in modulating neuronal secretion by permitting Ca(2+) influx at negative membrane potentials.

  10. Sk@m i cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Terapi på nettet er en ny mulighed. Men hjælper den klienter med at tale om skambelagte temaer, eller risikerer den at skabe en uansvarlig og skamløs terapisituation? Den norske forfatter, psykiater og psykoterapeut Finn Skårderud vurderer fordele og ulemper ved terapi i cyberspace.......Terapi på nettet er en ny mulighed. Men hjælper den klienter med at tale om skambelagte temaer, eller risikerer den at skabe en uansvarlig og skamløs terapisituation? Den norske forfatter, psykiater og psykoterapeut Finn Skårderud vurderer fordele og ulemper ved terapi i cyberspace....

  11. Proton and non-proton activation of ASIC channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gautschi

    Full Text Available The Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASIC exhibit a fast desensitizing current when activated by pH values below 7.0. By contrast, non-proton ligands are able to trigger sustained ASIC currents at physiological pHs. To analyze the functional basis of the ASIC desensitizing and sustained currents, we have used ASIC1a and ASIC2a mutants with a cysteine in the pore vestibule for covalent binding of different sulfhydryl reagents. We found that ASIC1a and ASIC2a exhibit two distinct currents, a proton-induced desensitizing current and a sustained current triggered by sulfhydryl reagents. These currents differ in their pH dependency, their sensitivity to the sulfhydryl reagents, their ionic selectivity and their relative magnitude. We propose a model for ASIC1 and ASIC2 activity where the channels can function in two distinct modes, a desensitizing mode and a sustained mode depending on the activating ligands. The pore vestibule of the channel represents a functional site for binding non-proton ligands to activate ASIC1 and ASIC2 at neutral pH and to prevent channel desensitization.

  12. Proton and non-proton activation of ASIC channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Ivan; van Bemmelen, Miguel Xavier; Schild, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASIC) exhibit a fast desensitizing current when activated by pH values below 7.0. By contrast, non-proton ligands are able to trigger sustained ASIC currents at physiological pHs. To analyze the functional basis of the ASIC desensitizing and sustained currents, we have used ASIC1a and ASIC2a mutants with a cysteine in the pore vestibule for covalent binding of different sulfhydryl reagents. We found that ASIC1a and ASIC2a exhibit two distinct currents, a proton-induced desensitizing current and a sustained current triggered by sulfhydryl reagents. These currents differ in their pH dependency, their sensitivity to the sulfhydryl reagents, their ionic selectivity and their relative magnitude. We propose a model for ASIC1 and ASIC2 activity where the channels can function in two distinct modes, a desensitizing mode and a sustained mode depending on the activating ligands. The pore vestibule of the channel represents a functional site for binding non-proton ligands to activate ASIC1 and ASIC2 at neutral pH and to prevent channel desensitization.

  13. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  14. Atomic basis for therapeutic activation of neuronal potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Robin Y; Yau, Michael C; Galpin, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    with fluorinated Trp analogues, with increased H-bonding propensity, strengthens retigabine potency. In addition, potency of numerous retigabine analogues correlates with the negative electrostatic surface potential of a carbonyl/carbamate oxygen atom present in most KCNQ activators. These findings functionally...... pinpoint an atomic-scale interaction essential for effects of retigabine and provide stringent constraints that may guide rational improvement of the emerging drug class of KCNQ channel activators....

  15. Disruption of Dopamine Neuron Activity Pattern Regulation through Selective Expression of a Human KCNN3 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Marta E.; Jones, Graham L.; Sanford, Christina A.; Chung, Amanda S.; Güler, Ali D.; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel, SK3, plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior. PMID:24206670

  16. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  17. TRAIL Activates a Caspase 9/7-Dependent Pathway in Caspase 8/10-Defective SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells with Two Functional End Points: Induction of Apoptosis and PGE2 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zauli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroblastoma cell lines do not express apical caspases 8 and 10, which play a key role in mediating tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL cytotoxicity in a variety of malignant cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that TRAIL induced a moderate but significant increase of apoptosis in the caspase 8/10-deficient SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line, through activation of a novel caspase 9/7 pathway. Concomitant to the induction of apoptosis, TRAIL also promoted a significant increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release by SKN-SH cells. Moreover, coadministration of TRAIL plus indomethacin, a pharmacological inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX, showed an additive effect on SKN-SH cell death. In spite of the ability of TRAIL to promote the phosphorylation of both ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK, which have been involved in the control of COX expression/activity, neither PD98059 nor SB203580, pharmacological inhibitors of the ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK pathways, respectively, affected either PGE2 production or apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Finally, both induction of apoptosis and PGE2 release were completely abrogated by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD4mk, suggesting that both biologic end points were regulated in SK-N-SH cells through a caspase 9/7-dependent pathway.

  18. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed...... was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction....... Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin...

  19. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  20. Sodium channel activators: model of binding inside the pore and a possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2005-08-15

    Sodium channel activators, batrachotoxin and veratridine, cause sodium channels to activate easier and stay open longer than normal channels. Traditionally, this was explained by an allosteric mechanism. However, increasing evidence suggests that activators can bind inside the pore. Here, we model the open sodium channel with activators and propose a novel mechanism of their action. The activator-bound channel retains a hydrophilic pathway for ions between the ligand and conserved asparagine in segment S6 of repeat II. One end of the activator approaches the selectivity filter, decreasing the channel conductance and selectivity. The opposite end reaches the gate stabilizing it in the open state.

  1. [Role of calcium activated-potassium channels in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sun, Jingzhi; Yang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium activated-potassium channels (KCa) in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz. The experiments were conducted on a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) in vitro, where crystal silica (100 üg/ml) and amorphous silica (100 üg/ml) were used as the test substances and the cells without any treatment as negative controls. At first the effects of two kinds of quartz were compared. Then KCa special inhibitors (Paxilline for BK, Tram-34 for IK, Apamin for SK) were added in different doses to the in vitro test system with 100 üg/ml crystal quartz as matrix, to observe the function of such channels. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were tested. Comparing to the negative control group, cell viability reduced, LDH leakage, IL-1β and TNF-α release increased significantly in the amorphous quartz group, furthermore, the effects by crystal quartz were much more serious than those by amorphous quartz, with a statistical significance (P quartz group, IK blockers (Tram-34) led to increase in cell viability significantly, with a statistical significance (P quartz in the rat alveolar macrophages cell line in vitro, which might serve as a signal in the early regulation of inflammatory responses by quartz.

  2. Experience with ActiveX control for simple channel access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timossi, C.; Nishimura, H.; McDonald, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator control system applications at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source (ALS) are typically deployed on operator consoles running Microsoft Windows 2000 and utilize EPICS[2]channel access for data access. In an effort to accommodate the wide variety of Windows based development tools and developers with little experience in network programming, ActiveX controls have been deployed on the operator stations. Use of ActiveX controls for use in the accelerator control environment has been presented previously[1]. Here we report on some of our experiences with the use and development of these controls

  3. Sorting Out Effects of Active Stream Restoration: Channel Morphology, Channel Change Processes and Potential Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    In many active restoration projects, instream structures or modifications are designed to produce specific change in channel form, such as reduced W:D or increased pool depth, yet there is little monitoring to evaluate effectiveness. Active restoration often takes place within a context of other land management changes that can have an effect on channel form. Thus, the effects of active restoration are difficult to separate from the effects of other management actions. We measured morphologic response to restoration designs on sections of the Middle Fork John Day River, a gravel-cobble bed river under a cattle grazing regime in the Blue Mountain of Oregon. Since 2000, restoration actions have included elimination of cattle grazing in the riparian zone (passive restoration), riparian planting of woody vegetation, instream log structures for fish habitat and pool maintenance, and elimination of a major flow diversion. We listed the hypothetical effects of each of these management changes, showing overlap among effects of active and passive restoration. Repeat cross-section and longitudinal profile surveys over eight years, and repeat aerial imagery, documented changes in channel width, depth and bed morphology, and processes of change (bank erosion or aggradation, point bar erosion or aggradation, bed incision or aggradation), in two restored reaches and two adjacent control (unrestored) reaches. Morphologic changes were modest. Bankfull cross-section area, width, and W:D all decreased slightly in both restored reaches. Control reaches were unchanged or increased slightly. Processes of change were markedly different among the four reaches, with different reaches dominated by different processes. One restored reach was dominated by slight bed aggradation, increased pool depth and deep pools/km, while the other restored reach was dominated by bank erosion, bar aggradation and slight bed incision, along with increased deep pools/km. The longitudinal profile showed

  4. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  5. Electrical resonance of Amphotericin B channel activity in lipidic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier, Karla S.; Ortega-Blake, Iván; Parmananda, P.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous work [J. Membrane Biol. 237, 31 (2010)], we showed the dependence of the time average conductance of Nystatin channels as a function of the applied potential. Specifically, it was observed that greater potential induced enhanced channel activity. This indicates that the supramolecular structure could be stabilized by a large field, possibly by giving a preferential orientation to the monomers. In the present work, we entertain the notion that the process of pore formation in the lipidic membranes has an underlying deterministic component. To verify this hypothesis, experiments were performed under potentio-dynamic conditions, i.e., a square train of pulses of different frequencies (0.05-2 Hz) were applied to a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane having 30 mol. % cholesterol and the presence of 35 μM Amphotericin B. An emergence of a resonant frequency, in the present experiments, is tantamount to observing fingerprints of determinism in the activity of these channels in lipidic membranes.

  6. [Application of recording SK2 current in human atrial myocytes by perforated patch clamp techniques with the mix of beta-escin and amphotericin B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Li, Tao; Lei, Ming; Li, Miao-ling; Ding, Yin-yuan; Yang, Yan; Zeng, Xiao-rong

    2012-05-01

    To establish a perforated patch-clamp technology with amphotericin B and beta-escin and to research the regulation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK2 currents by calcium ions. Single human atrial myocytes were enzymatically isolated from the right atrial appendage. Amphotericin B and / or beta-escin were used by perforated electrode liquid. The regulation of SK2 current by calcium ions in human atrial myocytes was performed with the perforated patch-clamp technique. The intracellular calcium changes were measured by the intracellular calcium test system. Mixed perforated electrode liquid compared with 150 microg/ml amphotericin B or 6.88 microg/ml beta-escin alone, it was easy to seal cells and activate SK2 current by the former method. Moreover, the ration of F340/380 was consistent with the change of intracellular free calcium ion concentration increase after the formation of perforation. The ration of F340/380 was measured by intracellular calcium test system. The appropriate concentration of amphotericin B mixed with beta-escin can form a stable whole-cell patch recording technology that is appropriate for the research of SK2 current regulation by intracellular calcium.

  7. Facile synthesis of mPEG-luteolin-capped silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity to neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Weixia; Wang, Yong; Li, Xiao; Lu, Minghua; Liu, Xiuhua

    2017-12-01

    We firstly report a facile route for the green synthesis of mPEG-luteolin-capped silver nanoparticles (mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs) using mPEG-luteolin as both the reducer and stabilizer. The reaction was carried out in a stirred aqueous solution at 50°C without additional poisonous reagents. The prepared mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and UV-vis (UV-vis) spectrum, respectively. The proportions of mPEG-luteolin capped silver nanoparticles is about 89.9%, and the content of silver is 6.65%. The mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs was evaluated the antimicrobial effects on Staphlococcus aureus, Extended spectrum β-Lactamases Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli and Extended spectrum β-Lactamases Escherichia Coli using drilling hole method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs at low concentration. Meanwhile, the cell viability assay demonstrated that mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs had toxic effects on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kheradpezhouh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2 channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  9. On the estimation of cooperativity in ion channel kinetics: activation free energy and kinetic mechanism of Shaker K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk; Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2013-04-28

    In this paper, we have explored generic criteria of cooperative behavior in ion channel kinetics treating it on the same footing with multistate receptor-ligand binding in a compact theoretical framework. We have shown that the characterization of cooperativity of ion channels in terms of the Hill coefficient violates the standard Hill criteria defined for allosteric cooperativity of ligand binding. To resolve the issue, an alternative measure of cooperativity is proposed here in terms of the cooperativity index that sets a unified criteria for both the systems. More importantly, for ion channel this index can be very useful to describe the cooperative kinetics as it can be readily determined from the experimentally measured ionic current combined with theoretical modelling. We have analyzed the correlation between the voltage value and slope of the voltage-activation curve at the half-activation point and consequently determined the standard free energy of activation of the ion channel using two well-established mechanisms of cooperativity, namely, Koshland-Nemethy-Filmer (KNF) and Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) models. Comparison of the theoretical results for both the models with appropriate experimental data of mutational perturbation of Shaker K(+) channel supports the experimental fact that the KNF model is more suitable to describe the cooperative behavior of this class of ion channels, whereas the performance of the MWC model is unsatisfactory. We have also estimated the mechanistic performance through standard free energy of channel activation for both the models and proposed a possible functional disadvantage in the MWC scheme.

  10. Quantification and distribution of big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in kidney epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Klaerke, Dan A

    2005-01-01

    Big conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (BK channels) is an abundant channel present in almost all kind of tissue. The accurate quantity and especially the precise distribution of this channel in kidney epithelia are, however, still debated. The aim of the present study has therefore been...... to examine the presence of BK channels in kidney epithelia and determine the actual number and distribution of these channels. For this purpose, a selective peptidyl ligand for BK channels called iberiotoxin or the radiolabeled double mutant analog 125I-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F has been employed. The presence of BK...... channels were determined by a isotope flux assay where up to 44% of the total K+ channel activity could be inhibited by iberiotoxin indicating that BK channels are widely present in kidney epithelia. Consistent with these functional studies, 125I-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F binds to membrane vesicles from outer cortex...

  11. The batrachotoxin receptor on the voltage-gated sodium channel is guarded by the channel activation gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ling; Hadid, David; Ragsdale, David S

    2002-04-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX), from South American frogs of the genus Phyllobates, irreversibly activates voltage-gated sodium channels. Previous work demonstrated that a phenylalanine residue approximately halfway through pore-lining transmembrane segment IVS6 is a critical determinant of channel sensitivity to BTX. In this study, we introduced a series of mutations at this site in the Na(v)1.3 sodium channel, expressed wild-type and mutant channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and examined their sensitivity to BTX using voltage clamp recording. We found that substitution of either alanine or isoleucine strongly reduced channel sensitivity to toxin, whereas cysteine, tyrosine, or tryptophan decreased toxin action only modestly. These data suggest an electrostatic ligand-receptor interaction at this site, possibly involving a charged tertiary amine on BTX. We then used a mutant channel (mutant F1710C) with intermediate toxin sensitivity to examine the properties of the toxin-receptor reaction in more detail. In contrast to wild-type channels, which bind BTX almost irreversibly, toxin dissociation from mutant channels was rapid, but only when the channels were open, not when they were closed. These data suggest the closed activation gate trapped bound toxin. Although BTX dissociation required channel activation, it was, paradoxically, slowed by strong membrane depolarization, suggesting additional state-dependent and/or electrostatic influences on the toxin binding reaction. We propose that BTX moves to and from its receptor through the cytoplasmic end of the open ion-conducting pore, in a manner similar to that of quaternary local anesthetics like QX314.

  12. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of Skåne, southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivhed, Ulf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, Jurassic strata are restricted to Skåne and adjacent offshore areas. Jurassic sedimentary rocks predominantly comprise sandy to muddy siliciclastics, with subordinate coal beds andfew carbonate-rich beds. During Mesozoic times, block-faulting took place in the Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone, a tectonic zone which transects Skåne in a NW–SE direction. The Jurassic depositionalenvironments in Skåne were thus strongly influenced by uplift and downfaulting, and to some extent by volcanism. Consequently, the sedimentary record reveals evidence of numerous transgressions, regressions and breaks in sedimentation. Relative sea-level changes played a significant role in controlling the facies distribution, as deposition mainly took place in coastal plain to shallow shelf environments.The alluvial deposits in Skåne include floodplain palaeosols, autochthonous coals, overbank sandstones, and stream channel pebbly sandstones. Restricted marine strata comprise intertidalheteroliths with mixed freshwater and marine trace fossil assemblages, and intertidal delta distributary channel sandstones. Shallow marine sediments encompass subtidal and shoreface sandstoneswith herringbone structures, and bioturbated mudstones with tempestite sandstones. Offshore deposits typically comprise extensively bioturbated muddy sandstones.Floral remains, palaeopedology, clay mineralogy and arenite maturity indicate a warm and humid climate in Skåne throughout the Jurassic, possibly with slightly increasing aridity towards the end of the period. Most Jurassic strata in Skåne have been subjected to mild burial diagenesis, and the petroleum generative window has rarely been reached.

  13. Adaptive vector quantization in SVD MIMO system backward link with limited number of active sub channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaniš Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents combination of Channel Optimized Vector Quantization based on LBG algorithm and sub channel power allocation for MIMO systems with Singular Value Decomposition and limited number of active sub channels. Proposed algorithm is designed to enable maximal throughput with bit error rate bellow some tar- get level in case of backward channel capacity limitation. Presence of errors effect in backward channel is also considered.

  14. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  15. Voltage-dependent activation in purified reconstituted sodium channels from rabbit T-tubular membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, R.E.; Tanaka, J.C.; Mueller, P.; Barchi, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have examined the voltage-dependent gating of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels purified from rabbit T-tubular membranes in two ways. First, purified channels were reconstituted into planar bilayers and single-channel properties were measured. Batrachotoxin-activated channels showed steep voltage-dependent activation with half-maximal opening probabilities at potentials between -95 and -116 mV. The single-channel conductance averaged 20 pS and was independent of membrane potential. A second approach was used to establish that this voltage dependence was a characteristic of the entire population of purified channels and not just those few channels observed in planar bilayers. Channels reconstituted into egg phosphophatidyl-choline vesicles were functionally oriented by inclusion of internal saxitoxin; vesicle membrane potentials were then generated by K/sup +/ gradients in the presence of valinomycin. All of the specific /sup 22/Na/sup +/ influx activated by batrachotoxin and blocked by saxitoxin was found to be voltage sensitive, activating between predicted membrane potentials of -100 and -50 mV. The single-channel properties of the purified T-tubular sodium channel correspond closely to those seen with native sodium channels from rat sarcolemma. The voltage-dependent activation of the bactrachotoxin-modified reconstituted channel is the same as that seen with native channels in situ or in bilayers after exposure this toxin.

  16. Atrial fibrillation: Therapeutic potential of atrial K+channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Ursula; Odening, Katja E

    2017-08-01

    Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K + ) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets. These channels include the ultra-rapidly activating, delayed outward-rectifying Kv1.5 channel conducting I Kur , the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel conducting I K,ACh , the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of small conductance (SK) conducting I SK , and the two pore domain K + (K2P) channels TWIK-1, TASK-1 and TASK-3 that are responsible for voltage-independent background currents I TWIK-1 , I TASK-1 , and I TASK-3 . Here, we briefly review the characteristics of these K + channels and their roles in atrial fibrillation. The antiarrhythmic potential of drugs targeting the described channels is discussed as well as their putative value in treatment of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  18. BK channel activation by NS11021 decreases excitability and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Layne, Jeffrey J; Nausch, Bernhard; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    reduction was blocked by pretreatment with the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin. NS11021 (3 microM) had no effect on contractions evoked by nerve stimulation. These findings indicate that activating BK channels reduces the force of UBSM spontaneous phasic contractions, principally through decreasing......Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in regulating the function and activity of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), and the loss of BK channel function has been shown to increase UBSM excitability and contractility. However, it is not known whether...... activation of BK channels has the converse effect of reducing UBSM excitability and contractility. Here, we have sought to investigate this possibility by using the novel BK channel opener NS11021. NS11021 (3 microM) caused an approximately threefold increase in both single BK channel open probability (P...

  19. Structural basis of slow activation gating in the cardiac IKs channel complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strutz-Seebohm, Nathalie; Pusch, Michael; Wolf, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    of the voltage sensor domain S4 of KCNQ1 in a putative pre-open channel state. Formation of this state may induce slow activation gating, the pivotal characteristic of native cardiac I(Ks) channels. This new KCNQ1-KCNE1 model may become useful for dynamic modeling of disease-associated mutant I(Ks) channels....

  20. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  1. The role of calcium, calcium-activated K+ channels, and tyrosine/kinase in psoralen-evoked responses in human melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoldi M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-Methoxy psoralen (8-MOP exerts a short-term (24 h mitogenic action, and a long-term (48-72 h anti-proliferative and melanogenic action on two human melanoma cell lines, SK-Mel 28 and C32TG. An increase of intracellular calcium concentration was observed by spectrofluorometry immediately after the addition of 0.1 mM 8-MOP to both cell lines, previously incubated with calcium probe fluo-3 AM (5 µM. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA/AM (1 µM blocked both early (mitogenic and late (anti-proliferative and melanogenic 8-MOP effects on both cell lines, thus revealing the importance of the calcium signal in both short- and long-term 8-MOP-evoked responses. Long-term biological assays with 5 and 10 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, an inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels did not affect the responses to psoralen; however, in 24-h assays 10 mM TEA blocked the proliferative peak, indicating a modulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by 8-MOP. No alteration of cAMP basal levels or forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels was promoted by 8-MOP in SK-Mel 28 cells, as determined by radioimmunoassay. However, in C32TG cells forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels were further increased in the presence of 8-MOP. In addition, assays with 1 µM protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and KN-93, respectively, excluded the participation of these kinases in the responses evoked by 8-MOP. Western blot with antibodies anti-phosphotyrosine indicated a 92% increase of the phosphorylated state of a 43-kDa band, suggesting that the phosphorylation of this protein is a component of the cascade that leads to the increase of tyrosinase activity.

  2. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: a 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenhagen M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Stenhagen, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Objectives: To determine the relationship between long-term change in activities of daily living (ADL and falls in the elderly and to identify characteristics of groups at risk for falls.Methods: This was a 6-year, prospective cohort study using data from the Good Aging in Skåne study in southern Sweden, involving 1,540 elderly subjects, including the oldest-old (age, 60–93 years. The subjects were recruited from the general population. ADL was measured at a baseline and follow-up assessment, using Sonn and Åsberg’s revised scale and the ADL staircase. Falls were recorded in a period of 6 months before the follow-up assessment. The association between falls and change in ADL was calculated using adjusted, multiple logistic regression analysis and presented in odds ratios (ORs.Results: Thirteen percent of the study population reported one or several falls in the measured period. Over the course of 6 years, one in four participants changed their ADL status, and parts of this category had an increased risk for falls compared with those who stayed independent in ADL or who had no change in the ADL staircase. Groups with different characteristics had a prominent risk for falls: those with a reduction of two to eight steps in the ADL staircase (OR, 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.11 and those becoming independent from dependency in instrumental ADL (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.89–9.00. The former group had advanced age with a greater burden of cognitive impairment, gait disability, arrhythmia, and fall risk medications. The latter group had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease and low walking speed. Conclusion: Both deterioration and improvement in ADL over the course of 6 years increased the risk for falls in a general elderly population

  3. Thallium Flux Assay for Measuring the Activity of Monovalent Cation Channels and Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C David

    2018-01-01

    Monovalent cation channels are critically important for physiological processes ranging from the control of neuronal excitability to the maintenance of solute balance. Mutations in these channels are associated with a multiplicity of diseases and monovalent cation channel-modulating drugs are used as therapeutics. Techniques that allow the measurement of the activity of these ion channels are useful for exploring their many biological roles as well as enabling the discovery and characterization of ion channel modulators for the purposes of drug discovery. Although there are numerous techniques for measuring the activity of monovalent cation channels, the thallium flux assay technique is a widely used fluorescence-based approach. Described herein is a method for using the thallium-flux technique for detecting and quantifying the activity of small-molecule potassium channel modulators in 384-well plates.

  4. Effect of cadmium and glutathione on malic enzyme activity in brown shrimps (Crangon crangon from the Gulf of Gdańsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Skorkowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The high level of cadmium in the abdominal muscle of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon is due to the serious pollution of the water in the Gulf of Gdansk. The inhibition of malic enzyme (ME activity by cadmium, and in consequence the reduced formation of NADPH, could interfere with cellular mechanisms for detoxifying the organism and reducing oxidative stress. The reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in the abdominal muscle of C. crangon was calculated to be 5.8 mM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the part played by GSH in the effect of cadmium on the activity of NADP-dependent malic enzyme from abdominal muscles of brown shrimps. This enzyme is activated by certain divalent cations (Mg, Mn. The results demonstrate that cadmium inhibits ME activity from shrimp muscle, and that GSH and albumin can reduce this cadmium-inhibited NADP-dependent malic enzyme activity.

  5. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and sediment transport modelling in a curved channel (Chang 1988). ... spiral motion of the flow directed normal to the main flow and the super-elevation of the water surface. The secondary current, which develops upon entering a channel bend, will eventually ... from flume studies and calibrated using the river data.

  6. Effects of Active Subsidence Vs. Existing Basin Geometry on Fluviodeltaic Channels and Stratal Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M.; Kim, W.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence and basin topography, both determining the accommodation, are fundamental controls on the basin filling processes. Their effects on the fluvial organization and the resultant subsurface patterns remain difficult to predict due to the lack of understanding about interaction between internal dynamics and external controls. Despite the intensive studies on tectonic steering effects on alluvial architecture, how the self-organization of deltaic channels, especially the distributary channel network, respond to tectonics and basin geometry is mostly unknown. Recently physical experiments and field studies have hinted dramatic differences in fluviodeltaic evolution between ones associated with active differential subsidence and existing basin depth. In this work we designed a series of numerical experiments using a reduced-complexity channel-resolving model for delta formation, and tested over a range of localized subsidence rates and topographic depression in basin geometry. We also used a set of robust delta metrics to analyze: i) shoreline planform asymmetry, ii) channel and lobe geometry, iii) channel network pattern, iv) autogenic timescales, and v) subsurface structure. The modeling results show that given a similar final thickness, active subsidence enhances channel branching with smaller channel sand bodies that are both laterally and vertically connected, whereas existing topographic depression causes more large-scale channel avulsions with larger channel sand bodies. In general, both subsidence and existing basin geometry could steer channels and/or lock channels in place but develop distinct channel patterns and thus stratal architecture.

  7. Nitric oxide regulates neuronal activity via calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ray Zhong

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons.

  8. The temperature dependence of the BK channel activity - kinetics, thermodynamics, and long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J

    2017-10-01

    Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca 2+ -activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient. Quantitative differences between dependencies of appropriate channel's characteristics on temperature are evident for different regimes of voltage. Examining the characteristics of BK channel activity as a function of temperature allows to estimate the net activation energy (E act ) and changes of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) by channel opening. Larger E act corresponds to the channel activity at membrane hyperpolarization. The analysis of entropy and enthalpy changes of closed to open channel's transition suggest the entropy-driven nature of the increase of open state probability during voltage activation and supports the hypothesis about the voltage-dependent geometry of the channel vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal and spatial requirements of unplugged/MuSK function during zebrafish neuromuscular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest events in neuromuscular junction (NMJ development is the accumulation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR at the center of muscle cells. The unplugged/MuSK (muscle specific tyrosine kinase gene is essential to initiate AChR clustering but also to restrict approaching growth cones to the muscle center, thereby coordinating pre- and postsynaptic development. To determine how unplugged/MuSK signaling coordinates these two processes, we examined the temporal and spatial requirements of unplugged/MuSK in zebrafish embryos using heat-shock inducible transgenes. Here, we show that despite its expression in muscle cells from the time they differentiate, unplugged/MuSK activity is first required just prior to the appearance of AChR clusters to simultaneously induce AChR accumulation and to guide motor axons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of unplugged/MuSK throughout the muscle membrane results in wildtype-like AChR prepattern and neuromuscular synapses in the central region of muscle cells. We propose that AChR prepatterning and axonal guidance are spatio-temporally coordinated through common unplugged/MuSK signals, and that additional factor(s restrict unplugged/MuSK signaling to a central muscle zone critical for establishing mid-muscle synaptogenesis.

  10. The inhibitor of volume-regulated anion channels DCPIB activates TREK potassium channels in cultured astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minieri, L.; Pivoňková, Helena; Caprini, M.; Harantová, Lenka; Anděrová, Miroslava; Ferroni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 5 (2013), s. 1240-1254 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : two-pore-domain potassium channels * patch clamp * neuroprotection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.990, year: 2013

  11. Pharmacological activation and inhibition of Slack (Slo2.2) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Pan, Jennifer; Damagnez, Veronique; Dworetzky, Steven I; Boissard, Christopher G; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Yan, Yangyang; Sigworth, Fred J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2006-09-01

    The Slack (Sequence like a calcium-activated K channel) (Slo2.2) gene is abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain and encodes a sodium-activated K+ (KNa) channel. Although the specific roles of Slack channel subunits in neurons remain to be identified, they may play a role in the adaptation of firing rate and in protection against ischemic injury. In the present study, we have generated a stable cell line expressing the Slack channel, and have analyzed the pharmacological properties of these channels in these cells and in Xenopus oocytes. Two known blockers of KNa channels, bepridil and quinidine, inhibited Slack currents in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased channel activity in excised membrane patches. The inhibition by bepridil was potent, with an IC50 of 1.0 microM for inhibition of Slack currents in HEK cells. In contrast, bithionol was found to be a robust activator of Slack currents. When applied to the extracellular face of excised patches, bithionol rapidly induced a reversible increase in channel opening, suggesting that it acts on Slack channels relatively directly. These data establish an important early characterization of agents that modulate Slack channels, a process essential for the experimental manipulation of Slack currents in neurons.

  12. Pharmacokinetic/Toxicity Properties of the New Anti-Staphylococcal Lead Compound SK-03-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Schwan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the potential of a new anti-staphylococcal lead compound SK-03-92 as a topical antibiotic, a patch, or an orally active drug, we sought to determine its safety profile and oral bioavailability. SK-03-92 had a high IC50 (125 μg/mL in vitro against several mammalian cell lines, and mice injected intraperiteonally at the highest dose did not exhibit gross toxicity (e.g., altered gait, ungroomed, significant weight loss. Single dose (100 μg/g pharmacokinetic (PK analysis with formulated SK-03-92 showed that peak plasma concentration (1.64 μg/mL was achieved at 20–30 min. Oral relative bioavailability was 8%, and the drug half-life was 20–30 min, demonstrating that SK-03-92 is likely not a candidate for oral delivery. Five-day and two-week PK analyses demonstrated that SK-03-92 plasma levels were low. Multi-dose analysis showed no gross adverse effects to the mice and a SK-03-92 peak plasma concentration of 2.12 μg/mL with the presence of significant concentrations of breakdown products 15 min after dosing. SK-03-92 appeared to be very safe based on tissue culture and mouse gross toxicity determinations, but the peak plasma concentration suggests that a pro-drug of SK-03-92 or preparation of analogs of SK-03-92 with greater bioavailability and longer half-lives are warranted.

  13. Batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels in planar lipid bilayers. Competition of tetrodotoxin block by Na+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczydlowski, E; Garber, S S; Miller, C

    1984-11-01

    Single Na+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles were inserted into planar lipid bilayers formed from neutral phospholipids and were observed in the presence of batrachotoxin. The batrachotoxin-modified channel activates in the voltage range -120 to -80 mV and remains open almost all the time at voltages positive to -60 mV. Low levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) induce slow fluctuations of channel current, which represent the binding and dissociation of single TTX molecules to single channels. The rates of association and dissociation of TTX are both voltage dependent, and the association rate is competitively inhibited by Na+. This inhibition is observed only when Na+ is increased on the TTX binding side of the channel. The results suggest that the TTX receptor site is located at the channel's outer mouth, and that the Na+ competition site is not located deeply within the channel's conduction pathway.

  14. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-10-31

    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I(e)) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I(e). In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 microM), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  15. Tubular Unimolecular Transmembrane Channels: Construction Strategy and Transport Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wen; Xin, Pengyang; Li, Zhan-Ting; Hou, Jun-Li

    2015-06-16

    Lipid bilayer membranes separate living cells from their environment. Membrane proteins are responsible for the processing of ion and molecular inputs and exports, sensing stimuli and signals across the bilayers, which may operate in a channel or carrier mechanism. Inspired by these wide-ranging functions of membrane proteins, chemists have made great efforts in constructing synthetic mimics in order to understand the transport mechanisms, create materials for separation, and develop therapeutic agents. Since the report of an alkylated cyclodextrin for transporting Cu(2+) and Co(2+) by Tabushi and co-workers in 1982, chemists have constructed a variety of artificial transmembrane channels by making use of either the multimolecular self-assembly or unimolecular strategy. In the context of the design of unimolecular channels, important advances have been made, including, among others, the tethering of natural gramicidin A or alamethicin and the modification of various macrocycles such as crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and cucurbiturils. Many of these unimolecular channels exhibit high transport ability for metal ions, particularly K(+) and Na(+). Concerning the development of artificial channels based on macrocyclic frameworks, one straightforward and efficient approach is to introduce discrete chains to reinforce their capability to insert into bilayers. Currently, this approach has found the widest applications in the systems of crown ethers and calixarenes. We envisioned that for macrocycle-based unimolecular channels, control of the arrangement of the appended chains in the upward and/or downward direction would favor the insertion of the molecular systems into bilayers, while the introduction of additional interactions among the chains would further stabilize a tubular conformation. Both factors should be helpful for the formation of new efficient channels. In this Account, we discuss our efforts in designing new unimolecular artificial channels from

  16. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1994-01-01

    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  17. Trimethyloxonium modification of batrachotoxin-activated Na channels alters functionally important protein residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Cherbavaz, D B

    1995-01-01

    The extracellular side of single batrachotoxin-activated voltage-dependent Na channels isolated from rat skeletal muscle membranes incorporated into neutral planar lipid bilayers were treated in situ with the carboxyl methylating reagent, trimethyloxonium (TMO). These experiments were designed to determine whether TMO alters Na channel function by a general through-space electrostatic mechanism or by methylating specific carboxyl groups essential to channel function. TMO modification reduced ...

  18. Comparison of ionic selectivity of batrachotoxin-activated channels with different tetrodotoxin dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Catterall, W A; Ehrenstein, G

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to test whether the differences between normal and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channels reside in the selectivity filter. To do this, we have compared the selectivity of batrachotoxin-activated channels for alkali cations, organic cations, and nonelectrolytes in two neuroblastoma clonal cell lines: N18, which has normal tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity, and C9, which is relatively TTX-resistant. We have also studied the effect of H+ on Na+ permeability and on the interaction between TTX and its receptor site in both cell lines. There is no qualitative difference between the two cell lines in any of these properties. In both cell lines the batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels have a selectivity sequence of Tl+ greater than Na+ greater than K+, guanidinium greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+, methylamine. Also, in both cell lines H+ blocks Na+ channels with a pKa of 5.5 and inhibits the action of TTX with the same pKa. These observations indicate that the selectivity filters of the Na+ channels in C9 and N18 do not differ significantly despite the 100-fold difference in TTX-affinity. Our selectivity studies of batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels for both cell lines suggest that these toxin-activated Na+ channels have a limiting pore size of 3.8 x 6.0 A, as compared to a pore size of 3.0 x 5.0 A for potential-activated Na+ channels.

  19. Coupled analysis of hillslope and channel metrics for erosion rates in a tectonically active landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, M. D.; Grieve, S. W. D.; Mudd, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Topography reflects the competition between tectonic process and climate, mediated by surface processes. Tectonic processes generally act to create topographic gradients and relief, whilst surface processes tend to reduce these, and the efficiency by which they do so is controlled by climate. In tectonically-active landscapes, surface processes attempt to "keep up" with the boundary conditions of surface uplift, and the topography may reflect the history of surface uplift experienced. Channels and hillslopes steepen in response to uplift, manifest as waves of topographic adjustment that propagate up the channel network, onto hillslopes and up to drainage divides. Channels set the base-level condition for hillslopes and hillslope response is expected to lag the channel adjustment. Studies investigating links between erosion rates and topography focus either on hillslopes or channels but, to date, few have explored coupled channel-hillslope morphology in the face of transient landscape adjustment to tectonic boundary conditions. Developments in topographic analysis of hillslopes allow us to assess the spatial distribution of erosion rate metrics and identify transient hillslopes adjusting to changing channel incision rates. The steepness of channels (normalised for drainage area) has been demonstrated to reflect the spatial distribution of erosion rate in the channel network. In this contribution, we compare topographic metrics for erosion rates derived from both channel and hillslope morphology, focusing on the actively uplifting landscape of the Bolinas Ridge, California. This ridgeline is experiencing a gradient in uplift rates due to a blind thrust adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. The ridgeline feature is drained by a series of small catchments that trend roughly perpendicular to the ridgeline axis, and channel steepness has previously been demonstrated to reflect the spatial distribution of surface uplift. We measure hillslope form by extracting individual

  20. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  1. Skærmens samfund/Screen Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    Udgivelsen skal komme dels i en danks udgave og i en engelsk oversættelse. Der er skærme overalt i samfundet. Det er vanskeligere at finde et rum uden end et med en skærm. Hvad betyder det, at vi får oplevelser via skærme? Hvordan er skærmens æstetik og dens visualiseringer? Hvordan interagerer vi...... med skærme? Grænser skaber energi lærte vi i skolen, hvilke energier samles inden for skærme?...

  2. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  3. Hydralazine-induced vasodilation involves opening of high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Lone; Nielsen-Kudsk, J E; Gruhn, N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK(Ca)) are mediating the vasodilator action of hydralazine. In isolated porcine coronary arteries, hydralazine (1-300 microM), like the K+ channel opener levcromakalim, preferentially relaxed...

  4. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls ion channel expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent

    2016-10-15

    Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in the control of local translation, which has pleiotropic effects, in particular on synaptic function. Analysis of the brain FMRP transcriptome has revealed hundreds of potential mRNA targets encoding postsynaptic and presynaptic proteins, including a number of ion channels. FMRP has been confirmed to bind voltage-gated potassium channels (K v 3.1 and K v 4.2) mRNAs and regulates their expression in somatodendritic compartments of neurons. Recent studies have uncovered a number of additional roles for FMRP besides RNA regulation. FMRP was shown to directly interact with, and modulate, a number of ion channel complexes. The sodium-activated potassium (Slack) channel was the first ion channel shown to directly interact with FMRP; this interaction alters the single-channel properties of the Slack channel. FMRP was also shown to interact with the auxiliary β4 subunit of the calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel; this interaction increases calcium-dependent activation of the BK channel. More recently, FMRP was shown to directly interact with the voltage-gated calcium channel, Ca v 2.2, and reduce its trafficking to the plasma membrane. Studies performed on animal models of fragile X syndrome have revealed links between modifications of ion channel activity and changes in neuronal excitability, suggesting that these modifications could contribute to the phenotypes observed in patients with fragile X-associated disorders. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  5. Tonoplast anion channel activity modulation by pH in Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki, G; Eijken, M; Van Iren, F; Van Duijn, B

    2001-11-15

    The patch-clamp technique was used to investigate regulation of anion channel activity in the tonoplast of Chara corallina in response to changing proton and calcium concentrations on both sides of the membrane. These channels are known to be Ca2+-dependent, with conductances in the range of 37 to 48 pS at pH 7.4. By using low pH at the vacuolar side (either pH(vac) 5.3 or 6.0) and a cytosolic pH (pH(cyt)) varying in a range of 4.3 to 9.0, anion channel activity and single-channel conductance could be reversibly modulated. In addition, Ca2+-sensitivity of the channels was markedly influenced by pH changes. At pH(cyt) values of 7.2 and 7.4 the half-maximal concentration (EC50) for calcium activation was 100-200 microm, whereas an EC(50) of about 5 microm was found at a pH(cyt) of 6.0. This suggests an improved binding of Ca2+ ions to the channel protein at more acidic cytoplasm. At low pH(cyt), anion channel activity and mean open times were voltage-dependent. At pipette potentials (V(p)) of +100 mV, channel activity was approximately 15-fold higher than activity at negative pipette potentials and the mean open time of the channel increased. In contrast, at pH(cyt) 7.2, anion channel activity and the opening behavior seemed to be independent of the applied V(p). The kinetics of the channel could be further controlled by the Ca2+ concentration at the cytosolic membrane side: the mean open time significantly increased in the presence of a high cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. These results show that tonoplast anion channels are maintained in a highly active state in a narrow pH range, below the resting pH(cyt). A putative physiological role of the pH-dependent modulation of these anion channels is discussed.

  6. OSR1 and SPAK Sensitivity of Large-Conductance Ca2+ Activated K+ Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Elvira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1 and the serine/threonine kinases SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase are under the control of WNK (with-no-K [Lys] kinases. OSR1 and SPAK participate in diverse functions including cell volume regulation and neuronal excitability. Cell volume and neuronal excitation are further modified by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channel or BK channels. An influence of OSR1 and/or SPAK on BK channel activity has, however, never been shown. The present study thus explored whether OSR1 and/or SPAK modify the activity of BK channels. Methods: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type OSR1 or wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T185EOSR1, catalytically inactive D164AOSR1, constitutively active T233ESPAK or catalytically inactive D212ASPAK. K+ channel activity was measured utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: BK channel activity in BKM513I+Δ899-903 expressing oocytes was significantly decreased by co-expression of OSR1 or SPAK. The effect of wild-type OSR1/SPAK was mimicked by T185EOSR1 and T233ESPAK, but not by D164AOSR1 or D212ASPAK. Conclusions: OSR1 and SPAK suppress BK channels, an effect possibly contributing to cell volume regulation and neuroexcitability.

  7. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  8. [Reconstitution of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels into artificial planar lipid bilayers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zeng, Xiao-Rong; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yun; Wen, Jing; Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2017-06-25

    This study was aimed to establish a method to create a stable planar lipid bilayer membranes (PLBMs), in which large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK Ca ) were reconstituted. Using spreading method, PLBMs were prepared by decane lipid fluid consisting of N 2 -weathered mixture of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol at 3:1 ratio. After successful incorporation of BK Ca channel into PLBMs, single channel characteristics of BK Ca were studied by patch clamp method. The results showed that i) the single channel conductance of BK Ca was (206.8 ± 16.9) pS; ii) the activities of BK Ca channel were voltage dependent; iii) in the bath solution without Ca 2+ , there was almost no BK Ca channel activities regardless of under hyperpolarization or repolarization conditions; iv) under the condition of +40 mV membrane potential, BK Ca channels were activated in a Ca 2+ concentration dependent manner; v) when [Ca 2+ ] was increased from 1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, both the channel open probability and the average open time were increased, and the average close time was decreased from (32.2 ± 2.8) ms to (2.1 ± 1.8) ms; vi) the reverse potential of the reconstituted BK Ca was -30 mV when [K + ] was at 40/140 mmol/L (Cis/Trans). These results suggest that the spreading method could serve as a new method for preparing PLBMs and the reconstituted BK Ca into PLBMs showed similar electrophysiological characteristics to natural BK Ca channels, so the PLBMs with incorporated BK Ca can be used in the studies of pharmacology and dynamics of BK Ca channel.

  9. Fear conditioning suppresses large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in lateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, L; Yamamoto, R; Sugai, T; Kato, N

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that depression-like behavior is accompanied with suppression of the large-conductance calcium activated potassium (BK) channel in cingulate cortex pyramidal cells. To test whether BK channels are also involved in fear conditioning, we studied neuronal properties of amygdala principal cells in fear conditioned mice. After behavior, we made brain slices containing the amygdala, the structure critically relevant to fear memory. The resting membrane potential in lateral amygdala (LA) neurons obtained from fear conditioned mice (FC group) was more depolarized than in neurons from naïve controls. The frequencies of spikes evoked by current injections were higher in neurons from FC mice, demonstrating that excitability of LA neurons was elevated by fear conditioning. The depolarization in neurons from FC mice was shown to depend on BK channels by using the BK channel blocker charybdotoxin. Suppression of BK channels in LA neurons from the FC group was further confirmed on the basis of the spike width, since BK channels affect the descending phase of spikes. Spikes were broader in the FC group than those in the naïve control in a manner dependent on BK channels. Consistently, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decreased expression of BK channel mRNA. The present findings suggest that emotional disorder manifested in the forms of fear conditioning is accompanied with BK channel suppression in the amygdala, the brain structure critical to this emotional disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  11. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Honnuraiah

    Full Text Available Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific

  12. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  13. Structure-activity studies on 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Four series of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists related to mifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch procedure to determine the effects of ester (C{sub 3} = CO{sub 2}Me, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}R) and phenyl (C{sub 4}) substituents on pharmacological and radioligand binding ((H)nitrendipine) activities in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. Two series of Ca{sup 2+} channel activator 1,4-dihydropyridines, BAY K 8644 (C{sub 3} = NO{sub 2}, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}Me) and CGP 28392 (C{sub 2,3} = lactone, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}Me) were biochemically evaluated by inhibition of ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes to establish fundamental structure-activity requirements. A homologous series of bis-1,4-dihydropyridines were synthesized, pharmacologically and biochemically evaluated in an attempt to explore the distribution of the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes. Several potential affinity labels including ester substituted 3- and 4-fluorosulfonyl benzoyl and isothiocyanate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated by inhibition of ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding.

  14. Selective Small Molecule Activators of TREK-2 Channels Stimulate Dorsal Root Ganglion c-Fiber Nociceptor Two-Pore-Domain Potassium Channel Currents and Limit Calcium Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadi, Prasanna K; Vierra, Nicholas C; Days, Emily; Dickerson, Matthew T; Vinson, Paige N; Weaver, C David; Jacobson, David A

    2017-03-15

    The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-2 serves to modulate plasma membrane potential in dorsal root ganglia c-fiber nociceptors, which tunes electrical excitability and nociception. Thus, TREK-2 channels are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating pain; however, there are currently no selective pharmacological tools for TREK-2 channels. Here we report the identification of the first TREK-2 selective activators using a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium (Tl + ) flux screen (HTS). An initial pilot screen with a bioactive lipid library identified 11-deoxy prostaglandin F2α as a potent activator of TREK-2 channels (EC 50 ≈ 0.294 μM), which was utilized to optimize the TREK-2 Tl + flux assay (Z' = 0.752). A HTS was then performed with 76 575 structurally diverse small molecules. Many small molecules that selectively activate TREK-2 were discovered. As these molecules were able to activate single TREK-2 channels in excised membrane patches, they are likely direct TREK-2 activators. Furthermore, TREK-2 activators reduced primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) c-fiber Ca 2+ influx. Interestingly, some of the selective TREK-2 activators such as 11-deoxy prostaglandin F2α were found to inhibit the K2P channel TREK-1. Utilizing chimeric channels containing portions of TREK-1 and TREK-2, the region of the TREK channels that allows for either small molecule activation or inhibition was identified. This region lies within the second pore domain containing extracellular loop and is predicted to play an important role in modulating TREK channel activity. Moreover, the selective TREK-2 activators identified in this HTS provide important tools for assessing human TREK-2 channel function and investigating their therapeutic potential for treating chronic pain.

  15. Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Moriyama, T; Higashi, T; Shima, A; Tominaga, M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Parabens are commonly added in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products because of their wide antibacterial properties, low toxicity, inertness and chemical stability, although the molecular mechanism of their antibacterial effect is not fully understood. Some agonists of the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels are known to have strong antibacterial activities. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to find out the effects of parabens on TRP channels expressed in sensory neurons, particularly the TRPA1 channels. Experimental approach: Effects of parabens, especially of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methyl paraben) on TRP channel activities were examined using Ca2+-imaging and patch-clamp methods. In addition, an involvement of methyl paraben in the development of pain-related behavior in mice was investigated. Key results: Methyl paraben specifically activated TRPA1 in both HEK293 cells expressing TRPA1 and in mouse sensory neurons with an EC50 value of 4.4 mM, an attainable concentration in methyl paraben-containing products. Methyl paraben caused pain-related behavior in mice similar to that caused by allyl isothiocyanate, which was blocked by the TRP channel blocker, ruthenium red. Conclusions and implications: Our data indicate that methyl paraben is able to activate TRPA1 channels and can cause pain sensation. As such, methyl paraben provides a useful tool for investigating TRPA1 function and development of antinociceptive agents acting on TRPA1 channels. PMID:17351650

  16. Physical basis of apparent pore dilation of ATP-activated P2X receptor channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mufeng; Toombes, Gilman E S; Silberberg, Shai D; Swartz, Kenton J

    2015-11-01

    The selectivity of ion channels is fundamental for their roles in electrical and chemical signaling and in ion homeostasis. Although most ion channels exhibit stable ion selectivity, the prevailing view of purinergic P2X receptor channels, transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) is that their ion conduction pores dilate upon prolonged activation. We investigated this mechanism in P2X receptors and found that the hallmark shift in equilibrium potential observed with prolonged channel activation does not result from pore dilation, but from time-dependent alterations in the concentration of intracellular ions. We derived a physical model to calculate ion concentration changes during patch-clamp recordings, which validated our experimental findings and provides a quantitative guideline for effectively controlling ion concentration. Our results have fundamental implications for understanding ion permeation and gating in P2X receptor channels, as well as more broadly for using patch-clamp techniques to study ion channels and neuronal excitability.

  17. Mechanisms of Rose Bengal inhibition on SecA ATPase and ion channel activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Huang, Ying-Ju; Jin, Jin-Shan; Yu, Liyan; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2014-11-14

    SecA is an essential protein possessing ATPase activity in bacterial protein translocation for which Rose Bengal (RB) is the first reported sub-micromolar inhibitor in ATPase activity and protein translocation. Here, we examined the mechanisms of inhibition on various forms of SecA ATPase by conventional enzymatic assays, and by monitoring the SecA-dependent channel activity in the semi-physiological system in cells. We build on the previous observation that SecA with liposomes form active protein-conducting channels in the oocytes. Such ion channel activity is enhanced by purified Escherichia coli SecYEG-SecDF·YajC liposome complexes. Inhibition by RB could be monitored, providing correlation of in vitro activity and intact cell functionality. In this work, we found the intrinsic SecA ATPase is inhibited by RB competitively at low ATP concentration, and non-competitively at high ATP concentrations while the translocation ATPase with precursors and SecYEG is inhibited non-competitively by RB. The Inhibition by RB on SecA channel activity in the oocytes with exogenous ATP-Mg(2+), mimicking translocation ATPase activity, is also non-competitive. The non-competitive inhibition on channel activity has also been observed with SecA from other bacteria which otherwise would be difficult to examine without the cognate precursors and membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dysfunctional Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Ion Channels in Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are reverse voltage-dependent, and their activation depends on the hyperpolarization of the membrane and may be directly or indirectly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP or other signal-transduction cascades. The distribution, quantity and activation states of HCN channels differ in tissues throughout the body. Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. They may constitute promising drug targets in the treatment of these cardiac diseases. Pharmacological treatment targeting HCN channels is of benefit to these cardiac conditions.

  19. ACTIVITY THEORY APPLIED AT CHANNEL EXPANSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siw Lundqvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s commonly carried out channel expansions of commerce could be both costly and problematic to manage. Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that often suffer from a lack of digital competence, time and monetary resources in generally. Still, these transitions would be necessary to carry out because of customer demands and expectations concerning 24/7 availability, and access to digital commerce alternatives. Scarce resources are important reasons to search for how to carry out channel expansions with minimized problems. Activity theory (AT focuses on the whole in order to detect problems that hinder successful outcomes. Hence, this theory was applied to prior findings, from a project about SME’s channel expansions, highlighting several problems that could appear during these activities. Implications for research foremost involve issues connected to the use of AT; implications for practice particularly concern if and how AT could be used to support channel broadening activities.

  20. Activation of big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) channels (BK) protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Osadchii, Oleg; Jespersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK) in the cardiac inner mitochondrial membrane has been suggested to protect the heart against ischemic injury. However, these findings are limited by the low selectivity profile and potency of the BK channel activator (NS1619...... complexes, while producing no effect on cardiac K(ATP) channels. The cardioprotective effects of NS11021-induced BK channel activation were studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts subjected to 35 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. 3 microM NS11021 applied prior to ischemia...... or at the onset of reperfusion significantly reduced the infarct size [control: 44.6 +/- 2.0%; NS11021: 11.4 +/- 2.0%; NS11021 at reperfusion: 19.8 +/- 3.3% (p

  1. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Ischemia Reperfusion: A Brief Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves eTano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury constitutes one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The discovery of new therapies to block/mediate the effects of IR is therefore an important goal in the biomedical sciences. Dysfunction associated with IR involves modification of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa through different mechanisms, which are still under study. Respectively, the KCa family, major contributors to plasma membrane calcium influx in cells and essential players in the regulation of the vascular tone are interesting candidates. This family is divided into two groups including the large conductance (BKCa and the small/intermediate conductance (SKCa/IKCa K+ channels. In the heart and brain, these channels have been described to offer protection against IR injury. BKCa and SKCa channels deserve special attention since new data demonstrate that these channels are also expressed in mitochondria. More studies are however needed to fully determine their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  2. The role of Ca2+-dependent K+- channels at the rat corticostriatal synapses revealed by paired pulse stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Gómez, Angel A; Vega, Ana V; Gónzalez-Sandoval, Carolina; Barral, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located K V and K IR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here, we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum. By using a paired pulse protocol, we induced synaptic facilitation before applying either BK- or SK-specific toxins. Thus, we found that blockage of BK Ca with iberiotoxin (10 nM) reduces synaptic facilitation and increases the amplitude of the EPSP, while exposure to SK-blocker apamin (100 nM) has no effect. Additionally, we induced train action potentials on striatal MSN by current injection before and after the exposure to K Ca toxins. We found that the action potential becomes broader when the MSN is exposed to iberiotoxin, although it has no impact on frequency. In contrast, exposure to apamin results in loss of afterhyperpolarization phase and an increase of spike frequency. Therefore, we concluded that postsynaptic SK channels are involved in afterhyperpolarization and modulation of spike frequency while the BK channels are involved on the late repolarization phase of the action potential. Altogether, our results show that calcium-dependent potassium channels modulate both input towards and output from the striatum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Diterpene Lipo-Alkaloids with Selective Activities on Cardiac K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tivadar; Borcsa, Botond; Orvos, Péter; Tálosi, László; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2017-11-01

    Aconitum diterpene alkaloids are known for their remarkable toxicity, which is due to their effect on ion channels. Activation of voltage-gated Na + channels is the major cause of their cardiotoxicity, however, influence on K + channels may also play a role in the overall effect.Here we report the synthesis of a series of lipo-alkaloids, including four new compounds, based on the 14-benzoylaconine structure, which is the core of a vast number of diterpene alkaloids naturally occurring in Aconitum species. The activities of these compounds were measured in vitro on K + ion channels using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Structure-activity analysis was carried out based on the data of 51 compounds (32 genuine diterpene alkaloids, 5 fatty acids, and 14 lipo-alkaloids). Depending on their substitution, these compounds exert different activities on GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel) and hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channels. Fatty acids and diterpene alkaloids show lower activity on the GIRK channel than lipo-alkaloids. Lipo-alkaloids also have less pronounced hERG inhibitory activity compared to the cardiotoxic aconitine. Considering the GIRK/hERG selectivity as an indicator of perspective therapeutic applicability, lipo-alkaloids are significantly more selective than the genuine diterpene alkaloids. 14-Benzoyl-8- O -eicosa-8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -trienoate and 14-benzoyl-8- O -eicosa-11 Z ,14 Z ,17 Z -trienoate are strong and selective inhibitors of GIRK channels, thus, they are promising subjects for further studies to develop diterpene alkaloid-based antiarrhythmic pharmacons. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Structure-activity relationship study and discovery of indazole 3-carboxamides as calcium-release activated calcium channel blockers

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Sha; Nagai, Masazumi; Koerner, Steffi K.; Veves, Aristidis; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of mast cells contributes to the development of numerous diseases including cancer, autoimmune disorders, as well as diabetes and its complications. The influx of extracellular calcium via the highly calcium selective calcium-release activated calcium (CRAC) channel controls mast cell functions. Intracellular calcium homeostasis in mast cells can be maintained via the modulation of the CRAC channel, representing a critical point for therapeutic interventions. We describe t...

  5. TRPM5 is a voltage-modulated and Ca(2+)-activated monovalent selective cation channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Montell, Craig

    2003-07-01

    The TRPM subfamily of mammalian TRP channels displays unusually diverse activation mechanisms and selectivities. One member of this subfamily, TRPM5, functions in taste receptor cells and has been reported to be activated through G protein-coupled receptors linked to phospholipase C. However, the specific mechanisms regulating TRPM5 have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that TRPM5 is a monovalent-specific cation channel with a 23 pS unitary conductance. TRPM5 does not display constitutive activity. Rather, it is activated by stimulation of a receptor pathway coupled to phospholipase C and by IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release. Gating of TRPM5 was dependent on a rise in Ca(2+) because it was fully activated by Ca(2+). Unlike any previously described mammalian TRP channel, TRPM5 displayed voltage modulation and rapid activation and deactivation kinetics upon receptor stimulation. The most closely related protein, the Ca(2+)-activated monovalent-selective cation channel TRPM4b, also showed voltage modulation, although with slower relaxation kinetics than TRPM5. Taken together, the data demonstrate that TRPM5 and TRPM4b represent the first examples of voltage-modulated, Ca(2+)-activated, monovalent cation channels (VCAMs). The voltage modulation and rapid kinetics provide TRPM5 with an excellent set of properties for participating in signaling in taste receptors and other excitable cells.

  6. Structural insights into the voltage and phospholipid activation of the mammalian TPC1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ji; Guo, Jiangtao; Chen, Qingfeng; Zeng, Weizhong; Jiang, Youxing; Bai, Xiao-Chen

    2018-03-21

    The organellar two-pore channel (TPC) functions as a homodimer, in which each subunit contains two homologous Shaker-like six-transmembrane (6-TM)-domain repeats. TPCs belong to the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily and are ubiquitously expressed in animals and plants. Mammalian TPC1 and TPC2 are localized at the endolysosomal membrane, and have critical roles in regulating the physiological functions of these acidic organelles. Here we present electron cryo-microscopy structures of mouse TPC1 (MmTPC1)-a voltage-dependent, phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P 2 )-activated Na + -selective channel-in both the apo closed state and ligand-bound open state. Combined with functional analysis, these structures provide comprehensive structural insights into the selectivity and gating mechanisms of mammalian TPC channels. The channel has a coin-slot-shaped ion pathway in the filter that defines the selectivity of mammalian TPCs. Only the voltage-sensing domain from the second 6-TM domain confers voltage dependence on MmTPC1. Endolysosome-specific PtdIns(3,5)P 2 binds to the first 6-TM domain and activates the channel under conditions of depolarizing membrane potential. Structural comparisons between the apo and PtdIns(3,5)P 2 -bound structures show the interplay between voltage and ligand in channel activation. These MmTPC1 structures reveal lipid binding and regulation in a 6-TM voltage-gated channel, which is of interest in light of the emerging recognition of the importance of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels.

  7. The Natural Plant Product Rottlerin Activates Kv7.1/KCNE1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Matschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acquired as well as inherited channelopathies are disorders that are caused by altered ion channel function. A family of channels whose malfunction is associated with different channelopathies is the Kv7 K+ channel family; and restoration of normal Kv7 channel function by small molecule modulators is a promising approach for treatment of these often fatal diseases. Methods: Here, we show the modulation of Kv7 channels by the natural compound Rottlerin heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on iPSC cardiomyocytes overexpressing Kv7.1 channels. Results: We show that currents carried by Kv7.1 (EC50 = 1.48 μM, Kv7.1/KCNE1 (EC50 = 4.9 μM, and Kv7.4 (EC50 = 0.148 μM are strongly enhanced by the compound, whereas Kv7.2, Kv7.2/Kv7.3, and Kv7.5 are not sensitive to Rottlerin. Studies on Kv7.1/KCNE1 mutants and in silico modelling indicate that Rottlerin binds to the R-L3-activator site. Rottlerin mediated activation of Kv7.1/KCNE1 channels might be a promising approach in long QT syndrome. As a proof of concept, we show that Rottlerin shortens cardiac repolarisation in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes expressing Kv7.1.Conclusion: Rottlerin or an optimized derivative holds a potential as QT interval correcting drug.

  8. Chloride Transport through Supramolecular Barrel-Rosette Ion Channels: Lipophilic Control and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tanmoy; Gautam, Amitosh; Mukherjee, Arnab; Lahiri, Mayurika; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2016-12-21

    Despite the great interest in artificial ion channel design, only a small number of channel-forming molecules are currently available for addressing challenging problems, particularly in the biological systems. Recent advances in chloride-mediated cell death, aided by synthetic ion carriers, encouraged us to develop chloride selective supramolecular ion channels. The present work describes vicinal diols, tethered to a rigid 1,3-diethynylbenzene core, as pivotal moieties for the barrel-rosette ion channel formation, and the activity of such channels was tuned by controlling the lipophilicity of designed monomers. Selective transport of chloride ions via an antiport mechanism and channel formation in the lipid bilayer membranes were confirmed for the most active molecule. A theoretical model of the supramolecular barrel-rosette, favored by a network of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, has been proposed. The artificial ion-channel-mediated transport of chloride into cells and subsequent disruption of cellular ionic homeostasis were evident. Perturbation of chloride homeostasis in cells instigates cell death by inducing the caspase-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  9. Flow activates an endothelial potassium channel to release an endogenous nitrovasodilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J P; Rossitch, E; Andon, N A; Loscalzo, J; Dzau, V J

    1991-01-01

    Flow-mediated vasodilation is endothelium dependent. We hypothesized that flow activates a potassium channel on the endothelium, and that activation of this channel leads to the release of the endogenous nitrovasodilator, nitric oxide. To test this hypothesis, rabbit iliac arteries were perfused at varying flow rates, at a constant pressure of 60 mm Hg. Increments in flow induced proportional increases in vessel diameter, which were abolished by L,N-mono-methylarginine (the antagonist of nitric-oxide synthesis). Barium chloride, depolarizing solutions of potassium, verapamil, calcium-free medium, and antagonists of the KCa channel (charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin) also blocked flow-mediated vasodilation. Conversely, responses to other agonists of endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation were unaffected by charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin. To confirm that flow activated a specific potassium channel to induce the release of nitric oxide, endothelial cells cultured on micro-carrier beads were added to a flow chamber containing a vascular ring without endothelium. Flow-stimulated endothelial cells released a diffusible vasodilator; the degree of vasorelaxation was dependent upon the flow rate. Relaxation was abrogated by barium, tetraethylammonium ion, or charybdotoxin, but was not affected by apamin, glybenclamide, tetrodotoxin, or ouabain. The data suggest that transmission of a hyperpolarizing current from endothelium to the vascular smooth muscle is not necessary for flow-mediated vasodilation. Flow activates a potassium channel (possibly the KCa channel) on the endothelial cell membrane that leads to the release of nitric oxide. Images PMID:1719029

  10. Determining concentrations of elements with different reaction channels in photon activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z J; Okafor, K; Isa, S

    2017-09-01

    In photon activation, same element may be activated by the bremsstrahlung beam through different nuclear reaction channels and produce different radioisotopes. These radioisotopes follow their own decay schemes and generate characteristic gamma rays. This phenomenon usually is an interference in spectra analysis, but it also offers a theoretical feasibility to determine the concentration of one element through different reaction channels. To realize this theoretical feasibility, we conducted series of photon activation experiments with sample and reference of known concentrations. Irradiation of the samples and the references were conducted with electronic LINAC with different photon converters at a peak energy around 30MeV. Several elements and their corresponding reaction channels were chosen to validate this procedure. Calculations of PAA were based on the internal monitor method. Our results have confirmed the advantages of current PAA reaction channel selection, and show that it might be beneficial to calculate the concentration of same elements with different reaction channels in some certain occasions. N-values, which indicate the relative intensity of reaction channels, were calculated and compared with those values generated from the photon activation at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in Germany (BAM). Results suggested that N values are impacted by several parameters of electron beam, and the design of electron-gamma converter may play a dominant role in determining N values. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels on nitroglycerin-mediated vasorelaxation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruhn, Nicolai; Boesgaard, Søren; Eiberg, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasorelaxation and the regulation of endothelial superoxide anion levels is partly mediated by vascular large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. Nitroglycerin acts through the release of NO and its effect is modulated by changes in endothelial superoxide...... levels. This study examines the effect of BK(Ca) channel blockade on nitroglycerin-induced vasorelaxation in human arterial and venous vascular segments and whether responses to BK(Ca) channel blockade are influenced by the development of venous nitroglycerin tolerance. Dose-relaxation curves...... in human venous nitroglycerin tolerance development....

  12. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M2 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize....... The coapplication of TTQ reversed the CPA and ACh-induced effects. When TTQ was applied without exogenous receptor activator, both APD90 and ERP were prolonged and RMP was depolarized, confirming a basal activity of the GIRK current. The results reveal that activation of A1 and M2 receptors has a profound and equal...... effect on the electrophysiology in rat atrium. This effect is to a major extent mediated through GIRK channels. Furthermore, these results support the notion that atrial GIRK currents from healthy hearts have a basal component and additional activation can be mediated via at least 2 different receptor...

  13. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  14. Influence of the Human Activity on the Propagation Characteristics of 60 GHz Indoor Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Collonge , Sylvain; Zaharia , Gheorghe; El Zein , Ghais

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The 60 GHz frequency band appears to he very promising for wireless multimedia services in the next years. The 60 GHz propagation channel has to he accurately characterized for an appropriate design of high data rate systems (>IO0 Mh/s). In this paper, our interest is to determine the influence of the human activity on the propagation characteristics at 60 GHz. This influence is hardly ever taking into account in the published studies on the 60 GHz channel characteriza...

  15. Securitization and Economic Activity: The Credit Composition Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Bertay, Ata Can; Gong, Di; Wagner, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Using an international panel, we analyze the relationship between country-level securitization and economic activity. Our findings suggest that securitization is negatively related to various proxies of economic activity – even prior to the crisis of 2007-2009. We explain this finding by securitization spurring consumption at the expense of investment and capital formation. Consistent with this, we find that securitization of household loans is negatively associated with economic activity, wh...

  16. RIM determines Ca2+ channel density and vesicle docking at the presynaptic active zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunyun; Kaeser, Pascal S.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    At presynaptic active zones, neurotransmitter release is initiated by the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels close to docked vesicles. The mechanisms that enrich Ca2+ channels at active zones are, however, largely unknown, possibly because of the limited presynaptic accessibility of most synapses. Here, we have established a Cre-lox based conditional knock-out approach at a presynaptically accessible CNS synapse, the calyx of Held, to directly study the functions of RIM proteins. Removal of all RIM1/2 isoforms strongly reduced the presynaptic Ca2+ channel density, revealing a new role of RIM proteins in Ca2+ channel targeting. Removal of RIMs also reduced the readily-releasable pool, paralleled by a similar reduction of the number of docked vesicles, and the Ca2+ channel - vesicle coupling was decreased. Thus, RIM proteins co-ordinately regulate key functions for fast transmitter release: enabling a high presynaptic Ca2+ channel density, and vesicle docking at the active zone. PMID:21262468

  17. ALTERNATIVE EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF IONIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION AND INACTIVATION GATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, alternative equations for dynamics of ionic channel activation and inactivation gates are proposed based on the path probability method. Dynamic behavior of a voltage-gated ionic channel is modeled by the conventional Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H mathematical formalism. In that model, conductance of the channel is defined in terms of activation and inactivation gates. Dynamics of the activation and inactivation gates is modeled by first-order differential equations dependent on the gate variable and the membrane potential. In the new approach proposed in this study, dynamic behavior of activation and inactivation gates is modeled by a firstorder differential equation dependent on internal energy and membrane potential by using the path probability method which is widely used in statistical physics. The new model doesn't require the time constant and steadystate values which are used explicitly in the H-H model. The numerical results show validity of the proposed method.

  18. Pharmacological blockade of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by ICA reduces arrhythmic load in rats with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Laura A; Sattler, Stefan M; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    of inhibiting small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels using the pore blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in AMI rats. Acute coronary ligation was performed in 26 anesthetized rats, and ECG, monophasic action potentials (MAPs), and ventricular effective refractory period (vERP...... of experiments, hearts were stained for the non-perfused area at risk (AAR). AMI resulted in the development of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in all AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats; however, ICA significantly decreased VT duration. VF occurred in 44% of AMI-vehicle rats but not in AMI-ICA rats. Monophasic action...... potential duration at 80% repolarization (MAPD80) in the ischemic area decreased rapidly in both AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats. However, 5 min after occlusion, MAPD80 returned to baseline in AMI-ICA rats but not in AMI-vehicle rats. The vERP was prolonged in the AMI-ICA group compared to AMI-vehicle after...

  19. Positive Feedback Regulation of Agonist-Stimulated Endothelial Ca2+ Dynamics by KCa3.1 Channels in Mouse Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xun; Francis, Michael; Köhler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate and small conductance KCa channels IK1 (KCa3.1) and SK3 (KCa2.3) are primary targets of endothelial Ca(2+) signals in the arterial vasculature, and their ablation results in increased arterial tone and hypertension. Activation of IK1 channels by local Ca(2+) transients from internal ...... stores or plasma membrane channels promotes arterial hyperpolarization and vasodilation. Here, we assess arteries from genetically altered IK1 knockout mice (IK1(-/-)) to determine whether IK1 channels exert a positive feedback influence on endothelial Ca(2+) dynamics....

  20. Quaternary ammonium compounds as structural probes of single batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium (QA) blockers are well-known structural probes for studying the permeation pathway of voltage-gated K+ channels. In this study we have examined the effects of a series of n-alkyl- trimethylammonium compounds (Cn-QA) on batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated Na+ channels from skeletal muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. We found that these amphipathic QA compounds (Cn-QA where n = 10-18) block single Na+ channels preferentially from the internal side with equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) in the submicromolar to micromolar range. External application of amphipathic QA compounds is far less effective, by a factor of greater than 200. The block can be described by a QA molecule binding to a single site in the Na+ channel permeation pathway. QA binding affinity is dependent on transmembrane voltage with an effective valence (delta) of approximately 0.5. QA dwell times (given as mean closed times, tau c) increase as a function of n-alkyl chain length, ranging from approximately 13 ms for C10-QA to 500 ms for C18-QA at +50 mV. The results imply that there is a large hydrophobic region within the Na+ channel pore which accepts up to 18 methylene groups of the Cn-QA cation. This hydrophobic domain may be of clinical significance since it also interacts with local anesthetics such as cocaine and mepivacaine. Finally, like BTX-activated Na+ channels in bilayers, unmodified Na+ channels in GH3 cells are also susceptible to QA block. Amphipathic QA cations elicit both tonic and use-dependent inhibitions of normal Na+ currents in a manner similar to that of local anesthetic cocaine. We conclude that amphipathic QA compounds are valuable structural probes to study the permeation pathway of both normal and BTX-activated Na+ channels. PMID:1662681

  1. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  2. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  3. Securitization and Economic Activity : The Credit Composition Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Bertray, Ata Can; Gong, Di; Wagner, Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Using an international panel of 104 countries over the period 1995–2012, we analyze the relationship between country-level securitization and economic activity. Our findings suggest that securitization is negatively related to various proxies of economic activity – even prior to the crisis of 2007–2009. We explain this finding as the results of securitization spurring consumption at the expense of investment and capital formation. Consistent with this, we find that securitization of household...

  4. The Bile Acid-Sensitive Ion Channel (BASIC) Is Activated by Alterations of Its Membrane Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Dias Lucas, Susana; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity. PMID:25360526

  5. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by selective block of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B S; Odum, Niels; Jorgensen, N K

    1999-01-01

    cell activation and proliferation has been investigated by using various blockers of IK channels. The Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in human T cells is shown by the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to be highly sensitive to clotrimazole, charybdotoxin, and nitrendipine, but not to ketoconazole...

  6. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thigmotropism and stretch-activated channels in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, H J; Véry, A A; Perera, T H; Davies, J M; Gow, N A

    1998-03-01

    The direction of growth of hyphae of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans responds thigmotropically to surface contours by following scratches, ridges and grooves and by penetrating pores. Here it is shown that the thigmotropic response to ridges is attenuated by GdCl3 and verapamil [blockers of stretch-activated (SA) ion channels and L-type calcium channels, respectively]. At low concentrations, both compounds reduced the percentage of hyphae reorienting on contact with a ridge without markedly affecting hyphal extension rate, suggesting a possible role for SA or other calcium channels in the transduction of the thigmotropic response. In addition, patch-clamp recordings demonstrated SA channel activity in the plasma membrane of both yeast and hyphal cells of C. albicans. Two distinct SA channels with conductances of 54 pS and 20-25 pS in 200 mM KCl were observed in protoplasts from yeast cells and one channel of 51 pS was found in protoplasts from hyphal cells.

  8. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin responsive Na+ channel and the requirement of sialic acid for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, M.; Shaw, G.W.; Glick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The neurotoxin responsive Na + channel was purified to homogeneity in an 18% yield from a clonal cell line of mouse neuroblastoma, N-18, metabolically labeled with L-[ 3 H]fucose. The Na + channel, a glycoprotein, M/sub r/=200,000 (gradient 7-14% PAGE) was digested with Pronase and the glycopeptides were characterized by serial lectin affinity chromatography. greater than 90% of the oligosaccharides contained sialic acid and 18% were biantennary, 39% were triantennary and 30% tetraantennary. The glycoprotein was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles and 86 Rb flux was stimulated (65%) by 200 μM veratridine and 1.2 μg of scorpion venom and was inhibited (95%) by 5 μM tetrodotoxin. The requirement of sialic acid for Na + channel activity was demonstrated since neuraminidase (0.01 U) treatment of the reconstituted glycoprotein eliminated the response of 86 Rb flux to the stimulating neurotoxins. In other experiments, treatment of N-18 cells with 10 μM swainsonine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, altered the oligosaccharide composition of the Na + channel. When the abnormally glycosylated Na + channel was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles, 86 Rb flux in response to neurotoxins was impaired. Thus, glycosylation of the polypeptide with oligosaccharides of specific composition and structure is essential for expression of the biological activity of the neurotoxin responsive Na + channel

  9. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels on nitroglycerin-mediated vasorelaxation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruhn, Nicolai; Boesgaard, Søren; Eiberg, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasorelaxation and the regulation of endothelial superoxide anion levels is partly mediated by vascular large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. Nitroglycerin acts through the release of NO and its effect is modulated by changes in endothelial superoxide...... levels. This study examines the effect of BK(Ca) channel blockade on nitroglycerin-induced vasorelaxation in human arterial and venous vascular segments and whether responses to BK(Ca) channel blockade are influenced by the development of venous nitroglycerin tolerance. Dose-relaxation curves...... to nitroglycerin (10(-10)-10(-4) M) were obtained in segments of the saphenous vein and the left mammary artery. Studies were performed with and without pre-incubation with the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin (10(-7) M) and venous tolerance to nitroglycerin were induced by a 24-h i.v. infusion (0.5 microg...

  11. Impedance spectroscopy of micro-Droplets reveals activation of Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channels in Hypotonic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Aida; Alam, Muhammad A.

    Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is of great importance in healthcare, food safety, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. Most bacterial detection platforms rely on binary fission (i.e. cell growth) to reach a threshold cell population that can be resolved by the sensing method. Since cell division depends on the bacteria type, the detection time of such methods can vary from hours to days. In contrast, in this work, we show that bacteria cells can be detected within minutes by relying on activation of specific protein channels, i.e. mechanosensitive channels (MS channels). When cells are exposed to hypotonic solutions, MS channels allow efflux of solutes to the external solution which leads to release the excessive membrane tension. Release of the cytoplasmic solutes, in turn, results in increase of the electrical conductance measured by droplet-based impedance sensing. The approach can be an effective technique for fast, pre-screening of bacterial contamination at ultra-low concentration.

  12. C5b-9-activated, Kv1.3 channels mediate oligodendrocyte cell cycle activation and dedifferentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegla, Cosmin A.; Cudrici, Cornelia; Rozycka, Monika; Soloviova, Katerina; Ito, Takahiro; Singh, Anil K.; Khan, Aamer; Azimzadeh, Philippe; Andrian-Albescu, Maria; Khan, Anver; Niculescu, Florin; Rus, Violeta; Judge, Susan I. V.; Rus, Horea

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels play an important role in the regulation of growth factor-induced cell proliferation. We have previously shown that cell cycle activation is induced in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) by complement C5b-9, but the role of Kv channels in these cells had not been investigated. Differentiated OLGs were found to express Kv1.4 channels, but little Kv1.3. Exposure of OLGs to C5b-9 modulated Kv1.3 functional channels and increased protein expression, whereas C5b6 had no effect. Pretreatment with the recombinant scorpion toxin rOsK-1, a specific Kv1.3 inhibitor, blocked the expression of Kv1.3 induced by C5b-9. rOsK-1 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and activation by C5b-9 but had no effect on ERK1 activation. These data strongly suggest a role for Kv1.3 in controlling the Akt activation induced by C5b-9. Since Akt plays a major role in C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation, we also investigated the effect of inhibiting Kv1.3 channels on DNA synthesis. rOsK-1 significantly inhibited the DNA synthesis induced by C5b-9 in OLG, indicating that Kv1.3 plays an important role in the C5b-9-induced cell cycle. In addition, C5b-9-mediated myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein mRNA decay was completely abrogated by inhibition of Kv1.3 expression. In the brains of multiple sclerosis patients, C5b-9 co-localized with NG2+ OLG progenitor cells that expressed Kv1.3 channels. Taken together, these data suggest that Kv1.3 channels play an important role in controlling C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation and OLG dedifferentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21540025

  13. Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac Nav1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 μM, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar formation. Vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration follows a power function with normalized depth. Average bed-material concentration at the reach level is computed from observed sediment profiles, ...

  15. Plasmin in Nephrotic Urine Activates the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Bistrup, Claus; Friis, Ulla G

    2009-01-01

    stimulated amiloride-sensitive transepithelial sodium transport in M-1 cells and increased amiloride-sensitive whole-cell currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing ENaC. Activation of ENaC by plasmin involved cleavage and release of an inhibitory peptide from the ENaC gamma subunit...

  16. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial variation of sediment transport in an alluvial sand-bed river bend needs to be understood with ... Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar ..... of Water, Environment, Energy and Society (WEES)-2009, New Delhi, India, 1670–1676. Karmaker T, Dutta S ...

  17. Osteopontin activates the diabetes-associated potassium channel TALK-1 in pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Dickerson

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS relies on β-cell Ca2+ influx, which is modulated by the two-pore-domain K+ (K2P channel, TALK-1. A gain-of-function polymorphism in KCNK16, the gene encoding TALK-1, increases risk for developing type-2 diabetes. While TALK-1 serves an important role in modulating GSIS, the regulatory mechanism(s that control β-cell TALK-1 channels are unknown. Therefore, we employed a membrane-specific yeast two-hybrid (MYTH assay to identify TALK-1-interacting proteins in human islets, which will assist in determining signaling modalities that modulate TALK-1 function. Twenty-one proteins from a human islet cDNA library interacted with TALK-1. Some of these interactions increased TALK-1 activity, including intracellular osteopontin (iOPN. Intracellular OPN is highly expressed in β-cells and is upregulated under pre-diabetic conditions to help maintain normal β-cell function; however, the functional role of iOPN in β-cells is poorly understood. We found that iOPN colocalized with TALK-1 in pancreatic sections and coimmunoprecipitated with human islet TALK-1 channels. As human β-cells express two K+ channel-forming variants of TALK-1, regulation of these TALK-1 variants by iOPN was assessed. At physiological voltages iOPN activated TALK-1 transcript variant 3 channels but not TALK-1 transcript variant 2 channels. Activation of TALK-1 channels by iOPN also hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (Vm in HEK293 cells and in primary mouse β-cells. Intracellular OPN was also knocked down in β-cells to test its effect on β-cell TALK-1 channel activity. Reducing β-cell iOPN significantly decreased TALK-1 K+ currents and increased glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx. Importantly, iOPN did not affect the function of other K2P channels or alter Ca2+ influx into TALK-1 deficient β-cells. These results reveal the first protein interactions with the TALK-1 channel and found that an interaction with iOPN increased

  18. Structure-activity relationship study and discovery of indazole 3-carboxamides as calcium-release activated calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sha; Nagai, Masazumi; Koerner, Steffi K; Veves, Aristidis; Sun, Lijun

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant activation of mast cells contributes to the development of numerous diseases including cancer, autoimmune disorders, as well as diabetes and its complications. The influx of extracellular calcium via the highly calcium selective calcium-release activated calcium (CRAC) channel controls mast cell functions. Intracellular calcium homeostasis in mast cells can be maintained via the modulation of the CRAC channel, representing a critical point for therapeutic interventions. We describe the structure-activity relationship study (SAR) of indazole-3-carboxamides as potent CRAC channel blockers and their ability to stabilize mast cells. Our SAR results show that the unique regiochemistry of the amide linker is critical for the inhibition of calcium influx, the release of the pro-inflammatory mediators β-hexosaminidase and tumor necrosis factor α by activated mast cells. Thus, the indazole-3-carboxamide 12d actively inhibits calcium influx and stabilizes mast cells with sub-μM IC 50 . In contrast, its reverse amide isomer 9c is inactive in the calcium influx assay even at 100μM concentration. This requirement of the specific 3-carboxamide regiochemistry in indazoles is unprecedented in known CRAC channel blockers. The new structural scaffolds described in this report expand the structural diversity of the CRAC channel blockers and may lead to the discovery of novel immune modulators for the treatment of human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Channel-forming activities in the glycosomal fraction from the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gualdron-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycosomes are a specialized form of peroxisomes (microbodies present in unicellular eukaryotes that belong to the Kinetoplastea order, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasitic protists causing severe diseases of livestock and humans in subtropical and tropical countries. The organelles harbour most enzymes of the glycolytic pathway that is responsible for substrate-level ATP production in the cell. Glycolysis is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei and enzymes comprising this pathway have been validated as drug targets. Glycosomes are surrounded by a single membrane. How glycolytic metabolites are transported across the glycosomal membrane is unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that glycosomal membrane, similarly to membranes of yeast and mammalian peroxisomes, contains channel-forming proteins involved in the selective transfer of metabolites. To verify this prediction, we isolated a glycosomal fraction from bloodstream-form T. brucei and reconstituted solubilized membrane proteins into planar lipid bilayers. The electrophysiological characteristics of the channels were studied using multiple channel recording and single channel analysis. Three main channel-forming activities were detected with current amplitudes 70-80 pA, 20-25 pA, and 8-11 pA, respectively (holding potential +10 mV and 3.0 M KCl as an electrolyte. All channels were in fully open state in a range of voltages ±150 mV and showed no sub-conductance transitions. The channel with current amplitude 20-25 pA is anion-selective (P(K+/P(Cl-∼0.31, while the other two types of channels are slightly selective for cations (P(K+/P(Cl- ratios ∼1.15 and ∼1.27 for the high- and low-conductance channels, respectively. The anion-selective channel showed an intrinsic current rectification that may suggest a functional asymmetry of the channel's pore. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the membrane of glycosomes

  20. SENSITIVE EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKING AND ATP-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNEL ACTIVATORS ON SEMINAL VESICLE SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SADRAEI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Seminal vesicle smooth muscle contraction is mediated through sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons activity. Although seminal vesicle plays an important role in male fertility, but little attention is given to mechanism involved in contraction of this organ.
    Methods. In this study effects of drugs which activate ATP - sensitive K channels and blockers of K and Ca channels were examined on contraction of guinea - pig isolated seminal vesicle due to electrical filled stimulation (EFS, noradrenaline, carbachol and KCI.
    Results. The K channel blocker tetraethyl ammonium potentate the EFS responses at all frequencies, while, the ATP - sensitive K channel inhibitor glibenclamide and the K channel opener levcromakalim, diazoxide, minoxidil and Ca channel blocker nifedipine all had relaxant effect on guinea - pig seminal vesicle.
    Discussion. This study indicate that activities of K and Ca channels is important in regulation of seminal vesicle contraction due to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline or carbachol.

  1. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  2. Effects of the small molecule HERG activator NS1643 on Kv11.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Bilet

    Full Text Available NS1643 is one of the small molecule HERG (Kv11.1 channel activators and has also been found to increase erg2 (Kv11.2 currents. We now investigated whether NS1643 is also able to act as an activator of Kv11.3 (erg3 channels expressed in CHO cells. Activation of rat Kv11.3 current occurred in a dose-dependent manner and maximal current increasing effects were obtained with 10 µM NS1643. At this concentration, steady-state outward current increased by about 80% and the current increase was associated with a significant shift in the voltage dependence of activation to more negative potentials by about 15 mV. In addition, activation kinetics were accelerated, whereas deactivation was slowed. There was no significant effect on the kinetics of inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The strong current-activating agonistic effect of NS1643 did not result from a shift in the voltage dependence of Kv11.3 channel inactivation and was independent from external Na(+ or Ca(2+. At the higher concentration of 20 µM, NS1643 induced clearly less current increase. The left shift in the voltage dependence of activation reversed and the voltage sensitivity of activation dramatically decreased along with a slowing of Kv11.3 channel activation. These data show that, in comparison to other Kv11 family members, NS1643 exerts distinct effects on Kv11.3 channels with especially pronounced partial antagonistic effects at higher concentration.

  3. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun

    2007-01-01

    in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels...... by capsaicin prevented adipogenesis and obesity.......We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect...

  4. Intracellular long-chain acyl CoAs activate TRPV1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available TRPV1 channels are an important class of membrane proteins that play an integral role in the regulation of intracellular cations such as calcium in many different tissue types. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 is a known positive modulator of TRPV1 channels and the negatively charged phosphate groups interact with several basic amino acid residues in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain of the TRPV1 channel. We and other groups have shown that physiological sub-micromolar levels of long-chain acyl CoAs (LC-CoAs, another ubiquitous anionic lipid, can also act as positive modulators of ion channels and exchangers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 channel activity is similarly regulated by LC-CoAs. Our results show that LC-CoAs are potent activators of the TRPV1 channel and interact with the same PIP2-binding residues in TRPV1. In contrast to PIP2, LC-CoA modulation of TRPV1 is independent of Ca2+i, acting in an acyl side-chain saturation and chain-length dependent manner. Elevation of LC-CoAs in intact Jurkat T-cells leads to significant increases in agonist-induced Ca2+i levels. Our novel findings indicate that LC-CoAs represent a new fundamental mechanism for regulation of TRPV1 channel activity that may play a role in diverse cell types under physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter fatty acid transport and metabolism such as obesity and diabetes.

  5. Mouse brain synaptosomal sodium channels: activation by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine, and inhibition by tetrodotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasuddin, S M; Soderlund, D M

    1984-01-01

    Batrachotoxin, veratridine and aconitine, activators of the voltage-dependent sodium channel in excitable cell membranes, increase the rate of 22Na+ uptake by mouse brain synaptosomes. Batrachotoxin was both the most potent (K0.5, 0.49 microM) and most effective activator of specific 22Na+ uptake. Veratridine (K0.5, 34.5 microM) and aconitine (K0.5, 19.6 microM) produced maximal stimulations of 22Na+ uptake that were 73% and 46%, respectively, of that produced by batrachotoxin. Activation of 22Na+ uptake by veratridine was completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin (I50, 6 nM ), a specific blocker of nerve membrane sodium channels. These results identify appropriate conditions for measuring sodium channel-dependent 22Na+ flux in mouse brain synaptosomes. The pharmacological properties of mouse brain synaptosomal sodium channels described here are distinct from those previously described for sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes and mouse neuroblastoma cells.

  6. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16 protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  7. Inhibition of parathyroid hormone release by maitotoxin, a calcium channel activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Yasumoto, T.; Aurbach, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, a toxin derived from a marine dinoflagellate, is a potent activator of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. To further test the hypothesis that inhibition of PTH secretion by calcium is mediated via a calcium channel we studied the effect of maitotoxin on dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Maitotoxin inhibited PTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and inhibition was maximal at 1 ng/ml. Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA blocked the inhibition of PTH by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin enhanced the effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and increased the rate of radiocalcium uptake in parathyroid cells. Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that interacts with calcium channels in the parathyroid cell, did not affect the inhibition of PTH secretion by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin, by its action on calcium channels allows entry of extracellular calcium and inhibits PTH release. Our results suggest that calcium channels are involved in the release of PTH. Inhibition of PTH release by maitotoxin is not sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting that maitotoxin may act distal to the site interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, or maitotoxin could interact with other ions or second messengers to inhibit PTH release

  8. Permeation and dynamics of an open-activated TRPV1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darré, Leonardo; Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

    2015-01-30

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels constitute a large and diverse protein family, found in yeast and widespread in the animal kingdom. TRP channels work as sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals. Understanding how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hindered by the limited structural information available until now. The three-dimensional structure of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) was recently determined by single particle electron cryo-microscopy, offering for the first time the opportunity to explore ionic conduction in TRP channels at atomic detail. In this study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of the open-activated pore domain of TRPV1 in the presence of three cationic species: Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+). The dynamics of these ions while interacting with the channel pore allowed us to rationalize their permeation mechanism in terms of a pathway involving three binding sites at the intracellular cavity, as well as the extracellular and intracellular entrance of the selectivity filter. Furthermore, conformational analysis of the pore in the presence of these ions reveals specific ion-mediated structural changes in the selectivity filter, which influences the permeability properties of the TRPV1 channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of TREK-1, but Not TREK-2, Channel by Mood Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have demonstrated that the tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying K+ channel (TWIK-related K+ (TREK-1 channel is inhibited by antidepressants and is associated with major depression. However, little is known about the effect of mood stabilizers that are commonly used for treatment of bipolar disorder on TREK channels, members of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P channel family. This study sought to investigate the effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels. HEK-293A cells were transfected with human TREK-1 or TREK-2 DNA. The effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 was studied using the patch clamp technique. Changes in TREK protein expression by mood stabilizers were studied in the HT-22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells using western blot analysis. Lithium chloride (LiCl, 1 mM, gabapentin (100 μM, valproate (100 μM, and carbamazepine (100 μM increased TREK-1 currents by 31 ± 14%, 25 ± 11%, 28 ± 12%, and 72 ± 12%, respectively, whereas they had no effect on TREK-2 channel activity. In addition, western blot analysis showed LiCl and carbamazepine slightly upregulated TREK-1 expression, but not TREK-2 in the HT-22 cells. These results suggest that TREK-1 could be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of bipolar disorders as well as depression, while TREK-2 is a target well suited for treatment of major depression.

  10. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel β1-subunit knockout mice are not hypertensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Hannah; Galligan, James J.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are composed of pore-forming α-subunits and accessory β1-subunits that modulate Ca2+ sensitivity. BK channels regulate arterial myogenic tone and renal Na+ clearance/K+ reabsorption. Previous studies using indirect or short-term blood pressure measurements found that BK channel β1-subunit knockout (BK β1-KO) mice were hypertensive. We evaluated 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in BK β1-KO mice using radiotelemetry. BK β1-KO mice did not have a higher 24-h average MAP when compared with wild-type (WT) mice, although MAP was ∼10 mmHg higher at night. The dose-dependent peak declines in MAP by nifedipine were only slightly larger in BK β1-KO mice. In BK β1-KO mice, giving 1% NaCl to mice to drink for 7 days caused a transient (5 days) elevation of MAP (∼5 mmHg); MAP returned to pre-saline levels by day 6. BK β1-KO mesenteric arteries in vitro demonstrated diminished contractile responses to paxilline, increased reactivity to Bay K 8644 and norepinephrine (NE), and maintained relaxation to isoproterenol. Paxilline and Bay K 8644 did not constrict WT or BK β1-KO mesenteric veins (MV). BK β1-subunits are not expressed in MV. The results indicate that BK β1-KO mice are not hypertensive on normal or high-salt intake. BK channel deficiency increases arterial reactivity to NE and L-type Ca2+ channel function in vitro, but the L-type Ca2+ channel modulation of MAP is not altered in BK β1-KO mice. BK and L-type Ca2+ channels do not modulate murine venous tone. It appears that selective loss of BK channel function in arteries only is not sufficient to cause sustained hypertension. PMID:21131476

  11. Formation of Skål International Club in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Quang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a project plan of Skål International Vietnam as a new joining club, with the purpose of forming a new Skål International club in Vietnam. The idea was born in September, 2011 during the 72nd Skål International World Congress in Turku, Finland, where the author – a Young Skål had invited to attend . Vietnam situated in the peninsula of South-East Asia, the country holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. In spite of joining an Inter...

  12. Ligand activation of the prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel ELIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Zimmermann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel ELIC has recently provided first insight into the architecture of the family at high resolution, its detailed investigation was so far prevented by the fact that activating ligands were unknown. Here we describe a study on the functional characterization of ELIC by electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography. ELIC is activated by a class of primary amines that include the neurotransmitter GABA at high micro- to millimolar concentrations. The ligands bind to a conserved site and evoke currents that slowly desensitize over time. The protein forms cation selective channels with properties that resemble the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The high single channel conductance and the comparably simple functional behavior make ELIC an attractive model system to study general mechanisms of ion conduction and gating in this important family of neurotransmitter receptors.

  13. Active Sites of Spinoxin, a Potassium Channel Scorpion Toxin, Elucidated by Systematic Alanine Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneur, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kawano, Chihiro; Nose, Takeru; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-05-31

    Peptide toxins from scorpion venoms constitute the largest group of toxins that target the voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv). Spinoxin (SPX) isolated from the venom of scorpion Heterometrus spinifer is a 34-residue peptide neurotoxin cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. SPX is a potent inhibitor of Kv1.3 potassium channels (IC50 = 63 nM), which are considered to be valid molecular targets in the diagnostics and therapy of various autoimmune disorders and cancers. Here we synthesized 25 analogues of SPX and analyzed the role of each amino acid in SPX using alanine scanning to study its structure-function relationships. All synthetic analogues showed similar disulfide bond pairings and secondary structures as native SPX. Alanine replacements at Lys(23), Asn(26), and Lys(30) resulted in loss of activity against Kv1.3 potassium channels, whereas replacements at Arg(7), Met(14), Lys(27), and Tyr(32) also largely reduced inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the side chains of these amino acids in SPX play an important role in its interaction with Kv1.3 channels. In particular, Lys(23) appears to be a key residue that underpins Kv1.3 channel inhibition. Of these seven amino acid residues, four are basic amino acids, suggesting that the positive electrostatic potential on the surface of SPX is likely required for high affinity interaction with Kv1.3 channels. This study provides insight into the structure-function relationships of SPX with implications for the rational design of new lead compounds targeting potassium channels with high potency.

  14. Low voltage-activated calcium channels gate transmitter release at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Nath, Arup R; Adams, Michael E; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-11-15

    A subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are intimately attached in pairs and separated solely by thin satellite glial cell membrane septa. Stimulation of one neuron leads to transglial activation of its pair by a bi-, purinergic/glutamatergic synaptic pathway, a transmission mechanism that we term sandwich synapse (SS) transmission. Release of ATP from the stimulated neuron can be attributed to a classical mechanism involving Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) but via an unknown channel type. Specific blockers and toxins ruled out CaV1, 2.1 and 2.2. Transmission was, however, blocked by a moderate depolarization (-50 mV) or low-concentration Ni(2+) (0.1 mM). Transmission persisted using a voltage pulse to -40 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV, confirming the involvement of a low voltage-activated channel type and limiting the candidate channel type to either CaV3.2 or a subpopulation of inactivation- and Ni(2+)-sensitive CaV2.3 channels. Resistance of the neuron calcium current and SS transmission to SNX482 argue against the latter. Hence, we conclude that inter-somatic transmission at the DRG SS is gated by CaV3.2 type calcium channels. The use of CaV3 family channels to gate transmission has important implications for the biological function of the DRG SS as information transfer would be predicted to occur not only in response to action potentials but also to sub-threshold membrane voltage oscillations. Thus, the SS synapse may serve as a homeostatic signalling mechanism between select neurons in the DRG and could play a role in abnormal sensation such as neuropathic pain.

  15. Melatonin mediates vasodilation through both direct and indirect activation of BKCa channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T; Zhang, H; Jin, C; Qiu, F; Wu, Y; Shi, L

    2017-10-01

    Melatonin, synthesized primarily by the pineal gland, is a neuroendocrine hormone with high membrane permeability. The vascular effects of melatonin, including vasoconstriction and vasodilation, have been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK Ca ) channels are expressed broadly on smooth muscle cells and play an important role in vascular tone regulation. This study explored the mechanisms of myocyte BK Ca channels and endothelial factors underlying the action of melatonin on the mesenteric arteries (MAs). Vascular contractility and patch-clamp studies were performed on myocytes of MAs from Wistar rats. Melatonin induced significant vasodilation on MAs. In the presence of N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a potent endothelial oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, melatonin elicited concentration-dependent relaxation, with lowered pIC 50 The effect of melatonin was significantly attenuated in the presence of BK Ca channel blocker iberiotoxin or MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole in both (+) l-NAME and (-) l-NAME groups. In the (+) l-NAME group, iberiotoxin caused a parallel rightward shift of the melatonin concentration-relaxation curve, with pIC 50 lower than that of luzindole. Both inside-out and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings showed that melatonin significantly increased the open probability, mean open time and voltage sensitivity of BK Ca channels. In a cell-attached patch-clamp configuration, the melatonin-induced enhancement of BK Ca channel activity was significantly suppressed by luzindole. These findings indicate that in addition to the activation of eNOS, melatonin-induced vasorelaxation of MAs is partially attributable to its direct (passing through the cell membrane) and indirect (via MT1/MT2 receptors) activation of the BK Ca channels on mesenteric arterial myocytes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptors increases currents through inward rectifier K+ channels via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chung-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Lee, Sue-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Inward rectifier K+ channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Stimulation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both Gq/11, which decreases PIP2, and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP2. How membrane PIP2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and wheth...

  17. The small molecule NS11021 is a potent and specific activator of Ca2+-activated big-conductance K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Nardi, Antonio; Calloe, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channels (Kca1.1/BK/MaxiK) are widely expressed ion channels. They provide a Ca(2+)-dependent feedback mechanism for the regulation of various body functions such as blood flow, neurotransmitter release, uresis, and immunity. In addition......, a mitochondrial K(+) channel with KCa1.1-resembling properties has been found in the heart, where it may be involved in regulation of energy consumption. In the present study, the effect of a novel NeuroSearch compound, 1-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-[4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-thiourea (NS11021......), was investigated on cloned KCa1.1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian cells using electrophysiological methods. NS11021 at concentrations above 0.3 microM activated KCa1.1 in a concentration-dependent manner by parallel-shifting the channel activation curves to more negative potentials. Single-channel...

  18. Activation of KCNQ5 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells by BMS-204352

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Schrøder, Rikke L; Jespersen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The novel anti-ischemic compound, BMS-204352 ((3S)-(+)-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dihydro-3-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-indol-2-one)), strongly activates the voltage-gated K+ channel KCNQ5 in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 2.4 microM. At 10 microM, BMS-204352 increased......, BMS-204352 (10 microM) did not significantly shift the KCNQ5 activation curves (threshold and potential for half-activation, V1/2), as observed for the other KCNQ channels. In the presence of BMS-204352, the activation and deactivation kinetics of the KCNQ5 currents were slowed as the slow activation...

  19. Active Dendrites and Differential Distribution of Calcium Channels Enable Functional Compartmentalization of Golgi Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Stephanie; Hull, Court; Regehr, Wade G

    2015-11-25

    Interneurons are essential to controlling excitability, timing, and synaptic integration in neuronal networks. Golgi cells (GoCs) serve these roles at the input layer of the cerebellar cortex by releasing GABA to inhibit granule cells (grcs). GoCs are excited by mossy fibers (MFs) and grcs and provide feedforward and feedback inhibition to grcs. Here we investigate two important aspects of GoC physiology: the properties of GoC dendrites and the role of calcium signaling in regulating GoC spontaneous activity. Although GoC dendrites are extensive, previous studies concluded they are devoid of voltage-gated ion channels. Hence, the current view holds that somatic voltage signals decay passively within GoC dendrites, and grc synapses onto distal dendrites are not amplified and are therefore ineffective at firing GoCs because of strong passive attenuation. Using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging in rat slices, we find that dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels allow somatic action potentials to activate voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) along the entire dendritic length, with R-type and T-type VGCCs preferentially located distally. We show that R- and T-type VGCCs located in the dendrites can boost distal synaptic inputs and promote burst firing. Active dendrites are thus critical to the regulation of GoC activity, and consequently, to the processing of input to the cerebellar cortex. In contrast, we find that N-type channels are preferentially located near the soma, and control the frequency and pattern of spontaneous firing through their close association with calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels. Thus, VGCC types are differentially distributed and serve specialized functions within GoCs. Interneurons are essential to neural processing because they modulate excitability, timing, and synaptic integration within circuits. At the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, a single type of interneuron, the Golgi cell (GoC), carries these functions. The

  20. Hexachlorophene is a potent KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channel activator which rescues LQTs mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yueming; Zhu, Xuejing; Zhou, Pingzheng; Lan, Xi; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Min; Gao, Zhaobing

    2012-01-01

    The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium channel is expressed in cardiac tissues, and coassembly of KCNQ1 with an auxiliary KCNE1 subunit mediates a slowly activating current that accelerates the repolarization of action potential in cardiomyocytes. Mutations of KCNQ1 genes that result in reduction or loss of channel activity cause prolongation of repolarization during action potential, thereby causing long QT syndrome (LQTs). Small molecule activators of KCNQ1/KCNE1 are useful both for understanding the mechanism of the complex activity and for developing therapeutics for LQTs. In this study we report that hexachlorophene (HCP), the active component of the topical anti-infective prescription drug pHisoHex, is a KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator. HCP potently increases the current amplitude of KCNQ1/KCNE1 expressed by stabilizing the channel in an open state with an EC(50) of 4.61 ± 1.29 μM. Further studies in cardiomyocytes showed that HCP significantly shortens the action potential duration at 1 μM. In addition, HCP is capable of rescuing the loss of function of the LQTs mutants caused by either impaired activation gating or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding affinity. Our results indicate HCP is a novel KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator and may be a useful tool compound for the development of LQTs therapeutics.

  1. Hexachlorophene is a potent KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channel activator which rescues LQTs mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Zheng

    Full Text Available The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium channel is expressed in cardiac tissues, and coassembly of KCNQ1 with an auxiliary KCNE1 subunit mediates a slowly activating current that accelerates the repolarization of action potential in cardiomyocytes. Mutations of KCNQ1 genes that result in reduction or loss of channel activity cause prolongation of repolarization during action potential, thereby causing long QT syndrome (LQTs. Small molecule activators of KCNQ1/KCNE1 are useful both for understanding the mechanism of the complex activity and for developing therapeutics for LQTs. In this study we report that hexachlorophene (HCP, the active component of the topical anti-infective prescription drug pHisoHex, is a KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator. HCP potently increases the current amplitude of KCNQ1/KCNE1 expressed by stabilizing the channel in an open state with an EC(50 of 4.61 ± 1.29 μM. Further studies in cardiomyocytes showed that HCP significantly shortens the action potential duration at 1 μM. In addition, HCP is capable of rescuing the loss of function of the LQTs mutants caused by either impaired activation gating or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 binding affinity. Our results indicate HCP is a novel KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator and may be a useful tool compound for the development of LQTs therapeutics.

  2. Hexachlorophene Is a Potent KCNQ1/KCNE1 Potassium Channel Activator Which Rescues LQTs Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yueming; Zhu, Xuejing; Zhou, Pingzheng; Lan, Xi; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Min; Gao, Zhaobing

    2012-01-01

    The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium channel is expressed in cardiac tissues, and coassembly of KCNQ1 with an auxiliary KCNE1 subunit mediates a slowly activating current that accelerates the repolarization of action potential in cardiomyocytes. Mutations of KCNQ1 genes that result in reduction or loss of channel activity cause prolongation of repolarization during action potential, thereby causing long QT syndrome (LQTs). Small molecule activators of KCNQ1/KCNE1 are useful both for understanding the mechanism of the complex activity and for developing therapeutics for LQTs. In this study we report that hexachlorophene (HCP), the active component of the topical anti-infective prescription drug pHisoHex, is a KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator. HCP potently increases the current amplitude of KCNQ1/KCNE1 expressed by stabilizing the channel in an open state with an EC50 of 4.61±1.29 μM. Further studies in cardiomyocytes showed that HCP significantly shortens the action potential duration at 1 μM. In addition, HCP is capable of rescuing the loss of function of the LQTs mutants caused by either impaired activation gating or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding affinity. Our results indicate HCP is a novel KCNQ1/KCNE1 activator and may be a useful tool compound for the development of LQTs therapeutics. PMID:23251633

  3. Measurement of plaque-forming macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide in a micro-channel chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, T; Tsutsumi, T; Yamazaki, K; Nishihara, T

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, micro-channel arrays were fabricated on the surface of plastic-based disposable chips. The cell adhesion process and the detection of plaque-forming macrophages were observed. Further, we evaluated cell adhesion in a fluid system in vitro. Features of the micro-channel (1.4 mm wide and 10 mm long) included twenty micro-pillars (with a projection of 200 microm diameter and 250 microm high) coated in a 50 microm thick silicon rubber layer, which were regularly arranged at the bottom of each channel. The efficiency of cell capture was expected to increase by arrangement of micro-pillars in a micro-channel. Mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from periodontopathic bacteria, were circulated continuously for 2 h at room temperature by the pump in a chip. Control cells had not formed plaques on micro-pillars 20 min into the experiment. By contrast, LPS-activated macrophages produced plaques at the side walls of micro-pillars after 20 min. The plaques grew during the flow test, and image shading became clearer with increasing flow time for 120 min. The maximal adhesion rate per unit area appeared at 20% for control cells, whereas the peak was shifted to 30% for LPS-activated macrophages (n = 20). The average adhesion rate was 3.0 +/- 2.0% for control cells and 5.0 +/- 3.9% for LPS-activated macrophages (n = 100). These findings indicate that LPS-activated macrophages accumulate in micro-channel arrays, and suggest that macrophage plaque formation is a two-step procedure: (1) LPS-activated macrophages adhere physically to the silicon rubber layer on micro-pillars; and (2) consequently, the cells adhere to the activated macrophage layer.

  4. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels activates the AP-1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Tobias M; Rössler, Oliver G; Hui, Xin; Grötzinger, Carsten; Lipp, Peter; Thiel, Gerald

    2018-02-13

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels were originally described as the receptors of capsaicin, the main constituent of hot chili pepper. The biological functions of TRPV1 channels include pain sensation and inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. Here, we show that stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1 channels (H2C1 cells) with capsaicin or the TRPV1 ligand resiniferatoxin activated transcription mediated by the transcription factor AP-1. No cell death was occurring under these experimental conditions. The AP-1 activity was not altered in capsaicin or resiniferatoxin-stimulated HEK293 cells lacking TRPV1. We identified the AP-1 DNA binding site as the capsaicin/resiniferatoxin-responsive element. Stimulation with the TRPV1 ligand N-arachidonoyldopamine increased AP-1 activity in a TRPV1-dependent and TRPV1-independent manner. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels induced an influx of Ca 2+ into the cells and this rise in intracellular Ca 2+ was essential for activating AP-1 in capsaicin or resiniferatoxin-stimulated cells. N-arachidonoyldopamine stimulation induced a rise in intracellular Ca 2+ in a TRPV-1 dependent and independent manner. AP-1 is a dimeric transcription factor, composed of proteins of the c-Jun, c-Fos and ATF families. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin increased c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis in H2C1 cells. The signal transduction of capsaicin, leading to enhanced AP-1-mediated transcription, required extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1/2 as a signal transducer and the activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and ternary complex factor. Together, these data suggest that the intracellular functions of TRPV1 stimulation may rely on the activation of a stimulus-regulated protein kinase and stimulus-responsive transcription factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Voltage-gated potassium channels regulate calcium-dependent pathways involved in human T lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C S; Boltz, R C; Blake, J T; Nguyen, M; Talento, A; Fischer, P A; Springer, M S; Sigal, N H; Slaughter, R S; Garcia, M L

    1993-03-01

    The role that potassium channels play in human T lymphocyte activation has been investigated by using specific potassium channel probes. Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a blocker of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (PK,Ca) and voltage-gated potassium channels (PK,V) that are present in human T cells, inhibits the activation of these cells. ChTX blocks T cell activation induced by signals (e.g., anti-CD2, anti-CD3, ionomycin) that elicit a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by preventing the elevation of [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. However, ChTX has no effect on the activation pathways (e.g., anti-CD28, interleukin 2 [IL-2]) that are independent of a rise in [Ca2+]i. In the former case, both proliferative response and lymphokine production (IL-2 and interferon gamma) are inhibited by ChTX. The inhibitory effect of ChTX can be demonstrated when added simultaneously, or up to 4 h after the addition of the stimulants. Since ChTX inhibits both PK,Ca and PK,V, we investigated which channel is responsible for these immunosuppressive effects with the use of two other peptides, noxiustoxin (NxTX) and margatoxin (MgTX), which are specific for PK,V. These studies demonstrate that, similar to ChTX, both NxTX and MgTX inhibit lymphokine production and the rise in [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these data provide evidence that blockade of PK,V affects the Ca(2+)-dependent pathways involved in T lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine production by diminishing the rise in [Ca2+]i that occurs upon T cell activation.

  6. Heterologous expression and purification of an active human TRPV3 ion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Stefan; Braun, Christian; Thiel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    and interactions with other proteins at the atomic level. This is mainly caused by difficulties in obtaining functionally active samples of high homogeneity. Here, we report on the high‐level Escherichia coli expression of the human TRPV3 channel, for which no structural information has been reported to date. We...

  7. Active Feedback Technique for RF Channel Selection in Front-End Receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, S.S.T.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Co-existence problems in a mobile terminal environment pose strict requirements on the linearity of a front-end receiver. In this paper, active feedback is explored as a means to relax such requirements by providing channel selectivity as early as possible in the receiver chain. The proposed

  8. MuSK induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis does not require IgG1 antibody to MuSK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükerden, Melike; Huda, Ruksana; Tüzün, Erdem; Yılmaz, Abdullah; Skriapa, Lamprini; Trakas, Nikos; Strait, Richard T; Finkelman, Fred D; Kabadayı, Sevil; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Tzartos, Socrates; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2016-06-15

    Sera of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with muscle-specific receptor kinase-antibody (MuSK-Ab) predominantly display the non-complement fixing IgG4 isotype. Similarly, mouse IgG1, which is the analog of human IgG4, is the predominant isotype in mice with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by MuSK immunization. The present study was performed to determine whether IgG1 anti-MuSK antibody is required for immunized mice to develop EAMG. Results demonstrated a significant correlation between clinical severity of EAMG and levels of MuSK-binding IgG1+, IgG2+ and IgG3+ peripheral blood B cells in MuSK-immunized wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, MuSK-immunized IgG1 knockout (KO) and WT mice showed similar EAMG severity, serum MuSK-Ab levels, muscle acetylcholine receptor concentrations, neuromuscular junction immunoglobulin and complement deposit ratios. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant anti-MuSK isotypes in WT and IgG1 KO mice, respectively. These observations demonstrate that non-IgG1 isotypes can mediate MuSK-EAMG pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. GPR119 Agonist AS1269574 Activates TRPA1 Cation Channels to Stimulate GLP-1 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurny, Oleg G; Holz, George G; Roe, Michael W; Leech, Colin A

    2016-06-01

    GPR119 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed on intestinal L cells that synthesize and secrete the blood glucose-lowering hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GPR119 agonists stimulate the release of GLP-1 from L cells, and for this reason there is interest in their potential use as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. AS1269574 is one such GPR119 agonist, and it is the prototype of a series of 2,4,6 trisubstituted pyrimidines that exert positive glucoregulatory actions in mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that AS1269574 stimulates GLP-1 release from the STC-1 intestinal cell line by directly promoting Ca(2+) influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels. These GPR119-independent actions of AS1269574 are inhibited by TRPA1 channel blockers (AP-18, A967079, HC030031) and are not secondary to intracellular Ca(2+) release or cAMP production. Patch clamp studies reveal that AS1269574 activates an outwardly rectifying membrane current with properties expected of TRPA1 channels. However, the TRPA1 channel-mediated action of AS1269574 to increase intracellular free calcium concentration is not replicated by GPR119 agonists (AR231453, oleoylethanolamide) unrelated in structure to AS1269574. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing recombinant rat TRPA1 channels but not GPR119, direct TRPA1 channel activating properties of AS1269574 are validated. Because we find that AS1269574 also acts in a conventional GPR119-mediated manner to stimulate proglucagon gene promoter activity in the GLUTag intestinal L cell line, new findings reported here reveal the surprising capacity of AS1269574 to act as a dual agonist at two molecular targets (GPR119/TRPA1) important to the control of L-cell function and type 2 diabetes mellitus drug discovery research.

  10. Increased anion channel activity is an unavoidable event in ozone-induced programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kadono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ozone is a major secondary air pollutant often reaching high concentrations in urban areas under strong daylight, high temperature and stagnant high-pressure systems. Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant that is harmful to the plant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By exposing cells to a strong pulse of ozonized air, an acute cell death was observed in suspension cells of Arabidopsis thaliana used as a model. We demonstrated that O(3 treatment induced the activation of a plasma membrane anion channel that is an early prerequisite of O(3-induced cell death in A. thaliana. Our data further suggest interplay of anion channel activation with well known plant responses to O(3, Ca(2+ influx and NADPH-oxidase generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in mediating the oxidative cell death. This interplay might be fuelled by several mechanisms in addition to the direct ROS generation by O(3; namely, H(2O(2 generation by salicylic and abscisic acids. Anion channel activation was also shown to promote the accumulation of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes, a family of proteases previously reported to contribute to the disruption of vacuole integrity observed during programmed cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data indicate that anion efflux is an early key component of morphological and biochemical events leading to O(3-induced programmed cell death. Because ion channels and more specifically anion channels assume a crucial position in cells, an understanding about the underlying role(s for ion channels in the signalling pathway leading to programmed cell death is a subject that warrants future investigation.

  11. Branching fractions of Bplus → Ψ(2S)Kplus and BO → Ψ(2S)K*0 decays at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, A.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the observation of the decays B + → ψ(2S)K + and B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 in 1.8 TeV pp collisions and presents measurements of the branching fractions Br(B + → ψ(2S)K + ) and Br(B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 ) relative to Br(B + → J/ψK + ) and Br(B 0 → J/ψK * (892) 0 ), respectively. The ψ(2S) mesons are reconstructed in both the ψ(2S) → μ + μ - and ψ(2S) → J/ψπ + π - channels. The world average branching fractions for the J/ψ channels are used to extract the absolute branching fractions Br(B + → ψ(2S)K + ) = (6.8±1.0(stat.)±1.4(syst.))x10 -4 and Br(B 0 → ψ(2S)K * (892) 0 ) = (9.0±2.1(stat.)±2. 0(syst.))x10 -4 . 9 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Blockade of TRPM7 channel activity and cell death by inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chin Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TRPM7 is a ubiquitous divalent-selective ion channel with its own kinase domain. Recent studies have shown that suppression of TRPM7 protein expression by RNA interference increases resistance to ischemia-induced neuronal cell death in vivo and in vitro, making the channel a potentially attractive pharmacological target for molecular intervention. Here, we report the identification of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, NDGA, AA861, and MK886, as potent blockers of the TRPM7 channel. Using a cell-based assay, application of these compounds prevented cell rounding caused by overexpression of TRPM7 in HEK-293 cells, whereas inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase did not prevent the change in cell morphology. Application of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors blocked heterologously expressed TRPM7 whole-cell currents without affecting the protein's expression level or its cell surface concentration. All three inhibitors were also effective in blocking the native TRPM7 current in HEK-293 cells. However, two other 5-lipoxygenase specific inhibitors, 5,6-dehydro-arachidonic acid and zileuton, were ineffective in suppressing TRPM7 channel activity. Targeted knockdown of 5-lipoxygenase did not reduce TRPM7 whole-cell currents. In addition, application of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE, the product of 5-lipoxygenase, or 5-HPETE's downstream metabolites, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4, did not stimulate TRPM7 channel activity. These data suggested that NDGA, AA861, and MK886 reduced the TRPM7 channel activity independent of their effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. Application of AA861 and NDGA reduced cell death for cells overexpressing TRPM7 cultured in low extracellular divalent cations. Moreover, treatment of HEK-293 cells with AA861 increased cell resistance to apoptotic stimuli to a level similar to that obtained for cells in which TRPM7 was knocked down by RNA interference. In conclusion, NDGA, AA861, and MK886 are potent blockers of

  13. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on calcium-activated potassium channels in pregnant rat myometrium.

    OpenAIRE

    Kihira, M.; Matsuzawa, K.; Tokuno, H.; Tomita, T.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of W-7, trifluoperazine, and W-5 on Ca2(+)-activated K(+)-channels were investigated with the inside-out patch-clamp method in smooth muscle cells freshly dispersed from pregnant rat myometrium. These drugs are known to have different potencies as calmodulin antagonists. 2. In the presence of 1 microM Ca2+ on the cytoplasmic side ([Ca2+]i), the fraction of time the channel was open (open probability, Po) was about 0.9 and the calmodulin antagonists (1-30 microM) applied to the ...

  14. Proteolytic fragmentation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: a novel mechanism regulating channel activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2016-06-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) release channels. Regulation of channel activity by Ca(2+) , nucleotides, phosphorylation, protein binding partners and other cellular factors is thought to play a major role in defining the specific spatiotemporal characteristics of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. These properties are, in turn, believed pivotal for the selective and specific physiological activation of Ca(2+) -dependent effectors. IP3 Rs are also substrates for the intracellular cysteine proteases, calpain and caspase. Cleavage of the IP3 R has been proposed to play a role in apoptotic cell death by uncoupling regions important for IP3 binding from the channel domain, leaving an unregulated leaky Ca(2+) pore. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate following proteolysis that N- and C-termini of IP3 R1 remain associated, presumably through non-covalent interactions. Further, we show that complementary fragments of IP3 R1 assemble into tetrameric structures and retain their ability to be regulated robustly by IP3 . While peptide continuity is clearly not necessary for IP3 -gating of the channel, we propose that cleavage of the IP3 R peptide chain may alter other important regulatory events to modulate channel activity. In this scenario, stimulation of the cleaved IP3 R may support distinct spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals and activation of specific effectors. Notably, in many adaptive physiological events, the non-apoptotic activities of caspase and calpain are demonstrated to be important, but the substrates of the proteases are poorly defined. We speculate that proteolytic fragmentation may represent a novel form of IP3 R regulation, which plays a role in varied adaptive physiological processes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  16. Robust Stimulation of W1282X-CFTR Channel Activity by a Combination of Allosteric Modulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available W1282X is a common nonsense mutation among cystic fibrosis patients that results in the production of a truncated Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR channel. Here we show that the channel activity of the W1282X-CFTR polypeptide is exceptionally low in excised membrane patches at normally saturating doses of ATP and PKA (single channel open probability (PO 0.9 when treated with both modulators. VX-770 and curcumin also additively stimulated W1282X-CFTR mediated currents in polarized FRT epithelial monolayers. In this setting, however, the stimulated W1282X-CFTR currents were smaller than those mediated by wild type CFTR (3-5% due presumably to lower expression levels or cell surface targeting of the truncated protein. Combining allosteric modulators of different mechanistic classes is worth considering as a treatment option for W1282X CF patients perhaps when coupled with maneuvers to increase expression of the truncated protein.

  17. Mechanism of action of a novel human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casis, Oscar; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    1,3-Bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643) is a newly discovered activator of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels. Here, we characterize the effects of this compound on cloned hERG channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When assessed with 2-s...... depolarizations, NS1643 enhanced the magnitude of wild-type hERG current in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner with an EC(50) of 10.4 microM at -10 mV. The fully activated current-voltage relationship revealed that the drug increased outward but not inward currents, consistent with altered inactivation...... gating. NS1643 shifted the voltage dependence of inactivation by +21 mV at 10 microM and +35 mV at 30 microM, but it did not alter the voltage dependence of activation of hERG channels. The effects of the drug on three inactivation-deficient hERG mutant channels (S620T, S631A, and G628C/S631C) were...

  18. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  19. Shikonin inhibits intestinal calcium-activated chloride channels and prevents rotaviral diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel CFTR. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In-vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in-vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte CaCCs, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel acitivty, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  20. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels contribute to astrocyte activation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Cheli, VT; Santiago González, DA; Smith, J; Spreuer, V; Murphy, GG; Paez, PM

    2016-01-01

    We have found a significant upregulation of L-type voltage-operated Ca++ channels (VOCCs) in reactive astrocytes. To test if VOCCs are centrally involved in triggering astrocyte reactivity, we used in vitro models of astrocyte activation in combination with pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs and the Cre/lox system to reduce the activity of L-type VOCCs in primary cortical astrocytes. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as high extracellular K+, glutamate and ATP promote astrogliosi...

  1. Single Channel Analysis of Isoflurane and Ethanol Enhancement of Taurine-Activated Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors (GlyRs), which is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations. A number of possible mechanisms may explain these enhancing effects, including modulator effects on conductance, channel open times, or channel closed times. We used outside-out patch-clamp single channel electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of action of 200 mM ethanol and 0.55 mM isoflurane in enhancing the effects of a saturating concentration of taurine. Neither modulator enhanced taurine-mediated conductance. Isoflurane increased the probability of channel opening. Isoflurane also increased the lifetimes of the two shortest open dwell times while both agents decreased the likelihood of occurrence of the longest-lived intracluster channel-closing events. The mechanism of enhancement of GlyR functioning by these modulators is dependent on the efficacy of the agonist activating the receptor and the concentration of agonist tested. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  3. Elektrooniline maksekäsk kiirendab kohtumenetlust / Marko Aavik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aavik, Marko, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti kohtusüsteemist ning maksekäsumenetlusest. Ilmunud ka Valgamaalane 17. juuni 2008, lk. 2 ; Harju Ekspress 20. juuni 2008, lk. 6 ; Meie Maa 2. juuli 2008, lk. 5 ; Nädaline 1. juuli 2008, lk. 5 ; Severnoje Poberezhje 2. juuli 2008, lk. 2 (Melnitsõ pravosudija stali molot bõstreje) ; Sakala 18. juuli 2008, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa : Jõgeva Valla Teataja 4. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 8. okt. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõude kiiresti ; Vooremaa 7. okt. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti ; Koit 9. okt. 2008, lk. 3, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk säästab aega ja raha ; Virumaa Teataja 9. okt. 2008, lk. 7, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti ; Kuulutaja 10. okt. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti ; Nädaline 14. okt. 2008, lk. 10, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti ; Lääne Elu 14. okt. 2008, lk. 5, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti ; Pärnu Postimees 18. okt. 2008, lk. 19, pealkiri kujul: e-maksekäsk lahendab võlanõuded kiiresti

  4. Enviroportal.sk - information portal about the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, R.; Kmet, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with history, conception and exploitation of information portal about environment in the Slovak Republic. This portal - Enviroportal.sk was introduced into service in testing operation in April 2005. Perspectives of Enviroportal.sk are discussed

  5. Calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 promotes breast cancer progression by activating EGFR and CAMK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britschgi, Adrian; Bill, Anke; Brinkhaus, Heike; Rothwell, Christopher; Clay, Ieuan; Duss, Stephan; Rebhan, Michael; Raman, Pichai; Guy, Chantale T; Wetzel, Kristie; George, Elizabeth; Popa, M Oana; Lilley, Sarah; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Gosling, Martin; Wang, Louis; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Borawski, Jason; Baffoe, Jonathan; Labow, Mark; Gaither, L Alex; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2013-03-12

    The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is located within the 11q13 amplicon, one of the most frequently amplified chromosomal regions in human cancer, but its functional role in tumorigenesis has remained unclear. The 11q13 region is amplified in ∼15% of breast cancers. Whether ANO1 is amplified in breast tumors, the extent to which gene amplification contributes to ANO1 overexpression, and whether overexpression of ANO1 is important for tumor maintenance have remained unknown. We have found that ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Amplification of ANO1 correlated with disease grade and poor prognosis. Knockdown of ANO1 in ANO1-amplified breast cancer cell lines and other cancers bearing 11q13 amplification inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and reduced tumor growth in established cancer xenografts. Moreover, ANO1 chloride channel activity was important for cell viability. Mechanistically, ANO1 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of its chloride-channel activity reduced EGF receptor (EGFR) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling, which subsequently attenuated AKT, v-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight the involvement of the ANO1 chloride channel in tumor progression and provide insights into oncogenic signaling in human cancers with 11q13 amplification, thereby establishing ANO1 as a promising target for therapy in these highly prevalent tumor types.

  6. Detection of TRPV4 channel current-like activity in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rat cerebral arterial muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential vallinoid type 4 (TRPV4 is a calcium entry channel known to modulate vascular function by mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The present study investigated if isolated cerebral arterial myocytes of the Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rat, known to display exaggerated KCa channel current activity and impaired myogenic tone, express TRPV4 channels at the transcript and protein level and exhibit TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current activity. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunostaining analysis detected the expression of mRNA transcript and translated protein of TRPV4 channel in FHH rat cerebral arterial myocytes. Patch clamp recording of single-channel current activity identified the presence of a single-channel cationic current with unitary conductance of ~85 pS and ~96 pS at hyperpolarizing and depolarizing potentials, respectively, that was inhibited by the TRPV4 channel antagonist RN 1734 or HC 067074 and activated by the potent TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A. Application of negative pressure via the interior of the patch pipette increased the NPo of the TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current recorded in cell-attached patches at a patch potential of 60 mV that was inhibited by prior application of the TRPV4 channel antagonist RN 1734 or HC 067047. Treatment with the TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A caused concentration-dependent increase in the NPo of KCa single-channel current recorded in cell-attached patches of cerebral arterial myocytes at a patch potential of 40 mV, which was not influenced by pretreatment with the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine or the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker Ni2+. These findings demonstrate that FHH rat cerebral arterial myocytes express mRNA transcript and translated protein for TRPV4 channel and display TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current activity that was stretch-sensitive and

  7. A Ca-activated K channel from rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles in planar lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifach, A; Desir, G V; Aronson, P S; Giebisch, G H

    1991-07-01

    Rabbit renal brush-border membranes were fused to planar lipid bilayers to gain insight into the nature and properties of ion channels from the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule. Fusion was obtained using osmotic gradients. A large conductance channel was commonly observed. Measurements of reversal potentials indicated that the channel was selective for K over Rb, Na, and Cl. Channel open probability was increased by membrane depolarization and by increased Ca activity on the intracellular face of the channel. The channel was inhibited by charybdotoxin (CTX), a protein from leiurus venom, from the external side of the channel. The channel was also blocked by Ba and quinidine added to the intracellular bathing solution. Na added to the intracellular bathing solution reduced current amplitude in a voltage-dependent fashion. In addition, methylisobutyl amiloride, an analogue of the K-sparing diuretic amiloride, inhibited channel activity when added to the external solution. The possible physiological role of the channel is discussed. The usefulness to the study of renal ion channels of the technique of fusing membrane vesicles to planar lipid bilayers is evaluated.

  8. Anoctamin 9/TMEM16J is a cation channel activated by cAMP/PKA signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsup; Kim, Hyesu; Lee, Jesun; Lee, Byeongjun; Kim, Hee-Ryang; Jung, Jooyoung; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2018-05-01

    Anoctamins (ANOs) are multifunctional membrane proteins that consist of 10 homologs. ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are anion channels activated by intracellular calcium that meditate numerous physiological functions. ANO6 is a scramblase that redistributes phospholipids across the cell membrane. The other homologs are not well characterized. We found ANO9/TMEM16J is a cation channel activated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Intracellular cAMP-activated robust currents in whole cells expressing ANO9, which were inhibited by a PKA blocker. A cholera toxin that persistently stimulated adenylate cyclase activated ANO9 as did the application of PKA. The cAMP-induced ANO9 currents were permeable to cations. The cAMP-dependent ANO9 currents were augmented by intracellular Ca 2+ . Ano9 transcripts were predominant in the intestines. Human intestinal SW480 cells expressed high levels of Ano9 transcripts and showed PKA inhibitor-reversible cAMP-dependent currents. We conclude that ANO9 is a cation channel activated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and could play a role in intestine function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na+ channel activators, veratridine and batrachotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, M; Nakaki, T; Otsuka, Y; Sasakawa, N; Kato, R

    1991-11-26

    The effects of the sodium channel activators veratridine and batrachotoxin on isolated rat aorta were investigated. Veratridine caused gradual contraction, independent of the presence of endothelium, with an EC50 of 35 microM. Batrachotoxin (1 microM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM). The veratridine (60 microM)-induced contraction was inhibited by nifedipine (0.1 microM). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, veratridine (60 microM) did not cause contraction. Sodium nitroprusside (80 nM), acetylcholine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (1 microM) caused relaxation of rings precontracted with veratridine (60 microM). An inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.65 mM), enhanced the veratridine-induced contraction in rings with an intact endothelium, which suggests that EDRF was being released during the veratridine-induced contraction. These results show that the activation of sodium channels on smooth muscle cells induces a contraction that is probably mediated by Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.

  10. Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels regulate pacemaker activity in spinal nociceptive circuits during early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Blankenship, Meredith L.; Baccei, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons in neonatal spinal nociceptive circuits generate intrinsic burst-firing and are distinguished by a lower “leak” membrane conductance compared to adjacent, non-bursting neurons. However, little is known about which subtypes of leak channels regulate the level of pacemaker activity within the developing rat superficial dorsal horn (SDH). Here we demonstrate that a hallmark feature of lamina I pacemaker neurons is a reduced conductance through inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels at physiological membrane potentials. Differences in the strength of inward rectification between pacemakers and non-pacemakers indicate the presence of functionally distinct Kir currents in these two populations at room temperature. However, Kir currents in both groups showed high sensitivity to block by extracellular Ba2+ (IC50 ~ 10 µM), which suggests the presence of ‘classical’ Kir (Kir2.x) channels in the neonatal SDH. The reduced Kir conductance within pacemakers is unlikely to be explained by an absence of particular Kir2.x isoforms, as immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 within spontaneously bursting neurons. Importantly, Ba2+ application unmasked rhythmic burst-firing in ~42% of non-bursting lamina I neurons, suggesting that pacemaker activity is a latent property of a sizeable population of SDH cells during early life. In addition, the prevalence of spontaneous burst-firing within lamina I was enhanced in the presence of high internal concentrations of free Mg2+, consistent with its documented ability to block Kir channels from the intracellular side. Collectively, the results indicate that Kir channels are key modulators of pacemaker activity in newborn central pain networks. PMID:23426663

  11. Molecular and functional expression of high conductance Ca 2+ activated K+ channels in the eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Rizzello, Antonia; Giordano, Maria E

    2008-01-01

    Several types of K(+) channels have been identified in epithelial cells. Among them high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) are of relevant importance for their involvement in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response following hypotonic stress. The aim of the present work...... was to investigate the functional and molecular expression of BK in the eel intestine, which is a useful experimental model for cell volume regulation research. In the present paper using rat BK channel-specific primer, a RT-PCR signal of 696 pb cDNA was detected in eel intestine, whole nucleotide sequence showed...... high similarity (83%) to the alpha subunit of BK channel family. BK channel protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy, while the functional role of BK channels in epithelial ion transport mechanisms and cell volume regulation was examined by electrophysiological...

  12. Antillatoxin is a marine cyanobacterial toxin that potently activates voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W I; Berman, F W; Okino, T; Yokokawa, F; Shioiri, T; Gerwick, W H; Murray, T F

    2001-06-19

    Antillatoxin (ATX) is a lipopeptide derived from the pantropical marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. ATX is neurotoxic in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells, and this neuronal death is prevented by either N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists or tetrodotoxin. To further explore the potential interaction of ATX with voltage-gated sodium channels, we assessed the influence of tetrodotoxin on ATX-induced Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells. The rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ produced by ATX (100 nM) was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin. Additional, more direct, evidence for an interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels was derived from the ATX-induced allosteric enhancement of [3H]batrachotoxin binding to neurotoxin site 2 of the alpha subunit of the sodium channel. ATX, moreover, produced a strong synergistic stimulation of [3H]batrachotoxin binding in combination with brevetoxin, which is a ligand for neurotoxin site 5 on the voltage-gated sodium channel. Positive allosteric interactions were not observed between ATX and either alpha-scorpion toxin or the pyrethroid deltamethrin. That ATX interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels produces a gain of function was demonstrated by the concentration-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive stimulation of 22Na+ influx in cerebellar granule cells exposed to ATX. Together these results demonstrate that the lipopeptide ATX is an activator of voltage-gated sodium channels. The neurotoxic actions of ATX therefore resemble those of brevetoxins that produce neural insult through depolarization-evoked Na+ load, glutamate release, relief of Mg2+ block of NMDA receptors, and Ca2+ influx.

  13. Inhibition of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels by different classes of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Various antidepressants are commonly used for the treatment of depression and several other neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition to their primary effects on serotonergic or noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems, antidepressants have been shown to interact with several receptors and ion channels. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of antidepressants have not yet been sufficiently clarified. G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+ (GIRK, Kir3 channels play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and heart rate, and GIRK channel modulation has been suggested to have therapeutic potential for several neuropsychiatric disorders and cardiac arrhythmias. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various classes of antidepressants on GIRK channels using the Xenopus oocyte expression assay. In oocytes injected with mRNA for GIRK1/GIRK2 or GIRK1/GIRK4 subunits, extracellular application of sertraline, duloxetine, and amoxapine effectively reduced GIRK currents, whereas nefazodone, venlafaxine, mianserin, and mirtazapine weakly inhibited GIRK currents even at toxic levels. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent, with various degrees of potency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the effects of sertraline were voltage-independent and time-independent during each voltage pulse, whereas the effects of duloxetine were voltage-dependent with weaker inhibition with negative membrane potentials and time-dependent with a gradual decrease in each voltage pulse. However, Kir2.1 channels were insensitive to all of the drugs. Moreover, the GIRK currents induced by ethanol were inhibited by sertraline but not by intracellularly applied sertraline. The present results suggest that GIRK channel inhibition may reveal a novel characteristic of the commonly used antidepressants, particularly sertraline, and contributes to some of the therapeutic effects and adverse effects.

  14. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptors increases currents through inward rectifier K+ channels via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Lee, Sue-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Inward rectifier K + channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). Stimulation of the Ca 2+ -sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both G q/11 , which decreases PIP 2 , and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP 2 . How membrane PIP 2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and whether these changes modulate inward rectifier K + are unknown. In this study, we found that activation of CaR by the allosteric agonist, NPSR568, increased inward rectifier K + current (I K1 ) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and currents mediated by Kir2.1 channels exogenously expressed in HEK293T cells with a similar sensitivity. Moreover, using the fluorescent PIP 2 reporter tubby-R332H-cYFP to monitor PIP 2 levels, we found that CaR activation in HEK293T cells increased membrane PIP 2 concentrations. Pharmacological studies showed that both phospholipase C (PLC) and PI-4-K are activated by CaR stimulation with the latter played a dominant role in regulating membrane PIP 2 and, thus, Kir currents. These results provide the first direct evidence that CaR activation upregulates currents through inward rectifier K + channels by accelerating PIP 2 synthesis. The regulation of I K1 plays a critical role in the stability of the electrical properties of many excitable cells, including cardiac myocytes and neurons. Further, synthetic allosteric modulators that increase CaR activity have been used to treat hyperparathyroidism, and negative CaR modulators are of potential importance in the treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, our results provide further insight into the roles played by CaR in the cardiovascular system and are potentially valuable for heart disease treatment and drug safety.

  15. Built for speed: molecular properties of the voltage sensor domain underlie the rapid activation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels compared with Shaker-type K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Many of us were taught in high school biology that the action potential waveform in nerves and other excitable tissues was generated by an initial rapid influx of external Na(+) ions across the plasma membrane, followed by an outward movement of intracellular K(+) ions. The former event, mediated by voltage-gated Na(+) channels, is responsible for the fast depolarizing upstroke of the action potential, while voltage-gated K+ channels are responsible for the subsequent repolarizing phase, which largely controls action potential duration. Although Hodgkin and Huxley described the fundamental importance of this sequential activation process more than 60 y ago, the molecular and structural details underlying the faster activation of voltage-gated Na(+) (Nav) vs. K(+) (Kv) channels have yet to be fully resolved.

  16. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-05

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  17. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lazcano-Pérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7, voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, the A-type transient outward (IA and delayed rectifier (IDR currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  18. Atrial-selective K+ channel blockers: potential antiarrhythmic drugs in atrial fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    In the wake of demographic change in Western countries, atrial fibrillation has reached an epidemiological scale, yet current strategies for drug treatment of the arrhythmia lack sufficient efficacy and safety. In search of novel medications, atrial-selective drugs that specifically target atrial over other cardiac functions have been developed. Here, I will address drugs acting on potassium (K + ) channels that are either predominantly expressed in atria or possess electrophysiological properties distinct in atria from ventricles. These channels include the ultra-rapidly activating, delayed outward-rectifying Kv1.5 channel conducting I Kur , the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel conducting I K,ACh , the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of small conductance (SK) conducting I SK , and the two-pore domain K + (K2P) channels (tandem of P domains, weak inward-rectifying K + channels (TWIK-1), TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channels (TASK-1 and TASK-3)) that are responsible for voltage-independent background currents I TWIK-1 , I TASK-1 , and I TASK-3 . Direct drug effects on these channels are described and their putative value in treatment of atrial fibrillation is discussed. Although many potential drug targets have emerged in the process of unravelling details of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation, we do not know whether novel antiarrhythmic drugs will be more successful when modulating many targets or a single specific one. The answer to this riddle can only be solved in a clinical context.

  19. Gene expression of stretch-activated channels and mechanoelectric feedback in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D; Mackenzie, L; Hunter, P; Smaill, B; Saint, D A

    2006-07-01

    1. Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) in the heart is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can change its electrical properties. Mechanoelectric feedback has been demonstrated in many animal models, ranging from isolated cells, through isolated hearts to whole animals. In humans, MEF has been demonstrated directly in both the atria and the ventricles. It seems likely that MEF provides either the trigger or the substrate for some types of clinically important arrhythmias. 2. Mechanoelectric feedback may arise because of the presence of stretch-sensitive (or mechano-sensitive) ion channels in the cell membrane of the cardiac myocytes. Two types have been demonstrated: (i) a non-specific cation channel (stretch-activated channel (SAC); conductance of approximately 25 pS); and (ii) a potassium channel with a conductance of approximately 100 pS. The gene coding for the SAC has not yet been identified. The gene for the potassium channel is likely to be TREK, a member of the tandem pore potassium channel gene family. We have recorded stretch-sensitive potassium channels in rat isolated myocytes that have the properties of TREK channels expressed in heterologous systems. 3. It has been shown that TREK mRNA is expressed heterogeneously in the rat ventricular wall, with 17-fold more expression in endocardial compared with epicardial cells. This difference is reflected in the TREK currents recorded from endocardial and epicardial cells using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, although the difference in current density was less pronounced (approximately threefold). Consistent with this, we show here that when the ventricle is stretched by inflation of an intraventricular balloon in a Langendorff perfused rat isolated heart, action potential shortening was more pronounced in the endocardium (30% shortening at 40 mmHg) compared with that in the epicardium (10% shortening at the same pressure). 4. Computer models of the mechanics of the (pig) heart show pronounced

  20. Distribution of rSlo Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat astrocyte perivascular endfeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Diana L; Ludwig, Jeffrey W; Mi, Huaiyu; Schwarz, Thomas L; Ellisman, Mark H

    2002-11-29

    Evidence that Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels play a role in cell volume changes and K(+) homeostasis led to a prediction that astrocytes would have K(Ca) channels near blood vessels in order to maintain K(+) homeostasis. Consistent with this thinking the present study demonstrates that rSlo K(Ca) channels are in glial cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS) and highly localized to specializations of astrocytes associated with the brain vasculature. Using confocal and thin-section electron microscopic immunolabeling methods the distribution of rSlo was examined in adult rat brain. Strong rSlo immunolabeling was present around the vasculature of most brain regions. Examination of dye-filled hippocampal astrocytes revealed rSlo immunolabeling polarized in astrocytic endfeet. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed that the rSlo staining was concentrated in astrocytic endfeet ensheathing capillaries as well as abutting the pia mater. Immunostaining within the endfeet was predominantly distributed at the plasma membrane directly adjacent to either the vascular basal lamina or the pial surface. The distribution of the aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) water channel was also examined using dye-filled hippocampal astrocytes. In confirmation of earlier reports, intense AQP-4 immunolabeling was generally observed at the perimeter of blood vessels, and coincided with perivascular endfeet and rSlo labeling. We propose that rSlo K(Ca) channels, with their sensitivity to membrane depolarization and intracellular calcium, play a role in the K(+) modulation of cerebral blood flow. Additional knowledge of the molecular and cellular machinery present at perivascular endfeet may provide insight into the structural and functional molecular elements responsible for the neuronal activity-dependent regulation of cerebral blood flow. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Cocaine-induced closures of single batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels in planar lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated Na+ channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. These channels appear to open most of the time at voltages greater than -60 mV. Local anesthetics, including QX-314, bupivacaine, and cocaine when applied internally, induce different durations of channel closures and can be characterized as "fast" (mean closed duration less than 10 ms at +50 mV), "intermediate" (approximately 80 ms), and "slow" (approximately 400 ms) blockers, respectively. The action of these local anesthetics on the Na+ channel is voltage dependent; larger depolarizations give rise to stronger binding interactions. Both the dose-response curve and the kinetics of the cocaine-induced closures indicate that there is a single class of cocaine-binding site. QX-314, though a quaternary-amine local anesthetic, apparently competes with the same binding site. External cocaine or bupivacaine application is almost as effective as internal application, whereas external QX-314 is ineffective. Interestingly, external Na+ ions reduce the cocaine binding affinity drastically, whereas internal Na+ ions have little effect. Both the cocaine association and dissociation rate constants are altered when external Na+ ion concentrations are raised. We conclude that (a) one cocaine molecule closes one BTX-activated Na+ channel in an all-or-none manner, (b) the binding affinity of cocaine is voltage sensitive, (c) this cocaine binding site can be reached by a hydrophilic pathway through internal surface and by a hydrophobic pathway through bilayer membrane, and (d) that this binding site interacts indirectly with the Na+ ions. A direct interaction between the receptor and Na+ ions seems minimal. PMID:2851029

  2. Mechanosensitive channels of Escherichia coli: the MscL gene, protein, and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharev, S. I.; Blount, P.; Martinac, B.; Kung, C.

    1997-01-01

    Although mechanosensory responses are ubiquitous and diverse, the molecular bases of mechanosensation in most cases remain mysterious MscL, a mechanosensitive channel of large conductance of Escherichia coli and its bacterial homologues are the first and currently only channel molecules shown to directly sense mechanical stretch of the membrane. In response to the tension conveyed via the lipid bilayer, MscL increases its open probability by several orders of magnitude. In the present review we describe the identification, cloning, and first sets of biophysical and structural data on this simplest mechanosensory molecule. We discovered a 2.5-ns mechanosensitive conductance in giant E. coli spheroplasts. Using chromatographies to enrich the target and patch clamp to assay the channel activity in liposome-reconstituted fractions, we identified the MscL protein and cloned the mscL gene. MscL comprises 136 amino acid residues (15 kDa), with two highly hydrophobic regions, and resides in the inner membrane of the bacterium. PhoA-fusion experiments indicate that the protein spans the membrane twice with both termini in the cytoplasm. Spectroscopic techniques show that it is highly helical. Expression of MscL tandems and covalent cross-linking suggest that the active channel complex is a homo-hexamer. We have identified several residues, which when deleted or substituted, affect channel kinetics or mechanosensitivity. Although unique when discovered, highly conserved MscL homologues in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria have been found, suggesting their ubiquitous importance among bacteria.

  3. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated.

  4. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

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    Tao Yan-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3 compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3 or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.

  5. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  6. Calcium influx through stretch-activated channels mediates microfilament reorganization in osteoblasts under simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhi; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Shengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Airong; Shang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    We have explored the role of Ca2+ signaling in microfilament reorganization of osteoblasts induced by simulated weightlessness using a random positioning machine (RPM). The RPM-induced alterations of cell morphology, microfilament distribution, cell proliferation, cell migration, cytosol free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and protein expression in MG63 osteoblasts were investigated. Simulated weightlessness reduced cell size, disrupted microfilament, inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, and induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Gadolinium chloride (Gd), an inhibitor for stretch-activated channels, attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i and microfilament disruption. Further, the expression of calmodulin was significantly increased by simulated weightlessness, and an inhibitor of calmodulin, W-7, aggravated microfilament disruption. Our findings demonstrate that simulated weightlessness induces Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated channels, then results in microfilament disruption.

  7. Influence of membrane potential on conductance sublevels of chloride channels activated by GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, P W; Chung, S H

    1994-02-22

    Single-channel chloride currents activated by 0.5 microM GABA were recorded in cell-attached and inside-out membrane patches from rat cultured hippocampal neurons. The currents displayed multiple conductance states and outward rectification. The number and amplitude of conductance levels were determined over a range of potentials by using digital signal-processing techniques. It was found that, except for a level close to zero, subconductance levels were regularly spaced. There were fewer sublevels at hyperpolarized than at depolarized potentials, and the spacing between levels varied linearly with potential giving an incremental conductance of 8-10 pS that was independent of membrane potential. Outward rectification is related to the change in the number of conductance levels with potential. One hypothesis that is consistent with these observations is that a channel is composed of a number of synchronized, non-rectifying, conducting pores, and that the number of pores activated changes with membrane potential.

  8. Structure-function relation of phospholamban: modulation of channel activity as a potential regulator of SERCA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Smeazzetto

    Full Text Available Phospholamban (PLN is a small integral membrane protein, which binds and inhibits in a yet unknown fashion the Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. When reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers PLN exhibits ion channel activity with a low unitary conductance. From the effect of non-electrolyte polymers on this unitary conductance we estimate a narrow pore with a diameter of ca. 2.2 Å for this channel. This value is similar to that reported for the central pore in the structure of the PLN pentamer. Hence the PLN pentamer, which is in equilibrium with the monomer, is the most likely channel forming structure. Reconstituted PLN mutants, which either stabilize (K27A and R9C or destabilize (I47A the PLN pentamer and also phosphorylated PLN still generate the same unitary conductance of the wt/non-phosphorylated PLN. However the open probability of the phosphorylated PLN and of the R9C mutant is significantly lower than that of the respective wt/non-phosphorylated control. In the context of data on PLN/SERCA interaction and on Ca(2+ accumulation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum the present results are consistent with the view that PLN channel activity could participate in the balancing of charge during Ca(2+ uptake. A reduced total conductance of the K(+ transporting PLN by phosphorylation or by the R9C mutation may stimulate Ca(2+ uptake in the same way as an inhibition of K(+ channels in the SR membrane. The R9C-PLN mutation, a putative cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, might hence affect SERCA activity also via its inherent low open probability.

  9. Interaction of a dinoflagellate neurotoxin with voltage-activated ion channels in a marine diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Taylor, Alison R

    2018-01-01

    The potent neurotoxins produced by the harmful algal bloom species Karenia brevis are activators of sodium voltage-gated channels (VGC) in animals, resulting in altered channel kinetics and membrane hyperexcitability. Recent biophysical and genomic evidence supports widespread presence of homologous sodium (Na + ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) permeable VGCs in unicellular algae, including marine phytoplankton. We therefore hypothesized that VGCs of these phytoplankton may be an allelopathic target for waterborne neurotoxins produced by K. brevis blooms that could lead to ion channel dysfunction and disruption of signaling in a similar manner to animal Na + VGCs. We examined the interaction of brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3), a K. brevis neurotoxin, with the Na + /Ca 2+ VGC of the non-toxic diatom Odontella sinensi s using electrophysiology. Single electrode current- and voltage- clamp recordings from O. sinensis in the presence of PbTx-3 were used to examine the toxin's effect on voltage gated Na + /Ca 2+ currents. In silico analysis was used to identify the putative PbTx binding site in the diatoms. We identified Na + /Ca 2+ VCG homologs from the transcriptomes and genomes of 12 diatoms, including three transcripts from O. sinensis and aligned them with site-5 of Na + VGCs, previously identified as the PbTx binding site in animals. Up to 1 µM PbTx had no effect on diatom resting membrane potential or membrane excitability. The kinetics of fast inward Na + /Ca 2+ currents that underlie diatom action potentials were also unaffected. However, the peak inward current was inhibited by 33%, delayed outward current was inhibited by 25%, and reversal potential of the currents shifted positive, indicating a change in permeability of the underlying channels. Sequence analysis showed a lack of conservation of the PbTx binding site in diatom VGC homologs, many of which share molecular features more similar to single-domain bacterial Na + /Ca 2+ VGCs than the 4-domain eukaryote channels

  10. Neutron field for activation experiments in horizontal channel of training reactor VR-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefánik, Milan; Katovsky, K.; Vinš, M.; Šoltéš, J.; Závorka, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, NOV (2014), s. 302-305 ISSN 0969-806X. [1st International Conference on Dosimetry and its Applications (ICDA). Prague, 23.6.2013-28.6.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spectral index * neutron spectrometry * dosimetry-foils activation technique * irradiation channel * reaction rate * Gamma -spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  11. Tracking voltage-dependent conformational changes in skeletal muscle sodium channel during activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Baron; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2002-11-01

    The primary voltage sensor of the sodium channel is comprised of four positively charged S4 segments that mainly differ in the number of charged residues and are expected to contribute differentially to the gating process. To understand their kinetic and steady-state behavior, the fluorescence signals from the sites proximal to each of the four S4 segments of a rat skeletal muscle sodium channel were monitored simultaneously with either gating or ionic currents. At least one of the kinetic components of fluorescence from every S4 segment correlates with movement of gating charge. The fast kinetic component of fluorescence from sites S216C (S4 domain I), S660C (S4 domain II), and L1115C (S4 domain III) is comparable to the fast component of gating currents. In contrast, the fast component of fluorescence from the site S1436C (S4 domain IV) correlates with the slow component of gating. In all the cases, the slow component of fluorescence does not have any apparent correlation with charge movement. The fluorescence signals from sites reflecting the movement of S4s in the first three domains initiate simultaneously, whereas the fluorescence signals from the site S1436C exhibit a lag phase. These results suggest that the voltage-dependent movement of S4 domain IV is a later step in the activation sequence. Analysis of equilibrium and kinetic properties of fluorescence over activation voltage range indicate that S4 domain III is likely to move at most hyperpolarized potentials, whereas the S4s in domain I and domain II move at more depolarized potentials. The kinetics of fluorescence changes from sites near S4-DIV are slower than the activation time constants, suggesting that the voltage-dependent movement of S4-DIV may not be a prerequisite for channel opening. These experiments allow us to map structural features onto the kinetic landscape of a sodium channel during activation.

  12. Amplitude histogram-based method of analysis of patch clamp recordings that involve extreme changes in channel activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, Daniel; Rishal, Ida; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dascal, Nathan

    2009-03-01

    Many ion channels show low basal activity, which is increased hundreds-fold by the relevant gating factor. A classical example is the activation G-protein-activated K(+) channels (GIRK) by Gbetagamma subunit dimer. The extent of activation (relative to basal current), R(a), is an important physiological parameter, usually readily estimated from whole cell recordings. However, calculation of R(a) often becomes non-trivial in multi-channel patches because of extreme changes in activity upon activation, from a seemingly single-channel pattern to a macroscopic one. In such cases, calculation of the net current flowing through the channels in the patch, I, before and after activation may require different methods of analysis. To address this problem, we utilized neuronal GIRK channels activated by purified Gbetagamma in excised patches of Xenopus oocytes. Channels were expressed at varying densities, from a few to several hundreds per patch. We present a simple and fast method of calculating I using amplitude histogram analysis and establish its accuracy by comparing with I calculated from event lists. This method allows the analysis of extreme changes in I in multichannel patches, which would be impossible using the standard methods of idealization and event list generation.

  13. Antibodies to the extracellular pore loop of TRPM8 act as antagonists of channel activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Miller

    Full Text Available The mammalian transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8 is highly expressed in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. TRPM8 is activated by cold temperature or compounds that cause a cooling sensation, such as menthol or icilin. TRPM8 may play a role in cold hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia in various pain syndromes. Therefore, TRPM8 antagonists are pursued as therapeutics. In this study we explored the feasibility of blocking TRPM8 activation with antibodies. We report the functional characterization of a rabbit polyclonal antibody, ACC-049, directed against the third extracellular loop near the pore region of the human TRPM8 channel. ACC-049 acted as a full antagonist at recombinantly expressed human and rodent TRPM8 channels in cell based agonist-induced 45Ca2+ uptake assays. Further, several poly-and monoclonal antibodies that recognize the same region also blocked icilin activation of not only recombinantly expressed TRPM8, but also endogenous TRPM8 expressed in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons revealing the feasibility of generating monoclonal antibody antagonists. We conclude that antagonist antibodies are valuable tools to investigate TRPM8 function and may ultimately pave the way for development of therapeutic antibodies.

  14. Chemical analysis and calcium channel blocking activity of the essential oil of Perovskia abrotanoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Rasheed, Munawwer; Jabeen, Qaiser; Ahmed, Amir; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Nadir, Muhammad; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and provide a pharmacological base for the medicinal use of the essential oil of Perovskia abrotanoides (Pa.Oil) in gastrointestinal disorders, such as colic. The chemical investigation resulted in the identification of 26 compounds, of which tricyclene, beta-trans-ocimene, terpinene-4-acetate, terpinen-4-ol, caran-3beta-ol, linalyl acetate, beta-caryophyllene oxide and alpha-elemene had not previously been reported from P. abrotanoides. Major constituents were 1,8-cineol and delta-3-carene, which constituting 50% of the oil. In the isolated rabbit jejunum preparation Pa.Oil caused inhibition of spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions, with respective EC50 values of 0.13 (0.08-0.20; n = 4) and 0.90 mg/mL (0.50-1.60; n = 5), thus showing that spasmolytic activity is mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB activity was confirmed when pre-treatment of the tissue with Pa.Oil (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. These data indicate that the essential oil of P. abrotanoides possesses spasmolytic activity mediated possibly through inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels, which may explain its medicinal use in colic and possibly diarrhea.

  15. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  16. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Molly E; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T; Konradi, Christine

    2004-11-24

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators of Ca2+ influx. In D1 receptor-stimulated neurons, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. This leads to the activation of a molecular signal transduction pathway and CREB phosphorylation. In the absence of dopamine receptor stimulation, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit CREB phosphorylation. The effect of dopamine on L-type Ca2+ channel blockers is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays a role in this phenomenon. Because of the adverse effect of activated dopamine receptors on L-type Ca2+ channel blocker action, the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in the dopamine D1 receptor signal transduction pathway cannot be assessed with pharmacological tools. However, with antisense technology, we demonstrate that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation. We conclude that the D1 receptor signal transduction pathway depends on L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate CREB phosphorylation.

  17. Ca(2+)-activated anion channels and membrane depolarizations induced by blue light and cold in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. D.; Karlin-Neumann, G.; Davis, R. W.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The activation of an anion channel in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls by blue light (BL) is believed to be a signal-transducing event leading to growth inhibition. Here we report that the open probability of this particular anion channel depends on cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) within the concentration range of 1 to 10 microM, raising the possibility that BL activates the anion channel by increasing [Ca2+]cyt. Arabidopsis seedlings cytoplasmically expressing aequorin were generated to test this possibility. Aequorin luminescence did not increase during or after BL, providing evidence that Ca2+ does not play a second-messenger role in the activation of anion channels. However, cold shock simultaneously triggered a large increase in [Ca2+]cyt and a 110-mV transient depolarization of the plasma membrane. A blocker of the anion channel, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, blocked 61% of the cold-induced depolarization without affecting the increase in [Ca2+]cyt. These data led us to propose that cold shock opens Ca2+ channels at the plasma membrane, allowing an inward, depolarizing Ca2+ current. The resulting large increase in [Ca2+]cyt activates the anion channel, which further depolarizes the membrane. Although an increase in [Ca2+]cyt may activate anion channels in response to cold, it appears that BL does so via a Ca(2+)-independent pathway.

  18. Vascular activation of K+ channels and Na+-K+ ATPase activity of estrogen-deficient female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Junior, Rogério Faustino; Fiorim, Jonaina; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; de Sousa Ronconi, Karoline; Botelho, Tatiani; Grando, Marcella D; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate vascular potassium channels and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in estrogen deficient female rats. Female rats that underwent ovariectomy were assigned to receive daily treatment with placebo (OVX) or estrogen replacement (OVX+E2, 1mg/kg, once a week, i.m.). Aortic rings were used to examine the involvement of K + channels and Na + -K + -ATPase in vascular reactivity. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was analyzed in the presence of L-NAME (100μM) and K + channels blockers: tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30nM), apamin (0.5mM), charybdotoxin (ChTX, 0.1mM) and iberiotoxin plus apamin. When aortic rings were pre-contracted with KCl (60mM) or pre-incubated with TEA (5mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5mM) and iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30nM) plus apamin (0.5μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was less effective in the ovariectomized group. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX decreased the relaxation by sodium nitroprusside in all groups but this reduction was greater in the ovariectomized group. Estrogen deficiency also increased aortic functional Na + -K + ATPase activity evaluated by K + -induced relaxation. L-NAME or endothelium removal were not able to block the increase in aortic functional Na + -K + ATPase activity, however, TEA (5mM) restored this increase to the control level. We also found that estrogen deficiency increased superoxide anion production and reduced nitric oxide release in aortic ring from ovariectomized animals. In summary, our results emphasize that the process underlying ACh-induced relaxation is preserved in ovariectomized animals due to the activation of K + channels and increased Na + -K + ATPase activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupling and cooperativity in voltage activation of a limited-state BK channel gating in saturating Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Christopher; Niu, Xiaowei; Geng, Yanyan; Magleby, Karl L

    2010-05-01

    Voltage-dependent gating mechanisms of large conductance Ca(2+) and voltage-activated (BK) channels were investigated using two-dimensional maximum likelihood analysis of single-channel open and closed intervals. To obtain sufficient data at negative as well as positive voltages, single-channel currents were recorded at saturating Ca(2+) from BK channels mutated to remove the RCK1 Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) sensors. The saturating Ca(2+) acting on the Ca(2+) bowl sensors of the resulting BK(B) channels increased channel activity while driving the gating into a reduced number of states, simplifying the model. Five highly constrained idealized gating mechanisms based on extensions of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model for allosteric proteins were examined. A 10-state model without coupling between the voltage sensors and the opening/closing transitions partially described the voltage dependence of Po but not the single-channel kinetics. With allowed coupling, the model gave improved descriptions of Po and approximated the single-channel kinetics; each activated voltage sensor increased the opening rate approximately an additional 23-fold while having little effect on the closing rate. Allowing cooperativity among voltage sensors further improved the description of the data: each activated voltage sensor increased the activation rate of the remaining voltage sensors approximately fourfold, with little effect on the deactivation rate. The coupling factor was decreased in models with cooperativity from approximately 23 to approximately 18. Whether the apparent cooperativity among voltage sensors arises from imposing highly idealized models or from actual cooperativity will require additional studies to resolve. For both cooperative and noncooperative models, allowing transitions to five additional brief (flicker) closed states further improved the description of the data. These observations show that the voltage-dependent single-channel kinetics of BK(B) channels can be approximated

  20. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Measurement of Ca channel activity of isolated adult rat heart cells using 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, R.A.; Goknur, A.B.; Berkoff, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated adult rat heart cells incubated with 5 microM Mn in a medium with 1 mM Ca showed a rapid phase of Mn binding plus a slow phase of Mn uptake. The rapid phase was extracellular binding, as judged by its temperature-insensitive removal by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetic acid. The slow linear phase represented cellular uptake, as judged by its release with digitonin plus the ionophore A23187. Isoproterenol increased the linear rate of Mn uptake and induced spontaneous beating activity in some cells. Both effects were inhibited by nitrendipine. Electrical stimulation of the cells in suspension increased the linear rate of cellular Mn uptake. The increase was potentiated by isoproterenol, and inhibited by nitrendipine or verapamil. Stimulation-dependent Mn uptake (per milligram protein) was greater for cells from 5- to 6-week-old rats than for 8- to 9-month-old female retired breeder rats, in the presence of isoproterenol. Ryanodine increased the stimulation-dependent Mn uptake in the presence of isoproterenol, but not in its absence. We conclude: (i) that cellular uptake of 54 Mn is a good probe of Ca channel function; (ii) that isoproterenol promotes Mn influx by the channel in isolated heart cells; (iii) that cells from young rats (5-6 weeks) have a higher beta-adrenergically induced Ca channel activity than cells from mature rats (8-9 months); and (iv) that ryanodine promotes Ca channel activity (perhaps indirectly) in the presence of isoproterenol

  2. Extracellular acidosis activates ASIC-like channels in freshly isolated cerebral artery smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Shuo; Farley, Jerry M; Swenson, Alyssa; Barnard, John M; Hamilton, Gina; Chiposi, Rumbidzayi; Drummond, Heather A

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that certain acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are required for VSMC functions. However, electrophysiological evidence of ASIC channels in VSMCs is lacking. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that isolated cerebral artery VSMCs express ASIC-like channels. To address this hypothesis, we used RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunolabeling, and conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique. We found extracellular H(+)-induced inward currents in 46% of cells tested (n = 58 of 126 VSMCs, pH 6.5-5.0). The percentage of responsive cells and the current amplitude increased as the external H(+) concentration increased (pH(6.0), n = 28/65 VSMCs responsive, mean current density = 8.1 +/- 1.2 pA/pF). Extracellular acidosis (pH(6.0)) shifted the whole cell reversal potential toward the Nernst potential of Na(+) (n = 6) and substitution of extracellular Na(+) by N-methyl-d-glucamine abolished the inward current (n = 6), indicating that Na(+) is a major charge carrier. The broad-spectrum ASIC blocker amiloride (20 microM) inhibited proton-induced currents to 16.5 +/- 8.7% of control (n = 6, pH(6.0)). Psalmotoxin 1 (PcTx1), an ASIC1a inhibitor and ASIC1b activator, had mixed effects: PcTx1 either 1) abolished H(+)-induced currents (11% of VSMCs, 5/45), 2) enhanced or promoted activation of H(+)-induced currents (76%, 34/45), or 3) failed to promote H(+) activation in nonresponsive VSMCs (13%, 6/45). These findings suggest that freshly dissociated cerebral artery VSMCs express ASIC-like channels, which are predominantly formed by ASIC1b.

  3. H-ras transformation sensitizes volume-activated anion channels and increases migratory activity of NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Linda; Klausen, Thomas K; Stock, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The expression of the H-ras oncogene increases the migratory activity of many cell types and thereby contributes to the metastatic behavior of tumor cells. Other studies point to an involvement of volume-activated anion channels (VRAC) in (tumor) cell migration. In this paper, we tested whether...... 35%. Consistent with higher VRAC activity in H-ras than in wild-type fibroblasts, more VRAC blocker is needed to achieve a comparable degree of inhibition of migration. We suggest that H-ras modulates the volume set point of VRAC and thus facilitates transient changes of cell volume required...

  4. Dual regulation of G proteins and the G-protein-activated K+ channels by lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhy Tselnicker, Isabella; Tsemakhovich, Vladimir; Rishal, Ida; Kahanovitch, Uri; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dascal, Nathan

    2014-04-01

    Lithium (Li(+)) is widely used to treat bipolar disorder (BPD). Cellular targets of Li(+), such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and G proteins, have long been implicated in BPD etiology; however, recent genetic studies link BPD to other proteins, particularly ion channels. Li(+) affects neuronal excitability, but the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to putative BPD targets are unknown. We discovered a dual regulation of G protein-gated K(+) (GIRK) channels by Li(+), and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. In hippocampal neurons, therapeutic doses of Li(+) (1-2 mM) increased GIRK basal current (Ibasal) but attenuated neurotransmitter-evoked GIRK currents (Ievoked) mediated by Gi/o-coupled G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Molecular mechanisms of these regulations were studied with heterologously expressed GIRK1/2. In excised membrane patches, Li(+) increased Ibasal but reduced GPCR-induced GIRK currents. Both regulations were membrane-delimited and G protein-dependent, requiring both Gα and Gβγ subunits. Li(+) did not impair direct activation of GIRK channels by Gβγ, suggesting that inhibition of Ievoked results from an action of Li(+) on Gα, probably through inhibition of GTP-GDP exchange. In direct binding studies, Li(+) promoted GPCR-independent dissociation of Gαi(GDP) from Gβγ by a Mg(2+)-independent mechanism. This previously unknown Li(+) action on G proteins explains the second effect of Li(+), the enhancement of GIRK's Ibasal. The dual effect of Li(+) on GIRK may profoundly regulate the inhibitory effects of neurotransmitters acting via GIRK channels. Our findings link between Li(+), neuronal excitability, and both cellular and genetic targets of BPD: GPCRs, G proteins, and ion channels.

  5. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jordan D. T.; Anderson, Dustin; Asmara, Hadhimulya; Rehak, Renata; Mehaffey, W. Hamish; Hameed, Shahid; McKay, Bruce E.; Kruskic, Mirna; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Turner, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Encoding sensory input requires the expression of postsynaptic ion channels to transform key features of afferent input to an appropriate pattern of spike output. Although Ca2+-activated K+ channels are known to control spike frequency in central neurons, Ca2+-activated K+ channels of intermediate conductance (KCa3.1) are believed to be restricted to peripheral neurons. We now report that cerebellar Purkinje cells express KCa3.1 channels, as evidenced through single-cell RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, pharmacology, and single-channel recordings. Furthermore, KCa3.1 channels coimmunoprecipitate and interact with low voltage-activated Cav3.2 Ca2+ channels at the nanodomain level to support a previously undescribed transient voltage- and Ca2+-dependent current. As a result, subthreshold parallel fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) activate Cav3 Ca2+ influx to trigger a KCa3.1-mediated regulation of the EPSP and subsequent after-hyperpolarization. The Cav3-KCa3.1 complex provides powerful control over temporal summation of EPSPs, effectively suppressing low frequencies of parallel fiber input. KCa3.1 channels thus contribute to a high-pass filter that allows Purkinje cells to respond preferentially to high-frequency parallel fiber bursts characteristic of sensory input. PMID:22308379

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation regulates L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Huiyun; Tang, Xiaohong; Bai, Wenwen; Wang, Guolin; Tian, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Sevoflurane might be harmful to the developing brain. Therefore, it is essential to reverse sevoflurane-induced brain injury. This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, which is inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, sevoflurane, and rTMS groups. A Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to record L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The I-V curve, steady-state activation and inactivation curves were studied in rats of each group at different ages (1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks old). In the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel current density significantly increased from week 2 to week 3. Compared with the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel currents of rats in the sevoflurane group were significantly inhibited from week 1 to week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel shifted significantly towards depolarization at week 1 and week 2. Moreover, steady-state inactivation curves shifted towards hyperpolarization from week 1 to week 3. Compared with the sevoflurane group, rTMS significantly increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents at week 2 and week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel significantly shifted towards hyperpolarization at week 2. Meanwhile, steady-state inactivation curves significantly shifted towards depolarization at week 2. The period between week 2 and week 3 is critical for the development of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Early sevoflurane exposure inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel activity and rTMS can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vincetoxicum stocksii are mediated through calcium channel blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar Shah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to explore the mechanism underlying antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vincetoxicum stocksii. The crude extract of V. stocksii provided 12-24% protection from castor oil-induced diarrhea at the dose of 300-1,000 mg/kg, similar to loperamide. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, V. stocksii caused inhibition of the spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM-induced contractions, with respective EC50 values of 2.53 (1.65-3.90 and 0.95 mg/mL (0.63-1.42, similar to that caused by verapamil, suggesting the calcium channel blocking effect. Loperamide caused inhibition of sponta-neous and high K+-induced contraction, with respective EC50 values of 8.59 (6.33-10.11 and 9.12 µM (7.33-12.81. The calcium channel blocking activity was further confirmed when pretreatment of the tissues with V. stocksii (1-3 mg/mL caused a rightward displacement of the Ca++ concentrations response curves, similar to that produced by verapamil; constructed in Ca++ free medium. These data indicate that the crude extract of V. stocksii contains calcium channel blocking constituents that may possibly explain its medicinal use in hyperactive states of gut, such as, diarrhea and spasms.

  8. Active Galactic Videos: A YouTube Channel for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Calahan, Jenny; Resi Baucco, Alexandria; Bullivant, Christopher William; Eckley, Ross; Ekstrom, W. Haydon; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Genovese, Taylor Fay; Impey, Chris David; Libby, Kaitlin; McCaw, Galen; Olmedo, Alexander N.; Ritter, Joshua; Wenger, Matthew; Williams, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Active Galactic Videos is an astronomy-focused YouTube channel run by a team at the University of Arizona. The channel has two main purposes: to produce educational content for public audiences, and to learn about astronomy and to open a window into the world of professional astronomy by showcasing the work done at Steward Observatory and in Southern Arizona. Our team consists of faculty, staff, and students from a variety of backgrounds including: astronomy, education, film, music, english, and writing. In addition to providing educational content for public audiences, this project provides opportunities for undergraduate students to learn about astronomy content, educational practice, and science communication while developing the practical skills needed to write, film, score, direct, and edit videos that effectively engage and teach viewers about topics in astronomy. The team has produced various styles of video: presentational, interviews, musical/poetic, and documentaries. In addition to YouTube, the Active Galactic Videos team maintains a social media presence on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. These help to widely distribute the content as well as to publicize the main Youtube channel. In addition to providing an overview of our educational work, this poster will present a year's worth of online analytics that we are using to better understand our audience, to examine what videos have been popular and successful and how people are accessing our content. We will present our experience in order to help others learn about improving astronomy education online, and astronomy communication and outreach in general.

  9. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant.The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques o...

  10. Multi-channel real time active noise control system for infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichuan; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise levels inside infants incubators in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) contribute to number of harmful effects on the infant's health. This paper develops and implements practical active noise control (ANC) systems for the infant incubators. The filtered-X least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm is used to cancel the noise inside the incubator. The multi-channel and pseudo multi-channel ANC systems are proposed to enhance the noise cancellation performance in terms of cancellation gain and quiet zone. An experimental setup based on real Giraffe incubator from GE Healthcare is used for real-time experiments. The results show that the ANC system can dramatically reduce the noise and cost effective.

  11. Calcium channel activity of purified human synexin and structure of the human synexin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.L.; Magendzo, K.; Shirvan, A.; Srivastava, M.; Rojas, E.; Alijani, M.R.; Pollard, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Synexin is a calcium-dependent membrane binding protein that not only fuses membranes but also acts as a voltage-dependent calcium channel. The authors have isolated and sequenced a set of overlapping cDNA clones for human synexin. The derived amino acid sequence of synexin reveals strong homology in the C-terminal domain with a previously identified class of calcium-dependent membrane binding proteins. These include endonexin II, lipocortin I, calpactin I heavy chain (p36), protein II, and calelectrin 67K. The M r 51,000 synexin molecule can be divided into a unique, highly hydrophobic N-terminal domain of 167 amino acids and a conserved C-terminal region of 299 amino acids. The latter domain is composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Analysis of the entire structure reveals possible insights into such diverse properties as voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, ion selectivity, affinity for phospholipids, and membrane fusion

  12. Bupivacaine inhibits large conductance, voltage- and Ca2+- activated K+ channels in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Pedro; Enrique, Nicolás; Palomo, Ana R. Roldán; Rebolledo, Alejandro; Milesi, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic compound belonging to the amino amide group. Its anesthetic effect is commonly related to its inhibitory effect on voltage-gated sodium channels. However, several studies have shown that this drug can also inhibit voltage-operated K+ channels by a different blocking mechanism. This could explain the observed contractile effects of bupivacaine on blood vessels. Up to now, there were no previous reports in the literature about bupivacaine effects on large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa). Using the patch-clamp technique, it is shown that bupivacaine inhibits single-channel and whole-cell K+ currents carried by BKCa channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from human umbilical artery (HUA). At the single-channel level bupivacaine produced, in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner (IC50 324 µM at +80 mV), a reduction of single-channel current amplitude and induced a flickery mode of the open channel state. Bupivacaine (300 µM) can also block whole-cell K+ currents (~45% blockage) in which, under our working conditions, BKCa is the main component. This study presents a new inhibitory effect of bupivacaine on an ion channel involved in different cell functions. Hence, the inhibitory effect of bupivacaine on BKCa channel activity could affect different physiological functions where these channels are involved. Since bupivacaine is commonly used during labor and delivery, its effects on umbilical arteries, where this channel is highly expressed, should be taken into account. PMID:22688134

  13. Characterization of two Bunodosoma granulifera toxins active on cardiac sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Cyril; Ferrer, Tania; Galàn, Loipa; Artiles, Adriana; Batista, Cesar F V; Possani, Lourival D; Alvarez, Julio; Aneiros, Abel; Tytgat, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Two sodium channel toxins, BgII and BgIII, have been isolated and purified from the sea anemone Bunodosoma granulifera. Combining different techniques, we have investigated the electrophysiological properties of these toxins. We examined the effect of BgII and BgIII on rat ventricular strips. These toxins prolong action potentials with EC50 values of 60 and 660 nM and modify the resting potentials. The effect on Na+ currents in rat cardiomyocytes was studied using the patch-clamp technique. BgII and BgIII slow the rapid inactivation process and increase the current density with EC50 values of 58 and 78 nM, respectively. On the cloned hH1 cardiac Na+ channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, BgII and BgIII slow the inactivation process of Na+ currents (respective EC50 values of 0.38 and 7.8 μM), shift the steady-state activation and inactivation parameters to more positive potentials and the reversal potential to more negative potentials. The amino acid sequences of these toxins are almost identical except for an asparagine at position 16 in BgII which is replaced by an aspartic acid in BgIII. In all experiments, BgII was more potent than BgIII suggesting that this conservative residue is important for the toxicity of sea anemone toxins. We conclude that BgII and BgIII, generally known as neurotoxins, are also cardiotoxic and combine the classical effects of sea anemone Na+ channels toxins (slowing of inactivation kinetics, shift of steady-state activation and inactivation parameters) with a striking decrease on the ionic selectivity of Na+ channels. PMID:11704639

  14. Active Galactic Videos: A YouTube Channel for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Jenny; Gibbs, Aidan; Hardegree-Ullman, Melody; Hardegree-Ullman, Michael; Impey, Chris David; Kevis, Charlotte; Lewter, Austin; Mauldin, Emmalee; McKee, Carolyn; Olmedo, Alejandro; Pereira, Victoria; Thomas, Melissa; Wenger, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Active Galactic Videos is an astronomy-focused YouTube channel run by a team at the University of Arizona. The channel both produces astronomy-focused educational content for public audiences and opens a window into the world of professional astronomy by showcasing the work done at Steward Observatory and in Southern Arizona. The channel is mainly run by undergraduate students from a variety of backgrounds including: astronomy, education, film, music, english, and writing. In addition to providing educational content for public audiences, this project provides opportunities for undergraduate students to learn about astronomy content, general astronomy pedagogy, as well as science communication. This is done through developing the practical skills needed to take on the challenge of creating effective and engaging videos. Students write, film, score, direct, and edit each video while conscious of how each piece can affect the teaching/storytelling of the concept at hand. The team has produced various styles of video: presentational, interviews, musical/poetic, tours, and documentaries. In addition to YouTube, the Active Galactic Videos team maintains a social media presence on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. These help to widely distribute the content as well as to publicize the main Youtube channel. In addition to providing an overview of our educational work, we present 51 videos, or two year's, worth of online analytics that we are using to better understand our audience, to examine what videos have been popular and successful, and how people are accessing our content. We will present our experience in order to help others learn about improving astronomy education online, as well as astronomy communication and outreach in general.We acknowledge the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for grant support of this and related education initiatives

  15. Skønhed - En engel gik forbi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Dorthe

    Hvorfor spilde tiden på skønhed i en verden fuld af problemer? Med dette provokerende spørgsmål indleder filosof og idéhistoriker Dorthe Jørgensen sin undersøgelse af, hvad skønhed er, og hvordan den kan hjælpe os i vor søgen efter det gode liv. Hun fortæller ikke bare om, hvad kunstnere og tænke...

  16. PRRT2 controls neuronal excitability by negatively modulating Na+ channel 1.2/1.6 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Floriana; Valente, Pierluigi; Sterlini, Bruno; Romei, Alessandra; Baldassari, Simona; Fadda, Manuela; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giansante, Giorgia; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Rossi, Pia; Rubio, Alicia; Gambardella, Antonio; Nieus, Thierry; Broccoli, Vania; Fassio, Anna; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Zara, Federico; Benfenati, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    See Lerche (doi:10.1093/brain/awy073) for a scientific commentary on this article.Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c.649dupC mutation. Single-cell patch-clamp experiments on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from homozygous patients showed increased Na+ currents that were fully rescued by expression of wild-type PRRT2. Closely similar electrophysiological features were observed in primary neurons obtained from the recently characterized PRRT2 knockout mouse. This phenotype was associated with an increased length of the axon initial segment and with markedly augmented spontaneous and evoked firing and bursting activities evaluated, at the network level, by multi-electrode array electrophysiology. Using HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav channel subtypes, we demonstrated that the expression of PRRT2 decreases the membrane exposure and Na+ current of Nav1.2/Nav1.6, but not Nav1.1, channels. Moreover, PRRT2 directly interacted with Nav1.2/Nav1.6 channels and induced a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and a slow-down in the recovery from inactivation. In addition, by co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the PRRT2-Nav interaction also occurs in brain tissue. The study demonstrates that the lack of PRRT2 leads to a hyperactivity of voltage

  17. PRRT2 controls neuronal excitability by negatively modulating Na+ channel 1.2/1.6 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Floriana; Valente, Pierluigi; Sterlini, Bruno; Romei, Alessandra; Baldassari, Simona; Fadda, Manuela; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giansante, Giorgia; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Rossi, Pia; Rubio, Alicia; Gambardella, Antonio; Nieus, Thierry; Broccoli, Vania; Fassio, Anna; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Zara, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Lerche (doi:10.1093/brain/awy073) for a scientific commentary on this article. Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c.649dupC mutation. Single-cell patch-clamp experiments on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from homozygous patients showed increased Na+ currents that were fully rescued by expression of wild-type PRRT2. Closely similar electrophysiological features were observed in primary neurons obtained from the recently characterized PRRT2 knockout mouse. This phenotype was associated with an increased length of the axon initial segment and with markedly augmented spontaneous and evoked firing and bursting activities evaluated, at the network level, by multi-electrode array electrophysiology. Using HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav channel subtypes, we demonstrated that the expression of PRRT2 decreases the membrane exposure and Na+ current of Nav1.2/Nav1.6, but not Nav1.1, channels. Moreover, PRRT2 directly interacted with Nav1.2/Nav1.6 channels and induced a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and a slow-down in the recovery from inactivation. In addition, by co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the PRRT2-Nav interaction also occurs in brain tissue. The study demonstrates that the lack of PRRT2 leads to a hyperactivity of

  18. Voltage-dependent antagonist/agonist actions of taurine on Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels of rat skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, D; Barbieri, M; Conte Camerino, D

    2001-09-01

    Emerging evidence supports the idea that taurine exerts some of its actions through inhibition of inward rectifier K(+) channels, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and voltage-dependent K(+) channels. However, to date not much is known about the effects of this sulfonic amino acid on Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca(2+))) channels, which are widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle. In the present work, the effects of taurine on K(Ca(2+)) channels of rat skeletal muscle fibers were investigated using the patch-clamp technique. The application of the amino acid to the internal side of the excised macropatches induced a dose-dependent decrease in the outward K(Ca(2+)) currents recorded at positive membrane potentials in the presence of 8 to 16 microM concentrations of free Ca(2+) ions in the bath with an IC(50) of 31.9. 10(-3) +/- 1 M (slope factor = 1.2) (n = 11 patches). In contrast, at negative membrane potentials taurine caused an enhancement of the muscular inward K(Ca(2+)) currents with a DE(50) (drug concentration needed to enhance the current by 50%) of 46.7. 10(-3) +/- 2 M (slope factor = 1.3) (n = 9 patches). Single channel analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by changes in the reversal potential of the K(Ca(2+)) channel for K(+) ions with no changes in the gating properties or in the sensitivity of the channel to Ca(2+) ions. Taurine also did not affect the single channel conductance. In conclusion, taurine shows a voltage-dependent dualistic action on K(Ca(2+)) channels, being an inhibitor of the channel at positive membrane potentials and an activator at negative membrane potentials.

  19. Activation of mutated TRPA1 ion channel by resveratrol in human prostate cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancauwenberghe, Eric; Noyer, Lucile; Derouiche, Sandra; Lemonnier, Loïc; Gosset, Pierre; Sadofsky, Laura R; Mariot, Pascal; Warnier, Marine; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Slomianny, Christian; Mauroy, Brigitte; Bonnal, Jean-Louis; Dewailly, Etienne; Delcourt, Philippe; Allart, Laurent; Desruelles, Emilie; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Roudbaraki, Morad

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies showed the effects of resveratrol (RES) on several cancer cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cell apoptosis without taking into consideration the impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is composed of cancer cells, endothelial cells, blood cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), the main source of growth factors. The latter cells might modify in the TME the impact of RES on tumor cells via secreted factors. Recent data clearly show the impact of CAF on cancer cells apoptosis resistance via secreted factors. However, the effects of RES on PCa CAF have not been studied so far. We have investigated here for the first time the effects of RES on the physiology of PCa CAF in the context of TME. Using a prostate cancer CAF cell line and primary cultures of CAF from prostate cancers, we show that RES activates the N-terminal mutated Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel leading to an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and the expression and secretion of growth factors (HGF and VEGF) without inducing apoptosis in these cells. Interestingly, in the present work, we also show that when the prostate cancer cells were co-cultured with CAF, the RES-induced cancer cell apoptosis was reduced by 40%, an apoptosis reduction canceled in the presence of the TRPA1 channel inhibitors. The present work highlights CAF TRPA1 ion channels as a target for RES and the importance of the channel in the epithelial-stromal crosstalk in the TME leading to resistance to the RES-induced apoptosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. RIM proteins tether Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S.; Deng, Lunbin; Wang, Yun; Dulubova, Irina; Liu, Xinran; Rizo, Josep; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY At a synapse, fast synchronous neurotransmitter release requires localization of Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones. How Ca2+-channels are recruited to active zones, however, remains unknown. Using unbiased yeast two-hybrid screens, we here identify a direct interaction of the central PDZ-domain of the active-zone protein RIM with the C-termini of presynaptic N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels, but not L-type Ca2+-channels. To test the physiological significance of this interaction, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking all presynaptic RIM isoforms. Deletion of all RIMs ablated most neurotransmitter release by simultaneously impairing the priming of synaptic vesicles and by decreasing the presynaptic localization of Ca2+-channels. Strikingly, rescue of the decreased Ca2+-channel localization required the RIM PDZ-domain, whereas rescue of vesicle priming required the RIM N-terminus. We propose that RIMs tether N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain mediated interaction, thereby enabling fast, synchronous triggering of neurotransmitter release at a synapse. PMID:21241895

  1. Single amino acids in the carboxyl terminal domain of aquaporin-1 contribute to cGMP-dependent ion channel activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yool Andrea J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 functions as an osmotic water channel and a gated cation channel. Activation of the AQP1 ion conductance by intracellular cGMP was hypothesized to involve the carboxyl (C- terminus, based on amino acid sequence alignments with cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterases. Results Voltage clamp analyses of human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3–14 mM activated the ionic conductance response in a dose-dependent manner. Block of soluble guanylate cyclase prevented the response. Enzyme immunoassays confirmed a linear dose-dependent relationship between SNP and the resulting intracellular cGMP levels (up to 1700 fmol cGMP /oocyte at 14 mM SNP. Results here are the first to show that the efficacy of ion channel activation is decreased by mutations of AQP1 at conserved residues in the C-terminal domain (aspartate D237 and lysine K243. Conclusions These data support the idea that the limited amino acid sequence similarities found between three diverse classes of cGMP-binding proteins are significant to the function of AQP1 as a cGMP-gated ion channel, and provide direct evidence for the involvement of the AQP1 C-terminal domain in cGMP-mediated ion channel activation.

  2. Transduction for pheromones in the main olfactory epithelium is mediated by the Ca2+ -activated channel TRPM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Fabián; Delgado, Ricardo; López, Roberto; Bacigalupo, Juan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-02-26

    Growing evidence suggests that the main olfactory epithelium contains a subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to pheromones. One candidate subpopulation expresses the calcium activated cation channel TRPM5 (transient receptor potential channel M5). Using GFP driven by the TRPM5 promoter in mice, we show that this subpopulation responds to putative pheromones, urine, and major histocompatibility complex peptides, but not to regular odors or a pheromone detected by other species. In addition, this subpopulation of TRPM5-GFP+ OSNs uses novel transduction. In regular OSNs, odorants elicit activation of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel, leading to Ca2+ gating of Cl- channels; in TRPM5-GFP+ OSNs, the Ca2+ -activated Cl- ANO2 (anoctamin 2) channel is not expressed, and pheromones elicit activation of the CNG channel leading to Ca2+ gating of TRPM5. In conclusion, we show that OSNs expressing TRPM5 respond to pheromones, but not to regular odors through the opening of CNG channels leading to Ca2+ gating of TRPM5.

  3. An intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is important for secretion in pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Mikio; Wang, Jing; Hede, Susanne Edeling

    2012-01-01

    the molecular basis of functional K(+) channels in rodent and human pancreatic ducts (Capan-1, PANC-1, and CFPAC-1) using molecular and electrophysiological techniques. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNAs for KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNH5, KCNT1, and KCNT2, as well as KCNN4 coding for the following channels: KVLQT1; HERG; EAG......2; Slack; Slick; and an intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IK) channel (K(Ca)3.1). The following functional studies were focused on the IK channel. 5,6-Dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-one (DC-EBIO), an activator of IK channel, increased equivalent short-circuit current...... revealed IK channels with an average conductance of 80 pS in freshly isolated rodent duct cells. These results indicated that the IK channels may, at least in part, be involved in setting the resting membrane potential. Furthermore, the IK channels are involved in anion and potassium transport...

  4. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  5. A key role for STIM1 in store operated calcium channel activation in airway smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Samantha E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of cytosolic calcium plays a key role in airway myocyte function. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ stores can modulate contractile responses, modulate proliferation and regulate synthetic activity. Influx of Ca2+ in non excitable smooth muscle is believed to be predominantly through store operated channels (SOC or receptor operated channels (ROC. Whereas agonists can activate both SOC and ROC in a range of smooth muscle types, the specific trigger for SOC activation is depletion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. The mechanism underlying SOC activation following depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores in smooth muscle has not been identified. Methods To investigate the roles of the STIM homologues in SOC activation in airway myocytes, specific siRNA sequences were utilised to target and selectively suppress both STIM1 and STIM2. Quantitative real time PCR was employed to assess the efficiency and the specificity of the siRNA mediated knockdown of mRNA. Activation of SOC was investigated by both whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology and a fluorescence based calcium assay. Results Transfection of 20 nM siRNA specific for STIM1 or 2 resulted in robust decreases (>70% of the relevant mRNA. siRNA targeted at STIM1 resulted in a reduction of SOC associated Ca2+ influx in response to store depletion by cyclopiazonic acid (60% or histamine but not bradykinin. siRNA to STIM2 had no effect on these responses. In addition STIM1 suppression resulted in a more or less complete abrogation of SOC associated inward currents assessed by whole cell patch clamp. Conclusion Here we show that STIM1 acts as a key signal for SOC activation following intracellular Ca2+ store depletion or following agonist stimulation with histamine in human airway myocytes. These are the first data demonstrating a role for STIM1 in a physiologically relevant, non-transformed endogenous expression cell model.

  6. Ion Channels Activated by Mechanical Forces in Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokabe, Masahiro; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Since the first discovery of mechanosensitive ion channel (MSC) in non-sensory cells in 1984, a variety of MSCs has been identified both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. One of the central issues concerning MSCs is to understand the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of how mechanical forces activate/open MSCs. It has been well established that prokaryotic (mostly bacterial) MSCs are activated exclusively by membrane tension. Thus the problem to be solved with prokaryotic MSCs is the mechanisms how the MSC proteins receive tensile forces from the lipid bilayer and utilize them for channel opening. On the other hand, the activation of many eukaryotic MSCs crucially depends on tension in the actin cytoskeleton. By using the actin cytoskeleton as a force sensing antenna, eukaryotic MSCs have obtained sophisticated functions such as remote force sensing and force-direction sensing, which bacterial MSCs do not have. Actin cytoskeletons also give eukaryotic MSCs an interesting and important function called "active touch sensing", by which cells can sense rigidity of their substrates. The contractile actin cytoskeleton stress fiber (SF) anchors its each end to a focal adhesion (FA) and pulls the substrate to generate substrate-rigidity-dependent stresses in the FA. It has been found that those stresses are sensed by some Ca2+-permeable MSCs existing in the vicinity of FAs, thus the MSCs work as a substrate rigidity sensor that can transduce the rigidity into intracellular Ca2+ levels. This short review, roughly constituting of two parts, deals with molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the MSC activation process mostly based on our recent studies; (1) structure-function in bacterial MSCs activation at the atomic level, and (2) roles of actin cytoskeletons in the activation of eukaryotic MSCs.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Frizzled-Like Cysteine-Rich Domain of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiegler, A.; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2009-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is an essential receptor tyrosine kinase for the establishment and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activation of MuSK by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), the agrin receptor, leads to clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic side of the NMJ. The ectodomain of MuSK comprises three immunoglobulin-like domains and a cysteine-rich domain (Fz-CRD) related to those in Frizzled proteins, the receptors for Wnts. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MuSK Fz-CRD at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals a five-disulfide-bridged domain similar to CRDs of Frizzled proteins but with a divergent C-terminal region. An asymmetric dimer present in the crystal structure implicates surface hydrophobic residues that may function in homotypic or heterotypic interactions to mediate co-clustering of MuSK, rapsyn, and acetylcholine receptors at the NMJ.

  8. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibhardt, Christine S; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-09-09

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels.

  9. Interaction of a dinoflagellate neurotoxin with voltage-activated ion channels in a marine diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Kitchen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The potent neurotoxins produced by the harmful algal bloom species Karenia brevis are activators of sodium voltage-gated channels (VGC in animals, resulting in altered channel kinetics and membrane hyperexcitability. Recent biophysical and genomic evidence supports widespread presence of homologous sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ permeable VGCs in unicellular algae, including marine phytoplankton. We therefore hypothesized that VGCs of these phytoplankton may be an allelopathic target for waterborne neurotoxins produced by K. brevis blooms that could lead to ion channel dysfunction and disruption of signaling in a similar manner to animal Na+ VGCs. Methods We examined the interaction of brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3, a K. brevis neurotoxin, with the Na+/Ca2+ VGC of the non-toxic diatom Odontella sinensis using electrophysiology. Single electrode current- and voltage- clamp recordings from O. sinensis in the presence of PbTx-3 were used to examine the toxin’s effect on voltage gated Na+/Ca2+ currents. In silico analysis was used to identify the putative PbTx binding site in the diatoms. We identified Na+/Ca2+ VCG homologs from the transcriptomes and genomes of 12 diatoms, including three transcripts from O. sinensis and aligned them with site-5 of Na+ VGCs, previously identified as the PbTx binding site in animals. Results Up to 1 µM PbTx had no effect on diatom resting membrane potential or membrane excitability. The kinetics of fast inward Na+/Ca2+ currents that underlie diatom action potentials were also unaffected. However, the peak inward current was inhibited by 33%, delayed outward current was inhibited by 25%, and reversal potential of the currents shifted positive, indicating a change in permeability of the underlying channels. Sequence analysis showed a lack of conservation of the PbTx binding site in diatom VGC homologs, many of which share molecular features more similar to single-domain bacterial Na+/Ca2+ VGCs than the 4-domain

  10. Differential Cytokine Changes in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis with Antibodies against AChR and MuSK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular transmission failure in myasthenia gravis (MG is most commonly elicited by autoantibodies (ab to the acetylcholine receptor or the muscle-specific kinase, constituting AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. It is controversial whether these MG subtypes arise through different T helper (Th 1, Th2 or Th17 polarized immune reactions and how these reactions are blunted by immunosuppression. To address these questions, plasma levels of cytokines related to various Th subtypes were determined in patients with AChR-MG, MuSK-MG and healthy controls (CON. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were activated in vitro by anti-CD3, and cytokines were quantified in supernatants. In purified blood CD4+ T cells, RNA of various cytokines, Th subtype specific transcription factors and the co-stimulatory molecule, CD40L, were quantified by qRT-PCR. Plasma levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 related cytokines were overall not significantly different between MG subtypes and CON. By contrast, in vitro stimulated PBMC from MuSK-MG but not AChR-MG patients showed significantly increased secretion of the Th1, Th17 and T follicular helper cell related cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21. Stimulated expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 was not significantly different. At the RNA level, expression of CD40L by CD4+ T cells was reduced in both AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients while expression of Th subset related cytokines and transcription factors were normal. Immunosuppression treatment had two effects: First, it reduced levels of IL12p40 in the plasma of AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients, leaving other cytokine levels unchanged; second, it reduced spontaneous secretion of IFN-γ and increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 by cultured PBMC from AChR-MG, but not MuSK-MG patients. We conclude that Th1 and Th17 immune reactions play a role in MuSK-MG. Immunosuppression attenuates the Th1 response in AChR-MG and MuSK-MG, but otherwise modulates immune responses in AChR-MG and MuSK

  11. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Soumya C, E-mail: chidambaram.soumya@gmail.com [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Kannan, Anbarasu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Gopal, Ashidha [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Devaraj, Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Halagowder, Devaraj [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  12. Activity-dependent plasticity of spike pauses in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasselli, Giorgio; He, Qionger; Wan, Vivian; Adelman, John P.; Ohtsuki, Gen; Hansel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst–pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice) and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning. PMID:26972012

  13. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grasselli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst-pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning.

  14. Studies of the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in smooth muscle, neuronal, and cardiac tissues using 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.

    1988-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup +} channels in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle, chick neural retina cells and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes using 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists and activators. In rat aorta, the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) produced Ca{sup 2+}-dependent contractile responses. The responses to TPA were blocked by the Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists. The effects of the enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 were characterized in both rat tail artery and guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle preparations using pharmacologic and radioligand binding assays. The (S)-enantiomers induced contraction and potentiated the responses to K{sup +} depolarization. The (R)-enantiomers inhibited the tension responses to K{sup +}. All the enantiomers inhibited specific ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding. The pharmacologic activities of both activator and antagonist ligands correlated on a 1:1 basis with the binding affinities. In chick neural retina cells the (S)-enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 enhanced Ca{sup 2+} influx. In contrast, the (R)-enantiomers inhibited Ca{sup 2+} influx. The enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 inhibited specific ({sup 3}H)PN 200-110 binding competitively. Binding of 1,4-dihydropyridines was characterized in neonatal rat heart cells.

  15. Levcromakalim- and isoprenaline-induced relaxation of human isolated airways--role of the epithelium and of K+ channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J L; Johnson, P R; McKay, K O; Carey, D; Armour, C L

    1994-06-01

    In this study we have investigated the mechanism of action of levcromakalim and isoprenaline in human isolated airways with respect to the K+ channels they activate and the possibility that these smooth muscle relaxants activate K+ channels on the airway epithelium. Mechanical removal of the epithelial layer (mean percentage of epithelium present 20 +/- 3%, n = 20 tissues) did not affect the relaxation responses to levcromakalim or isoprenaline, either in terms of maximal relaxation or sensitivity. Whilst having no effect on isoprenaline-induced relaxation, studied from basal tone, the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker BRL 31660 (10, 30 and 50 microM) reduced relaxation responses induced (from basal tone) by levcromakalim from 74 +/- 6% (of the maximal response to isoprenaline) to 48 +/- 12% (n = 7), 9 +/- 9% (n = 4) and 0 (n = 4), respectively. Charybdotoxin, a blocker of high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, at concentrations of 30 and 100 nM, had no effect on either levcromakalim- or or isoprenaline-induced relaxation responses and yet charybdotoxin was active at KCa channels in outside-out patches of hippocampal granule cells. Moreover, tetraethylammonium (10 mM) inhibited neither isoprenaline- nor levcromakalim-induced relaxation. This study has demonstrated that the relaxation responses elicited in human bronchus to isoprenaline and levcromakalim are likely to be the result of direct effects on the smooth muscle with no contribution from epithelial receptors or K+ channels. The actions of levcromakalim appear to be mediated only via activation of KATP channels. Further, we have made the important observation that, under the experimental conditions of our study, isoprenaline does not activate the KCa channel to produce relaxation in human bronchus.

  16. The probability of quantal secretion within an array of calcium channels of an active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M R; Farnell, L; Gibson, W G

    2000-05-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis has been made of calcium dynamics in submembranous domains of active zones in which the calcium contributed by the opening of many channels is pooled. The kinetics of calcium ions in these domains has been determined using simulations for channels arranged in different geometries, according to the active zone under consideration: rectangular grids for varicosities and boutons and lines for motor-nerve terminals. The effects of endogenous fixed and mobile buffers on the two-dimensional distribution of free calcium ions at these active zones are then given, together with the extent to which these are perturbed and can be detected with different affinity calcium indicators when the calcium channels open stochastically under an action potential. A Monte Carlo analysis of how the dynamics of calcium ions in the submembranous domains determines the probability of exocytosis from docked vesicles is also presented. The spatial distribution of exocytosis from rectangular arrays of secretory units is such that exocytosis is largely excluded from the edges of the array, due to the effects of endogenous buffers. There is a steeper than linear increase in quantal release with an increase in the number of secretory units in the array, indicating that there is not just a local interaction between secretory units. Conditioning action potentials promote an increase in quantal release by a subsequent action potential primarily by depleting the fixed and mobile buffers in the center of the array. In the case of two parallel lines of secretory units exocytosis is random, and diffusion, together with the endogenous calcium buffers, ensures that the secretory units only interact over relatively short distances. As a consequence of this and in contrast to the case of the rectangular array, there is a linear relationship between the extent of quantal secretion from these zones and their length, for lengths greater than a critical value. This Monte Carlo analysis

  17. Structural basis of agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Yinong; Zhang, Bin; Gu, Shenyan; Lee, Kwangkook; Zhou, Jie; Yao, Guorui; Figueiredo, Dwight; Perry, Kay; Mei, Lin; Jin, Rongsheng [Cornell; (GSHU); (Sanford-Burnham)

    2012-06-27

    Synapses are the fundamental units of neural circuits that enable complex behaviors. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a synapse formed between a motoneuron and a muscle fiber, has contributed greatly to understanding of the general principles of synaptogenesis as well as of neuromuscular disorders. NMJ formation requires neural agrin, a motoneuron-derived protein, which interacts with LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) to activate the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase). However, little is known of how signals are transduced from agrin to MuSK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an agrin-LRP4 complex, consisting of two agrin-LRP4 heterodimers. Formation of the initial binary complex requires the z8 loop that is specifically present in neuronal, but not muscle, agrin and that promotes the synergistic formation of the tetramer through two additional interfaces. We show that the tetrameric complex is essential for neuronal agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Collectively, these results provide new insight into the agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling cascade and NMJ formation and represent a novel mechanism for activation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  18. Anti-tumor effect of cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells (SK-MES-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wu, D; Wei, B; Wang, S; Sun, Hx; Li, Xl; Zhang, F; Zhang, Cl; Xin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Cactus polysaccharides are the active components of Opuntia dillenii which have been used extensively in folk medicine. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells SK-MES-1. The inhibitory effect of Cactus polysaccharides on lung squamous carcinoma cells were detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was determined by AnnexinV assay. Western-blotting was applied to detect P53 and PTEN protein expression in the cells treated with cactus polysaccharides. Results showed that different concentrations of wild cactus polysaccharides prevent SK-MES-1 cells growth and induces S phase arrest. The data also revealed that cactus polysaccharides cause apoptosis in SK-MES-1 cells determined by Annexin-V assay. Furthermore, cactus polysaccharides induced growth arrest and apoptosis may be due to the increase of P53 and phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) protein. Cactus polysaccharides have anti-tumor activity on lung squamous carcinoma cells.

  19. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels contribute to astrocyte activation In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Veronica T; Santiago González, Diara A; Smith, Jessica; Spreuer, Vilma; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Paez, Pablo M

    2016-08-01

    We have found a significant upregulation of L-type voltage-operated Ca(++) channels (VOCCs) in reactive astrocytes. To test if VOCCs are centrally involved in triggering astrocyte reactivity, we used in vitro models of astrocyte activation in combination with pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs and the Cre/lox system to reduce the activity of L-type VOCCs in primary cortical astrocytes. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as high extracellular K(+) , glutamate, and ATP promote astrogliosis in vitro. L-type VOCC inhibitors drastically reduce the number of reactive cells, astrocyte hypertrophy, and cell proliferation after these treatments. Astrocytes transfected with siRNAs for the Cav1.2 subunit that conducts L-type Ca(++) currents as well as Cav1.2 knockout astrocytes showed reduce Ca(++) influx by ∼80% after plasma membrane depolarization. Importantly, Cav1.2 knock-down/out prevents astrocyte activation and proliferation induced by LPS. Similar results were found using the scratch wound assay. After injuring the astrocyte monolayer, cells extend processes toward the cell-free scratch region and subsequently migrate and populate the scratch. We found a significant increase in the activity of L-type VOCCs in reactive astrocytes located in the growing line in comparison to quiescent astrocytes situated away from the scratch. Moreover, the migration of astrocytes from the scratching line as well as the number of proliferating astrocytes was reduced in Cav1.2 knock-down/out cultures. In summary, our results suggest that Cav1.2 L-type VOCCs play a fundamental role in the induction and/or proliferation of reactive astrocytes, and indicate that the inhibition of these Ca(++) channels may be an effective way to prevent astrocyte activation. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1396-1415. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A multichannel integrated circuit for electrical recording of neural activity, with independent channel programmability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Lopez, Carolina; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries; Gligorijevic, Ivan; Eberle, Wolfgang; Bartic, Carmen; Puers, Robert; Gielen, Georges

    2012-04-01

    Since a few decades, micro-fabricated neural probes are being used, together with microelectronic interfaces, to get more insight in the activity of neuronal networks. The need for higher temporal and spatial recording resolutions imposes new challenges on the design of integrated neural interfaces with respect to power consumption, data handling and versatility. In this paper, we present an integrated acquisition system for in vitro and in vivo recording of neural activity. The ASIC consists of 16 low-noise, fully-differential input channels with independent programmability of its amplification (from 100 to 6000 V/V) and filtering (1-6000 Hz range) capabilities. Each channel is AC-coupled and implements a fourth-order band-pass filter in order to steeply attenuate out-of-band noise and DC input offsets. The system achieves an input-referred noise density of 37 nV/√Hz, a NEF of 5.1, a CMRR > 60 dB, a THD noise ratios.

  1. Orientation of the calcium channel beta relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical for its regulation of channel activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Vitko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca(vbeta subunits of high voltage-activated Ca(2+ channels control the trafficking and biophysical properties of the alpha(1 subunit. The Ca(vbeta-alpha(1 interaction site has been mapped by crystallographic studies. Nevertheless, how this interaction leads to channel regulation has not been determined. One hypothesis is that betas regulate channel gating by modulating movements of IS6. A key requirement for this direct-coupling model is that the linker connecting IS6 to the alpha-interaction domain (AID be a rigid structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study tests this hypothesis by altering the flexibility and orientation of this region in alpha(12.2, then testing for Ca(vbeta regulation using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Flexibility was induced by replacement of the middle six amino acids of the IS6-AID linker with glycine (PG6. This mutation abolished beta2a and beta3 subunits ability to shift the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and the ability of beta2a to produce non-inactivating currents. Orientation of Ca(vbeta with respect to alpha(12.2 was altered by deletion of 1, 2, or 3 amino acids from the IS6-AID linker (Bdel1, Bdel2, Bdel3, respectively. Again, the ability of Ca(vbeta subunits to regulate these biophysical properties were totally abolished in the Bdel1 and Bdel3 mutants. Functional regulation by Ca(vbeta subunits was rescued in the Bdel2 mutant, indicating that this part of the linker forms beta-sheet. The orientation of beta with respect to alpha was confirmed by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the orientation of the Ca(vbeta subunit relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical, and suggests additional points of contact between these subunits are required for Ca(vbeta to regulate channel activity.

  2. Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid, implicating transient receptor potential (TRP channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of flufenamic acid revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea pig, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output.

  3. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid (FFA), implicating transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of FFA revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea-pig SNr, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output. PMID:21503158

  4. TNF-R1 and FADD mediate UVB-Induced activation of K+ channels in corneal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Peter M.; Haarsma, Loren D.; Schotanus, Mark P.; Ubels, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of Fas, TNF-R1, FADD and cytochrome c in UVB-induced K+ channel activation, an early step in UVB-induced apoptosis, in human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells. HCLE cells were treated with Fas, TNF-R1 or FADD siRNA and exposed to 80 or 150 mJ/cm2 UVB. K+ channel activation and loss of intracellular K+ were measured using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and ion chromatography, respectively. Cytochrome c was measured with an ELISA kit. Cells in which Fas was knocked down exhibited identical UVB-induced K+ channel activation and loss of intracellular K+ to control cells. Cells in which TNF-R1 or FADD were knocked down demonstrated reduced K+ channel activation and decreased loss of intracellular K+ following UVB, relative to control cells. Application of TNF-α, the natural ligand of TNF-R1, to HCLE cells induced K+ channel activation and loss of intracellular K+. Cytochrome c was translocated to the cytosol by 2 h after exposure to 150 mJ/cm2 UVB. However, there was no release by 10 min post-UVB. The data suggest that UVB activates TNF-R1, which in turn may activate K+ channels via FADD. This conclusion is supported by the observation that TNF-α also causes loss of intracellular K+. This signaling pathway appears to be integral to UVB-induced K+ efflux, since knockdown of TNF-R1 or FADD inhibits the UVB-induced K+ efflux. The lack of rapid cytochrome c translocation indicates cytochrome c does not play a role in UVB-induced K+ channel activation. PMID:27818316

  5. Direct effect of chronic hypoxia in suppressing large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel activity in ovine uterine arteries via increasing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Xiao, Daliao; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-15

    Chronic hypoxia has a direct effect in down-regulating the BKCa channel β1 subunit and inhibiting the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant sheep. Oxidative stress plays a causal role in hypoxia-mediated suppression of BKCa channel function. The steroid hormone-induced effect on BKCa channels is a target of hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress. Inhibition of oxidative stress ameliorates the adverse effect of hypoxia both ex vivo and in vivo in pregnant sheep exposed to long-term high-altitude hypoxia. Our findings provide novel evidence of a causative role of oxidative stress in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries and new insights in understanding and alleviating pregnancy complications associated with gestational hypoxia such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Uterine arteries of pregnant sheep acclimatized to long-term high-altitude hypoxia were associated with a decrease in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channel activity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prolonged hypoxia has a direct effect in suppressing BKCa channel activity by increasing oxidative stress. Uterine arteries were isolated from non-pregnant and near-term (∼142 days) pregnant sheep, and were treated ex vivo with 21.0 or 10.5% O2 for 48 h. The hypoxia treatment significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species in uterine arteries, which was blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In uterine arteries of pregnant sheep, hypoxia significantly inhibited BKCa channel current density, decreased NS1619-induced relaxations and increased pressure-dependent tone, which were annulled by N-acetylcysteine. In accordance, hypoxia resulted in down-regulation of BKCa channel β1 subunit, which was restored in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly increased BKCa channel β1 subunit abundance and BKCa channel current density in uterine arteries from pregnant

  6. Proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC in preeclampsia examined with urinary exosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Ravn; Rytz, Mie; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidneys may explain the coupling between proteinuria, edema, suppressed aldosterone and hypertension in preeclampsia. Preeclamptic women excrete plasminogen-plasmin in urine. In vitro, plasmin increases the activity...... as a positive control for the presence of collecting duct membrane. RESULTS: Urine plasmin-plasminogen/creatinine ratio was increased in the preeclampsia group (p... pregnancy and preeclampsia CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to examine collecting duct transport proteins in urine exosome from pregnant women including γ-ENaC, 2) Urine exosome fraction displays a variable pattern of γ-ENaC signal with a predominance of cleaved forms in both normal and preeclamptic women...

  7. Boosting of synaptic potentials and spine Ca transients by the peptide toxin SNX-482 requires alpha-1E-encoded voltage-gated Ca channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessel, Andrew J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2011-01-01

    The majority of glutamatergic synapses formed onto principal neurons of the mammalian central nervous system are associated with dendritic spines. Spines are tiny protuberances that house the proteins that mediate the response of the postsynaptic cell to the presynaptic release of glutamate. Postsynaptic signals are regulated by an ion channel signaling cascade that is active in individual dendritic spines and involves voltage-gated calcium (Ca) channels, small conductance (SK)-type Ca-activated potassium channels, and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Pharmacological studies using the toxin SNX-482 indicated that the voltage-gated Ca channels that signal within spines to open SK channels belong to the class Ca(V)2.3, which is encoded by the Alpha-1E pore-forming subunit. In order to specifically test this conclusion, we examined the effects of SNX-482 on synaptic signals in acute hippocampal slices from knock-out mice lacking the Alpha-1E gene. We find that in these mice, application of SNX-482 has no effect on glutamate-uncaging evoked synaptic potentials and Ca influx, indicating that that SNX-482 indeed acts via the Alpha-1E-encoded Ca(V)2.3 channel.

  8. Boosting of synaptic potentials and spine Ca transients by the peptide toxin SNX-482 requires alpha-1E-encoded voltage-gated Ca channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Giessel

    Full Text Available The majority of glutamatergic synapses formed onto principal neurons of the mammalian central nervous system are associated with dendritic spines. Spines are tiny protuberances that house the proteins that mediate the response of the postsynaptic cell to the presynaptic release of glutamate. Postsynaptic signals are regulated by an ion channel signaling cascade that is active in individual dendritic spines and involves voltage-gated calcium (Ca channels, small conductance (SK-type Ca-activated potassium channels, and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Pharmacological studies using the toxin SNX-482 indicated that the voltage-gated Ca channels that signal within spines to open SK channels belong to the class Ca(V2.3, which is encoded by the Alpha-1E pore-forming subunit. In order to specifically test this conclusion, we examined the effects of SNX-482 on synaptic signals in acute hippocampal slices from knock-out mice lacking the Alpha-1E gene. We find that in these mice, application of SNX-482 has no effect on glutamate-uncaging evoked synaptic potentials and Ca influx, indicating that that SNX-482 indeed acts via the Alpha-1E-encoded Ca(V2.3 channel.

  9. Purinergic regulation of CFTR and Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels and K+ channels in human pancreatic duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Haanes, Kristian A; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). Apically applied ATP/UTP stimulated CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) channels, which were inhibited by CFTRinh-172 and niflumic acid, respectively. The basolaterally applied ATP stimulated CFTR. In CFPAC-1 cells, which have.......1). The apical effects of ATP/UTP were greatly potentiated by the IK channel opener DC-EBIO. Determination of RNA and protein levels revealed that Capan-1 cells have high expression of TMEM16A (ANO1), a likely CaCC candidate. We conclude that in human pancreatic duct cells ATP/UTP regulates via purinergic......Purinergic agonists have been considered for the treatment of respiratory epithelia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The pancreas, one of the most seriously affected organs in CF, expresses various purinergic receptors. Studies on the rodent pancreas show that purinergic signaling regulates...

  10. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel holds the key to the conundrum of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Kang, Sun-Yang; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. Mutations in the calcium channel gene, CACNA1S, or the sodium channel gene, SCN4A, have been found to be responsible for HOKPP; however, the mechanism that causes hypokalemia remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of this mechanism by investigating the expression of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel genes in HOKPP patients. Methods We measured the intracellular calcium concentration with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in skeletal muscle cells of HOKPP patients and healthy individuals. We examined the mRNA and protein expression of KCa channel genes (KCNMA1, KCNN1, KCNN2, KCNN3, and KCNN4) in both cell types. Results Patient cells exhibited higher cytosolic calcium levels than normal cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of the KCa channel genes did not significantly differ between patient and normal cells. However, western blot analysis showed that protein levels of the KCNMA1 gene, which encodes KCa1.1 channels (also called big potassium channels), were significantly lower in the membrane fraction and higher in the cytosolic fraction of patient cells than normal cells. When patient cells were exposed to 50 mM potassium buffer, which was used to induce depolarization, the altered subcellular distribution of BK channels remained unchanged. Conclusion These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the development of hypokalemia and paralysis in HOKPP and demonstrate a connection between disease-associated mutations in calcium/sodium channels and pathogenic changes in nonmutant potassium channels. PMID:25379045

  11. Transduction for Pheromones in the Main Olfactory Epithelium Is Mediated by the Ca2+-Activated Channel TRPM5

    OpenAIRE

    López, Fabián; Delgado, Ricardo; López, Roberto; Bacigalupo, Juan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the main olfactory epithelium contains a subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to pheromones. One candidate subpopulation expresses the calcium activated cation channel TRPM5 (transient receptor potential channel M5). Using GFP driven by the TRPM5 promoter in mice, we show that this subpopulation responds to putative pheromones, urine, and major histocompatibility complex peptides, but not to regular odors or a pheromone detected by other species...

  12. Consequences of activating the calcium-permeable ion channel TRPV1 in breast cancer cells with regulated TRPV1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tina T L; Peters, Amelia A; Tan, Ping T; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2014-08-01

    Increased expression of specific calcium channels in some cancers and the role of calcium signaling in proliferation and invasion have led to studies assessing calcium channel inhibitors as potential therapies for some cancers. The use of channel activators to promote death of cancer cells has been suggested, but the risk of activators promoting cancer cell proliferation and the importance of the degree of channel over-expression is unclear. We developed an MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with inducible TRPV1 overexpression and assessed the role of TRPV1 levels on cell death mediated by the TRPV1 activator capsaicin and the potential for submaximal activation to promote proliferation. The TRPV1 level was a determinant of cell death induced by capsaicin. A concentration response curve with varying TRPV1 expression levels identified the minimum level of TRPV1 required for capsaicin induced cell death. At no level of TRPV1 over-expression or capsaicin concentration did TRPV1 activation enhance proliferation. Cell death induced by capsaicin was necrotic and associated with up-regulation of c-Fos and RIP3. These studies suggest that activators of specific calcium channels may be an effective way to induce necrosis and that this approach may not always be associated with enhancement of cancer cell proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABAA Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

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    Xiao Hu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ- binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II. Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.

  14. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediated blood-brain tumor barrier opening in a rat metastatic brain tumor model

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    Ong John M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. Results In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous infusion of NS1619, a KCa channel agonist, and bradykinin selectively enhanced BTB permeability in brain tumors, but not in normal brain. Iberiotoxin, a KCa channel antagonist, significantly attenuated NS1619-induced BTB permeability increase. We found KCa channels and bradykinin type 2 receptors (B2R expressed in cultured human metastatic brain tumor cells (CRL-5904, non-small cell lung cancer, metastasized to brain, human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC and human lung cancer brain metastasis tissues. Potentiometric assays demonstrated the activity of KCa channels in metastatic brain tumor cells and HBMEC. Furthermore, we detected higher expression of KCa channels in the metastatic brain tumor tissue and tumor capillary endothelia as compared to normal brain tissue. Co-culture of metastatic brain tumor cells and brain microvessel endothelial cells showed an upregulation of KCa channels, which may contribute to the overexpression of KCa channels in tumor microvessels and selectivity of BTB opening. Conclusion These findings suggest that KCa channels in metastatic brain tumors may serve as an effective target for biochemical modulation of BTB permeability to enhance selective delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to metastatic brain tumors.

  15. Reduced Tonoplast Fast-Activating and Slow-Activating Channel Activity Is Essential for Conferring Salinity Tolerance in a Facultative Halophyte, Quinoa1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pottosin, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte species implement a “salt-including” strategy, sequestering significant amounts of Na+ to cell vacuoles. This requires a reduction of passive Na+ leak from the vacuole. In this work, we used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to investigate the ability of halophytes to regulate Na+-permeable slow-activating (SV) and fast-activating (FV) tonoplast channels, linking it with Na+ accumulation in mesophyll cells and salt bladders as well as leaf photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Our data indicate that young leaves rely on Na+ exclusion to salt bladders, whereas old ones, possessing far fewer salt bladders, depend almost exclusively on Na+ sequestration to mesophyll vacuoles. Moreover, although old leaves accumulate more Na+, this does not compromise their leaf photochemistry. FV and SV channels are slightly more permeable for K+ than for Na+, and vacuoles in young leaves express less FV current and with a density unchanged in plants subjected to high (400 mm NaCl) salinity. In old leaves, with an intrinsically lower density of the FV current, FV channel density decreases about 2-fold in plants grown under high salinity. In contrast, intrinsic activity of SV channels in vacuoles from young leaves is unchanged under salt stress. In vacuoles of old leaves, however, it is 2- and 7-fold lower in older compared with young leaves in control- and salt-grown plants, respectively. We conclude that the negative control of SV and FV tonoplast channel activity in old leaves reduces Na+ leak, thus enabling efficient sequestration of Na+ to their vacuoles. This enables optimal photosynthetic performance, conferring salinity tolerance in quinoa species. PMID:23624857

  16. TRPA1 agonist activity of probenecid desensitizes channel responses: consequences for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Conor; Zeng, Fanning; Verkuyl, Jan Martin

    2012-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel widely viewed as having therapeutic potential, particularly for pain-related indications. Realization of this potential will require potent, selective modulators; however, currently the pharmacology of TRPA1 is poorly defined. As TRPA1 is calcium permeable, calcium indicators offer a simple assay format for high-throughput screening. In this report, we show that probenecid, a uricosuric agent used experimentally in screening to increase loading of calcium-sensitive dyes, activates TRPA1. Prolonged probenecid incubation during the dye-loading process reduces agonist potency upon subsequent challenge. When Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-hTRPA1 or STC-1 cells, which endogenously express TRPA1, were dye loaded in the presence of 2 mM probenecid TRPA1, agonists appeared less potent; EC(50) for allyl isothiocyante agonists in CHO-hTRPA1 was increased from 1.5±0.19 to 7.32±1.20 μM (P<0.01). No significant effect on antagonist potency was observed when using the agonist EC(80) concentration determined under the appropriate dye-loading conditions. We suggest an alternative protocol for calcium imaging using another blocker of anion transport, sulfinpyrazone. This blocker significantly augments indicator dye loading and the screening window, but is not a TRPA1 agonist and has no effect on agonist potency.

  17. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  18. Ligand determinants of fatty acid activation of the pronociceptive ion channel TRPA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William John Redmond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose. Arachidonic acid (AA and its derivatives are important modulators of cellular signalling. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 is a cation channel with important functions in mediating cellular responses to noxious stimuli and inflammation. There is limited information about the interactions between AA itself and TRPA1, so we investigated the effects of AA and key ethanolamide and amino acid/neurotransmitter derivatives of AA on hTRPA1.Experimental approach. HEK 293 cells expressing hTRPA1 were studied by measuring changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]i with a fluorescent dye and by standard whole cell patch clamp recordings.Key results. AA (30 μM increased fluorescence in hTRPA1 expressing cells by 370% (notional EC50 13 μM. The covalent TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (300 μM increased fluorescence by 430% (EC50, 11 μM. Anandamide (230% and N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (170% substantially activated hTRPA1 at 30 μM, however, N-arachidonoyl conjugates of glycine and taurine were less effective while N-acyl conjugates of 5-HT did not affect hTRPA1. Changing the acyl chain length or the number and position of double bonds reduced fatty acid efficacy at hTRPA1. Mutant hTRPA1 (Cys621, Cys641 and Cys665 changed to Ser could be activated by AA (100 μM, 40% of wild type but not by cinnamaldehyde (300 μM.Conclusions and implications. AA is a more potent activator of TRPA1 than its ethanolamide or amino acid/neurotransmitter derivatives and acts via a mechanism distinct from that of cinnamaldehyde, further underscoring the likelyhood of multiple pharmacologically exploitable sites on hTRPA1.

  19. Activation, Permeability, and Inhibition of Astrocytic and Neuronal Large Pore (Hemi)channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Ye, Zu-Cheng; Calloe, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    overlapping sensitivity to the inhibitors Brilliant Blue, gadolinium, and carbenoxolone. These results demonstrated isoform-specific characteristics among the large pore membrane channels; an open (hemi)channel is not a nonselective channel. With these isoform-specific properties in mind, we characterized...

  20. Coupling of activation and inactivation gate in a K+-channel: potassium and ligand sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ader, C.; Schneider, R.; Hornig, S.; Velisetty, P.; Vardanyan, V.; Giller, K.; Ohmert, I.; Becker, S.; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium (K+)-channel gating is choreographed by a complex interplay between external stimuli, K+ concentration and lipidic environment. We combined solid-state NMR and electrophysiological experiments on a chimeric KcsA–Kv1.3 channel to delineate K+, pH and blocker effects on channel structure and

  1. Downregulation of Kv7.4 channel activity in primary and secondary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Chadha, Preet S; Davis, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of...

  2. Cloxyquin (5-chloroquinolin-8-ol) is an activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TRESK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul D; Weir, Gregory; Cartland, Jamie; Tickle, David; Kettleborough, Catherine; Cader, M Zameel; Jerman, Jeff

    2013-11-15

    TRESK is a two-pore domain potassium channel. Loss of function mutations have been linked to typical migraine with aura and due to TRESK’s expression pattern and role in neuronal excitability it represents a promising therapeutic target. We developed a cell based assay using baculovirus transduced U20S cells to screen for activators of TRESK. Using a thallium flux system to measure TRESK channel activity we identified Cloxyquin as a novel activator. Cloxyquin was shown to have an EC50 of 3.8 μM in the thallium assay and displayed good selectivity against other potassium channels tested. Activity was confirmed using whole cell patch electrophysiology, with Cloxyquin causing a near two fold increase in outward current. The strategy presented here will be used to screen larger compound libraries with the aim of identifying novel chemical series which may be developed into new migraine prophylactics.

  3. Impact of Omni channel in a central warehouse: An analysis of warehouse activities for an electronic retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Boldt, Elin; Patel, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact Omni channel has on the ware-house activities in a central warehouse for electronic retailers. In order to fulfill the purpose the following research questions are analyzed and answered; “What are the challenges in the warehouse activities in a central warehouse for an electronic retailer when Omni channel is utilized?” and “How can the challenges in the warehouse activities be managed in a central warehouse for an electronic retaile...

  4. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  5. Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-07-01

    G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial K ACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol. Here we employ planar lipid bilayers to investigate the crosstalk between PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol, and demonstrate that these two lipids act synergistically to activate Kir3.4* currents. Further studies using the Xenopus oocytes heterologous expression system suggest that PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol act via distinct binding sites. Whereas PI(4,5)P 2 binds to the cytosolic domain of the channel, the putative binding region of cholesterol is located at the center of the transmembrane domain overlapping the central glycine hinge region of the channel. Together, our data suggest that changes in the levels of two key membrane lipids - cholesterol and PI(4,5)P 2 - could act in concert to provide fine-tuning of Kir3 channel function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating Sterol and Redox Regulation of the Ion Channel Activity of CLIC1 Using Tethered Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Al Khamici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC family consists of six conserved proteins in humans. These are a group of enigmatic proteins, which adopt both a soluble and membrane bound form. CLIC1 was found to be a metamorphic protein, where under specific environmental triggers it adopts more than one stable reversible soluble structural conformation. CLIC1 was found to spontaneously insert into cell membranes and form chloride ion channels. However, factors that control the structural transition of CLIC1 from being an aqueous soluble protein into a membrane bound protein have yet to be adequately described. Using tethered bilayer lipid membranes and electrical impedance spectroscopy system, herein we demonstrate that CLIC1 ion channel activity is dependent on the type and concentration of sterols in bilayer membranes. These findings suggest that membrane sterols play an essential role in CLIC1’s acrobatic switching from a globular soluble form to an integral membrane form, promoting greater ion channel conductance in membranes. What remains unclear is the precise nature of this regulation involving membrane sterols and ultimately determining CLIC1’s membrane structure and function as an ion channel. Furthermore, our impedance spectroscopy results obtained using CLIC1 mutants, suggest that the residue Cys24 is not essential for CLIC1’s ion channel function. However Cys24 does appear important for optimal ion channel activity. We also observe differences in conductance between CLIC1 reduced and oxidized forms when added to our tethered membranes. Therefore, we conclude that both membrane sterols and redox play a role in the ion channel activity of CLIC1.

  7. Data on in vivo selection of SK-OV-3 Luc ovarian cancer cells and intraperitoneal tumor formation with low inoculation numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Carlier, Charlotte; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    This data paper contains information about the in vivo model for peritoneal implants used in the paper "Tumor-environment biomimetics delay peritoneal metastasis formation by deceiving and redirecting disseminated cancer cells" (De Vlieghere et al., 2015) [1]. A double in vivo selection of SK-OV-3 Luc human ovarian cancer cell line was used to create SK-OV-3 Luc IP1 and SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 cell lines. This data paper shows functional activities of the three cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Phase-contrast images show the morphology of these cells, metabolic and luciferase activity has been determined. Survival data of mice peritoneally injected with SK-OV-3 Luc or SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 is available with H&E histology of the peritoneal implants. Tumor growth curves and bioluminescent images of mice inoculated with a different number of SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 cells are also included.

  8. Data on in vivo selection of SK-OV-3 Luc ovarian cancer cells and intraperitoneal tumor formation with low inoculation numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly De Vlieghere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data paper contains information about the in vivo model for peritoneal implants used in the paper “Tumor-environment biomimetics delay peritoneal metastasis formation by deceiving and redirecting disseminated cancer cells” (De Vlieghere et al., 2015 [1]. A double in vivo selection of SK-OV-3 Luc human ovarian cancer cell line was used to create SK-OV-3 Luc IP1 and SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 cell lines. This data paper shows functional activities of the three cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Phase-contrast images show the morphology of these cells, metabolic and luciferase activity has been determined. Survival data of mice peritoneally injected with SK-OV-3 Luc or SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 is available with H&E histology of the peritoneal implants. Tumor growth curves and bioluminescent images of mice inoculated with a different number of SK-OV-3 Luc IP2 cells are also included.

  9. The interaction between the activator agents batrachotoxin and veratridine and the gating processes of neuronal sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, T A; Wang, G K; Strichartz, G R

    1986-05-01

    The depolarization of frog sciatic nerves by the Na channel-activating toxins, batrachotoxin and veratridine, was studied using the sucrose-gap technique. To study the interaction between the activators and the gating processes of Na channels, we measured the depolarizations of unstimulated nerves, of nerves during repetitive stimulation, and of nerves whose Na channel inactivation process had been pharmacologically modified. Stimulation enhanced the rates of depolarization by the activators but did not effect the steady state depolarization values. Of the three inhibitors of Na channel inactivation that were tested (Leiurus alpha-scorpion toxin, chloramine T, and Ni2+), only Leiurus toxin enhanced the potencies of the activators. Neither chloramine T nor Ni2+ had any effect on the steady state level of depolarization produced by either activator. Both chloramine T and Ni2+, however, enhanced the rate of batrachotoxin action, although neither affected the rate of veratridine action. Leiurus toxin also potentiated the effects of the activators in chloramine T-treated nerves. We tested the interaction between the Na channel activators and a class of agents, local anesthetics, that stabilize a non-conducting state of the Na channel. The presence of lidocaine inhibited the depolarization produced by addition of either activator, although the addition of lidocaine subsequent to the development of batrachotoxin-induced depolarization produced repolarization very weakly and slowly. We also found that the lidocaine homologue, RAC 109I, was about 3 times as potent as its stereoisomer, RAC 109II, in its ability both to reduce the compound action potential amplitude and to inhibit the veratridine-induced depolarization.

  10. Na(+) -Ca(2+) Exchanger, Leak K(+) Channel and Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel Comediate the Histamine-Induced Excitation on Rat Inferior Vestibular Nucleus Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Cao, Shu-Liang; Peng, Shi-Yu; Ji, Deng-Yu; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Antihistaminergic drugs have traditionally been used to treat vestibular disorders in the clinic. As a potential central target for antihistaminergic drugs, the inferior vestibular nucleus (IVN) is the largest subnucleus of the central vestibular nuclear complex and is considered responsible for vestibular-autonomic responses and integration of vestibular, cerebellar, and multisensory signals. However, the role of histamine on the IVN, particularly the underlying mechanisms, is still not clear. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on rat brain slices, histamine-induced effect on IVN neurons and the underlying receptor and ionic mechanisms were investigated. We found that histamine remarkably depolarized both spontaneous firing neurons and silent neurons in IVN via both histamine H1 and histamine H2 receptors. Furthermore, Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchangers (NCXs) and background leak K(+) channels linked to H1 receptors and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels coupled to H2 receptors comediate the histamine-induced depolarization on IVN neurons. These results demonstrate the multiple ionic mechanisms underlying the excitatory modulation of histamine/central histaminergic system on IVN neurons and the related vestibular reflexes and functions. The findings also suggest potential targets for the treatment of vestibular disorders in the clinic, at the level of ionic channels in central vestibular nuclei. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An improved ivermectin-activated chloride channel receptor for inhibiting electrical activity in defined neuronal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity...... conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G alpha1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue...

  12. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  13. Enhancement of pentobarbital-induced sleep by apigenin through chloride ion channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Wook; Kim, Chung-Soo; Hu, Zhenzhen; Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Si Kwan; Yoo, Sung-Kwang; Yeo, Yeong Man; Chong, Myong Soo; Lee, Kinam; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2012-02-01

    This experiment was performed to investigate whether apigenin has hypnotic effects and/or enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the GABAergic systems. Apigenin prolonged sleep time induced by pentobarbital similar to muscimol, a GABA(A) receptors agonist. Apigenin also increased sleep rate and sleep time in the combined administration with pentobarbital at the sub-hypnotic dosage, and showed synergic effects with muscimol in potentiating sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, both of apigeinin and pentobarbital increased chloride influx in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. Apigenin increased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and had no effect on the expression of GABA(A) receptor α-, β-, γ-subunits in n hippocampus of mouse brain, showing different expression of subunits from pentobarbital treatment group. In conclusion, it is suggested that apigenin augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through chloride ion channel activation.

  14. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  15. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel and the requirement of sialic acid for activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, M.; Shaw, G.W.; Glick, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    The neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel was purified to homogeneity in an 18% yield from a clonal cell line of mouse neuroblastoma, N-18, metabolically labeled with L-(/sup 3/H)fucose. The Na/sup +/ channel, a glycoprotein, M/sub r/=200,000 (gradient 7-14% PAGE) was digested with Pronase and the glycopeptides were characterized by serial lectin affinity chromatography. greater than 90% of the oligosaccharides contained sialic acid and 18% were biantennary, 39% were triantennary and 30% tetraantennary. The glycoprotein was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles and /sup 86/Rb flux was stimulated (65%) by 200 ..mu..M veratridine and 1.2 ..mu..g of scorpion venom and was inhibited (95%) by 5 ..mu..M tetrodotoxin. The requirement of sialic acid for Na/sup +/ channel activity was demonstrated since neuraminidase (0.01 U) treatment of the reconstituted glycoprotein eliminated the response of /sup 86/Rb flux to the stimulating neurotoxins. In other experiments, treatment of N-18 cells with 10 ..mu..M swainsonine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, altered the oligosaccharide composition of the Na/sup +/ channel. When the abnormally glycosylated Na/sup +/ channel was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles, /sup 86/Rb flux in response to neurotoxins was impaired. Thus, glycosylation of the polypeptide with oligosaccharides of specific composition and structure is essential for expression of the biological activity of the neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel.

  16. Intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels modulate human placental trophoblast syncytialization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Díaz

    Full Text Available Regulation of human placental syncytiotrophoblast renewal by cytotrophoblast migration, aggregation/fusion and differentiation is essential for successful pregnancy. In several tissues, these events are regulated by intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (IKCa, in part through their ability to regulate cell volume. We used cytotrophoblasts in primary culture to test the hypotheses that IKCa participate in the formation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast and in syncytiotrophoblast volume homeostasis. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated from normal term placentas and cultured for 66 h. This preparation recreates syncytiotrophoblast formation in vivo, as mononucleate cells (15 h fuse into multinucleate syncytia (66 h concomitant with elevated secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Cells were treated with the IKCa inhibitor TRAM-34 (10 µM or activator DCEBIO (100 µM. Culture medium was collected to measure hCG secretion and cells fixed for immunofluorescence with anti-IKCa and anti-desmoplakin antibodies to assess IKCa expression and multinucleation respectively. K+ channel activity was assessed by measuring 86Rb efflux at 66 h. IKCa immunostaining was evident in nucleus, cytoplasm and surface of mono- and multinucleate cells. DCEBIO increased 86Rb efflux 8.3-fold above control and this was inhibited by TRAM-34 (85%; p<0.0001. Cytotrophoblast multinucleation increased 12-fold (p<0.05 and hCG secretion 20-fold (p<0.05, between 15 and 66 h. Compared to controls, DCEBIO reduced multinucleation by 42% (p<0.05 and hCG secretion by 80% (p<0.05. TRAM-34 alone did not affect cytotrophoblast multinucleation or hCG secretion. Hyposmotic solution increased 86Rb efflux 3.8-fold (p<0.0001. This effect was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, inhibited by TRAM-34 and 100 nM charybdotoxin (85% (p<0.0001 and 43% respectively but unaffected by 100 nM apamin. In conclusion, IKCa are expressed in cytotrophoblasts and their activation inhibits the

  17. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  18. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  19. Terbinafine is a novel and selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul D; Veale, Emma L; McCoull, David; Tickle, David C; Large, Jonathan M; Ococks, Emma; Gothard, Gemma; Kettleborough, Catherine; Mathie, Alistair; Jerman, Jeffrey

    2017-11-04

    Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2Ps) are characterized by their four transmembrane domain and two-pore topology. They carry background (or leak) potassium current in a variety of cell types. Despite a number of important roles there is currently a lack of pharmacological tools with which to further probe K2P function. We have developed a cell-based thallium flux assay, using baculovirus delivered TASK3 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channel 3, KCNK9, K2P9.1) with the aim of identifying novel, selective TASK3 activators. After screening a library of 1000 compounds, including drug-like and FDA approved molecules, we identified Terbinafine as an activator of TASK3. In a thallium flux assay a pEC50 of 6.2 ( ±0.12) was observed. When Terbinafine was screened against TASK2, TREK2, THIK1, TWIK1 and TRESK no activation was observed in thallium flux assays. Several analogues of Terbinafine were also purchased and structure activity relationships examined. To confirm Terbinafine's activation of TASK3 whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology was carried out and clear potentiation observed in both the wild type channel and the pathophysiological, Birk-Barel syndrome associated, G236R TASK3 mutant. No activity at TASK1 was observed in electrophysiology studies. In conclusion, we have identified the first selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. REVEALING THE ACTIVATION PATHWAY FOR TMEM16A CHLORIDE CHANNELS FROM MACROSCOPIC CURRENTS AND KINETIC MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Vite, Juan A.; Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J.; Aréchiga Figueroa, Iván A.; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A.; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H. Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1), the pore-forming subunit of calcium-activated chloride channels, regulates several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as smooth muscle contraction, cardiac and neuronal excitability, salivary secretion, tumour growth, and cancer progression. Gating of TMEM16A is complex because it involves the interplay between increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), membrane depolarization, extracellular Cl− or permeant anions, and intracellular protons. Our goal here was to understand how these variables regulate TMEM16A gating and to explain four observations. a) TMEM16A is activated by voltage in the absence of intracellular Ca2+. b) The Cl− conductance is decreased after reducing extracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]o). c) ICl is regulated by physiological concentrations of [Cl−]o. d) In cells dialyzed with 0.2 µM [Ca2+]i, Cl− has a bimodal effect: at [Cl−]o < 30 mM TMEM16A current activates with a monoexponential time course, but above 30 mM [Cl−]o ICl activation displays fast and slow kinetics. To explain the contribution of Vm, Ca2+ and Cl− to gating, we developed a 12-state Markov chain model. This model explains TMEM16A activation as a sequential, direct, and Vm-dependent binding of two Ca2+ ions coupled to a Vm-dependent binding of an external Cl− ion, with Vm-dependent transitions between states. Our model predicts that extracellular Cl− does not alter the apparent Ca2+ affinity of TMEM16A, which we corroborated experimentally. Rather, extracellular Cl− acts by stabilizing the open configuration induced by Ca2+ and by contributing to the Vm dependence of activation. PMID:27138167

  1. Transcription profiling of interactions between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 during Cheddar cheese simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2014-05-16

    The starter cultures (Lactococcus sp.) and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (mostly Lactobacillus spp.) are essential to flavor development of Cheddar cheese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional interaction between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in mixed cultures during simulated Cheddar cheese manufacture (Pearce activity test) and ripening (slurry). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify the expression of 34 genes common to both bacteria and for eight genes specific to either L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 or L. paracasei ATCC 334. The multifactorial analysis (MFA) performed on fold change results for each gene revealed that the genes linked to stress, protein and peptide degradation as well as carbohydrate metabolism of L. paracasei ATCC 334 were especially overexpressed in mixed culture with L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 during the ripening simulation. For L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, genes coding for amino acid metabolism were more expressed during the cheese manufacture simulation, especially in single culture. These results show how complementary functions of starter and NSLAB contribute to activities useful for flavor development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncovering a Role for SK2 in Angelman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B. Lizarraga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in UBE3A. Sun et al. (2015 report SK2 as a UBE3A substrate and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that might underlie impaired neuronal function in individuals affected by Angelman syndrome.

  3. En "skælvsættende" dom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall

    2012-01-01

    Sanktioner imod bevidste undladelser eller uprofessionelle skøn er en måde at opretholde tilliden til ingeniører på, og det samme gælder seismologer. ... Sagen illustrerer de fundamentale forandringer, der de sidste 30 år er sket med vores forståelse af, hvad en ' naturkatastrofe' er. Katastrofer...

  4. Anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis with prolonged remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Magnier, Patrick; Bédat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Maltête, David; Lefaucheur, Romain

    2016-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is a rare disorder of neuromuscular transmission affecting preferentially bulbar, neck and respiratory muscles. We report the case of a 22-year-old man who presented with diplopia on lateral gaze to both sides, facial diplegia, nasal dysarthria and dysphagia. Repetitive nerve stimulation of the trapezius and orbicularis oculi muscles showed amplitude decrements of 19% and 41% respectively supporting the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. MUsK antibodies were positive. Corticosteroids were introduced and then tapered and discontinued at 6 months after initiation. The patient remained in remission and asymptomatic for 4 years without ongoing treatment or prior treatment with rituximab after this first relapse of MuSK-MG. MuSK- MG is considered a hard-to-treat condition and patients generally remain dependent on immunosuppression or prior treatment with rituximab. Our observation highlights that patients with MuSK-MG can have a benign course and that continued immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapy may not always be required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Downregulates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Genes in the Retina of OXYS Rats with AMD-Like Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Perepechaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 is a novel drug thought to retard development of age-related diseases. It has been shown that SkQ1 reduces clinical signs of retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, which are a known animal model of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this work was to test whether SkQ1 affects transcriptional activity of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, which are considered as AMD-associated genes in the retina of OXYS and Wistar rats. Our results showed that only AhR and AhR-dependent genes were sensitive to SkQ1. Dietary supplementation with SkQ1 decreased the AhR mRNA level in both OXYS and Wistar rats. At baseline, the retinal Cyp1a1 mRNA level was lower in OXYS rats. SkQ1 supplementation decreased the Cyp1a1 mRNA level in Wistar rats, but this level remained unchanged in OXYS rats. Baseline Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 mRNA expression was stronger in OXYS than in Wistar rats. In the OXYS strain, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 mRNA levels decreased as a result of SkQ1 supplementation. These data suggest that the Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 enzymes are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD-like retinopathy of OXYS rats and are possible therapeutic targets of SkQ1.

  6. Biological activity of the functional epitope of ciguatoxin fragment AB on the neuroblastoma sodium channel in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Chun, K E; Campora, C E; Higa, N; Suma, C; Hamajima, A; Isobe, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the targeted receptor for ciguatoxin (CTX) in mammalian tissues is the sodium channel, affecting the influx of sodium into cells and altering the action potential and function of the cell. Since the syntheses of fragments of CTX has become available, our focus has been on the receptor functions of the west sphere AB and east sphere JKLM fragments using the neuroblastoma cell assay, guinea pig atrium assay, and the membrane immunobead assay (MIA). The data presented here suggest that the west sphere AB of the ciguatoxin molecule is the active portion and is responsible for the activation of the sodium channels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Kv7 potassium channel activation with ICA-105665 reduces photoparoxysmal EEG responses in patients with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorotheé G A; Biton, Victor; French, Jacqueline A; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Rosenfeld, William E; Diventura, Bree; Moore, Elizabeth L; Hetherington, Seth V; Rigdon, Greg C

    2013-01-01

    predefined protocol stopping rules. Significance ICA-105665 reduced the SPR in patients at single doses of 100 (one of four), 400 (two of four), and 500 mg (four of six). This is the first assessment of the effects of activation of Kv7 potassium channels in the photosensitivity proof of concept model. The reduction of SPR in this patient population provides evidence of central nervous system (CNS) penetration by ICA-105665, and preliminary evidence that engagement with neuronal Kv7 potassium channels has antiseizure effects. PMID:23692516

  8. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  9. Extracts and compounds active on TRP ion channels from Waldheimia glabra, a ritual medicinal plant from Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bassoli, Angela; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Panseri, Sara; Manzo, Alessandra; Pentimalli, Daniela; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2017-08-15

    Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel is a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains, commonly known as Smooth Ground Daisy. This plant is traditionally used by local populations in religious rituals (incense) or in traditional herbal medicine to treat skin diseases, headache, joint pain and fever. In literature few data are available on the investigation of this aromatic plant. The present work aims at deepening knowledge about the chemical composition of W. glabra extracts and incense, as well as its activity on TRP ion channels. Extracts and incense of W. glabra were analyzed by using HS-SPME GC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis. Tests on the activity of W. glabra extracts and isolated compounds (+)-ludartin 1 and B-ring-homo-tonghaosu 2 on TRP channels were also performed. Some extracts and pure compounds from W. glabra showed an interesting activity in terms of efficacy and potency on rat TRPA1, an ion channel involved in several sensory mechanisms, including pungency, environmental irritation and pain perception. Activity is discussed and compared with that of other known TRPA1 natural agonists with different chemical structures. All compounds showed only a negligible inhibition activity on rat TRPM8 ion channel. Our findings demonstrate that W. glabra is involved in the receptor activation mechanism and therefore represents a new natural product potentially useful in pharmaceutical and agrifood research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Preclinical study of a Kv11.1 potassium channel activator as antineoplastic approach for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro-Lopes, Daniela F; Hegel, Alexandra D; Rao, Vidhya; Wyatt, Debra; Baker, Andrew; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung; Osipo, Clodia; Zartman, Jeremiah J; Burnette, Miranda; Kaja, Simon; Kouzoukas, Dimitrios; Burris, Sarah; Jones, W Keith; Gentile, Saverio

    2018-01-09

    Potassium ion (K + ) channels have been recently found to play a critical role in cancer biology. Despite that pharmacologic manipulation of ion channels is recognized as an important therapeutic approach, very little is known about the effects of targeting of K + channels in cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that use of the Kv11.1 K + channel activator NS1643 inhibits tumor growth in an in vivo model of breast cancer. Tumors exposed to NS1643 had reduced levels of proliferation markers, high expression levels of senescence markers, increased production of ROS and DNA damage compared to tumors of untreated mice. Importantly, mice treated with NS1643 did not exhibit significant cardiac dysfunction. In conclusion, pharmacological stimulation of Kv11.1 activity produced arrested TNBC-derived tumor growth by generating DNA damage and senescence without significant side effects. We propose that use of Kv11.1 channels activators could be considered as a possible pharmacological strategy against breast tumors.

  11. Activation of Piezo1 but Not NaV1.2 Channels by Ultrasound at 43 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Martin Loynaz; Firouzi, Kamyar; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Maduke, Merritt

    2018-03-07

    Ultrasound (US) can modulate the electrical activity of the excitable tissues, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not understood at the molecular level or in terms of the physical modality through which US exerts its effects. Here, we report an experimental system that allows for stable patch-clamp recording in the presence of US at 43 MHz, a frequency known to stimulate neural activity. We describe the effects of US on two ion channels proposed to be involved in the response of excitable cells to US: the mechanosensitive Piezo1 channel and the voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.2. Our patch-clamp recordings, together with finite-element simulations of acoustic field parameters indicate that Piezo1 channels are activated by continuous wave US at 43 MHz and 50 or 90 W/cm 2 through cell membrane stress caused by acoustic streaming. Na V 1.2 channels were not affected through this mechanism at these intensities, but their kinetics could be accelerated by US-induced heating. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The activation of mitochondrial BK potassium channels contributes to the protective effects of naringenin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testai, L; Martelli, A; Marino, A; D'Antongiovanni, V; Ciregia, F; Giusti, L; Lucacchini, A; Chericoni, S; Breschi, M C; Calderone, V

    2013-06-01

    Naringenin (NAR), flavonoid abundant in the genus Citrus, has been reported to interact with the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK). Since activators of BK channels expressed in cardiac mitochondria trigger protective effects in several models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), this work aimed to evaluate the potential cardioprotective effects of NAR and the involvement of mitochondrial BK channels. In an in vivo model of acute infarct in rats, NAR (100mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced the heart injury induced by I/R. This effect was antagonized by the selective BK-blocker paxilline (PAX). The cardioprotective dose of NAR did not cause significant effects on the blood pressure. In Largendorff-perfused rat hearts submitted to ischemia/reperfusion, NAR improved the post-ischemic functional parameters (left ventricle developed pressure and dP/dt) with lower extension of myocardial injury. On isolated rat cardiac mitochondria, NAR caused a concentration-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and caused a trans-membrane flow of thallium (potassium-mimetic cation). Both these effects were antagonized by selective blockers of BK channels. Furthermore, NAR half-reduced the calcium accumulation into the matrix of cardiac mitochondria exposed to high calcium concentrations. In conclusion, NAR exerts anti-ischemic effects through a "pharmacological preconditioning" that it is likely to be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of mitochondrial BK channels. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan-Fang; Wu, Dong; Wang, Na; Feng, Xing; Li, Yan-Hong; Ni, Jian; Wang, Jian; Pan, Jian; Lu, Jun; Du, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhao, Xuan; Peng, Liang; Cao, Lan; Xiao, Pei-Fang; Pang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm 3 ; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm 3 ) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm 3 ) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm 3 , ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell

  14. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-08

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytoskeleton, L-type Ca2+ and stretch activated channels in injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments and anchoring proteins is involved in maintaining the sarco-membrane stiffness and integrity and in turn the mechanical stability and function of the intra- and sub-sarcoplasmic proteins. Accordingly, it regulates Ca2+ entry through the L-type Ca2+ channels and the mechano-sensitivity of the stretch activated channels (SACs. Moreover, being intra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton bound to costameric proteins and other proteins of the sarcoplasma by intermediate filaments, as desmin, it integrates the properties of the sarcolemma with the skeletal muscle fibres contraction. The aim of this research was to compare the cytoskeleton, SACs and the ECC alterations in two different types of injured skeletal muscle fibres: by muscle denervation and mechanical overload (eccentric contraction. Experiments on denervation were made in isolated Soleus muscle of male Wistar rats; forced eccentric-contraction (EC injury was achieved in Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles of Swiss mice. The method employed conventional intracellular recording with microelectrodes inserted in a single fibre of an isolated skeletal muscle bundle. The state of cytoskeleton was evaluated by recording SAC currents and by evaluating the resting membrane potential (RMP value determined in current-clamp mode. The results demonstrated that in both injured skeletal muscle conditions the functionality of L-type Ca2+ current, ICa, was affected. In parallel, muscle fibres showed an increase of the resting membrane permeability and of the SAC current. These issues, together with a more depolarized RMP are an index of altered cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we found a symilar alteration of ICa, SAC and cytoskeleton in both injured skeletal muscle conditions.

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic  and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  17. Evidence for the Interaction of Endophilin A3 with Endogenous Kca2.3 Channels in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Janbein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Small-conductance calcium-activated (SK channels play an important role by controlling the after-hyperpolarization of excitable cells. The level of expression and density of these channels is an essential factor for controlling different cellular functions. Several studies showed a co-localization of KCa2.3 channels and Endophilin A3 in different tissues. Endophilin A3 belongs to a family of BAR- and SH3 domain containing proteins that bind to dynamin and are involved in the process of vesicle scission in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Methods: Using the yeast two-hybrid system and the GST pull down assay we demonstrated that Endophilin A3 interacts with the N-terminal part of KCa2.3 channels. In addition, we studied the impact of this interaction on channel activity by patch clamp measurements in PC12 cells expressing endogenous KCa2.3 channels. KCa2.3 currents were activated by using pipette solutions containing 1 µM free Ca2+. Results: Whole-cell measurements of PC12 cells transfected with Endophilin A3 showed a reduction of KCa2.3 specifc Cs+ currents indicating that the interaction of Endophilin A3 with KCa2.3 channels also occurs in mammalian cells and that this interaction has functional consequences for current flowing through KCa2.3 channels. Since KCa2.3 specific currents could be increased in PC12 cells transfected with Endophilin A3 with DC-EBIO (30 µM, a known SK-channel activator, these data also implicate that Endophilin A3 did not significantly remove KCa2.3 channels from the membrane but changed the sensitivity of the channels to Ca2+ which could be overcome by DC-EBIO. Conclusion: This interaction seems to be important for the function of KCa2.3 channels and might therefore play a significant role in situations where channel activation is pivotal for cellular function.

  18. Activation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Degenerin Channel by Shear Stress Requires the MEC-10 Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujie; Luke, Cliff J; Miedel, Mark T; Silverman, Gary A; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Mechanotransduction in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons is mediated by an ion channel formed by MEC-4, MEC-10, and accessory proteins. To define the role of these subunits in the channel's response to mechanical force, we expressed degenerin channels comprising MEC-4 and MEC-10 in Xenopus oocytes and examined their response to laminar shear stress (LSS). Shear stress evoked a rapid increase in whole cell currents in oocytes expressing degenerin channels as well as channels with a MEC-4 degenerin mutation (MEC-4d), suggesting that C. elegans degenerin channels are sensitive to LSS. MEC-10 is required for a robust LSS response as the response was largely blunted in oocytes expressing homomeric MEC-4 or MEC-4d channels. We examined a series of MEC-10/MEC-4 chimeras to identify specific domains (amino terminus, first transmembrane domain, and extracellular domain) and sites (residues 130-132 and 134-137) within MEC-10 that are required for a robust response to shear stress. In addition, the LSS response was largely abolished by MEC-10 mutations encoded by a touch-insensitive mec-10 allele, providing a correlation between the channel's responses to two different mechanical forces. Our findings suggest that MEC-10 has an important role in the channel's response to mechanical forces. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Helminth induced suppression of macrophage activation is correlated with inhibition of calcium channel activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chauhan

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC, a disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections.

  20. Activation of acid-sensing ion channels by localized proton transient reveals their role in proton signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Di-Shi; Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Tian-Le

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular transients of pH alterations likely mediate signal transduction in the nervous system. Neuronal acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) act as sensors for extracellular protons, but the mechanism underlying ASIC activation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, following activation of a light-activated proton pump, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), proton transients induced ASIC currents in both neurons and HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC1a channels. Using chimera proteins that bridge Arch and ASIC1a by a glycine/serine linker, we found that successful coupling occurred within 15 nm distance. Furthermore, two-cell sniffer patch recording revealed that regulated release of protons through either Arch or voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 activated neighbouring cells expressing ASIC1a channels. Finally, computational modelling predicted the peak proton concentration at the intercellular interface to be at pH 6.7, which is acidic enough to activate ASICs in vivo. Our results highlight the pathophysiological role of proton signalling in the nervous system. PMID:26370138

  1. Acute stress enhances learning and memory by activating acid-sensing ion channels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shunjie; Yang, Rong; Xiong, Qiuju; Yang, Youhua; Zhou, Lianying; Gong, Yeli; Li, Changlei; Ding, Zhenhan; Ye, Guohai; Xiong, Zhe

    2018-04-15

    Acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory ability, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. However, the valuable targets for promoting learning and memory induced by acute stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in central neuronal systems and involves in depression, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. In the current study, we used a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in an effort to explore the effects of acute stress on ASICs. We found that corticosterone (CORT) induced by acute stress caused a potentiation of ASICs current via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) not mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Meanwhile, CORT did not produce an increase of ASICs current by pretreated with GF109203X, an antagonist of protein kinase C (PKC), whereas CORT did result in a markedly enhancement of ASICs current by bryostatin 1, an agonist of PKC, suggesting that potentiation of ASICs function may be depended on PKC activating. More importantly, an antagonist of ASICs, amiloride (10 μM) reduced the performance of learning and memory induced by acute stress, which is further suggesting that ASICs as the key components involves in cognitive processes induced by acute stress. These results indicate that acute stress causes the enhancement of ASICs function by activating PKC signaling pathway, which leads to potentiated learning and memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C–insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of

  3. Cholesterol up-regulates neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Durdagi, Serdar; Noskov, Sergei; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-04-14

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters. As a result, loss of GIRK function can enhance neuron excitability, whereas gain of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity. Here we show that in rats on a high-cholesterol diet, cholesterol levels in hippocampal neurons are increased. We also demonstrate that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating neuronal GIRK currents. Specifically, cholesterol enrichment of rat hippocampal neurons resulted in enhanced channel activity. In accordance, elevated currents upon cholesterol enrichment were also observed in Xenopus oocytes expressing GIRK2 channels, the primary GIRK subunit expressed in the brain. Furthermore, using planar lipid bilayers, we show that although cholesterol did not affect the unitary conductance of GIRK2, it significantly enhanced the frequency of channel openings. Last, combining computational and functional approaches, we identified two putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of GIRK2. These findings establish that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating GIRK activity in the brain. Because up-regulation of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity, our findings may lead to novel approaches for prevention and therapy of cholesterol-driven neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Testosterone decreases urinary bladder smooth muscle excitability via novel signaling mechanism involving direct activation of the BK channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L.; Parajuli, Shankar P.; Provence, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In addition to improving sexual function, testosterone has been reported to have beneficial effects in ameliorating lower urinary tract symptoms by increasing bladder capacity and compliance, while decreasing bladder pressure. However, the cellular mechanisms by which testosterone regulates detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) excitability have not been elucidated. Here, we used amphotericin-B perforated whole cell patch-clamp and single channel recordings on inside-out excised membrane patches to investigate the regulatory role of testosterone in guinea pig DSM excitability. Testosterone (100 nM) significantly increased the depolarization-induced whole cell outward currents in DSM cells. The selective pharmacological inhibition of the large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels with paxilline (1 μM) completely abolished this stimulatory effect of testosterone, suggesting a mechanism involving BK channels. At a holding potential of −20 mV, DSM cells exhibited transient BK currents (TBKCs). Testosterone (100 nM) significantly increased TBKC activity in DSM cells. In current-clamp mode, testosterone (100 nM) significantly hyperpolarized the DSM cell resting membrane potential and increased spontaneous transient hyperpolarizations. Testosterone (100 nM) rapidly increased the single BK channel open probability in inside-out excised membrane patches from DSM cells, clearly suggesting a direct BK channel activation via a nongenomic mechanism. Live-cell Ca2+ imaging showed that testosterone (100 nM) caused a decrease in global intracellular Ca2+ concentration, consistent with testosterone-induced membrane hyperpolarization. In conclusion, the data provide compelling mechanistic evidence that under physiological conditions, testosterone at nanomolar concentrations directly activates BK channels in DSM cells, independent from genomic testosterone receptors, and thus regulates DSM excitability. PMID:27605581

  5. Detection of silent intervals between noises activating different perceptual channels: some properties of "central" auditory gap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Taylor, T L; Hall, S E; Carr, M M; Mossop, J E

    1997-06-01

    This article describes four experiments on gap detection by normal listeners, with the general goal being to examine the consequences of using noises in different perceptual channels to delimit a silent temporal gap to be detected. In experiment 1, subjects were presented with pairs of narrow-band noise sequences. The leading element in each pair had a center frequency of 2 kHz and the trailing element's center frequency was parametrically varied. Gap detection thresholds became increasingly poor, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, as the spectral disparity was increased between the noise bursts that marked the gap. These data suggested that gap-detection performance is impoverished when the underlying perceptual timing operation requires a comparison of activity in different perceptual channels rather than a discontinuity detection within a given channel. In experiment 2, we assessed the effect of leading-element duration in within-channel and between-channel gap detection tasks. Gap detection thresholds rose when the duration of the leading element was less than about 30 ms, but only in the between-channel case. In experiment 3, the gap-detection stimulus was redesigned so that we could probe the perceptual mechanisms that might be involved in stop consonant discrimination. The leading element was a wideband noise burst, and the trailing element was a 300-ms bandpassed noise centered on 1.0 kHz. The independent variable was the duration of the leading element, and the dependent variable was the smallest detectable gap between the elements. When the leading element was short in duration (5-10 ms), gap thresholds were close to 30 ms, which is close to the voice onset time that parses some voiced from unvoiced stop consonants. In experiment 4, the generality of the leading-element duration effect in between-channel gap detection was examined. Spectrally identical noises defining the leading and trailing edges of the gap were presented to the same or to

  6. Disruption of the principal, progesterone-activated sperm Ca2+ channel in a CatSper2-deficient infertile patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.; Syritsyna, Olga; Fellous, Marc; Serres, Catherine; Mannowetz, Nadja; Kirichok, Yuriy; Lishko, Polina V.

    2013-01-01

    The female steroid hormone progesterone regulates ovulation and supports pregnancy, but also controls human sperm function within the female reproductive tract. Progesterone causes elevation of sperm intracellular Ca2+ leading to sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and perhaps chemotaxis toward the egg. Although it has been suggested that progesterone-dependent Ca2+ influx into human spermatozoa is primarily mediated by cationic channel of sperm (CatSper), the principal flagellar Ca2+ channel of sperm, conclusive loss-of-function genetic evidence for activation of CatSper by progesterone has yet to be provided. Moreover, it is not clear whether the responsiveness of CatSper to progesterone is an innate property of human spermatozoa or is acquired as the result of exposure to the seminal plasma. Here, by recording ionic currents from spermatozoa of an infertile CatSper-deficient patient, we demonstrate that CatSper is indeed the principal Ca2+ channel of human spermatozoa, and that it is strongly potentiated by progesterone. In addition, by recording CatSper currents from human epididymal and testicular spermatozoa, we show that CatSper sensitivity to progesterone arises early in sperm development and increases gradually to a peak when spermatozoa are ejaculated. These results unambiguously establish an important role of CatSper channel in human sperm nongenomic progesterone signaling and demonstrate that the molecular mechanism responsible for activation of CatSper by progesterone arises early in sperm development concurrently with the CatSper channel itself. PMID:23530196

  7. Tumor necrosis factor α modulates sodium-activated potassium channel SLICK in rat dorsal horn neurons via p38 MAPK activation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Jun-Ping Bao,2 Zhi-Yang Xie,1 Lu Chen,1 Bao-Yi Zhou,1 Xin-Hui Xie,2 Xiao-Tao Wu1,2 1Medical School of Southeast University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The dorsal horn (DH of the spinal cord is the integrative center that processes and transmits pain sensation. Abnormal changes in ion channel expression can enhance the excitability of pain-related DH neurons. Sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels are highly expressed particularly in the central nervous system; however, information about whether rat DH neurons express the SLICK channel protein is lacking, and the direct effects on SLICK in response to inflammation and the potential signaling pathway mediating such effects are yet to be elucidated. Here, using cultured DH neurons, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits the total outward potassium current IK and the KNa current predominantly as well as induces a progressive loss of firing accommodation. However, we found that this change in channel activity is offset by the p38 inhibitor SB202190, thereby suggesting the modulation of SLICK channel activity via the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor-α modulation of KNa channels does not occur at the level of SLICK channel gating but arises from possible posttranslational modification. Keywords: p38 MAPK, SLICK channel, neuropathic pain, dorsal horn, TNF-α

  8. Insulin activates single amiloride-blockable Na channels in a distal nephron cell line (A6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunaka, Y; Hagiwara, N; Tohda, H

    1992-09-01

    Using the patch-clamp technique, we studied the effect of insulin on an amiloride-blockable Na channel in the apical membrane of a distal nephron cell line (A6) cultured on permeable collagen films for 10-14 days. NPo (N, number of channels per patch membrane; Po, average value of open probability of individual channels in the patch) under baseline conditions was 0.88 +/- 0.12 (SE)(n = 17). After making cell-attached patches on the apical membrane which contained Na channels, insulin (1 mU/ml) was applied to the serosal bath. While maintaining the cell-attached patch, NPo significantly increased to 1.48 +/- 0.19 (n = 17; P less than 0.001) after 5-10 min of insulin application. The open probability of Na channels was 0.39 +/- 0.01 (n = 38) under baseline condition, and increased to 0.66 +/- 0.03 (n = 38, P less than 0.001) after addition of insulin. The baseline single-channel conductance was 4pS, and neither the single-channel conductance nor the current-voltage relationship was significantly changed by insulin. These results indicate that insulin increases Na absorption in the distal nephron by increasing the open probability of the amiloride-blockable Na channel.

  9. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Three members of the ERG potassium channel family have been described (ERG1-3 or Kv 11.1-3). ERG1 is by far the best characterized subtype and it constitutes the molecular component of the cardiac I(Kr) current. All three channel subtypes are expressed in neurons but their function remains unclear...

  10. Polymorphisms in the cardiac sodium channel promoter displaying variant in vitro expression activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.; Koopmann, T. T.; Pfeufer, A.; Jalilzadeh, S.; Schulze-Bahr, E.; Kääb, S.; Wilde, A. A.; Roden, D. M.; Bezzina, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Variable transcription of the cardiac sodium channel gene is a candidate mechanism determining arrhythmia susceptibility. We have previously cloned and characterized the core promoter and flanking region of SCN5A, encoding the cardiac sodium channel. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene have been

  11. Changes in I K, ACh single-channel activity with atrial tachycardia remodelling in canine atrial cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Niels; Maguy, Ange; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiaoyan; Ravens, Ursula; Dobrev, Dobromir; Nattel, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    Although atrial tachycardia (AT) remodelling promotes agonist-independent, constitutively active, acetylcholine-regulated K+-current (I K,ACh) that increases susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF), the underlying changes in I K,Ach channel function are unknown. This study aimed to establish how AT remodelling affects I K,ACh single-channel function. I K,ACh single-channel activity was studied via cell-attached patch-clamp in isolated left atrial cardiomyocytes of control and AT (7 days, 400 min(-1)) dogs. Atrial tachycardia prolonged the mean duration of induced AF from 44 +/- 22 to 413 +/- 167 s, and reduced atrial effective refractory period at a 360 ms cycle length from 126 +/- 3 to 74 +/- 5 ms (n = 9/group, P ACh conductance and rectification properties were sparse under control conditions. Atrial tachycardia induced prominent agonist-independent I K,ACh activity because of increased opening frequency (fo) and open probability (Po: approximately seven- and 10-fold, respectively, vs. control), but did not alter open time-constant, single-channel conductance, and membrane density. With maximum I K,ACh activation (10 micromol/L carbachol), channel Po was enhanced much more in control cells ( approximately 42-fold) than in AT-remodelled myocytes (approximately five-fold). The selective Kir3 current blocker tertiapin-Q (100 nmol/L) reduced fo and Po at -100 mV by 48 and 51%, respectively (P ACh. Atrial tachycardia had no significant effect on mRNA or protein expression of either of the subunits (Kir3.1, Kir3.4) underlying I K,ACh. Atrial tachycardia increases agonist-independent constitutive I K,ACh single-channel activity by enhancing spontaneous channel opening, providing a molecular basis for AT effects on macroscopic I K,ACh observed in previous studies, as well as associated refractoriness abbreviation and tertiapin-suppressible AF promotion. These results suggest an important role for constitutive I K,Ach channel opening in AT remodelling and support its

  12. TRP channel-associated factors are a novel protein family that regulates TRPM8 trafficking and activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkika, D.; Lemonnier, L.; Shapovalov, G.; Gordienko, D.; Poux, C.; Bernardini, M.; Bokhobza, A.; Bidaux, G.; Degerny, C.; Verreman, K.; Guarmit, B.; Benahmed, M.; Launoit, Y. de; Bindels, R.J.M.; Fiorio Pla, A.; Prevarskaya, N.

    2015-01-01

    TRPM8 is a cold sensor that is highly expressed in the prostate as well as in other non-temperature-sensing organs, and is regulated by downstream receptor-activated signaling pathways. However, little is known about the intracellular proteins necessary for channel function. Here, we identify two

  13. Blockade of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in T cells: an option for the treatment of multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Siim; Christophersen, Palle; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in the membrane of both T and B lymphocytes are important for the cellular immune response. In the current issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Reich et al. demonstrate that selective blockade of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+...... of new immune-suppressant drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases....

  14. A randomized controlled trial of an implantable 2-channel peroneal nerve stimulator on walking speed and activity in poststroke hemiplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.; Kottink, Anke I.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; Tenniglo, Martinus Johannes Bernardus; van der Aa, Hans E.; Buschman, H.P.J.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    Objective To determine the effect of a new implantable 2-channel peroneal nerve stimulator on walking speed and daily activities, in comparison with the usual treatment in chronic stroke survivors with a drop foot. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting All subjects were measured 5 times in the

  15. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin-responsive sodium channel of mouse neuroblastoma and requirement of sialic acid for biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Negishi, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Glick, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    A glycoprotein, Mr, 200000, which has the biological activity of the neurotoxin-responsive Na+ channel, was isolated from a clonal line of mouse neuroblastoma cells, N-18. The glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity in 18% yield by methods used to purify glycoproteins, which included metabolic

  16. Activation of TRPA1 Channel by Antibacterial Agent Triclosan Induces VEGF Secretion in Human Prostate Cancer Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Sandra; Mariot, Pascal; Warnier, Marine; Vancauwenberghe, Eric; Bidaux, Gabriel; Gosset, Pierre; Mauroy, Brigitte; Bonnal, Jean-Louis; Slomianny, Christian; Delcourt, Philippe; Dewailly, Etienne; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Roudbaraki, Morad

    2017-03-01

    Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely affect human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here, we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumor growth. This mechanism involves an increase in intracellular calcium levels due to the direct activation of a membrane ion channel. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiology techniques, we show for the first time that environmentally relevant concentrations of TCS activate a cation channel of the TRP family, TRPA1 (Transient Receptor Potential Ankirin 1), in primary cultured human prostate cancer stromal cells. The TCS-induced TRPA1 activation increased basal calcium in stromal cells and stimulated the secretion of VEGF and epithelial cells proliferation. Interestingly, immunofluorescence labeling performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate tissues showed an exclusive expression of the TRPA1 channel in prostate cancer stromal cells. Our data demonstrate an impact of the environmental factor TCS on the tumor microenvironment interactions, by activating a tumor stroma-specific TRPA1 ion channel. Cancer Prev Res; 10(3); 177-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Alkali pH directly activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and inhibits insulin secretion in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Karaman, Gunce; Wheeler, Michael B

    2006-11-17

    Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells is reported to lead to sustained alkalization, while extracellular application of weak bases is reported to inhibit electrical activity and decrease insulin secretion. We hypothesize that beta-cell K(ATP) channel activity is modulated by alkaline pH. Using the excised patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate a direct stimulatory action of alkali pH on recombinant SUR1/Kir6.2 channels due to increased open probability. Bath application of alkali pH similarly activates native islet beta-cell K(ATP) channels, leading to an inhibition of action potentials, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential. In situ pancreatic perfusion confirms that these cellular effects of alkali pH are observable at a functional level, resulting in decreases in both phase 1 and phase 2 glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data are the first to report a stimulatory effect of a range of alkali pH on K(ATP) channel activity and link this to downstream effects on islet beta-cell function.

  18. Endothelial TRPV4 channels mediate dilation of cerebral arteries: impairment and recovery in cerebrovascular pathologies related to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Hamel, Edith

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are expressed in brain endothelial cells, but their role in regulating cerebrovascular tone under physiological and pathological conditions is still largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Wild-type (WT) mice and mice that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP mice, model of increased amyloid β), a constitutively active form of TGF-β1 (TGF mice, model of cerebrovascular fibrosis) or both (APP/TGF mice) were used. Dilations to the selective TRPV4 channel opener GSK1016790A (GSK) or to ACh were measured in posterior cerebral artery segments. KEY RESULTS Both GSK- and ACh-induced dilations virtually disappeared following endothelium denudation in WT mice. These responses were impaired in vessels from APP, TGF and APP/TGF mice compared with WT. Pre-incubation of WT vessels with the selective TRPV4 channel blocker HC-067047, or with small-conductance (SK channel, apamin) and/or intermediate-conductance (IK channel, charybdotoxin, ChTx) Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel blocker abolished GSK-induced dilations and massively decreased those induced by ACh. These treatments had no or limited effects on ACh-induced dilation in vessels from APP, TGF or APP/TGF mice, and IK and SK channel function was preserved in transgenic mice. Antioxidant superoxide dismutase or catalase normalized GSK- and ACh-mediated dilations only in APP brain arteries. Conclusion and Implications We conclude that endothelial TRPV4 channels mediate ACh-induced dilation in cerebral arteries, that they are impaired in models of cerebrovascular pathology and that they are sensitive, albeit in the reversible manner, to amyloid β-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23889563

  19. Prolactin potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in female rat primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone produced and released from the pituitary and extrapituitary tissues. It regulates activity of nociceptors and causes hyperalgesia in pain conditions, but little is known the molecular mechanism. We report here that PRL can exert a potentiating effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons. First, PRL dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents with an EC50 of (5.89 ± 0.28) × 10(-8) M. PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was also pH dependent. Second, PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was blocked by Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, a PRL receptor antagonist, and removed by intracellular dialysis of either protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, protein interacting with C-kinase 1(PICK1) inhibitor FSC-231, or PI3K inhibitor AS605240. Third, PRL altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Four, PRL exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in female rats. Finally, PRL displayed a stronger effect on ASIC mediated-currents and nociceptive behavior in intact female rats than OVX female and male rats and thus modulation of PRL may be gender-dependent. These results suggest that PRL up-regulates the activity of ASICs and enhances ASIC mediated nociceptive responses in female rats, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying PRL involvement in hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Burrowing activity in channel levees: impact of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Consumi, L.; Haubrock, P.; Inghilesi, A.; Mazza, G.; Torrini, M.; Tricarico, E.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of animal burrowing, as an example of bioturbation on the stability of river levees has been recently raised to the scientific community as a consequence of the levee collapses of Secchia and Foenna rivers in Italy (Camici et al., 2010, 2014; Orlandini et al., 2015). Indeed, these authors showed that the presence of animal burrows is crucial in promoting the collapse of the bank. The American red swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an invasive species in Europe, mostly introduced for commercial purposes related to livestock. It is rapidly spreading throughout the Italian peninsula due to its plasticity, dispersal capability and high reproduction rate (Souty-Grosset et al., 2016). As well as the negative effects on local biodiversity, it damages the levees of the irrigation channel leading to disastrous collapses, relevant repairing and maintenance costs. In this work, we present an experimental activity where specimens of P. clarkii were monitored while burrowing into a small-scale physical model of an earthen levee, coupled with the mathematical modelling of the variations induced by the burrows on the seepage flow patterns through the levee.Preliminary results show the burrowing structure was quite irregular. Generally, crayfish start burrowing under the water level, developing tunnels (diameter ranging 4-7cm) both horizontally and heading upward, also above the water level. Some tunnels showed one or more circular chambers. The highest burrowing activity was observed during the experiments carried out in summer, when the species has a peak of maximum activity due to the higher temperature. Mathematical modelling shows that, for given boundary conditions and experimental duration, the presence of burrows in the levee raises the phreatic line. Critical conditions for levee integrity may be associated either to the internal erosion and stability of the system of tunnels and to the emergence of the phreatic line of the landside of the levee slope. These

  1. Medial prefrontal cortex TRPV1 channels modulate the baroreflex cardiac activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatta, D C; Ferreira-Junior, N C; Resstel, L B M

    2015-11-01

    The ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) comprises the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL) and dorsopenducular (DP) cortices. The IL and PL regions facilitate the baroreceptor reflex arc. This facilitatory effect on the baroreflex is thought to be mediated by vMPFC glutamatergic transmission, through NMDA receptors. The glutamatergic transmission can be modulated by other neurotransmitters, such as the endocannabinoids, which are agonists of the TRPV1 receptor. TRPV1 channels facilitate glutamatergic transmission in the brain. Thus, we hypothesized that TRPV1 receptors in the vMPFC enhance the cardiac baroreflex response. Stainless steel guide cannulae were bilaterally implanted into the vMPFC of male Wistar rats. Afterwards, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery, for recording MAP and HR, and into the femoral vein for assessing baroreflex activation. Microinjections of the TRPV1 receptor antagonists capsazepine and 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (6-IODO) into the vMPFC reduced the cardiac baroreflex activity in unanaesthetized rats. Capsaicin microinjected into the vMPFC increased the cardiac baroreflex activity in unanaesthetized rats. When an ineffective dose of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist 6-IODO was used, the capsaicin-induced increase in the cardiac baroreflex response was abolished. The higher doses of capsaicin administered into the vMPFC after the ineffective dose of 6-IODO displaced the dose-response curve of the baroreflex parameters to the right, with no alteration in the maximum effect of capsaicin. The results of the present study show that stimulation of the TRPV1 receptors in the vMPFC increases the cardiac baroreceptor reflex response. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  3. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  4. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Molly E.; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T.; Konradi, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson’s disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators...

  5. Synthetic ciguatoxins selectively activate Nav1.8-derived chimeric sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-03-20

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, and Na(v)1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879-889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Na(v)1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257-262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Na(v)1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 mum CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Na(v)1.8 channel compared with those of the Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 mum CTX3C induced a large leakage current (I (L)). The conductance of the I (L) calculated relative to the maximum conductance (G (max)) was 10 times larger than that of Na(v)1.2 or Na(v)1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Na(v)1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Na(v)1.4 and Na(v)1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Na(v)1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Na(v)1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains.

  6. Synthetic Ciguatoxins Selectively Activate Nav1.8-derived Chimeric Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Nav1.2, Nav1.4, and Nav1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879–889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257–262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Nav1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 μm CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Nav1.8 channel compared with those of the Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 μm CTX3C induced a large leakage current (IL). The conductance of the IL calculated relative to the maximum conductance (Gmax) was 10 times larger than that of Nav1.2 or Nav1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Nav1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Nav1.4 and Nav1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Nav1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Nav1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains. PMID:19164297

  7. The inhibition of KCa3.1 channels activity reduces cell motility in glioblastoma derived cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ruggieri

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated the expression of the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa3.1 channel in human glioblastoma stem-like cells (CSCs and investigated its role in cell motility. While the KCa3.1 channel is not expressed in neuronal- and glial-derived tissues of healthy individuals, both the KCa3.1 mRNA and protein are present in the glioblastoma tumor population, and are significantly enhanced in CSCs derived from both established cell line U87MG and a primary cell line, FCN9. Consistent with these data, voltage-independent and TRAM-34 sensitive potassium currents imputable to the KCa3.1 channel were recorded in the murine GL261 cell line and several primary human glioblastoma cells lines. Moreover, a significantly higher KCa3.1 current was recorded in U87MG-CD133 positive cells as compared to the U87MG-CD133 negative subpopulation. Further, we found that the tumor cell motility is strongly associated with KCa3.1 channel expression. Blockade of the KCa3.1 channel with the specific inhibitor TRAM-34 has in fact a greater impact on the motility of CSCs (reduction of 75%, which express a high level of KCa3.1 channel, than on the FCN9 parental population (reduction of 32%, where the KCa3.1 channel is expressed at lower level. Similar results were also observed with the CSCs derived from U87MG. Because invasion of surrounding tissues is one of the main causes of treatment failure in glioblastoma, these findings can be relevant for future development of novel cancer therapeutic drugs.

  8. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Samra; Memon, Raafia; Gilani, Anwar H.

    2011-01-01

    Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01–1 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K+-induced contractions (0.01–0.3 mg/mL), similar to verapamil, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Vh.Cr produced a concentration-dependent (0.03–0.1 mg/mL) rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves, as caused by verapamil. Vh.Cr exhibited dose-dependent (100–300 mg/kg) protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug, similarly prevented the diarrhea. These data indicate the presence of CCB effect in the extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome, possibly mediating its antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities and provide a scientific base for its traditional use in hyperactive gut disorders. PMID:21423691

  9. Antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and calcium channel blocking activities of Amberboa divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healers in Pakistan use the herb Amberboa divaricata as tonic, aperiant, deobstruent, febrifuge, anti-diarrheal, antiperiodic, antipyretic, anti-cough and in skin disorders. In vitro tissue experiments were carried out on rabbit jejunum to elucidate the possible mechanism of its prescribed effects on gastrointestinal tract, while antibacterial and antioxidant experiments were performed to provide pharmacological evidence of its traditional use in skin disorders. The 70%methanolic crude extract of A. divaricata produced dose dependent relaxation in isolated rabbit jejunum tissue in a concentration range of 0.1–3.0 mg/mL (n=5. Calcium response curves were constructed at concen-tration of 0.03 and 0.1 mg/mL (n=5, which produced rightward shift in a pattern similar to that of verapamil, confirming the calcium channel blocking activity. Agar disc diffusion assay at a concentration of 10 mg crude extract/disc showed clear zones of inhibition.

  10. Antispasmodic activity of Symplocos paniculata is mediated through opening of ATP-dependent K+ channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Symplocos paniculata is a medicinal plant used by native healers to manage gastrointestinal ailments. The crude methanolic extract of S. paniculata was screened pharmacologically both in vitro and in vivo for the validation of its therapeutic potential. It suppressed the spontaneous activity of isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and also caused inhibition of the low K+ (20 mM- induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations in a manner comparable to cromakalim. The relaxant effect was found to be blocked following glibenclamide exposure of the isolated tissue preparations similar to cromakalim, suggesting that observed response was likely to be mediated through opening of ATP dependent K+ channels. Following oral administration to mice provided protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in a manner similar to loperamide. The plant material was found safe in toxicity study up to oral dose of 8 g/kg in mice. Hence, present study provides a scientific basis for the vernacular use of S. paniculata in gastro-intestinal system.

  11. Prefrontal activation during two Japanese Stroop tasks revealed with multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yukina; Sumitani, Satsuki; Hosokawa, Mai; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is sometimes used in psychiatric research to elicit prefrontal activity, which presumably reflects cognitive functioning. Although there are two Stroop tasks (Kana script and Kanji script) in Japan, it is unclear whether these tasks elicit the same hemoglobin changes. Moreover, it is unclear whether psychological conditions or characteristics influence hemoglobin changes in the Japanese Stroop task. The aim of this study was to clarify whether hemoglobin changes elicited by the two Japanese Stroop tasks accurately reflected cognitive functioning. Hemoglobin changes were measured with multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 100 healthy Japanese participants performing two Japanese Stroop tasks. The Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were administered to participants to identify psychological conditions or personality characteristics. Compared with the Kanji task, the Kana task produced a greater Stroop effect and a larger increase in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration. Moreover there were no significant correlations between oxy-Hb concentration and BDI, STAI-trait, STAI-state, or MOCI scores. Therefore we found that a participant's psychological conditions or characteristics did not influence the hemodynamic changes during either task. These data suggest the Kana Stroop task is more useful than the Kanji Stroop task for NIRS studies in psychiatric research.

  12. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Samra; Memon, Raafia; Gilani, Anwar H

    2011-01-01

    Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K(+)-induced contractions (0.01-0.3 mg/mL), similar to verapamil, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Vh.Cr produced a concentration-dependent (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) rightward shift in the Ca(++) concentration-response curves, as caused by verapamil. Vh.Cr exhibited dose-dependent (100-300 mg/kg) protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug, similarly prevented the diarrhea. These data indicate the presence of CCB effect in the extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome, possibly mediating its antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities and provide a scientific base for its traditional use in hyperactive gut disorders.

  13. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samra Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01–1 mg/mL relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K+-induced contractions (0.01–0.3 mg/mL, similar to verapamil, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Vh.Cr produced a concentration-dependent (0.03–0.1 mg/mL rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves, as caused by verapamil. Vh.Cr exhibited dose-dependent (100–300 mg/kg protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug, similarly prevented the diarrhea. These data indicate the presence of CCB effect in the extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome, possibly mediating its antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities and provide a scientific base for its traditional use in hyperactive gut disorders.

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells by T-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun Jeong; Choi, Heung Woo; Choi, Doo Li; Cho, Sehyeon; Rim, Hong-Kun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Kim, Ki-Sun; Huang, Minghua; Rhim, Hyewhon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2013-12-15

    The growth inhibition of human cancer cells via T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade has been well known. Herein, a series of new 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives were synthesized via a brief SAR study on KYS05090 template and evaluated for both T-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav3.1) blockade and cytotoxicity on three human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3, A2780 and A2780-T). Most of compounds except 6i generally exhibited more potent cytotoxicity on SK-OV-3 than mibefradil as a positive control regardless of the degree of T-type channel blockade. In particular, eight compounds (KYS05090, 6a and 6c-6h) showing strong channel blockade exhibited almost equal and more potent cytotoxicity on A2780 when compared to mibefradil. On A2780-T paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma, two compounds (KYS05090 and 6d) were 20-fold more active than mibefradil. With respect to cell cycle arrest effect on A2780 and A2780-T cells, KYS05090 induced large proportion of sub-G1 phase in the cell cycle progression of A2780 and A2780-T, meaning the induction of cancer cell death instead of cell cycle arrest via blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Among new analogues, compounds 6g and 6h induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase of A2780 and A2780-T cells in dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong anti-proliferation effects of ovarian cancer cells by blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Furthermore, 6g and 6h possessing strong cytotoxic effects could induce apoptosis of A2780 cells, which was detected by confocal micrographs using DAPI staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Na+K+-ATPase activity and K+ channels differently contribute to vascular relaxation in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Moura Vargas Dias

    Full Text Available Gender associated differences in vascular reactivity regulation might contribute to the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women. Cardiovascular protection is suggested to depend on female sex hormones' effects on endothelial function and vascular tone regulation. We tested the hypothesis that potassium (K+ channels and Na+K+-ATPase may be involved in the gender-based vascular reactivity differences. Aortic rings from female and male rats were used to examine the involvement of K+ channels and Na+K+-ATPase in vascular reactivity. Acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation was analyzed in the presence of L-NAME (100 µM and the following K+ channels blockers: tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM, iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM, apamin (0.5 µM and charybdotoxin (ChTX, 0.1 µM. The ACh-induced relaxation sensitivity was greater in the female group. After incubation with 4-AP the ACh-dependent relaxation was reduced in both groups. However, the dAUC was greater in males, suggesting that the voltage-dependent K+ channel (Kv participates more in males. Inhibition of the three types of Ca2+-activated K+ channels induced a greater reduction in Rmax in females than in males. The functional activity of the Na+K+-ATPase was evaluated by KCl-induced relaxation after L-NAME and OUA incubation. OUA reduced K+-induced relaxation in female and male groups, however, it was greater in males, suggesting a greater Na+K+-ATPase functional activity. L-NAME reduced K+-induced relaxation only in the female group, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO participates more in their functional Na+K+-ATPase activity. These results suggest that the K+ channels involved in the gender-based vascular relaxation differences are the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa in females and Kv in males and in the K+-induced relaxation and the Na+K+-ATPase vascular functional activity is greater in males.

  16. Acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitors exhibit anxiolytic-like activity in preclinical pharmacological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jason M; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Neal, Sarah J; Lin, Qian; Jow, Flora; Arias, Robert L; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Dunlop, John; Beyer, Chad E

    2009-03-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated ion channels located in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Of particular interest is ASIC1a, which is located in areas associated with fear and anxiety behaviors. Recent reports suggest a role for ASIC1a in preclinical models of fear conditioning and anxiety. The present experiments evaluated various ASIC inhibitors in preclinical models of autonomic and behavioral parameters of anxiety. In addition, neurochemical studies evaluated the effects of an ASIC inhibitor (A-317567) on neurotransmitter levels in the amygdala. In electrophysiological studies using hippocampal primary neuronal cultures, three ASIC inhibitors (PcTX-1, A-317567, and amiloride) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of acid-evoked currents. In the stress-induced hyperthermia model, acute administration of psalmotoxin 1 (PcTX-1; 10-56 ng, i.c.v.), A-317567 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), and amiloride (10-100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented stress-induced elevations in core body temperature. In the four-plate test, acute treatment with PcTX-1 (10-56 ng, i.c.v.) and A-317567 (0.01-0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not amiloride (3-100 mg/kg, i.p.), produced dose-dependent and significant increases in the number of punished crossings relative to vehicle-treated animals. Additionally, PcTX-1 (56-178 ng, i.c.v.), A-317567 (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), and amiloride (10-100 mg/kg, i.p.) lacked significant anxiolytic-like activity in the elevated zero maze. In neurochemical studies, an infusion of A-317567 (100 microM) into the amygdala significantly elevated the extracellular levels of GABA, but not glutamate, in this brain region. These findings demonstrate that ASIC inhibition produces anxiolytic-like effects in some behavioral models and indicate a potential role for GABAergic mechanisms to underlie these anxiolytic-like effects.

  17. Active Channel Reservation for Coexistence Mechanism (ACROS) for IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Young; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Jong Wook; Park, Hong Seong; Kwon, Wook Hyun

    In this paper, a coexistence mechanism between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b, Active Channel Reservation for cOexiStence (ACROS), is proposed. The key idea underlining ACROS is to reserve the channel for IEEE 802.15.4 transmission, where IEEE 802.11 transmissions are forbidden. The request-to-send (RTS)/clear-to send (CTS) mechanism within IEEE 802.11 is used to reserve a channel. The proposed ACROS mechanism is implemented into a PC based prototype. The embedded version of ACROS is also developed to mitigate the timing drift problem in the PC-based ACROS. The efficiency of ACROS is shown using the throughput and packet error rate achieved in actual experiments.

  18. Activation of L-type calcium channel in twitch skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F; Bencini, C; Squecco, R

    1996-07-01

    1. The activation of the L-type calcium current (ICa) was studied in normally polarized (-100 mV) cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frog with the double Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp technique. Both external and internal solutions were Ca2+ buffered. Solutions were made in order to minimize all but the Ca2+ current. 2. The voltage-dependent components of the time course of activation were determined by two procedures: fast and slow components were evaluated by multiexponential fitting to current traces elicited by long voltage pulses (5 s) after removing inactivation; fast components were also determined by short voltage pulses having different duration (0.5-70 ms). 3. The components of deactivation were evaluated after removing the charge-movement current from the total tail current by the difference between two short (50 and 70 ms) voltage pulses to 10 mV, moving the same intramembrane charge. Two exponential components, fast and slow (time constants, 6 +/- 0.3 and 90 +/- 7 ms at -100 mV; n = 26), were found. 4. The time onset of ICa was evaluated either by multiexponential fitting to the ICa activation or by pulses of different duration to test the beginning of the 'on' and 'off' inequality. This was at about 2 ms, denoting that it was very early. 5. The time constant vs. voltage plots indicated the presence of four voltage-dependent components in the activation pathway. Various kinetic models are discussed. Models with independent transitions, like a Hodgkin-Huxley scheme, were excluded. Suitable models were a five-state sequential and a four-state cyclic with a branch scheme. The latter gave the best simulation of the data. 6. The steady-state activation curve saturated at high potentials. It had a half-voltage value of 1 +/- 0.2 mV and the opening probability was only 0.82 +/- 0.2 at 20 mV (n = 32). This result implies a larger number of functional calcium channels than was previously supposed and is in agreement with the number of dihydropyridine (DHP

  19. Skånsomheden af Command CS over for spinat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2012-01-01

    Betydning af sprøjtetidspunkt, sådybde og nedbør efter sprøjtning for skånsomhed af Command CS i spinat blev undersøgt i potteforsøg. Command CS var mest skånsom ved anvendelse før fremspiring. Typiske skader ved sprøjtning efter fremspiring var klorotiske blade. Risikoen for klorotiske blade blev...... øget med stigende udviklingstrin og ved tankblanding med additiver. Uden nedbør efter sprøjtning påvirkede Command CS i doseringer op til 0,5 L/ha ikke fremspiring af spinat uanset sådybde. Ved regnbehandling kort tid efter sprøjtning blev biomassen af spinat reduceret op til 30% ved en sådybde på 0...

  20. Kun tabere kigger på skærmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Enhver, der har prøvet at tage en telefon fra et barn, ved, hvordan det må have været for Frodo at forsøge at fravriste Gollum ringen i " Ringenes Herre". Smartphones og andre skærme er blevet børns og alle andres " Precious", som Gollum kalder ringen. Vi rører mere ved skærme, end vi rører ved v...... vores børn og vores kæreste, og vi ser flere fiktive ansigter i øjnene end virkelige. Den fiktion, virksomheder som Facebook og Twitter er blevet rige på, er, at kommunikationen på nettet bibringer dig noget virkeligt....

  1. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. [ 14 C]Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of [ 14 C]methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA + led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S 14 CN - . These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the ∼69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels

  2. Pharmacological investigation of the role of ion channels in salivary secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Tina C; Poulsen, Jørgen H; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    , whereas low-conductance (SK) K+ channels could not be detected. To investigate the role of K+ and Cl- channels in secretion, intact rabbit submandibular glands were vascularly perfused and secretion induced by 10 microM ACh. Secretion was inhibited by 34+/-3% following perfusion with the general K...... abolished, while 10 microM NPPB, 20 microM NS1652 and 20 microM NS3623 reduced secretion by 34+/-3%, 23+/-3% and 59+/-4%, respectively. In conclusion, although high expression levels of BK channels were demonstrated, pharmacological tools failed to demonstrate any role for BK, IK or SK channels in salivary...

  3. TRPM5 is a transient Ca2+-activated cation channel responding to rapid changes in [Ca2+]i

    OpenAIRE

    Prawitt, Dirk; Monteilh-Zoller, Mahealani K.; Brixel, Lili; Spangenberg, Christian; Zabel, Bernhard; Fleig, Andrea; Penner, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are a diverse family of proteins with structural features typical of ion channels. TRPM5, a member of the TRPM subfamily, plays an important role in taste receptors, although its activation mechanism remains controversial and its function in signal transduction is unknown. Here we characterize the functional properties of heterologously expressed human TRPM5 in HEK-293 cells. TRPM5 displays characteristics of a calcium-activated, nonselective cation...

  4. Steviol glycosides enhance pancreatic beta-cell function and taste sensation by potentiation of TRPM5 channel activity

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaert, Koenraad; Pironet, Andy; Mesuere, Margot; Sones, William; Vermeiren, Laura; Kerselaers, Sara; Pinto, S?lvia; Segal, Andrei; Antoine, Nancy; Gysemans, Conny; Laureys, Jos; Lemaire, Katleen; Gilon, Patrick; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SGs), such as stevioside and rebaudioside A, are natural, non-caloric sweet-tasting organic molecules, present in extracts of the scrub plant Stevia rebaudiana, which are widely used as sweeteners in consumer foods and beverages. TRPM5 is a Ca(2+)-activated cation channel expressed in type II taste receptor cells and pancreatic β-cells. Here we show that stevioside, rebaudioside A and their aglycon steviol potentiate the activity of TRPM5. We find that SGs potentiate perce...

  5. Skłonność skazanych do ingracjacji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Nowacki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Przedmiotem badań jest skłonność skazanych do ingracjacji. Za narzędzie posłużył autorski Kwestionariusz Ankiety do Badania Skłonności do Ingracjacji. Kontrolowano tendencję do przedstawiania się w nadmiernie korzystny sposób i nastrój badanych. Analizowano zgodność deklaracji skazanego z jego zachowaniem. Sprawdzano wpływ tzw. Zabłąkanych Słów. Aby zweryfikować sformułowane hipotezy przyjęto metodę sondażu diagnostycznego oraz metody analizy statystyczno-porównawczej. Analiza czynnikowa wykazała, że zachowania ingracjacyjne nie sprowadzają się do jednolitego wymiaru. Skłonność do ingracjacji to konstrukt, w którym dają się wyróżnić trzy czynniki: Podwyższenie Wartości Partnera i Własnej, Konformizm oraz Manipulacje Własnym Wizerunkiem. Okazało się, że więźniowie przebywający pierwszy raz w izolacji więziennej są bardziej skłonni do stosowania Konformizmu niż skazani kolejny raz. W zakresie Podwyższania Wartości Partnera i Własnej oraz Manipulacji Własnym Wizerunkiem nie stwierdzono istotnych różnic między przebywającymi po raz pierwszy i kolejny w izolacji więziennej.

  6. Pääsküla raamatukogu / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Pääsküla raamatukogu (Tallinn, Pärnu mnt. 480A) sisekujundus, mille eest sisekujundajad Katrin Kaevats ja Peeter Pere (AB Muru & Pere) pälvisid Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ühiskondliku interjööri preemia. Ehitaja: OÜ SCE Grupp. K. Kaevatsist, tema tähtsamad tööd. P. Perest, valik AB Muru & Pere projektidest. Ill.: kaks korruste plaani, 17 värv. vaadet, K. Kaevatsi ja P. Pere fotod

  7. Unge ser skævt på fremtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Et nyt uddannelsesetos er på fremmarch: Unge forstår i stigende grad uddannelse som et valg for livet, og det får mange unge til at skrue op for ambitionerne til uddannelse. Forventningerne er urealistisk høje, og det nye etos kan forstærke sociale skævheder blandt unge, skriver Kristian Bernt Ka...... Karlson i Asterisk-kommentaren....

  8. The increased activity of TRPV4 channel in the astrocytes of the adult rat hippocampus after cerebral hypoxia/ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Butenko

    Full Text Available The polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 channel, a member of the TRP channel family, is a calcium-permeable cationic channel that is gated by various stimuli such as cell swelling, low pH and high temperature. Therefore, TRPV4-mediated calcium entry may be involved in neuronal and glia pathophysiology associated with various disorders of the central nervous system, such as ischemia. The TRPV4 channel has been recently found in adult rat cortical and hippocampal astrocytes; however, its role in astrocyte pathophysiology is still not defined. In the present study, we examined the impact of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I on the functional expression of astrocytic TRPV4 channels in the adult rat hippocampal CA1 region employing immunohistochemical analyses, the patch-clamp technique and microfluorimetric intracellular calcium imaging on astrocytes in slices as well as on those isolated from sham-operated or ischemic hippocampi. Hypoxia/ischemia was induced by a bilateral 15-minute occlusion of the common carotids combined with hypoxic conditions. Our immunohistochemical analyses revealed that 7 days after H/I, the expression of TRPV4 is markedly enhanced in hippocampal astrocytes of the CA1 region and that the increasing TRPV4 expression coincides with the development of astrogliosis. Additionally, adult hippocampal astrocytes in slices or cultured hippocampal astrocytes respond to the TRPV4 activator 4-alpha-phorbol-12,-13-didecanoate (4αPDD by an increase in intracellular calcium and the activation of a cationic current, both of which are abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or exposure to TRP antagonists, such as Ruthenium Red or RN1734. Following hypoxic/ischemic injury, the responses of astrocytes to 4αPDD are significantly augmented. Collectively, we show that TRPV4 channels are involved in ischemia-induced calcium entry in reactive astrocytes and thus, might participate in the pathogenic mechanisms of

  9. Anion-sensitive fluorophore identifies the Drosophila swell-activated chloride channel in a genome-wide RNA interference screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Stotz

    Full Text Available When cells swell in hypo-osmotic solutions, chloride-selective ion channels (Cl(swell activate to reduce intracellular osmolality and prevent catastrophic cell rupture. Despite intensive efforts to assign a molecular identity to the mammalian Cl(swell channel, it remains unknown. In an unbiased genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen of Drosophila cells stably expressing an anion-sensitive fluorescent indicator, we identify Bestrophin 1 (dBest1 as the Drosophila Cl(swell channel. Of the 23 screen hits with mammalian homologs and predicted transmembrane domains, only RNAi specifically targeting dBest1 eliminated the Cl(swell current (I(Clswell. We further demonstrate the essential contribution of dBest1 to Drosophila I(Clswell with the introduction of a human Bestrophin disease-associated mutation (W94C. Overexpression of the W94C construct in Drosophila cells significantly reduced the endogenous I(Clswell. We confirm that exogenous expression of dBest1 alone in human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells creates a clearly identifiable Drosophila-like I(Clswell. In contrast, activation of mouse Bestrophin 2 (mBest2, the closest mammalian ortholog of dBest1, is swell-insensitive. The first 64 residues of dBest1 conferred swell activation to mBest2. The chimera, however, maintains mBest2-like pore properties, strongly indicating that the Bestrophin protein forms the Cl(swell channel itself rather than functioning as an essential auxiliary subunit. dBest1 is an anion channel clearly responsive to swell; this activation depends upon its N-terminus.

  10. Activation of BK(Ca channels in zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid, one of the most potent nitrogen-containing biphosphonates, has been demonstrated to have direct anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In particular, tumor-cell apoptosis has been recognized to play an important role in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer with zoledronic acid. However, the precise mechanisms remain less clear. In the present study, we investigated the specific role of large conductance Ca(2+-activated potassium (BK(Ca channel in zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis of estrogen receptor (ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The action of zoledronic acid on BK(Ca channel was investigated by whole-cell and cell-attached patch clamp techniques. Cell apoptosis was assessed with immunocytochemistry, analysis of fragmented DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry assays. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT test and immunocytochemistry. In addition, such findings were further confirmed with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells which were transfected with functional BK(Ca α-subunit (hSloα. Our results clearly indicated that zoledronic acid directly increased the activities of BK(Ca channels, and then activation of BK(Ca channel by zoledronic acid contributed to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The possible mechanisms were associated with the elevated level of intracellular Ca(2+ and a concomitant depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm in MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of BK(Ca channel was here shown to be a novel molecular pathway involved in zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

  11. Comparison of functional properties of the Ca2+-activated cation channels TRPM4 and TRPM5 from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Nina D; Voets, Thomas; Prenen, Jean; Vennekens, Rudi; Talavera, Karel; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-03-01

    Non-selective cation (NSC) channels activated by intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) play an important role in Ca2+ signaling and membrane excitability in many cell types. TRPM4 and TRPM5, two Ca2+-activated cation channels of the TRP superfamily, are potential molecular correlates of NSC channels. We compared the functional properties of mouse TRPM4 and TRPM5 heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. Dialyzing cells with different Ca2+ concentrations revealed a difference in Ca2+ sensitivity between TRPM4 and TRPM5, with EC50 values of 20.2+/-4.0 microM and 0.70+/-0.1 microM, respectively. Similarly, TRPM5 activated at lower Ca2+ concentration than TRPM4 when [Ca2+]i was raised by UV uncaging of the Ca2+-cage DMNP-EDTA. Current amplitudes of TRPM4 and TRPM5 were not correlated to the rate of changes in [Ca2+]i. The Ca2+ sensitivity of both channels was strongly reduced in inside-out patches, resulting in approximately 10-30 times higher EC50 values than under whole-cell conditions. Currents through TRPM4 and TRPM5 deactivated at negative and activated at positive potentials with similar kinetics. Both channels were equally sensitive to block by intracellular spermine. TRPM4 displayed a 10-fold higher affinity for block by flufenamic acid. Importantly, ATP4- blocked TRPM4 with high affinity (IC50 of 0.8+/-0.1 microM), whereas TRPM5 is insensitive to ATP4- at concentrations up to 1 mM.

  12. Pozytywizm, racjonalizm i... romantyzm Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Petelenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Year of Chemistry (2011, intertwined with commemoration of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded in 1911 to Marie Skłodowska-Curie, made me to ask about the philosophical background of this outstanding woman. The first factor which I could see was the positivism, launched by August Comte in France and developed a few decades later by his Polish followers. Another factor which seemed to me important was the interplay between the emotional (romantic and intellectual (positivistic attitudes among the Poles in the 19th century. In her research, Marie Skłodowska-Curie used the positivistic, rationalistic method. This has led her (jointly with her husband Pierre Curie to elucidation of the radiation phenomena discovered by Henri Becquerel in 1896. The research initiated by the Curies (rewarded by the half of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1903 caused a subversion of the 19th century’s views on the structure of Matter. The way to such spectacular results must have been paved not only by the positivistic intellectual discipline but also by a dose of romantic enchantment. In the applicative terms, Marie Skłodowska-Curie became a pioneer of the evidence-based medicine. In moral terms, she represented a rare example of the practical altruism, inspired indirectly by Christianity, and directly by the Comte’s “religion of Humanity”.

  13. Characteristics of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and their regulation of action potentials and excitability in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Hatcher, Jeff T; Wurster, Robert D; Chen, Qin-Hui; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2014-01-15

    Large-conductance Ca2(+)-activated K+ channels (BK) regulate action potential (AP) properties and excitability in many central neurons. However, the properties and functional roles of BK channels in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons (PCMNs) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) have not yet been well characterized. In this study, the tracer X-rhodamine-5 (and 6)-isothiocyanate (XRITC) was injected into the pericardial sac to retrogradely label PCMNs in FVB mice at postnatal 7-9 days. Two days later, XRITC-labeled PCMNs in brain stem slices were identified. Using excised patch single-channel recordings, we identified voltage-gated and Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels in PCMNs. The majority of BK channels exhibited persistent channel opening during voltage holding. These BK channels had a conductance of 237 pS and a 50% opening probability at +27.9 mV, the channel open time constant was 3.37 ms at +20 mV, and dwell time increased exponentially as the membrane potential depolarized. At the +20-mV holding potential, the [Ca2+]50 was 15.2 μM with a P0.5 of 0.4. Occasionally, some BK channels showed a transient channel opening and fast inactivation. Using whole cell voltage clamp, we found that BK channel mediated outward currents and afterhyperpolarization currents (IAHP). Using whole cell current clamp, we found that application of BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (IBTX) increased spike half-width and suppressed fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) amplitude following single APs. In addition, IBTX application increased spike half-width and reduced the spike frequency-dependent AP broadening in trains and spike frequency adaption (SFA). Furthermore, BK channel blockade decreased spike frequency. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PCMNs have BK channels that significantly regulate AP repolarization, fAHP, SFA, and spike frequency. We conclude that activation of BK channels underlies one of the mechanisms for facilitation of PCMN excitability.

  14. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R.; Pattyn, F.; Hewitt, I. J.; Ng, F. S. L.; Berger, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Helm, V.; Bergeot, N.; Favier, L.; Neckel, N.

    2017-05-01

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.

  15. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R; Pattyn, F; Hewitt, I J; Ng, F S L; Berger, S; Matsuoka, K; Helm, V; Bergeot, N; Favier, L; Neckel, N

    2017-05-09

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.

  16. SK policies the view of nuclear municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'abadal, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear policies of the most important countries in Western Europe, already influenced by the evolution of the public opinion, have experimented strong changes together with political evolution. The future of NNP in some important countries is doubtful, as for the case of Sweden, Germany, Spain, Holland, Belgium, The large democratic discussions that affect permanently our society, as well as the new society of information that is being implanted, have turned the decision making processes into what is referred to as public participation and transparency, especially when these affect the environment or the immediate future of the citizens. The installation policies of nuclear plants are very similar in all the countries. Most of them are located in low density population areas, with low activity rate, high rate of elder people. These territories have many water resources, low communication infrastructure level, etc. So the typographic aspects of the European municipalities are alike (in eastern countries as well). Nuclear energy whose existence is sometimes called in question by press media, citizens and inhabitants, needs full agreement within the territory in order to work at its best. Moreover, the territory on which the plant is installed must have the necessary means of infrastructure ( development from a social and economic point of view) as well as the dues for its future and for a new positive reality as far as the citizens are concerned in order to face the corresponding challenges. Having got to this point, a territorial debate should be focused on the balance between the state's general interest and the local one as normalised operation of nuclear facilities is and will be possible only in a context of mutual respect. The new European political map and the last governmental decisions in energetic strategies grant more value to the opinion of the local authorities on the territories affected by these facilities. So, in order to express their opinion

  17. Burst activity and ultrafast activation kinetics of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels support presynaptic activity in adult gerbil hair cell ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-08-15

    Auditory information transfer to afferent neurons relies on precise triggering of neurotransmitter release at the inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses by Ca²⁺ entry through CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels. Despite the crucial role of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels in governing synaptic vesicle fusion, their elementary properties in adult mammals remain unknown. Using near-physiological recording conditions we investigated Ca²⁺ channel activity in adult gerbil IHCs. We found that Ca²⁺ channels are partially active at the IHC resting membrane potential (-60 mV). At -20 mV, the large majority (>70%) of Ca²⁺ channel first openings occurred with an estimated delay of about 50 μs in physiological conditions, with a mean open time of 0.5 ms. Similar to other ribbon synapses, Ca²⁺ channels in IHCs showed a low mean open probability (0.21 at -20 mV), but this increased significantly (up to 0.91) when Ca²⁺ channel activity switched to a bursting modality. We propose that IHC Ca²⁺ channels are sufficiently rapid to transmit fast signals of sound onset and support phase-locking. Short-latency Ca²⁺ channel opening coupled to multivesicular release would ensure precise and reliable signal transmission at the IHC ribbon synapse.

  18. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/ channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-11-05

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/ channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/ channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/ channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity.

  19. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  20. A New Negative Allosteric Modulator AP14145 for the Study of Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simo Vicens, Rafel; Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Dolce, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels represent a promising atrial-selective target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we establish the mechanism of KCa2 inhibition by the new compound AP14145. Experimental approach: Using site directed mutagene......Background and purpose: Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels represent a promising atrial-selective target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we establish the mechanism of KCa2 inhibition by the new compound AP14145. Experimental approach: Using site directed...... mutagenesis binding determinants for AP14145 inhibition were explored. AP14145 selectivity and mechanism of action were investigated by patch clamp recordings of heterologously expressed KCa2 channels. The biological efficacy of AP14145 was assessed by measuring atrial effective refractory period (AERP......) prolongation in anaesthetised rats and a beam walk test was performed in mice to determine acute CNS related effects of the drug. Key results: AP14145 was found to be an equipotent negative allosteric modulator of KCa2.2 and KCa2.3 channels (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.3 μM L-1). The presence of AP14145 (10 μM L-1...

  1. A New Negative Allosteric Modulator AP14145 for the Study of Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simo Vicens, Rafel; Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Dolce, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels represent a promising atrial-selective target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we establish the mechanism of KCa2 inhibition by the new compound AP14145. Experimental approach: Using site directed mutagene......Background and purpose: Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels represent a promising atrial-selective target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we establish the mechanism of KCa2 inhibition by the new compound AP14145. Experimental approach: Using site directed......) prolongation in anaesthetised rats and a beam walk test was performed in mice to determine acute CNS related effects of the drug. Key results: AP14145 was found to be an equipotent negative allosteric modulator of KCa2.2 and KCa2.3 channels (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.3 μM L-1). The presence of AP14145 (10 μM L-1...... inhibition is accomplished at the molecular level will help future development of drugs targeting KCa2 channels....

  2. Intracellular calcium oscillations in strongly metastatic human breast and prostate cancer cells: control by voltage-gated sodium channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaner, Nahit; Onkal, Rustem; Fraser, Scott P; Pristerá, Alessandro; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-10-01

    The possible association of intracellular Ca 2+ with metastasis in human cancer cells is poorly understood. We have studied Ca 2+ signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cell lines of strongly versus weakly metastatic potential in a comparative approach. Intracellular free Ca 2+ was measured using a membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca 2+ -indicator dye (Fluo-4 AM) and confocal microscopy. Spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations were observed in a proportion of strongly metastatic human prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3M and MDA-MB-231, respectively). In contrast, no such oscillations were observed in weakly/non metastatic LNCaP and MCF-7 cells, although a rise in the resting Ca 2+ level could be induced by applying a high-K + solution. Various parameters of the oscillations depended on extracellular Ca 2+ and voltage-gated Na + channel activity. Treatment with either tetrodotoxin (a general blocker of voltage-gated Na + channels) or ranolazine (a blocker of the persistent component of the channel current) suppressed the Ca 2+ oscillations. It is concluded that the functional voltage-gated Na + channel expression in strongly metastatic cancer cells makes a significant contribution to generation of oscillatory intracellular Ca 2+ activity. Possible mechanisms and consequences of the Ca 2+ oscillations are discussed.

  3. Channelling and channelling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.

    1987-01-01

    The study of channelling phenomena has developed rapidly since the early 1960s and today channelling has found many applications. The radiation emitted by channelled megaelectronvolt and gigaelectronvolt electrons and positrons has been investigated extensively and the possibility of, for example, constructing intense tunable X- and γ-ray sources is being explored. Multi-gigaelectronvolt radiation and pair-creation processes in single crystals show similarities with strong-field effects and are of particular interest because of high production rates that persist far beyond the channelling regime. (author)

  4. SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Cell Membrane Protein Abundance and Activity of KCNQ1/E1 K+ Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Elvira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1, which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys] kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1. Methods: cRNA encoding KCNQ1/E1 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T233ESPAK, WNK insensitive T233ASPAK, catalytically inactive D212ASPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active T185EOSR1, WNK insensitive T185AOSR1 and catalytically inactive D164AOSR1. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and KCNQ1/E1 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane utilizing chemiluminescence of KCNQ1/E1 containing an extracellular Flag tag epitope (KCNQ1-Flag/E1. Results: KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly enhanced by wild-type SPAK and T233ESPAK, but not by T233ASPAK and D212ASPAK. Similarly, KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly increased by wild-type OSR1 and T185EOSR1, but not by T185AOSR1 and D164AOSR1. Conclusions: SPAK and OSR1 participate in the regulation of KCNQ1/E1 protein abundance and activity.

  5. SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Cell Membrane Protein Abundance and Activity of KCNQ1/E1 K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Bernat; Warsi, Jamshed; Fezai, Myriam; Munoz, Carlos; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1), which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys]) kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1. cRNA encoding KCNQ1/E1 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T233ESPAK, WNK insensitive T233ASPAK, catalytically inactive D212ASPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active T185EOSR1, WNK insensitive T185AOSR1 and catalytically inactive D164AOSR1. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and KCNQ1/E1 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane utilizing chemiluminescence of KCNQ1/E1 containing an extracellular Flag tag epitope (KCNQ1-Flag/E1). KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly enhanced by wild-type SPAK and T233ESPAK, but not by T233ASPAK and D212ASPAK. Similarly, KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly increased by wild-type OSR1 and T185EOSR1, but not by T185AOSR1 and D164AOSR1. SPAK and OSR1 participate in the regulation of KCNQ1/E1 protein abundance and activity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Stable respiratory activity requires both P/Q-type and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Henner; Zanella, Sebastien; Elsen, Gina E; Smith, Lincoln; Doi, Atsushi; Garcia, Alfredo J; Wei, Aguan D; Xun, Randy; Kirsch, Sarah; Gomez, Christopher M; Hevner, Robert F; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-02-20

    P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(v)2.1) play critical presynaptic and postsynaptic roles throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Here we report that mice with a genetic ablation of the Ca(v)2.1 pore-forming α(1A) subunit (α(1A)⁻/⁻) encoded by CACNA1a (Jun et al., 1999) suffer during postnatal development from increasing breathing disturbances that lead ultimately to death. Breathing abnormalities include decreased minute ventilation and a specific loss of sighs, which was associated with lung atelectasis. Similar respiratory alterations were preserved in the isolated in vitro brainstem slice preparation containing the pre-Bötzinger complex. The loss of Ca(v)2.1 was associated with an alteration in the functional dependency on N-type calcium channels (Ca(v)2.2). Blocking N-type calcium channels with conotoxin GVIA had only minor effects on respiratory activity in slices from control (CT) littermates, but abolished respiratory activity in all slices from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice. The amplitude of evoked EPSPs was smaller in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice compared with CTs. Conotoxin GVIA abolished all EPSPs in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice, while the EPSP amplitude was reduced by only 30% in CT mice. Moreover, neuromodulation was significantly altered as muscarine abolished respiratory network activity in α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice but not in CT mice. We conclude that excitatory synaptic transmission dependent on N-type and P/Q-type calcium channels is required for stable breathing and sighing. In the absence of P/Q-type calcium channels, breathing, sighing, and neuromodulation are severely compromised, leading to early mortality.

  7. $K^{0}_{s}-K^{0}_{s}$ correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7 TeV$ from the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Bugaiev, Kyrylo; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonschior, Alexey; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; 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Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pujol Teixido, Jordi; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Radomski, Sylwester; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; 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Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-07-16

    Identical neutral kaon pair correlations are measured in $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV pp collisions in the ALICE experiment. One-dimensional K$^{0}_{s}$-K$^{0}_{s}$ correlation functions in terms of the invariant momentum difference of kaon pairs are formed in two multiplicity and two transverse momentum ranges. The femtoscopic parameters for the radius and correlation strength of the kaon source are extracted. The fit includes quantum statistics and final-state interactions of the $a_0/f_0$ resonance. K$^{0}_{s}$-K$^{0}_{s}$ correlations show an increase in radius for increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease in radius for increasing transverse mass, $m_T$, as seen in pion-pion correlations in the pp system and in heavy-ion collisions. Transverse mass scaling is observed between the K$^{0}_{s}$-K$^{0}_{s}$ and pion-pion radii. Also, the first observation is made of the decay of the $f_{2}'$(1525) meson into the K$^{0}_{s}$-K$^{0}_{s}$ channel in pp collisions.

  8. Control of sensory neuron excitability by serotonin involves 5HT2C receptors and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Isabella; Gantumur, Enkhbileg; Yousuf, Arsalan; Boehm, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron. Unlike other algogenic mediators, such as PGE2 and bradykinin, 5HT did not affect currents through TTX-resistant Na(+) channels or Kv7 K(+) channels. In all neurons investigated, 5HT potentiated capsaicin-evoked currents through TRPV1 channels, an effect that was attenuated by antagonists at 5HT2A (4 F 4 PP), 5HT2B (SB 204741), as well as 5HT2C (RS 102221) receptors. 5HT triggered slowly arising inward Cl(-) currents in 53% of the neurons. This effect was antagonized by the 5HT2C receptor blocker only, and the current was prevented by an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The 5HT-induced increase in action potential firing was also abolished by this CaCC blocker and by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Amongst the subtype selective 5HT2 antagonists, only RS 102221 (5HT2C-selectively) counteracted the rise in action potential firing elicited by 5HT. These results show that 5HT excites DRG neurons mainly via 5HT2C receptors which concomitantly mediate a sensitization of TRPV1 channels and an opening of CaCCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by the diphenylurea 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Christ, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    increased both steady-state and tail current at all voltages tested. The EC(50) value for HERG channel activation was 10.5 microM. These results were reproduced on HERG channels expressed in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In guinea pig cardiomyocytes, studied by patch clamp, application of 10......-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) potassium channels. We have developed the diphenylurea compound 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643) and tested whether this small organic molecule could increase the activity of human ERG (HERG) channels expressed heterologously. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, NS1643...

  10. Antiproliferative Effect of Rottlerin on Sk-Mel-28 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daveri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most aggressive and chemoresistant form of skin cancer. Mutated, constitutively active B-RAF is believed to play a crucial role, although the selective B-RAF inhibition has shown poor clinical success, since phenomena of resistance usually occur, likely arising from additional genetic aberrations, such as loss of function of p53 and PTEN, overexpression of cyclin D1, hyperactivation of NF-κB, and downregulation of p21/Cip1. Since all of them are present in the Sk-Mel-28 melanoma cells, this cell line could be an ideal, albeit hard to study, model to develop new therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we tested the cytostatic action of Rottlerin on Sk-Mel-28 melanoma cells, on the basis of the known Rottlerin effects on the main proliferative signaling pathways. We presented evidence that the drug inhibits cell growth by an Akt- and p21/Cip1-independent mechanism, involving the dual inhibition of ERK and NF-κB and downregulation of cyclin D1. In addition, we found that Rottlerin increases ERK phosphorylation, but, surprisingly, this resulted in decreased ERK activity. Pull-down experiments, using Rottlerin-CNBr-conjugated Sepharose beads, revealed that Rottlerin binds to ERK, independently from its phosphorylation status. This direct interaction could in part explain the paradoxical blockage of ERK downstream signaling and growth arrest.

  11. Inhibitory actions by ibandronate sodium, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on calcium-activated potassium channels in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

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    Sheng-Nan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates used for management of the patients with osteoporosis were reported to influence the function of renal tubular cells. However, how nitrogen-containing bisphosphates exert any effects on ion currents remains controversial. The effects of ibandronate (Iban, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on ionic channels, including two types of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, namely, large-conductance KCa (BKCa and intermediate-conductance KCa (IKCa channels, were investigated in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. In whole-cell current recordings, Iban suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated K+ current elicited by long ramp pulse. Addition of Iban caused a reduction of BKCa channels accompanied by a right shift in the activation curve of BKCa channels, despite no change in single-channel conductance. Ca2+ sensitivity of these channels was modified in the presence of this compound; however, the magnitude of Iban-mediated decrease in BKCa-channel activity under membrane stretch with different negative pressure remained unchanged. Iban suppressed the probability of BKCa-channel openings linked primarily to a shortening in the slow component of mean open time in these channels. The dissociation constant needed for Iban-mediated suppression of mean open time in MDCK cells was 12.2 μM. Additionally, cell exposure to Iban suppressed the activity of IKCa channels, and DC-EBIO or 9-phenanthrol effectively reversed its suppression. Under current-clamp configuration, Iban depolarized the cells and DC-EBIO or PF573228 reversed its depolarizing effect. Taken together, the inhibitory action of Iban on KCa-channel activity may contribute to the underlying mechanism of pharmacological or toxicological actions of Iban and its structurally similar bisphosphonates on renal tubular cells occurring in vivo.

  12. Fluorescence-tracking of activation gating in human ERG channels reveals rapid S4 movement and slow pore opening.

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    Zeineb Es-Salah-Lamoureux

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available hERG channels are physiologically important ion channels which mediate cardiac repolarization as a result of their unusual gating properties. These are very slow activation compared with other mammalian voltage-gated potassium channels, and extremely rapid inactivation. The mechanism of slow activation is not well understood and is investigated here using fluorescence as a direct measure of S4 movement and pore opening.Tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM fluorescence at E519 has been used to track S4 voltage sensor movement, and channel opening and closing in hERG channels. Endogenous cysteines (C445 and C449 in the S1-S2 linker bound TMRM, which caused a 10 mV hyperpolarization of the V((1/2 of activation to -27.5+/-2.0 mV, and showed voltage-dependent fluorescence signals. Substitution of S1-S2 linker cysteines with valines allowed unobstructed recording of S3-S4 linker E519C and L520C emission signals. Depolarization of E519C channels caused rapid initial fluorescence quenching, fit with a double Boltzmann relationship, F-V(ON, with V((1/2 (,1 = -37.8+/-1.7 mV, and V((1/2 (,2 = 43.5+/-7.9 mV. The first phase, V((1/2 (,1, was approximately 20 mV negative to the conductance-voltage relationship measured from ionic tail currents (G-V((1/2 = -18.3+/-1.2 mV, and relatively unchanged in a non-inactivating E519C:S620T mutant (V((1/2 = -34.4+/-1.5 mV, suggesting the fast initial fluorescence quenching tracked S4 voltage sensor movement. The second phase of rapid quenching was absent in the S620T mutant. The E519C fluorescence upon repolarization (V((1/2 = -20.6+/-1.2, k = 11.4 mV and L520C quenching during depolarization (V((1/2 = -26.8+/-1.0, k = 13.3 mV matched the respective voltage dependencies of hERG ionic tails, and deactivation time constants from -40 to -110 mV, suggesting they detected pore-S4 rearrangements related to ionic current flow during pore opening and closing.THE DATA INDICATE: 1 that rapid environmental changes occur at the

  13. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopic techniques for investigating membrane-bound ion channel activities.

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    Inna Székács

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopic (OWLS techniques were probed for monitoring ion permeation through channels incorporated into artificial lipid environment. A novel sensor set-up was developed by depositing liposomes or cell-derived membrane fragments onto hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane. The fibrous material of PTFE membrane could entrap lipoid vesicles and the water-filled pores provided environment for the hydrophilic domains of lipid-embedded proteins. The sensor surface was kept clean from the lipid holder PTFE membrane by a water- and ion-permeable polyethylene terephthalate (PET mesh. The sensor set-up was tested with egg yolk lecithin liposomes containing gramicidin ion channels and with cell-derived membrane fragments enriched in GABA-gated anion channels. The method allowed monitoring the move of Na(+ and organic cations through gramicidin channels and detecting the Cl(--channel functions of the (α5β2γ2 GABAA receptor in the presence or absence of GABA and the competitive GABA-blocker bicuculline.

  14. Activation of endothelial and epithelial K(Ca) 2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small (K(Ca) 2) and intermediate (K(Ca) 3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca) ) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we inv...... targets for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease....

  15. Activity of the anticonvulsant lacosamide in experimental and human epilepsy via selective effects on slow Na+channel inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Dominik; Opitz, Thoralf; Niespodziany, Isabelle; Wolff, Christian; Beck, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In human epilepsy, pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major problem affecting ~30% of patients with epilepsy. Many classical antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated sodium channels, and their potent activity in inhibiting high-frequency firing has been attributed to their strong use-dependent blocking action. In chronic epilepsy, a loss of use-dependent block has emerged as a potential cellular mechanism of pharmacoresistance for anticonvulsants acting on voltage-gated sodium channels. The anticonvulsant drug lacosamide (LCM) also targets sodium channels, but has been shown to preferentially affect sodium channel slow inactivation processes, in contrast to most other anticonvulsants. We used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in acutely isolated cells to investigate the effects of LCM on transient Na + currents. Furthermore, we used whole-cell current clamp recordings to assess effects on repetitive action potential firing in hippocampal slices. We show here that LCM exerts its effects primarily via shifting the slow inactivation voltage dependence to more hyperpolarized potentials in hippocampal dentate granule cells from control and epileptic rats, and from patients with epilepsy. It is important to note that this activity of LCM was maintained in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficacy of LCM in inhibiting high-frequency firing is undiminished in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Taken together, these results show that LCM exhibits maintained efficacy in chronic epilepsy, in contrast to conventional use-dependent sodium channel blockers such as carbamazepine. They also establish that targeting slow inactivation may be a promising strategy for overcoming target mechanisms of pharmacoresistance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses

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    A.S.R. Hudson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiol