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Sample records for size-dependent continuum crystal

  1. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  2. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-26

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  3. Nonlocal superelastic model of size-dependent hardening and dissipation in single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Rimoli, Julian J; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A; Radovitzky, Raul

    2011-02-25

    We propose a nonlocal continuum model to describe the size-dependent superelastic effect observed in recent experiments of single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys. The model introduces two length scales, one in the free energy and one in the dissipation, which account for the size-dependent hardening and dissipation in the loading and unloading response of micro- and nanopillars subject to compression tests. The information provided by the model suggests that the size dependence observed in the dissipation is likely to be associated with a nonuniform evolution of the distribution of the austenitic and martensitic phases during the loading cycle. © 2011 American Physical Society

  4. Connection between the growth rate distribution and the size dependent crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, M. M.; Žekić, A. A.; IIić, Z. Z.

    2002-07-01

    The results of investigations of the connection between the growth rate dispersions and the size dependent crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), Rochelle salt (RS) and sodium chlorate (SC) are presented. A possible way out of the existing confusion in the size dependent crystal growth investigations is suggested. It is shown that the size independent growth exists if the crystals belonging to one growth rate distribution maximum are considered separately. The investigations suggest possible reason for the observed distribution maxima widths, and the high data scattering on the growth rate versus the crystal size dependence.

  5. Crystal-Size-Dependent Structural Transitions in Nanoporous Crystals: Adsorption-Induced Transitions in ZIF-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2014-09-04

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Understanding the crystal-size dependence of both guest adsorption and structural transitions of nanoporous solids is crucial to the development of these materials. We find that nano-sized metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals have significantly different guest adsorption properties compared to the bulk material. A new methodology is developed to simulate the adsorption and transition behavior of entire MOF nanoparticles. Our simulations predict that the transition pressure significantly increases with decreasing particle size, in agreement with crystal-size-dependent experimental measurements of the N2-ZIF-8 system. We also propose a simple core-shell model to examine this effect on length scales that are inaccessible to simulations and again find good agreement with experiments. This study is the first to examine particle size effects on structural transitions in ZIFs and provides a thermodynamic framework for understanding the underlying mechanism.

  6. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phase-change nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2016-12-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in damage and deterioration of their useful properties. Gas-phase condensation based on magnetron sputtering offers an attractive and straightforward solution to continuously down-scale the PCMs into sub-lithographic sizes. Here we unprecedentedly present the size dependence of crystallization for Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) NPs, whose production is currently highly challenging for chemical synthesis or top-down fabrication. Both amorphous and crystalline NPs have been produced with excellent size and composition control with average diameters varying between 8 and 17 nm. The size-dependent crystallization of these NPs was carefully analyzed through in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, where the crystallization temperatures (Tc) decrease when the NPs become smaller. Moreover, methane incorporation has been observed as an effective method to enhance the amorphous phase stability of the NPs. This work therefore elucidates that GST NPs synthesized by gas-phase condensation with tailored properties are promising alternatives in designing phase-change memories constrained by optical lithography limitations.

  7. Size dependences of crystal structure and magnetic properties of DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, T., E-mail: tajiri@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Terashita, N.; Hamamoto, K.; Deguchi, H.; Mito, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Morimoto, Y.; Konishi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kohno, A. [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We synthesized DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with particle sizes of about 7.5–15.3 nm in the pores of mesoporous silica and investigated their crystal structure and magnetic properties. As the particle size decreased, the lattice constants of the DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles deviated from those of the bulk crystal, and the Jahn–Teller distortion in the nanoparticle systems decreased. In addition, the estimated lattice strain increased with decreasing particle size. The DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior. The blocking temperature and the coercive field increased with decreasing particle size, and this behavior was contrary to the usual magnetic size effects. It is deduced that these unique size dependences of the magnetic properties for the DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles were derived from the changes in lattice constants and lattice strain. The anisotropic lattice deformation in the crystal structure of the nanoparticles induces an enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy, which results in the increase in blocking temperature and coercive field with decreasing particle size. - Highlights: • We successfully synthesized DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with particle size of 7.5–15.3 nm. • Lattice strain increases with decreasing particle size. • Lattice constants exhibit anisotropic change with decreasing particle size. • Distortion of crystal structure leads to enhancement of magnetic anisotropy constant. • Blocking temperature and coercive field increases with decreasing particle size.

  8. New developments on size-dependent growth applied to the crystallization of sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P. M.; Rocha, F.

    2007-12-01

    The effect of crystal size on the growth rate of sucrose (C 12H 22O 11) at 40 °C is investigated from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Based on new perspectives resulting from the recently introduced spiral nucleation model [P.M. Martins, F. Rocha, Surf. Sci. 601 (2007) 3400], crystal growth rates are expressed in terms of mass deposition per time and crystal volume units. This alternative definition is demonstrated to be size-independent over the considered supersaturation range. The conventional overall growth rate expressed per surface area units is found to be linearly dependent on crystal size. The advantages of the "volumetric" growth rate concept are discussed. Sucrose dissolution rates were measured under reciprocal conditions of the growth experiments in order to investigate the two-way effect of crystal size on mass transfer rates and on the integration kinetics. Both effects are adequately described by combining a well-established diffusion-integration model and the spiral nucleation mechanism.

  9. Athermal mechanisms of size-dependent crystal flow gleaned from three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Tang, M.; Woodward, C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that micrometer-scale face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals show strong strengthening effects, even at high initial dislocation densities. We use large-scale three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) to explicitly model the deformation behavior of fcc Ni microcrystals in the size range of 0.5-20 μm. This study shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. One mechanism, source-truncation hardening, is especially potent in micrometer-scale volumes. A second mechanism, termed exhaustion hardening, results from a breakdown of the mean-field conditions for forest hardening in small volumes, thus biasing the statistics of ordinary dislocation processes

  10. Size-dependent thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

    Full Text Available In this paper a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent thermoelasticity in heterogeneous anisotropic solids. This theory shows that the temperature change can create not only thermal strains, but also thermal mean curvatures in the solids. This formulation is based on the consistent size-dependent continuum mechanics in which the couple-stress tensor is skew-symmetric. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy and entropy equations, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as entropy density, are obtained. Next, for the linear material the constitutive relations and governing coupled size-dependent thermoelasticity equations are developed. For linear material, one can see that the thermal properties are characterized by the classical symmetric thermal expansion tensor and the new size-dependent skew-symmetric thermal flexion tensor. Thus, for the most general anisotropic case, there are nine independent thermoelastic constants. Interestingly, for isotropic and cubic materials the thermal flexion tensor vanishes, which shows there is no thermal mean curvature

  11. Static and dynamic continuum theory liquid crystals a mathematical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Iain W

    2004-01-01

    Providing a rigorous, clear and accessible text for graduate students regardless of scientific background, this text introduces the basic continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals in equilibria, and details its various simple applications.

  12. Effect of dislocation pile-up on size-dependent yield strength in finite single-crystal micro-samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bo; Shibutani, Yoji, E-mail: sibutani@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zhang, Xu [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shang, Fulin [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Recent research has explained that the steeply increasing yield strength in metals depends on decreasing sample size. In this work, we derive a statistical physical model of the yield strength of finite single-crystal micro-pillars that depends on single-ended dislocation pile-up inside the micro-pillars. We show that this size effect can be explained almost completely by considering the stochastic lengths of the dislocation source and the dislocation pile-up length in the single-crystal micro-pillars. The Hall–Petch-type relation holds even in a microscale single-crystal, which is characterized by its dislocation source lengths. Our quantitative conclusions suggest that the number of dislocation sources and pile-ups are significant factors for the size effect. They also indicate that starvation of dislocation sources is another reason for the size effect. Moreover, we investigated the explicit relationship between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation “pile-up” effect inside the sample: materials with low stacking fault energy exhibit an obvious dislocation pile-up effect. Our proposed physical model predicts a sample strength that agrees well with experimental data, and our model can give a more precise prediction than the current single arm source model, especially for materials with low stacking fault energy.

  13. Some topics in continuum theory of liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-07-01

    Since advancements by Ericksen and Leslie in the 1960's, interest in the continuum theory for liquid crystals has escalated. In this thesis, we present the well established continuum theory for nematics, and apply it to the simple Tsvetkov experiment. This analysis is further extended by studying a similar geometric setup which allows additional degrees of freedom. Steady state solutions are studied, and stable/unstable solutions discussed. The bulk of this thesis however, is concerned with the smectic continuum theory. The theory presented allows variable layer spacing, and hence goes beyond the scope of that proposed by Leslie, Stewart and Nakagawa in 1991. With this theory, we initially study a sample of SmA liquid crystal in the bookshelf geometry between two parallel plates, and subject to a strongly anchored pretilt at the boundaries. Weakly anchored solutions are also briefly discussed at the end of this chapter. This work is extended by considering the same problem with a SmC sample, and the distinct differences between the SmA and SmC solutions are highlighted. Symmetric chevron solutions of C1 and C2 type are discussed fully, and energy considerations are made to find the physically realistic configurations. Again, the last part of this chapter is dedicated to solutions subject to weak anchoring. Finally, we take a brief look at Freedericksz transitions when a magnetic field is applied across a cell containing a SmA sample in the bookshelf geometry. The Freedericksz thresholds for two possible deformations are obtained by linearising the appropriate equation, and solving the resulting eigenvalue problem. Numerical calculations finally show where the transitions occur, and confirm the accuracy of the threshold values obtained analytically. (author)

  14. Some topics in continuum theory of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Since advancements by Ericksen and Leslie in the 1960's, interest in the continuum theory for liquid crystals has escalated. In this thesis, we present the well established continuum theory for nematics, and apply it to the simple Tsvetkov experiment. This analysis is further extended by studying a similar geometric setup which allows additional degrees of freedom. Steady state solutions are studied, and stable/unstable solutions discussed. The bulk of this thesis however, is concerned with the smectic continuum theory. The theory presented allows variable layer spacing, and hence goes beyond the scope of that proposed by Leslie, Stewart and Nakagawa in 1991. With this theory, we initially study a sample of SmA liquid crystal in the bookshelf geometry between two parallel plates, and subject to a strongly anchored pretilt at the boundaries. Weakly anchored solutions are also briefly discussed at the end of this chapter. This work is extended by considering the same problem with a SmC sample, and the distinct differences between the SmA and SmC solutions are highlighted. Symmetric chevron solutions of C1 and C2 type are discussed fully, and energy considerations are made to find the physically realistic configurations. Again, the last part of this chapter is dedicated to solutions subject to weak anchoring. Finally, we take a brief look at Freedericksz transitions when a magnetic field is applied across a cell containing a SmA sample in the bookshelf geometry. The Freedericksz thresholds for two possible deformations are obtained by linearising the appropriate equation, and solving the resulting eigenvalue problem. Numerical calculations finally show where the transitions occur, and confirm the accuracy of the threshold values obtained analytically. (author)

  15. Grain size dependence of wear in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.; Rice, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Platt, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Pin-On-Disk (POD), microwear tests of Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 , most being dense and essentially single phase, showed the reciprocal of wear following a hall-petch type relationship. However, extrapolation to infinite grain size always gave a lower intercept than most or all single-crystal values; in particular, Al 2 O 3 data projects to a negative intercept. Initial macro wear tests of some of the same Al 2 O 3 materials also indicate a hall-petch type grain-size dependence, but with a greatly reduced grain-size dependence, giving a positive hall-petch intercept. Further, the macrowear grain-size dependence appears to decrease with increased wear. It is argued that thermal expansion anisotropy (of Al 2 O 3 ) significantly affects the grain size dependence of POD wear, in particular, giving a negative intercept, while elastic anisotropy is suggested as a factor in the grain-size dependence of the cubic (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 ) materials. The reduced grain-size dependence in the macrowear tests is attributed to overlapping wear tracks reducing the effects of enhanced wear damage, e.g., from elastic and thermal expansion anisotropies

  16. Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...

  17. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Charles; Corti, Davide; Buzon, Victor; Seaman, Mike S; Lutje Hulsik, David; Hinz, Andreas; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Silacci, Chiara; Mainetti, Lara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sallusto, Federica; Weiss, Robin; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2010-11-18

    The human monoclonal antibody (mAb) HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1) of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  18. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabin

    Full Text Available The human monoclonal antibody (mAb HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1 of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  19. Concurrent atomistic and continuum simulation of bi-crystal strontium titanate with tilt grain boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengfeng; Chen, Youping

    2015-03-08

    In this paper, we present the development of a concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) methodology for simulation of the grain boundary (GB) structures and their interaction with other defects in ionic materials. Simulation results show that the CAC simulation allows a smooth passage of cracks through the atomistic-continuum interface without the need for additional constitutive rules or special numerical treatment; both the atomic-scale structures and the energies of the four different [001] tilt GBs in bi-crystal strontium titanate obtained by CAC compare well with those obtained by existing experiments and density function theory calculations. Although 98.4% of the degrees of freedom of the simulated atomistic system have been eliminated in a coarsely meshed finite-element region, the CAC results, including the stress-strain responses, the GB-crack interaction mechanisms and the effect of the interaction on the fracture strength, are comparable with that of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation results. In addition, CAC simulation results show that the GB-crack interaction has a significant effect on the fracture behaviour of bi-crystal strontium titanate; not only the misorientation angle but also the atomic-level details of the GB structure influence the effect of the GB on impeding crack propagation.

  20. A continuum model for the anisotropic creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sharat C.; Rajagopal, K.R.; Rao, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the constitutive theory developed by Prasad et al. [Prasad SC, Rao IJ, Rajagopal KR. A continuum model for the creep of single crystal nickel-base superalloys. Acta Mater 2005;53(3):669-79], to describe the creep anisotropy associated with crystallographic orientation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys. The constitutive theory is cast within a general thermodynamic framework that has been developed to describe the response of materials capable of existing in multiple stress free configurations ('natural configurations'). Central to the theory is the prescription of the forms for the stored energy and rate of dissipation functions. The stored energy reflects the fact that the elastic response exhibits cubic symmetry. The model takes into account the fact that the symmetry of single crystals does not change with inelastic deformation. The rate of dissipation function is also chosen to be anisotropic, in that it reflects invariance to transformations that belong to the cubic symmetry group. The model is used to simulate uniaxial creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 for loading along the , and orientations. The predictions of the theory agree well with the experimental data

  1. Continuum and crystal strain gradient plasticity with energetic and dissipative length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Danial

    This work, standing as an attempt to understand and mathematically model the small scale materials thermal and mechanical responses by the aid of Materials Science fundamentals, Continuum Solid Mechanics, Misro-scale experimental observations, and Numerical methods. Since conventional continuum plasticity and heat transfer theories, based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium, do not account for the microstructural characteristics of materials, they cannot be used to adequately address the observed mechanical and thermal response of the micro-scale metallic structures. Some of these cases, which are considered in this dissertation, include the dependency of thin films strength on the width of the sample and diffusive-ballistic response of temperature in the course of heat transfer. A thermodynamic-based higher order gradient framework is developed in order to characterize the mechanical and thermal behavior of metals in small volume and on the fast transient time. The concept of the thermal activation energy, the dislocations interaction mechanisms, nonlocal energy exchange between energy carriers and phonon-electrons interactions are taken into consideration in proposing the thermodynamic potentials such as Helmholtz free energy and rate of dissipation. The same approach is also adopted to incorporate the effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials (e.g. grain boundary in crystals) into the formulation. The developed grain boundary flow rule accounts for the energy storage at the grain boundary due to the dislocation pile up as well as energy dissipation caused by the dislocation transfer through the grain boundary. Some of the abovementioned responses of small scale metallic compounds are addressed by means of the numerical implementation of the developed framework within the finite element context. In this regard, both displacement and plastic strain fields are independently discretized and the numerical implementation is performed in

  2. Thermal conductivity prediction of nanoscale phononic crystal slabs using a hybrid lattice dynamics-continuum mechanics technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Reinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that nanostructuring of a semiconductor material to form a phononic crystal (PnC can significantly reduce its thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present a classical method that combines atomic-level information with the application of Bloch theory at the continuum level for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of finite-thickness PnCs with unit cells sized in the micron scale. Lattice dynamics calculations are done at the bulk material level, and the plane-wave expansion method is implemented at the macrosale PnC unit cell level. The combination of the lattice dynamics-based and continuum mechanics-based dispersion information is then used in the Callaway-Holland model to calculate the thermal transport properties of the PnC. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach provides both accurate and efficient predictions of the thermal conductivity.

  3. Micro-Structural Evolution and Size-Effects in Plastically Deformed Single Crystals: Strain Gradient Continuum Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah

    the macroscopic effects related to strain gradients, most predict smooth micro-structures. The evolution of dislocation micro-structures, during plastic straining of ductile crystalline materials, is highly complex and nonuniform. Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct......An extensive amount of research has been devoted to the development of micro-mechanics based gradient plasticity continuum theories, which are necessary for modeling micron-scale plasticity when large spatial gradients of plastic strain appear. While many models have proven successful in capturing...... strain. It is clear that many challenges are associated with modeling dislocation structures, within a framework based on continuum fields, however, since the strain gradient effects are attributed to the dislocation micro-structure, it is a natural step, in the further development of gradient theories...

  4. Super continuum generation at 800 nm in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with normal dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per; Larsen, Jacob Juul; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2001-01-01

    More than 90 nm broad self-phase modulation (SPM) induced pulses have been created from both 25 and 50 fs pulses in just 12.5 cm of fiber. The broadening is more than 2.5 times that observed in standard SMF. SPM broadening in PCFs has several advantages over more complex super continuum generatio...

  5. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nematic Liquid Crystals: From Maier-Saupe to a Continuum Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, John M.

    2010-07-20

    We define a continuum energy functional that effectively interpolates between the mean-field Maier-Saupe energy and the continuum Landau-de Gennes energy functional and can describe both spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. In the mean-field approach the main macroscopic variable, the Q-tensor order parameter, is defined in terms of the second moment of a probability distribution function. This definition imposes certain constraints on the eigenvalues of the Q-tensor order parameter, which may be interpreted as physical constraints. We define a thermotropic bulk potential which blows up whenever the eigenvalues of the Q-tensor order parameter approach physically unrealistic values. As a consequence, the minimizers of this continuum energy functional have physically realistic order parameters in all temperature regimes. We study the asymptotics of this bulk potential and show that this model also predicts a first-order nematic-isotropic phase transition, whilst respecting the physical constraints. In contrast, in the Landau-de Gennes framework the Q-tensor order parameter is often defined independently of the probability distribution function, and the theory makes physically unrealistic predictions about the equilibrium order parameters in the low-temperature regime. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Size Dependent Orientation of Knudsen Force

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2012-03-03

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was however not observed in the experiment. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

  8. Size dependent nanomechanics of coil spring shaped polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiba, Shota; Masui, Kyoko; Taguchi, Natsuo; Hamano, Tomoki; Kawata, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru

    2015-11-27

    Direct laser writing (DLW) via two-photon polymerization (TPP) has been established as a powerful technique for fabrication and integration of nanoscale components, as it enables the production of three dimensional (3D) micro/nano objects. This technique has indeed led to numerous applications, including micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), metamaterials, mechanical metamaterials, and photonic crystals. However, as the feature sizes decrease, an urgent demand has emerged to uncover the mechanics of nanosized polymer materials. Here, we fabricate coil spring shaped polymer nanowires using DLW via two-photon polymerization. We find that even the nanocoil springs follow a linear-response against applied forces, following Hooke's law, as revealed by compression tests using an atomic force microscope. Further, the elasticity of the polymer material is found to become significantly greater as the wire radius is decreased from 550 to 350 nm. Polarized Raman spectroscopy measurements show that polymer chains are aligned in nanowires along the axis, which may be responsible for the size dependence. Our findings provide insight into the nanomechanics of polymer materials fabricated by DLW, which leads to further applications based on nanosized polymer materials.

  9. Size-dependent mechanical properties of 2D random nanofibre networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zixing; Zhu, Man; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of nanofibre networks (NFNs) are size dependent with respect to different fibre diameters. In this paper, a continuum model is developed to reveal the size-dependent mechanical properties of 2D random NFNs. Since such size-dependent behaviours are attributed to different micromechanical mechanisms, the surface effects and the strain gradient (SG) effects are, respectively, introduced into the mechanical analysis of NFNs. Meanwhile, a modified fibre network model is proposed, in which the axial, bending and shearing deformations are incorporated. The closed-form expressions of effective modulus and Poisson's ratio are obtained for NFNs. Different from the results predicted by conventional fibre network model, the present model predicts the size-dependent mechanical properties of NFNs. It is found that both surface effects and SG effects have significant influences on the effective mechanical properties. Moreover, the present results show that the shearing deformation of fibre segment is also crucial to precisely evaluate the effective mechanical properties of NFNs. This work mainly aims to provide an insight into the micromechanical mechanisms of NFNs. Besides, this work is also expected to provide a more accurate theoretical model for 2D fibre networks. (paper)

  10. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as

  11. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.

  12. Continuum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.   The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...

  13. Size-dependent electronic properties of metal nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Size-dependent electronic properties of metal nanostructures. G.U. Kulkarni. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. Bangalore, India. kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in.

  14. Reciprocal-Space Engineering of Quasi-Bound States in the Continuum in Photonic Crystal Slabs for High-Q Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Taghizadeh, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal (PhC) slabs presume infinite periodicity in the inplane direction. Thus, a large number of unit cells are typically required to implement the BICs with a high quality (Q) factor. Here, we report on a method to engineer the reciprocal......-space properties of BICs, which enables to keep the effect of the BIC phenomenon strong even for a microcavity of a few unit cells. For example, based on this method, a 3D microcavity of 4 unit cells can attain a Q factor of 18k. This allows for various BIC studies in a very compact platform, as well as novel...

  15. Modeling the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type NEMS using strain gradient theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Koochi

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that size dependency of materials characteristics, i.e. size-effect, often plays a significant role in the performance of nano-structures. Herein, strain gradient continuum theory is employed to investigate the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS. Two most common types of NEMS i.e. nano-bridge and nano-cantilever are considered. Effects of electrostatic field and dispersion forces i.e. Casimir and van der Waals (vdW attractions have been considered in the nonlinear governing equations of the systems. Two different solution methods including numerical and Rayleigh-Ritz have been employed to solve the constitutive differential equations of the system. Effect of dispersion forces, the size dependency and the importance of coupling between them on the instability performance are discussed.

  16. Universal relation for size dependent thermodynamic properties of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Qi, Weihong; Cheng, Yajuan; Huang, Baiyun; Wang, Mingpu; Li, Yejun

    2011-06-14

    The previous model on surface free energy has been extended to calculate size dependent thermodynamic properties (i.e., melting temperature, melting enthalpy, melting entropy, evaporation temperature, Curie temperature, Debye temperature and specific heat capacity) of nanoparticles. According to the quantitative calculation of size effects on the calculated thermodynamic properties, it is found that most thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles vary linearly with 1/D as a first approximation. In other words, the size dependent thermodynamic properties P(n) have the form of P(n) = P(b)(1 -K/D), in which P(b) is the corresponding bulk value and K is the material constant. This may be regarded as a scaling law for most of the size dependent thermodynamic properties for different materials. The present predictions are consistent literature values. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  17. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the development of the size dependent models on the shear strength in ... predict the diagonal cracking strength and the ultimate shear strength of RC ... ing strength of normal beams was by Zsutty (1968) based on the data base available without .... The comparison of the calculated shear strength of the beams is shown.

  18. Spectral properties and lattice-size dependences in cluster algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Kerler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation results of Ising systems for several update rules, observables, and dimensions are analyzed. The lattice-size dependence is discussed for the autocorrelation times and for the weights of eigenvalues, giving fit results in the case of power laws. Implications of spectral properties are pointed out and the behavior of a particular observable not governed by detailed balance is explained.

  19. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices.

  20. Size-dependent elastic moduli and vibrational properties of fivefold twinned copper nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Ye, H. F.; Zhang, H. W.

    2014-08-01

    Based on atomistic simulations, the elastic moduli and vibration behaviors of fivefold twinned copper nanowires are investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that the elastic (i.e., Young’s and shear) moduli exhibit size dependence due to the surface effect. The effective Young’s modulus is found to decrease slightly whereas the effective shear modulus increases slightly with the increase in the wire radius. Both moduli tend to approach certain values at a larger radius and can be suitably described by core-shell composite structure models. Furthermore, we show by comparing simulation results and continuum predictions that, provided the effective Young’s and shear moduli are used, classic elastic theory can be applied to describe the small-amplitude vibration of fivefold twinned copper nanowires. Moreover, for the transverse vibration, the Timoshenko beam model is more suitable because shear deformation becomes apparent.

  1. Size-dependent elastic moduli and vibrational properties of fivefold twinned copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y G; Zhao, Y T; Ye, H F; Zhang, H W

    2014-01-01

    Based on atomistic simulations, the elastic moduli and vibration behaviors of fivefold twinned copper nanowires are investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that the elastic (i.e., Young’s and shear) moduli exhibit size dependence due to the surface effect. The effective Young’s modulus is found to decrease slightly whereas the effective shear modulus increases slightly with the increase in the wire radius. Both moduli tend to approach certain values at a larger radius and can be suitably described by core-shell composite structure models. Furthermore, we show by comparing simulation results and continuum predictions that, provided the effective Young’s and shear moduli are used, classic elastic theory can be applied to describe the small-amplitude vibration of fivefold twinned copper nanowires. Moreover, for the transverse vibration, the Timoshenko beam model is more suitable because shear deformation becomes apparent. (paper)

  2. Size-dependent electronic properties of metal nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Size-dependent electronic properties of metal nanostructures · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Nanocrystalline film at liquid-liquid interface · Slide 21 · Slide 22.

  3. Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This book offers a broad overview of the potential of continuum mechanics to describe a wide range of macroscopic phenomena in real-world problems. Building on the fundamentals presented in the authors' previous book, Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica(R), this new work explores interesting models of continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on exploring the flexibility of their applications in a wide variety of fields.Specific topics, which have been chosen to show the power of continuum mechanics to characterize the experimental behavior of real phenomena, include: * various aspects of nonlin

  4. Size dependent magnetism of mass selected deposited transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, T.

    2002-05-01

    The size dependent magnetic properties of small iron clusters deposited on ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) films have been studied with circularly polarised synchrotron radiation. For X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies, the magnetic moments of size selected clusters were aligned perpendicular to the sample surface. Exchange coupling of the clusters to the ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) film determines the orientation of their magnetic moments. All clusters are coupled ferromagnetically to the underlayer. With the use of sum rules, orbital and spin magnetic moments as well as their ratios have been extracted from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra. The ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moments varies considerably as a function of cluster size, reflecting the dependence of magnetic properties on cluster size and geometry. These variations can be explained in terms of a strongly size dependent orbital moment. Both orbital and spin magnetic moments are significantly enhanced in small clusters as compared to bulk iron, although this effect is more pronounced for the spin moment. Magnetic properties of deposited clusters are governed by the interplay of cluster specific properties on the one hand and cluster-substrate interactions on the other hand. Size dependent variations of magnetic moments are modified upon contact with the substrate. (orig.)

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of contact interaction of a size-dependent plate supported by a size-dependent beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, V. A.; Yakovleva, T. V.; Pavlov, S. P.; Krysko, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model of complex vibrations exhibited by contact dynamics of size-dependent beam-plate constructions was derived by taking the account of constraints between these structural members. The governing equations were yielded by variational principles based on the moment theory of elasticity. The centre of the investigated plate was supported by a beam. The plate and the beam satisfied the Kirchhoff/Euler-Bernoulli hypotheses. The derived partial differential equations (PDEs) were reduced to the Cauchy problems by the Faedo-Galerkin method in higher approximations, whereas the Cauchy problem was solved using a few Runge-Kutta methods. Reliability of results was validated by comparing the solutions obtained by qualitatively different methods. Complex vibrations were investigated with the help of methods of nonlinear dynamics such as vibration signals, phase portraits, Fourier power spectra, wavelet analysis, and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponents based on the Rosenstein, Kantz, and Wolf methods. The effect of size-dependent parameters of the beam and plate on their contact interaction was investigated. It was detected and illustrated that the first contact between the size-dependent structural members implies chaotic vibrations. In addition, problems of chaotic synchronization between a nanoplate and a nanobeam were addressed.

  6. Size-dependent diffusion promotes the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay

    2014-01-01

    intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly......, we found that the single-generation cycle is more likely to drive spatiotemporal patterns compared to predator-prey cycles, meaning that the mechanism of Hopf bifurcation might be more common than hitherto appreciated since the former cycle is more widespread than the latter in case of interacting...

  7. Size-dependent characteristics of ultra-fine oxygen-enriched nanoparticles in austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: ymiao@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Zhou, Zhangjian [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Liu, Xiang; Lan, Kuan-Che [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Guangming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Here, a coordinated investigation of the elemental composition and morphology of ultra-fine-scale nanoparticles as a function of size within a variety of austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels is reported. Atom probe tomography was utilized to evaluate the elemental composition of these nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the crystal structures and orientation relationships were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles with sufficient size (>4 nm) to maintain a Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2−x}O{sub 7−2x} stoichiometry were found to have a pyrochlore structure, whereas smaller Y{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} nanoparticles lacked a well-defined structure. The size-dependent characteristics of the nanoparticles in austenitic ODS steels differ from those in ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. - Highlights: • The structural and chemical characteristics of nanoparticles are revealed. • Nanoparticles' crystal structure and elemental composition are size-dependent. • Characteristics of austenitic ODS steels are compared to that of an F/M ODS steel. • Hypothesis about the formation mechanism of nanoparticles is proposed accordingly.

  8. Size-dependent electronic eigenstates of multilayer organic quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Hanamura, E.

    1995-09-01

    A detailed theoretical treatment is given eigenfunctions and eigenenergies of a multilayer organic quantum well sandwiched between two different dielectric media. The abrupt change of dielectric constants at the interfaces distorts the wave function and results in possible surface states in addition to propagating states. The proper boundary conditions are accounted for by the method of image charges. Analytic criteria for existence of surface states are established using the nearest layers approximation, which depend not only on the intralayer parameters but also on the number of layers. The size dependence together with the dependence on signs and relative magnitudes of the structure parameters fully determine the energy spectrum of propagating states as well as the number and the location of surface states. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  10. Size dependence of the optical spectrum in nanocrystalline silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, Praveen; Ayyub, Pushan; Chandra, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the optical reflectance in sputter-deposited, nanocrystalline silver thin films in order to understand the marked changes in color that occur with decreasing particle size. In particular, samples with an average particle size in the 20 to 35 nm range are golden yellow, while those with a size smaller than 15 nm are black. We simulate the size dependence of the observed reflection spectra by incorporating Mie's theory of scattering and absorption of light in small particles, into the bulk dielectric constant formalism given by Ehrenreich and Philipp [Phys. Rev. 128, 1622 (1962)]. This provides a general method for understanding the reflected color of a dense collection of nanoparticles, such as in a nanocrystalline thin film. A deviation from Mie's theory is observed due to strong interparticle interactions

  11. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A; Isborn, Christine M

    2015-12-28

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. In vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  12. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  13. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, Kristie Jo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  14. Size-Dependent Dynamic Behavior of a Microcantilever Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material length scale considerably affects the mechanical properties of microcantilever components. Recently, cantilever-plate-like structures have been commonly used, whereas the lack of studies on their size effects constrains the design, testing, and application of these structures. We have studied the size-dependent dynamic behavior of a cantilever plate based on a modified couple stress theory and the differential quadrature method in this note. The numerical solutions of microcantilever plate equation involving the size effect have been presented. We have also analyzed the bending and vibration of the microcantilever plates considering the size effect and discussed the dependence of the size effect on their geometric dimensions. The results have shown that (1 the mechanical characteristics of the cantilever plate show obvious size effects; as a result, the bending deflection of a microcantilever plate reduces whereas the natural frequency increases effectively and (2 for the plates with the same material, the size effect becomes more obvious when the plates are thinner.

  15. Size dependence of non-magnetic thickness in YIG nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyaifar, M., E-mail: md.niyaifar@gmail.com; Mohammadpour, H.; Dorafshani, M.; Hasanpour, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study is focused on particle size dependence of structural and magnetic properties in yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) nanoparticles. A series of YIG samples with different particle size were produced by varying the annealing temperatures. The X-ray analysis revealed an inverse correlation between lattice parameter and the crystallite size. The normal distribution is used for fitting the particles size distribution which is extracted from scanning electron micrographs. Also, by using the results of vibrating sample magnetometer, the magnetic diameter was calculated based on Langevin model in order to investigate the variation of dead layer thickness. Furthermore, the observed line broadening in Mössbauer spectra confirmed the increase of non-magnetic thickness due to the reduction of particle size. - Highlights: • Pure phase Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanoparticles are fabricated in different particle size by a thermal treatment. • The size effect on magnetic properties is studied with a core/shell (magnetic/nonmagnetic) model. • The logarithmic variation of (dead layer thickness)/(particle size) ratio with the particle size is investigated. • The results of Mossbauer are explained based on the correlation between lattice constant and particle size variation.

  16. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.; Ito, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  17. Probing size-dependent electrokinetics of hematite aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedra-Królik, Karolina; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous particle suspensions of many kinds are stabilized by the electrostatic potential developed at their surfaces from reaction with water and ions. An important and less well understood aspect of this stabilization is the dependence of the electrostatic surface potential on particle size. Surface electrostatics are typically probed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobilities and quantified in the electrokinetic potential (f), using commercially available Zeta Potential Analyzers (ZPA). Even though ZPAs provide frequency-spectra (histograms) of electrophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic diameter, typically only the maximal-intensity values are reported, despite the information in the remainder of the spectra. Here we propose a mapping procedure that inter-correlates these histograms to extract additional insight, in this case to probe particle size-dependent electrokinetics. Our method is illustrated for a suspension of prototypical iron (III) oxide (hematite, a-Fe2O3). We found that the electrophoretic mobility and f-potential are a linear function of the aggregate size. By analyzing the distribution of surface site types as a function of aggregate size we show that site coordination increases with increasing aggregate diameter. This observation explains why the acidity of the iron oxide particles decreases with increasing particle size.

  18. Size-dependent magnetic properties of branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals with narrow size distribution are obtained by a solution growth method. The size-dependent of magnetic properties of the nickel oxides were investigated. The results of magnetic characterization indicate that the NiO nanocrystals with size below 12.8 nm show very weak ferromagnetic state at room temperature due to the uncompensated spins. Both of the average blocking temperature (Tb and the irreversible temperature (Tirr increase with the increase of nanoparticle sizes, while both the remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 300 K increase with the decrease of the particle sizes. Moreover, the disappearance of two-magnon (2M band and redshift of one-phonon longitudinal (1LO and two-phonon LO in vibrational properties due to size reduction are observed. Compared to the one with the spherical morphological, it is also found that nano-structured nickel oxides with the branchlike morphology have larger remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 5 K due to their larger surface-to-volume ratio and greater degree of broken symmetry at the surface or the higher proportion of broken bonds.

  19. Size-dependent deformation behavior of nanocrystalline graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Huang, Yuhong [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Fei, E-mail: mafei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Yunjin [Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Product Detection and Control of Spoilage Organisms and Pesticide Residue, Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Beijing 102206 (China); Xu, Kewei, E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi’an University of Arts and Science, Xi’an 710065, Shaanxi (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MD simulation is conducted to study the deformation of nanocrystalline graphene. • Unexpectedly, the elastic modulus decreases with the grain size considerably. • But the fracture stress and strain are nearly insensitive to the grain size. • A composite model with grain domains and GBs as two components is suggested. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is conducted to study the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline graphene sheets. It is found that the graphene sheets have almost constant fracture stress and strain, but decreased elastic modulus with grain size. The results are different from the size-dependent strength observed in nanocrystalline metals. Structurally, the grain boundaries (GBs) become a principal component in two-dimensional materials with nano-grains and the bond length in GBs tends to be homogeneously distributed. This is almost the same for all the samples. Hence, the fracture stress and strain are almost size independent. As a low-elastic-modulus component, the GBs increase with reducing grain size and the elastic modulus decreases accordingly. A composite model is proposed to elucidate the deformation behavior.

  20. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  1. Size dependence of elastic mechanical properties of nanocrystalline aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenwu; Dávila, Lilian P., E-mail: ldavila@ucmerced.edu

    2017-04-24

    The effect of grain size on the elastic mechanical properties of nanocrystalline pure metal Al is quantified by molecular dynamics simulation method. In this work, the largest nanocrystalline Al sample has a mean grain size of 29.6 nm and contains over 100 millions atoms in the modeling system. The simulation results show that the elastic properties including elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength of nanocrystalline Al are relatively insensitive to the variation of mean grain size above 13 nm yet they become distinctly grain size dependent below 13 nm. Moreover, at a grain size <13 nm, the elastic modulus decreases monotonically with decreasing grain size while the ultimate tensile strength of nanocrystalline Al initially decreases with the decrease of the grain size down to 9 nm and then increases with further reduction of grain size. The increase of ultimate tensile strength below 9 nm is believed to be a result of an extended elasticity in the ultrafine grain size nanocrystalline Al. This study can facilitate the prediction of varied mechanical properties for similar nanocrystalline materials and even guide testing and fabrication schemes of such materials.

  2. The energetics and structure of nickel clusters: Size dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.L.; Landman, U.

    1991-01-01

    The energetics of nickel clusters over a broad size range are explored within the context of the many-body potentials obtained via the embedded atom method. Unconstrained local minimum energy configurations are found for single crystal clusters consisting of various truncations of the cube or octahedron, with and without (110) faces, as well as some monotwinnings of these. We also examine multitwinned structures such as icosahedra and various truncations of the decahedron, such as those of Ino and Marks. These clusters range in size from 142 to over 5000 atoms. As in most such previous studies, such as those on Lennard-Jones systems, we find that icosahedral clusters are favored for the smallest cluster sizes and that Marks' decahedra are favored for intermediate sizes (all our atomic systems larger than about 2300 atoms). Of course very large clusters will be single crystal face-centered-cubic (fcc) polyhedra: the onset of optimally stable single-crystal nickel clusters is estimated to occur at 17 000 atoms. We find, via comparisons to results obtained via atomistic calculations, that simple macroscopic expressions using accurate surface, strain, and twinning energies can usefully predict energy differences between different structures even for clusters of much smaller size than expected. These expressions can be used to assess the relative energetic merits of various structural motifs and their dependence on cluster size

  3. Size-dependent plastic deformation of twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Startt, Jacob K.; Payne, Thomas G.; Deo, Chaitanya S.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with face-centered cubic metals, twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic (BCC) systems are much less explored partly due to the more complicated plastic deformation behavior and a lack of reliable interatomic potentials for the latter. In this paper, the fault energies predicted by two semi-empirical interatomic potentials in BCC tungsten (W) are first benchmarked against density functional theory calculations. Then, the more accurate potential is employed in large scale molecular dynamics simulations of tensile and compressive loading of twinned nanopillars in BCC W with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. A single crystal, a twinned crystal, and single crystalline nanopillars are also studied as references. Analyses of the stress-strain response and defect nucleation reveal a strong tension-compression asymmetry and a weak pillar size dependence in the yield strength. Under both tensile and compressive loading, plastic deformation in the twinned nanopillars is dominated by dislocation slip on {110} planes that are nucleated from the intersections between the twin boundary and the pillar surface. It is also found that the cross sectional shape of nanopillars affects the strength and the initial site of defect nucleation but not the overall stress-strain response and plastic deformation behavior.

  4. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai; Walker, David; Clark, Simon M.; Kalkan, Bora

    2015-01-01

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size

  5. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbough, Philip P. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Chemistry Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai, E-mail: sc174@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Walker, David [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States); Clark, Simon M. [ARC Center of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2019, Australia and The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, New South Wales 2232 (Australia); Kalkan, Bora [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-20

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size.

  6. Flare continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the metre-wave continuum radiation which is related to similar solar emissions observed in the decimetre and centimetre spectral regions. This type of emission, known as Flare Contiuum, is related to the radio bursts of types II and IV. After summarising the history of the phenomenon and reviewing the observational work, the author discusses the various possible radiation mechanisms and their relation to the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and related regions. The theoretical topics covered include the role of high-energy particles, the trapping of such particles, gyro-synchrotron radiation, polarization and plasma interactions. (U.K.)

  7. Size dependent emission stimulation in ZnO nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchynska, T.V.; El Filali, B.

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), X ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering have been studied in crystalline ZnO nanosheets (NSs) of different sizes, estimated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). ZnO NSs with the size from the range of 60–600 nm were created by the electrochemical (anodization) method and followed thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. XRD study confirms the wurtzite structure of ZnO NSs and has revealed that the lattice parameters increase monotonically with decreasing NS sizes. Simultaneously the intensity of a set of Raman peaks increases and Raman peaks shift into the low energy range. The surface phonon has been detected in smallest size ZnO NSs. Two types of PL bands deal with a set of phonon replicas of free excitons and the defect related emission have been detected in ZnO NSs. The intensity enhancement of exciton- and defect-related PL bands with decreasing ZnO NS sizes has been detected. The intensity stimulation of exciton-related PL bands is attributed to the realization of the week confinement and the exciton-light coupling with the formation of polariton in small size ZnO NSs of 67–170 nm. The intensity rising of defect-related PL bands is attributed to the concentration enlargement of surface defects when the surface to volume ration increases at decreasing ZnO NS sizes. Numerical simulations of radiative lifetimes and exciton radiative recombination rates in ZnO NSs for different emission wavelengths have been done using the exciton-light coupling model. Then the experimental and numerically simulated PL results have been compared and discussed. - Highlights: • Optical and structural investigations of the ZnO nanosheets with the sizes 60–600 nm. • The enlargement of interplanar distances in the wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice is detected. • The change of optic phonon energy and surface phonon appearing are reveled. • ZnO emission stimulation at the week confinement and electron-light coupling with the

  8. Molecular size-dependent abundance and composition of dissolved organic matter in river, lake and sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Guo, Laodong

    2017-06-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in natural waters. The ecological role and environmental fate of DOM are highly related to the chemical composition and size distribution. To evaluate size-dependent DOM quantity and quality, water samples were collected from river, lake, and coastal marine environments and size fractionated through a series of micro- and ultra-filtrations with different membranes having different pore-sizes/cutoffs, including 0.7, 0.4, and 0.2 μm and 100, 10, 3, and 1 kDa. Abundance of dissolved organic carbon, total carbohydrates, chromophoric and fluorescent components in the filtrates decreased consistently with decreasing filter/membrane cutoffs, but with a rapid decline when the filter cutoff reached 3 kDa, showing an evident size-dependent DOM abundance and composition. About 70% of carbohydrates and 90% of humic- and protein-like components were measured in the definition of DOM and its size continuum in quantity and quality in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phasechange nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; ten Brink, Gerrit; Palasantzas, Georgios; Kooi, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in

  10. Nano-crystals of cerium–hafnium binary oxide: Their size-dependent structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raitano, Joan M. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Khalid, Syed [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Marinkovic, Nebojsa [Chemical Engineering Department, Columbia University, 500 W 120th St, Mudd 801, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chan, Siu-Wai, E-mail: sc174@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • (1 − x)CeO{sub 2}–xHfO{sub 2} was precipitated (0 < x < 1) and calcined in air. • For x ⩽ 0.14, crystallites ⩽140 nm in size exhibit only the fluorite structure. • This low hafnia solubility is attributable to no auto-reduction (Ce{sup 3+} = 0). • The low solubility is also due to the high temperature required for homogenization. • Coarsening is lessened as Hf{sup 4+} ions slow cation diffusion in these crystallites. - Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}, “ceria”) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}, “hafnia”) were aqueously co-precipitated and subsequently calcined to allow for homogenization. The size of the (1−x)CeO{sub 2}–xHfO{sub 2} crystallites, determined by the Scherrer equation, varied from 140 nm for x = 0 to 15 nm for x = 0.73. For x ⩽ 0.14, only cubic structures are visible in X-ray diffractograms, and the lattice parameters are consistent with the values expected for structurally cubic solid solutions of hafnia in ceria. At x = 0.26, tetragonal and monoclinic phases nucleated with the former not being observed in the bulk phase diagram for ceria–hafnia. Therefore, the solubility limit of the cubic structure is between x = 0.14 and x = 0.26 for 40–61 nm crystallites, the sizes of these respective compositions. More specifically, for the 40 nm crystallites of x = 0.26 (1 − x)CeO{sub 2}–xHfO{sub 2}, 15% of the hafnia remains in a structurally cubic solid solution with ceria based on the observed cubic lattice parameter. The compositional domain for the cubic fluorite structure in this study is narrower than other nanostructured (1 − x)CeO{sub 2}–xHfO{sub 2} studies, especially studies with crystallite sizes less than 10 nm, but wider than observed in the bulk and helps to expand the size regime over which the relationship between crystallite size and phase stability is known. The extent of this cubic-structure domain is mainly attributable to the intermediate crystallite size and the roughly zero Ce{sup 3+} content as determined by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

  11. Size-dependent buckling and vibration behaviors of piezoelectric nanostructures due to flexoelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xu; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    The symmetry breaking of inversion in solid crystals will induce electric polarization in all solid crystals, which is well known as flexoelectricity. At the nanometer scale, due to the large ratio of surface to volume, piezoelectric structures always exhibit distinct mechanical and electrical behaviors compared with their bulk counterparts. In the current work, the effects of surface and flexoelectricity on the buckling and vibration of piezoelectric nanowires is investigated based on a continuum framework and the Euler–Bernoulli beam hypothesis. Analytical solutions of the electric field in the piezoelectric nanobeam subjected to electrical and mechanical loads are obtained with the surface, flexoelectric and nonlocal electric effects. Numeric simulations demonstrate that the Young’s modulus and bending rigidity of PZT and BaTiO 3 (BT) nanowires are enhanced by flexoelectricity. In addition, the critical buckling voltage is calculated with consideration of the effects of surface and flexoelectricity, and it is found that the effects of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and residual surface stress play significant roles in determining the critical buckling voltage. Results obtained for the first resonance frequency also indicate that the effects of surface and flexoelectricity are more significant at a narrow range of beam thickness. The first resonance frequency of PZT and BT nanowires is also influenced by the residual surface stress and external applied voltage. The current work is expected to provide a fundamental study on the buckling and vibration behaviors of piezoelectric nanobeams, and it might also be helpful in devising piezoelectric nanowire-based nanoelectronics. (paper)

  12. Estimation of the PCR efficiency based on a size-dependent modelling of the amplification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalam, N.; Jacob, C.; Jagers, P.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic modelling of the PCR amplification process by a size-dependent branching process starting as a supercritical Bienaymé–Galton–Watson transient phase and then having a saturation near-critical size-dependent phase. This model based on the concept of saturation allows one to

  13. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  14. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chun-I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung, E-mail: wendung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  15. Size-dependent melting modes and behaviors of Ag nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tianshou; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Zhaohua; Shi, Pengpeng

    2017-12-01

    The size-dependent melting behaviors and mechanisms of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 3.5-16 nm were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD). Two distinct melting modes, non-premelting and premelting with transition ranges of about 7-8 nm, for Ag NPs were demonstrated via the evolution of distribution and transition of atomic physical states during annealing. The small Ag NPs (3.5-7 nm) melt abruptly without a stable liquid shell before the melting point, which is characterized as non-premelting. A solid-solid crystal transformation is conducted through the migration of adatoms on the surface of Ag NPs with diameters of 3.5-6 nm before the initial melting, which is mainly responsible for slightly increasing the melting point of Ag NPs. On the other hand, surface premelting of Ag NPs with diameters of 8-16 nm propagates from the outer shell to the inner core with initial anisotropy and late isotropy as the temperature increases, and the close-packed facets {111} melt by a side-consumed way which is responsible for facets {111} melting in advance relative to the crystallographic plane {111}. Once a stable liquid shell is formed, its size-independent minimum thickness is obtained, and a three-layer structure of atomic physical states is set up. Lastly, the theory of point defect-pair (vacancy-interstitial) severing as the mechanism of formation and movement of the solid-liquid interface was also confirmed. Our study provides a basic understanding and theoretical guidance for the research, production and application of Ag NPs.

  16. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Kö rzdö rfer, Thomas; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range

  17. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  19. Size-dependent reactivity of magnetite nanoparticles: a field-laboratory comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Andrew L.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Logistic challenges make direct comparisons between laboratory- and field-based investigations into the size-dependent reactivity of nanomaterials difficult. This investigation sought to compare the size-dependent reactivity of nanoparticles in a field setting to a laboratory analog using the specific example of magnetite dissolution. Synthetic magnetite nanoparticles of three size intervals, ∼6 nm, ∼44 nm, and ∼90 nm were emplaced in the subsurface of the USGS research site at the Norman Landfill for up to 30 days using custom-made subsurface nanoparticle holders. Laboratory analog dissolution experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater. Reaction products were analyzed via TEM and SEM and compared to initial particle characterizations. Field results indicated that an organic coating developed on the particle surfaces largely inhibiting reactivity. Limited dissolution occurred, with the amount of dissolution decreasing as particle size decreased. Conversely, the laboratory analogs without organics revealed greater dissolution of the smaller particles. These results showed that the presence of dissolved organics led to a nearly complete reversal in the size-dependent reactivity trends displayed between the field and laboratory experiments indicating that size-dependent trends observed in laboratory investigations may not be relevant in organic-rich natural systems.

  20. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  1. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  2. Grain size dependence of the critical current density in YBa2Cu3Ox superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, M.; Shimooka, H.

    1989-01-01

    The grain size dependence of the critical current density in bulk single-phase YBa 2 Cu 3 O x ceramics was investigated. The grain size of the materials was changed to range approximately from 1.0 to 25 μm by changing the conditions of power processing and sintering, associated with an increase in the sintered density of the materials with increasing grain size. The critical current density has been found to exhibit a significant grain size dependence, changing from 880 A/cm 2 to a value of 100 A/cm 2 with a small increase in the average grain size from 1.2 to 2.0 μm. This seems to provide information about the nature of the weak link between superconducting grains which might govern the critical current density of the materials

  3. Unraveling the size-dependent optical properties of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wünsch, Urban; Stedmon, Colin; Tranvik, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The size-dependent optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from four Swedish lakes were investigated using High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) in conjunction with online characterization of absorbance (240–600 nm) and fluorescence (excitation: 275 nm, emission: 300....... This study demonstrates the potential for HPSEC and novel mathematical approaches to provide unprecedented insights into the relationship between optical and chemical properties of DOM in aquatic systems...

  4. Frictional behaviour of sandstone: A sample-size dependent triaxial investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Hamid; Masoumi, Hossein; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Frictional behaviour of rocks from the initial stage of loading to final shear displacement along the formed shear plane has been widely investigated in the past. However the effect of sample size on such frictional behaviour has not attracted much attention. This is mainly related to the limitations in rock testing facilities as well as the complex mechanisms involved in sample-size dependent frictional behaviour of rocks. In this study, a suite of advanced triaxial experiments was performed on Gosford sandstone samples at different sizes and confining pressures. The post-peak response of the rock along the formed shear plane has been captured for the analysis with particular interest in sample-size dependency. Several important phenomena have been observed from the results of this study: a) the rate of transition from brittleness to ductility in rock is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller samples showed faster transition toward ductility at any confining pressure; b) the sample size influences the angle of formed shear band and c) the friction coefficient of the formed shear plane is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller sample exhibits lower friction coefficient compared to larger samples. We interpret our results in terms of a thermodynamics approach in which the frictional properties for finite deformation are viewed as encompassing a multitude of ephemeral slipping surfaces prior to the formation of the through going fracture. The final fracture itself is seen as a result of the self-organisation of a sufficiently large ensemble of micro-slip surfaces and therefore consistent in terms of the theory of thermodynamics. This assumption vindicates the use of classical rock mechanics experiments to constrain failure of pressure sensitive rocks and the future imaging of these micro-slips opens an exciting path for research in rock failure mechanisms.

  5. Size-dependent mechanical properties of PVA nanofibers reduced via air plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Song Xuefeng; Gao Jingyun; Han Xiaobing; Zhao Qing; Yu Dapeng; Jin Yu; Jiang Xingyu

    2010-01-01

    Organic nanowires/fibers have great potential in applications such as organic electronics and soft electronic techniques. Therefore investigation of their mechanical performance is of importance. The Young's modulus of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers was analyzed by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. Air plasma treatment was used to reduce the nanofibers to different sizes. Size-dependent mechanical properties of PVA nanofibers were studied and revealed that the Young's modulus increased dramatically when the scales became very small (<80 nm).

  6. Size-dependent mechanical properties of PVA nanofibers reduced via air plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Jin, Yu; Song, Xuefeng; Gao, Jingyun; Han, Xiaobing; Jiang, Xingyu; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Dapeng

    2010-03-05

    Organic nanowires/fibers have great potential in applications such as organic electronics and soft electronic techniques. Therefore investigation of their mechanical performance is of importance. The Young's modulus of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers was analyzed by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. Air plasma treatment was used to reduce the nanofibers to different sizes. Size-dependent mechanical properties of PVA nanofibers were studied and revealed that the Young's modulus increased dramatically when the scales became very small (<80 nm).

  7. Hierarchical and Size Dependent Mechanical Properties of Silica and Silicon Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Chaniotakis. The physical and mechanical properties of composite cements manufactured with cal- careous and clayey greek diatomite mixtures. Cement and...Hierarchical and size dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae by Andre Phillipe Garcia B.S...dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Transient Properties of Probability Distribution for a Markov Process with Size-dependent Additive Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuhei; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-01

    This study considered a stochastic model for cluster growth in a Markov process with a cluster size dependent additive noise. According to this model, the probability distribution of the cluster size transiently becomes an exponential or a log-normal distribution depending on the initial condition of the growth. In this letter, a master equation is obtained for this model, and derivation of the distributions is discussed.

  9. Field size dependence of wedge factor: miniphantom vs full phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Li, X.; Szanto, J.; Soubra, M.; Gerig, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    It is empirically known that the transmission factor for wedge in a high-energy photon beam is dependent upon field size and depth of measurement. The field-size dependence of wedge factors may be attributed to changes in (i) head scatter, (ii) phantom scatter, and (iii) backscatter from the wedge into the linac monitor chamber. In this work we present the results of studies designed to examine each of these factors in isolation. The wedge factors for wedges with nominal wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. were measured with a 3-g/cm 2 -diameter narrow cylindrical phantom (miniphantom), a brass cap with 1.5-g/cm 2 side-wall thickness and a full water phantom for 6-, 10- and 18-MV photon beams. The measurements were performed with and without flattening filter in place. The wedge factors measured with the miniphantom and the brass cap exclude the phantom scatter contribution. It has been found that the field-size behaviour of wedge factor measured with full water phantom is similar to that measured with the miniphantom and cap. This indicates that the head scatter radiation is the major contributor to the field size dependence of wedge factors. Wedge factors measured with water phantom are up to 5.0% smaller than those measured with miniphantom. This difference increases with wedge angle. When Measured with the flattening filter removed, the field size dependence of the wedge factor is reduced. This justify that the flattening filter is one of the major contributors to head scatters. The measurement results made with the brass cap agree well with those made by using the miniphantom. By measuring the monitor chamber output, it is found that the backscatters from the wedge into the linac ion chamber have little effect on the field size dependence of the wedge factor

  10. A Heuristic Probabilistic Approach to Estimating Size-Dependent Mobility of Nonuniform Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegiorgis, B. T.; Wu, F. C.; van Griensven, A.; Bauwens, W.

    2017-12-01

    Simulating the mechanism of bed sediment mobility is essential for modelling sediment dynamics. Despite the fact that many studies are carried out on this subject, they use complex mathematical formulations that are computationally expensive, and are often not easy for implementation. In order to present a simple and computationally efficient complement to detailed sediment mobility models, we developed a heuristic probabilistic approach to estimating the size-dependent mobilities of nonuniform sediment based on the pre- and post-entrainment particle size distributions (PSDs), assuming that the PSDs are lognormally distributed. The approach fits a lognormal probability density function (PDF) to the pre-entrainment PSD of bed sediment and uses the threshold particle size of incipient motion and the concept of sediment mixture to estimate the PSDs of the entrained sediment and post-entrainment bed sediment. The new approach is simple in physical sense and significantly reduces the complexity and computation time and resource required by detailed sediment mobility models. It is calibrated and validated with laboratory and field data by comparing to the size-dependent mobilities predicted with the existing empirical lognormal cumulative distribution function (CDF) approach. The novel features of the current approach are: (1) separating the entrained and non-entrained sediments by a threshold particle size, which is a modified critical particle size of incipient motion by accounting for the mixed-size effects, and (2) using the mixture-based pre- and post-entrainment PSDs to provide a continuous estimate of the size-dependent sediment mobility.

  11. The Virtuality Continuum Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Traum, D.; Zhai, Sh.; Kellogg, W.

    2005-01-01

    We survey the themes and the aims of a workshop devoted to the state-of-the-art virtuality continuum. In this continuum, ranging from fully virtual to real physical environments, allowing for mixed, augmented and desktop virtual reality, several perspectives can be taken. Originally, the emphasis

  12. Notes on continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Eduardo W V

    2013-01-01

    This publication is aimed at students, teachers, and researchers of Continuum Mechanics and focused extensively on stating and developing Initial Boundary Value equations used to solve physical problems. With respect to notation, the tensorial, indicial and Voigt notations have been used indiscriminately.   The book is divided into twelve chapters with the following topics: Tensors, Continuum Kinematics, Stress, The Objectivity of Tensors, The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics, An Introduction to Constitutive Equations, Linear Elasticity, Hyperelasticity, Plasticity (small and large deformations), Thermoelasticity (small and large deformations), Damage Mechanics (small and large deformations), and An Introduction to Fluids. Moreover, the text is supplemented with over 280 figures, over 100 solved problems, and 130 references.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study: the size dependence of decomposition thermodynamics of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zixiang; Duan, Huijuan; Li, Wenjiao; Xue, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of preparation and application of nanomaterials, the decomposition reactions of nanomaterials are often involved. However, there is a dramatic difference in decomposition thermodynamics between nanomaterials and the bulk counterparts, and the difference depends on the size of the particles that compose the nanomaterials. In this paper, the decomposition model of a nanoparticle was built, the theory of decomposition thermodynamics of nanomaterials was proposed, and the relations of the size dependence of thermodynamic quantities for the decomposition reactions were deduced. In experiment, taking the thermal decomposition of nano-Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 with different particle sizes (the range of radius is at 8.95–27.4 nm) as a system, the reaction thermodynamic quantities were determined, and the regularities of size dependence of the quantities were summarized. These experimental regularities consist with the above thermodynamic relations. The results show that there is a significant effect of the size of particles composing a nanomaterial on the decomposition thermodynamics. When all the decomposition products are gases, the differences in thermodynamic quantities of reaction between the nanomaterials and the bulk counterparts depend on the particle size; while when one of the decomposition products is a solid, the differences depend on both the initial particle size of the nanoparticle and the decomposition ratio. When the decomposition ratio is very small, these differences are only related to the initial particle size; and when the radius of the nanoparticles approaches or exceeds 10 nm, the reaction thermodynamic functions and the logarithm of the equilibrium constant are linearly associated with the reciprocal of radius, respectively. The thermodynamic theory can quantificationally describe the regularities of the size dependence of thermodynamic quantities for decomposition reactions of nanomaterials, and contribute to the researches and the

  14. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  15. On grain-size-dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Zinkle, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms. The phenomenon had already been investigated in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain......-size-dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under...

  16. Modelling the PCR amplification process by a size-dependent branching process and estimation of the efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalam, N.; Jacob, C.; Jagers, P.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a stochastic modelling of the PCR amplification process by a size-dependent branching process starting as a supercritical Bienaymé-Galton-Watson transient phase and then having a saturation near-critical size-dependent phase. This model allows us to estimate the probability of replication

  17. Computational Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shabana, Ahmed A

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the theory of continuum mechanics using computational methods. Ideal for students and researchers, the second edition features a new chapter on computational geometry and finite element analysis.

  18. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  19. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggi, Marco [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: marco.paggi@polito.it; Carpinteri, Alberto [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  20. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggi, Marco; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  1. Size-dependent modification of asteroid family Yarkovsky V-shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B. T.; Morbidelli, A.; Walsh, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The thermal properties of the surfaces of asteroids determine the magnitude of the drift rate cause by the Yarkovsky force. In the general case of Main Belt asteroids, the Yarkovsky force is indirectly proportional to the thermal inertia, Γ. Aim. Following the proposed relationship between Γ and asteroid diameter D, we find that asteroids' Yarkovsky drift rates might have a more complex size dependence than previous thought, leading to a curved family V-shape boundary in semi-major axis, a, vs. 1/D space. This implies that asteroids are drifting faster at larger sizes than previously considered decreasing on average the known ages of asteroid families. Methods: The V-Shape curvature is determined for >25 families located throughout the Main Belt to quantify the Yarkovsky size-dependent drift rate. Results: We find that there is no correlation between family age and V-shape curvature. In addition, the V-shape curvature decreases for asteroid families with larger heliocentric distances suggesting that the relationship between Γ and D is weaker in the outer MB possibly due to homogenous surface roughness among family members.

  2. An investigation of the general regularity of size dependence of reaction kinetics of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zixiang; Duan, Huijuan; Xue, Yongqiang; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of preparation and application of nanomaterials, the chemical reactions of nanoparticles are often involved, and the size of nanoparticles has dramatic influence on the reaction kinetics. Nevertheless, there are many conflicts on regularities of size dependence of reaction kinetic parameters, and these conflicts have not been explained so far. In this paper, taking the reaction of nano-ZnO (average diameter is from 20.96 to 53.31 nm) with acrylic acid solution as a system, the influence regularities of the particle size on the kinetic parameters were researched. The regularities were consistent with that in most literatures, but inconsistent with that in a few of literatures, the reasons for the conflicts were interpreted. The reasons can be attributed to two factors: one is improper data processing for fewer data points, and the other is the difference between solid particles and porous particles. A general regularity of the size dependence of reaction kinetics for solid particles was obtained. The regularity shows that with the size of nanoparticles decreasing, the rate constant and the reaction order increase, while the apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor decrease; and the relationships of the logarithm of rate constant, the logarithm of pre-exponential factor, and the apparent activation energy to the reciprocal of the particle size are linear, respectively

  3. Tunable preparation of ruthenium nanoparticles with superior size-dependent catalytic hydrogenation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuan; Luo, Yaodong; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Yaxin; Song, Qijun, E-mail: qsong@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A facile and efficient strategy is firstly developed for the synthesis of Ru NPs. • Ru NPs are stable and uniform with the controllable sizes from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. • Ru NPs exhibit size-dependent and superior catalytic hydrogenation activity. - Abstract: Ruthenium (Ru) featured with an unusual catalytic behavior is of great significance in several heterogeneous and electro-catalytic reactions. The preparation of tractable Ru nanocatalysts and the building of highly active catalytic system at ambient temperature remains a grand challenge. Herein, a facile strategy is developed for the controllable preparation of Ru nanoparticles (NPs) with the sizes ranging from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. Ru NPs show superior size-dependent catalytic performance with the best kinetic rate constant as high as −1.52 min{sup −1}, which could far surpass the other traditional noble metals. Ru NPs exert exceedingly efficient low-temperature catalytic activity and good recyclability in the catalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and azo dyes. The developed catalytic system provides a distinguishing insight for the artificial preparation of Ru NPs with desired sizes, and allows for the development of rational design rules for exploring catalysts with superior catalytic performances, potentially broadening the applications of metallic NP-enabled catalytic analysis.

  4. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, E

    2015-12-09

    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  5. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Á lvarez, E; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Ló pez-Urrutia, Á ; Nogueira, E

    2015-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  6. Size-Dependent Axonal Bouton Dynamics following Visual Deprivation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna P. Sammons

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced. Large boutons decreased, and small boutons increased. Reduced bouton variance was accompanied by a reduced range of correlated calcium-mediated neural activity in L2/3 of awake animals. Network simulations predicted that size-dependent plasticity may promote conditions of greater bidirectional plasticity. These predictions were supported by electrophysiological measures of short- and long-term plasticity. We propose size-dependent dynamics facilitate cortical reorganization by maximizing the potential for bidirectional plasticity.

  7. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of yttrium oxide nanoparticles on primary osteoblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guoqiang, E-mail: zhougq1982@163.com; Li, Yunfei; Ma, Yanyan; Liu, Zhu; Cao, Lili; Wang, Da; Liu, Sudan; Xu, Wenshi; Wang, Wenying [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Yttrium oxide nanoparticles are an excellent host material for the rare earth metals and have high luminescence efficiency providing a potential application in photodynamic therapy and biological imaging. In this study, the effects of yttrium oxide nanoparticles with four different sizes were investigated using primary osteoblasts in vitro. The results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity generated by yttrium oxide nanoparticles depended on the particle size, and smaller particles possessed higher toxicological effects. For the purpose to elucidate the relationship between reactive oxygen species generation and cell damage, cytomembrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species level, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell apoptosis rate, and activity of caspase-3 in cells were then measured. Increased reactive oxygen species level was also observed in a size-dependent way. Thus, our data demonstrated that exposure to yttrium oxide nanoparticles resulted in a size-dependent cytotoxicity in cultured primary osteoblasts, and reactive oxygen species generation should be one possible damage pathway for the toxicological effects produced by yttrium oxide particles. The results may provide useful information for more rational applications of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in the future.

  8. On grain size dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Golubov, S.I.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2001-03-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). The phenomenon was investigated already in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain size dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under cascade damage conditions was radically different and could not be explained in terms of the SRT. In an effort to understand the source of this significant difference, the effect of grain size on void swelling under cascade damage conditions has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons at 623K to a dose level of ∼0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). The post-irradiation defect microstructure including voids was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The evolution of void swelling was calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM) and the SRT. The grain size dependent void swelling measured experimentally is in good accord with the theoretical results obtained using PMB. Implications of these results on modeling of void swelling under cascade damage conditions are discussed. (au)

  9. Origin of the Size-Dependent Stokes Shift in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Michael C; Herr, John E; Nguyen-Beck, Triet S; Zinna, Jessica; Draguta, Sergiu; Rouvimov, Sergei; Parkhill, John; Kuno, Masaru

    2017-09-06

    The origin of the size-dependent Stokes shift in CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) is explained for the first time. Stokes shifts range from 82 to 20 meV for NCs with effective edge lengths varying from ∼4 to 13 nm. We show that the Stokes shift is intrinsic to the NC electronic structure and does not arise from extrinsic effects such as residual ensemble size distributions, impurities, or solvent-related effects. The origin of the Stokes shift is elucidated via first-principles calculations. Corresponding theoretical modeling of the CsPbBr 3 NC density of states and band structure reveals the existence of an intrinsic confined hole state 260 to 70 meV above the valence band edge state for NCs with edge lengths from ∼2 to 5 nm. A size-dependent Stokes shift is therefore predicted and is in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between bulk and NC calculations shows that the confined hole state is exclusive to NCs. At a broader level, the distinction between absorbing and emitting states in CsPbBr 3 is likely a general feature of other halide perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size to enhance applications involving these materials.

  10. Pore size dependent molecular adsorption of cationic dye in biomass derived hierarchically porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ji, Tuo; Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-07-01

    Hierarchically porous carbon adsorbents were successfully fabricated from different biomass resources (softwood, hardwood, bamboo and cotton) by a facile two-step process, i.e. carbonization in nitrogen and thermal oxidation in air. Without involving any toxic/corrosive chemicals, large surface area of up to 890 m 2 /g was achieved, which is comparable to commercial activated carbon. The porous carbons with various surface area and pore size were used as adsorbents to investigate the pore size dependent adsorption phenomenon. Based on the density functional theory, effective (E-SSA) and ineffective surface area (InE-SSA) was calculated considering the geometry of used probing adsorbate. It was demonstrated that the adsorption capacity strongly depends on E-SSA instead of total surface area. Moreover, a regression model was developed to quantify the adsorption capacities contributed from E-SSA and InE-SSA, respectively. The applicability of this model has been verified by satisfactory prediction results on porous carbons prepared in this work as well as commercial activated carbon. Revealing the pore size dependent adsorption behavior in these biomass derived porous carbon adsorbents will help to design more effective materials (either from biomass or other carbon resources) targeting to specific adsorption applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuum gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1981-06-01

    When angular momentum is added to a nucleus, it is, of course, carried by the individual nucleons, but two limiting types of behavior may be distinguished: (1) a small number of high-j particles align with the rotation axis and (2) the nucleus is deformed and rotates as a whole. At high spin all nuclei seem to show a compromise utilizing both motions. The excited nuclei left as products of (HI,xn) reactions have so many pathways down that none of the γ-ray transitions have enough intensity to be seen individually until the population gathers near the yrast line. This occurs usually between spin 20 to 40 h-bar. All our information on the higher states comes from their continuum spectra. With the new techniques that are developing, including the use of multiplicity filters, total-energy spectrometers, energy correlation studies, crystal balls, and observation of giant dipole resonances in the continuum spectra, there is hope to learn much about the nature of the high-spin states

  12. Size-dependent Fano Interaction in the Laser-etched Silicon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhoto-excitation and size-dependent Raman scattering studies on the silicon (Si nanostructures (NSs prepared by laser-induced etching are presented here. Asymmetric and red-shifted Raman line-shapes are observed due to photo-excited Fano interaction in the quantum confined nanoparticles. The Fano interaction is observed between photo-excited electronic transitions and discrete phonons in Si NSs. Photo-excited Fano studies on different Si NSs show that the Fano interaction is high for smaller size of Si NSs. Higher Fano interaction for smaller Si NSs is attributed to the enhanced interference between photo-excited electronic Raman scattering and phonon Raman scattering.

  13. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. Age- and size-dependent mating performance and fertility in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Prepress abstract: In many species, size and age have been shown to be strong determinants of the reproductive success for both sexes. Here we examine age- and size dependent reproductive performance (egg- and sperm production, mating success) in a pelagic copepod. Compared to smaller males, larger...... males produce larger spermatophores containing more spermatozoa, and fertilize a larger fraction of available females. Females mating with large males produce more offspring than those mating with small males. Similarly, large females have higher egg production rates as well as a higher life-time egg...... fertilize females for only about eight days after they mature. The strong size- and age-dependent fertility observed in this species is conducive to the development of sexual selection via mate choice for young and large partners, as has been shown in one other copepod species...

  15. Measuring size dependent electrical properties from nanoneedle structures: Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Shimin; Anderson, Daniel D.; Shang, Tao; Park, Byoungnam; Dillon, Shen J.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the fabrication and testing of nanoneedle devices with well-defined interfaces that are amenable to a variety of structural and electrical characterization, including transmission electron microscopy. Single Pt/ZnO nanoneedle Schottky diodes were fabricated by a top down method using a combination of electro-polishing, sputtering, and focused ion beam milling. The resulting structures contained nanoscale planar heterojunctions with low ideality factors, the dimensions of which were tuned to study size-dependent electrical properties. The diameter dependence of the Pt/ZnO diode barrier height is explained by a joule heating effect and/or electronic inhomogeneity in the Pt/ZnO contact area

  16. Size dependent diffusive parameters and tensorial diffusion equations in neutronic models for optically small nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1983-01-01

    Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated

  17. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, A. M.; Sergeev, N. A.; Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J.-P.; Goren, S. D.

    2015-02-01

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and 13C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  18. Size-dependent effective properties of anisotropic piezoelectric composites with piezoelectric nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming-Juan; Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electro-elastic surface/interface theory, the size-dependent effective piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of anisotropic piezoelectric composites that consist of spherically piezoelectric inclusions under a uniform electric field are investigated, and the analytical solutions for the elastic displacement and electric potentials are derived. With consideration of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the effective field method is introduced to derive the effective dielectric and piezoelectric responses in the dilute limit. The numerical examples show that the effective dielectric constant exhibits a significant variation due to the surface/interface effect. The dielectric property of the surface/interface displays greater effect than the piezoelectric property, and the elastic property shows little effect. A comparison with the existing results validates the present approach. (paper)

  19. Grain-size dependent accommodation due to intragranular distributions of dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richeton, T.; Berbenni, S.; Berveiller, M.

    2009-01-01

    A grain-size dependent accommodation law for polycrystals is deduced from an inclusion/matrix problem (i.e., each grain is seen as embedded in a homogeneous equivalent medium) where plastic strain inside the inclusion is given as a discrete distribution of circular coaxial glide dislocation loops. The loops are assumed constrained at spherical grain boundaries. From thermodynamic considerations specific to a process of identical plastification in all the loops (considered as 'super-dislocations'), an average back-stress over the grain is derived. In order to compute the very early stages of plastic deformation in a face-centred cubic polycrystal, this back-stress is incorporated into a diluted model in terms of concentration of plastic grains. Contrary to conventional mean-field approaches, a grain-size effect is obtained for the initial overall strain-hardening behaviour. This size effect results from an intrinsic contribution of intragranular slip heterogeneities on the kinematical hardening

  20. Size-dependent pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Binglei; Zhou, Shenjie; Zhao, Junfeng; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    We present a size-dependent model for electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS using strain gradient elasticity theory. The normalized pull-in voltage is shown to increase nonlinearly with the decrease of the beam height, and the size effect becomes prominent if the beam thickness is on the order of microns or smaller (i.e. when the beam dimension is comparable to the material length scale parameter). Very good agreement is found between the present model and available experimental data. The study may be helpful to characterize the mechanical properties of small size MEMS, or guide the design of microbeam-based devices for a wide range of potential applications. (technical note)

  1. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  2. Size dependence of magnetization reversal of ring shaped magnetic tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, C.C.; Horng, Lance; Wu, Teho; Chern, G.; Huang, C.Y.; Tsunoda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Wu, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The size dependence of magnetization reversal of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) rings has been investigated. The MTJ rings, with outer diameter of 4, 2 and 1 μm and inner diameter of 1.5, 1 and 0.5 μm were fabricated by a top-down technique. The magnetoresistance curves manifest all of the magnetic domain configurations during magnetization reversal in different sized rings. Various transition processes were observed, such as four transition, three transition and two transition in the largest, middle and smallest MTJ ring, respectively. Furthermore, the biasing fields observed from major loops decrease with decreasing size, which may result from edge roughness produced in the ion-milling process

  3. Measurements of the size dependence of the concentration of nonvolatile material in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, J. A.; Noone, K. J.; Hallberg, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schell, D.; Berner, A.; Solly, I.; Kruisz, C.; Reischl, G.; Arends, B. G.; Wobrock, W.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the size dependence of the mass concentration of nonvolatile material dissolved and suspended in fog droplets were obtained with three complementary approaches, covering a size range from c. 1 50µm diameter: a counterflow virtual impactor, an eight-stage aerosol impactor, and a two-stage fogwater impactor. Concentrations were observed to decrease with size over the entire range, contrary to expectations of increasing concentrations at larger sizes. It is possible that the larger droplets had solute concentrations that increased with increasing size, but that the increase was too weak for the measurements to resolve. Future studies should consider the hypothesis that the droplets were coated with a surface-active substance that hindered their uptake of water.

  4. Influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Marin, P.; Kulik, T.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    An increase of coercive field with decreasing particle size has been observed in ball milled nanocomposite of Fe-rich nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Previous works (J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1998) 6044) have concluded that for high lattice strain, , the increase of coercivity is due to the magnetoelastic anisotropy generated by . Even though other effects can also be involved, the experimental results seem to indicate that the influence of the particle size on the average structural anisotropy noticeably contributes to the hardening observed for low . The influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys has been analyzed. Some analogies and differences in respect of that observed in partially nanocrystallized samples have been found

  5. Film size-dependent voltage-modulated magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.-M.; Shu, L.; Li, Z.; Gao, Y.; Shen, Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    The electric-voltage-modulated magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures, also known as the converse magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, has drawn increasing research interest recently owing to its great potential applications in future low-power, high-speed electronic and/or spintronic devices, such as magnetic memory and computer logic. In this article, based on combined theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration, we investigate the film size dependence of such converse ME coupling in multiferroic magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures, as well as exploring the interaction between two relating coupling mechanisms that are the interfacial strain and possibly the charge effects. We also briefly discuss some issues for the next step and describe new device prototypes that can be enabled by this technology. PMID:24421375

  6. Size-dependent impairment of cognition in mice caused by the injection of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hong, Meng-Yeng; Huang, G Steve; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Li-Wei; Liau, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We explored the size-dependent impairment of cognition in mice caused by the injection of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). GNPs of 17 and 37 nm in diameter were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice at doses ranging from 0.5 to 14.6 mg kg -1 . ICP-MS was performed on brain tissue collected 1, 14 and 21 days after the injection. A passive-avoidance test was performed on day 21. Monoamine levels were determined on day 21. The microscopic distribution of GNPs in the hippocampus was examined using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that 17 nm GNPs passed through the blood-brain barrier more rapidly than 37 nm GNPs. Treatment with 17 nm GNPs decreased the latency time, which was comparable to the effect of scopolamine treatment, while 37 nm GNPs showed no significant effect. Dopamine levels and serotonin levels in the brain were significantly altered by the injection of 17 and 37 nm GNPs. GNPs affected dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. CARS microscopy indicated that 17 nm GNPs entered the Cornu Ammonis (CA) region of the hippocampus, while 37 nm GNPs were excluded from the CA region. TEM verified the presence of 17 nm GNPs in the cytoplasm of pyramidal cells. In this study, we showed that the ability of GNPs to damage cognition in mice was size-dependent and associated with the ability of the particles to invade the hippocampus. The dosage and duration of the treatment should be taken into account if GNPs are used in the future as vehicles to carry therapeutic agents into the brain.

  7. Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for

  8. Size-dependent impairment of cognition in mice caused by the injection of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hong, Meng-Yeng; Huang, G Steve [Institute of Nanotechnology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yao-Ching [Section of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University and Hospital, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Lin, Li-Wei [School of Chinese Medicine for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, 8 Yida Road, Yanchao Township, Kaohsiung Country 82445, Taiwan (China); Liau, Ian, E-mail: gstevehuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-03

    We explored the size-dependent impairment of cognition in mice caused by the injection of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). GNPs of 17 and 37 nm in diameter were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice at doses ranging from 0.5 to 14.6 mg kg{sup -1}. ICP-MS was performed on brain tissue collected 1, 14 and 21 days after the injection. A passive-avoidance test was performed on day 21. Monoamine levels were determined on day 21. The microscopic distribution of GNPs in the hippocampus was examined using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that 17 nm GNPs passed through the blood-brain barrier more rapidly than 37 nm GNPs. Treatment with 17 nm GNPs decreased the latency time, which was comparable to the effect of scopolamine treatment, while 37 nm GNPs showed no significant effect. Dopamine levels and serotonin levels in the brain were significantly altered by the injection of 17 and 37 nm GNPs. GNPs affected dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. CARS microscopy indicated that 17 nm GNPs entered the Cornu Ammonis (CA) region of the hippocampus, while 37 nm GNPs were excluded from the CA region. TEM verified the presence of 17 nm GNPs in the cytoplasm of pyramidal cells. In this study, we showed that the ability of GNPs to damage cognition in mice was size-dependent and associated with the ability of the particles to invade the hippocampus. The dosage and duration of the treatment should be taken into account if GNPs are used in the future as vehicles to carry therapeutic agents into the brain.

  9. A coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation plasticity simulation of nanoindentation into single crystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ronald E.; Shilkrot, L.E.; Curtin, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of 2D nanoindentation of circular 'Brinell' indenter into a single crystal metal thin film bonded to a rigid substrate is investigated. The simulation method is the coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation (CADD) model recently developed by the authors. The CADD model couples a continuum region containing any number of discrete dislocations to an atomistic region, and permits accurate, automatic detection and passing of dislocations between the atomistic and continuum regions. The CADD model allows for a detailed study of nanoindentation to large penetration depths (up to 60 A here) using only a small region of atoms just underneath the indenter where dislocation nucleation, cross-slip, and annihilation occur. Indentation of a model hexagonal aluminum crystal shows: (i) the onset of homogeneous dislocation nucleation at points away from the points of maximum resolved shear stress; (ii) size-dependence of the material hardness, (iii) the role of dislocation dissociation on deformation; (iv) reverse plasticity, including nucleation of dislocations on unloading and annihilation; (v) permanent deformation, including surface uplift, after full unloading; (vi) the effects of film thickness on the load-displacement response; and (vii) the differences between displacement and force controlled loading. This application demonstrates the power of the CADD method in capturing both long-range dislocation plasticity and short-range atomistic phenomena. The use of CADD permits for a clear study of the physical and mechanical influence of both complex plastic flow and non-continuum atomistic-level processes on the macroscopic response of material under indentation loading

  10. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  11. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  12. Particle size dependence on oxygen reduction reaction activity of electrodeposited TaOx catalysts in acidic media

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, J.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, J.; Domen, K.

    2013-01-01

    The size dependence of the oxygen reduction reaction activity was studied for TaOx nanoparticles electrodeposited on carbon black for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Compared with a commercial Ta2O5 material, the ultrafine

  13. Lattice continuum and diffusional creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarovic, Sinisa Dj

    2016-04-01

    Diffusional creep is characterized by growth/disappearance of lattice planes at the crystal boundaries that serve as sources/sinks of vacancies, and by diffusion of vacancies. The lattice continuum theory developed here represents a natural and intuitive framework for the analysis of diffusion in crystals and lattice growth/loss at the boundaries. The formulation includes the definition of the Lagrangian reference configuration for the newly created lattice, the transport theorem and the definition of the creep rate tensor for a polycrystal as a piecewise uniform, discontinuous field. The values associated with each crystalline grain are related to the normal diffusional flux at grain boundaries. The governing equations for Nabarro-Herring creep are derived with coupled diffusion and elasticity with compositional eigenstrain. Both, bulk diffusional dissipation and boundary dissipation accompanying vacancy nucleation and absorption, are considered, but the latter is found to be negligible. For periodic arrangements of grains, diffusion formally decouples from elasticity but at the cost of a complicated boundary condition. The equilibrium of deviatorically stressed polycrystals is impossible without inclusion of interface energies. The secondary creep rate estimates correspond to the standard Nabarro-Herring model, and the volumetric creep is small. The initial (primary) creep rate is estimated to be much larger than the secondary creep rate.

  14. Seasonal and particle size-dependent variations in gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se-Jin; Ale, Debaki; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Sun Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored particle size-dependent variations in atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Two gas/particle partitioning models, the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L 0 ) and the octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) model, were applied to each particle sizes. The regression coefficients of each fraction against the gas/particle partition coefficient (K P ) were similar for separated particles within the same sample set but differed for particles collected during different periods. Gas/particle partitioning calculated from the integral of fractions was similar to that of size-segregated particles and previously measured bulk values. Despite the different behaviors and production mechanisms of atmospheric particles of different sizes, PCDD/F partitioning of each size range was controlled by meteorological conditions such as atmospheric temperature, O 3 and UV, which reflects no source related with certain particle size ranges but mixed urban sources within this city. Our observations emphasize that when assessing environmental and health effects, the movement of PCDD/Fs in air should be considered in conjunction with particle size in addition to the bulk aerosol. - Gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric PCDD/Fs for different particle sizes reflects the impacts of emitters of different size ranges

  15. Size dependence investigations of hot electron cooling dynamics in metal/adsorbates nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christophe; Abid, Jean-Pierre; Girault, Hubert H.

    2005-01-01

    The size dependence of electron-phonon coupling rate has been investigated by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for gold nanoparticles (NPs) wrapped in a shell of sulfate with diameter varying from 1.7 to 9.2 nm. Broad-band spectroscopy gives an overview of the complex dynamics of nonequilibrium electrons and permits the choice of an appropriate probe wavelength for studying the electron-phonon coupling dynamics. Ultrafast experiments were performed in the weak perturbation regime (less than one photon in average per nanoparticle), which allows the direct extraction of the hot electron cooling rates in order to compare different NPs sizes under the same conditions. Spectroscopic data reveals a decrease of hot electron energy loss rates with metal/adsorbates nanosystem sizes. Electron-phonon coupling time constants obtained for 9.2 nm NPs are similar to gold bulk materials (∼1 ps) whereas an increase of hot electron cooling time up to 1.9 ps is observed for sizes of 1.7 nm. This is rationalized by the domination of surface effects over size (bulk) effects. The slow hot electron cooling is attributed to the adsorbates-induced long-lived nonthermal regime, which significantly reduces the electron-phonon coupling strength (average rate of phonon emission)

  16. Big maggots dig deeper: size-dependent larval dispersal in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy M; Coogan, Laura E; Papaj, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    The ability of individual animals to select habitats optimal for development and survival can be constrained by the costs of moving through the environment. Animals that seek overwintering sites underground, for example, may be constrained by the energy required to burrow into the soil. We conducted field and laboratory studies to determine the relationship between individual size and overwintering site selection in the tephritid flies, Rhagoletis juglandis and Rhagoletis suavis. We also explored the effect of site selection on pupal mortality, parasitism, and the ability to emerge from overwintering sites after eclosion. In both species, and in both lab and field tests, larger pupae were found at deeper soil depths. In addition, marginally non-significant trends indicated pupae in deeper sites were 48% more likely to survive the overwintering period. Finally, larger individuals were more likely to eclose and emerge from the soil at a given depth, but flies in deep overwintering sites were less likely to emerge from those sites than flies in shallow sites. Our data indicate that overwintering site selection represents a trade-off between avoiding predators and parasites that occur at shallow sites, and the energetic and mortality costs of burrowing to, overwintering in, and emerging from, deeper sites. The size-dependent overwintering site selection demonstrated here has implications for population dynamics and pest control strategies. Some fly control measures, such as the introduction of parasites or predators, will be mitigated when the deepest and least accessible overwintering pupae represent a disproportionately large amount of the population's reproductive capacity.

  17. Nanotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to red blood cells: size dependent adsorption, uptake, and hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li Qiang; Fang, Li; Ling, Jian; Ding, Cheng Zhi; Kang, Bin; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-03-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs.

  18. Functional-dependent and size-dependent uptake of nanoparticles in PC12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N; Matsui, Y; Nakayama, A; Yoneda, M; Tsuda, A

    2011-01-01

    It is suggested that the uptake of nanoparticles is changed by the particle size or the surface modification. In this study, we quantified the uptake of nanoparticles in PC12 cells exposed Quantum Dots with different surface modification or fluorescent polystyrene particles with different particle size. The PC12 cells were exposed three types of the Quantum Dots (carboxyl base-functionalized, amino base-functionalized or non-base-functionalized) or three types of the fluorescent particles (22 nm, 100 nm or 1000 nm) for 3 hours. The uptake of the nanoparticles was quantified with a spectrofluorophotometer. The carboxyl base-functionalized Quantum Dots were considerably taken up by the cells than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. Conversely, the amino base-functionalized Quantum Dots were taken up by the cells less frequently than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. The particle number of the 22 nm-nanoparticles taken up by the cells was about 53 times higher than the 100 nm-particles. However, the particle weight of the 100 nm-particles taken up by the cells was higher than that of the 22 nm-nanoparticles. The 1000 nm-particles were adhered to the cell membrane, but they were little taken up by the cells. We concluded that nanoparticles can be taken up nerve cells in functional-dependent and size-dependent manners.

  19. Uncovering the intrinsic size dependence of hydriding phase transformations in nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Hedges, Lester O; Pint, Cary L; Javey, Ali; Whitelam, Stephen; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2013-10-01

    A quantitative understanding of nanocrystal phase transformations would enable more efficient energy conversion and catalysis, but has been hindered by difficulties in directly monitoring well-characterized nanoscale systems in reactive environments. We present a new in situ luminescence-based probe enabling direct quantification of nanocrystal phase transformations, applied here to the hydriding transformation of palladium nanocrystals. Our approach reveals the intrinsic kinetics and thermodynamics of nanocrystal phase transformations, eliminating complications of substrate strain, ligand effects and external signal transducers. Clear size-dependent trends emerge in nanocrystals long accepted to be bulk-like in behaviour. Statistical mechanical simulations show these trends to be a consequence of nanoconfinement of a thermally driven, first-order phase transition: near the phase boundary, critical nuclei of the new phase are comparable in size to the nanocrystal itself. Transformation rates are then unavoidably governed by nanocrystal dimensions. Our results provide a general framework for understanding how nanoconfinement fundamentally impacts broad classes of thermally driven solid-state phase transformations relevant to hydrogen storage, catalysis, batteries and fuel cells.

  20. Size-dependent abnormal thermo-enhanced luminescence of ytterbium-doped nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangshui; Cheng, Yao; Lin, Hang; Huang, Feng; Wu, Qingping; Wang, Yuansheng

    2017-09-21

    Thermal quenching above 300 K is widely expected in photoluminescence. Luminescence quenching is usually ascribed to the non-radiative relaxation of excited electrons to the ground state of the activators, during which a high temperature always plays a role in pushing the excited electrons towards the quenching channels, leading to thermal quenching. For the lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, however, there is a special luminescence quenching channel that does not exist in their bulk counterparts, i.e., energy migration-induced surface quenching. Herein, a size-dependent abnormal thermal enhancement of luminescence in the temperature range of 300 K to 423 K in the ytterbium-doped fluoride nanoparticles is presented for the first time. Importantly, in this work, we originally demonstrate that the energy migration-induced surface quenching can be suppressed by increasing temperature, which results in the abnormal thermal enhancement of luminescence. According to the temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and lifetime analyses, an underlying mechanism based on the effect of thermal lattice expansion on ytterbium-mediated energy migration is proposed. This new finding adds new insights to the size effect on the luminescent characteristics of nanoparticles, which could be utilized to construct some unique nanostructures, especially for many important temperature-related purposes, such as thermal sensing technology.

  1. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  2. Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreels, Iwan; Lambert, Karel; Smeets, Dries; De Muynck, David; Nollet, Tom; Martins, José C; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vantomme, André; Delerue, Christophe; Allan, Guy; Hens, Zeger

    2009-10-27

    We quantitatively investigate the size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS nanocrystals or quantum dots (Qdots), by combining the Qdot absorbance spectra with detailed elemental analysis of the Qdot suspensions. At high energies, the molar extinction coefficient epsilon increases with the Qdot volume d(3) and agrees with theoretical calculations using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory and bulk values for the Qdot dielectric function. This demonstrates that quantum confinement has no influence on epsilon in this spectral range, and it provides an accurate method to calculate the Qdot concentration. Around the band gap, epsilon only increases with d(1.3), and values are comparable to the epsilon of PbSe Qdots. The data are related to the oscillator strength f(if) of the band gap transition and results agree well with theoretical tight-binding calculations, predicting a linear dependence of f(if) on d. For both PbS and PbSe Qdots, the exciton lifetime tau is calculated from f(if). We find values ranging between 1 and 3 mus, in agreement with experimental literature data from time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Our results provide a thorough general framework to calculate and understand the optical properties of suspended colloidal quantum dots. Most importantly, it highlights the significance of the local field factor in these systems.

  3. Size-dependent production of radicals in catalyzed reduction of Eosin Y using gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Guojun; Qi, Ying; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2015-09-15

    Gold nanostructures have been widely used as catalysts for chemical processes, energy conversion, and pollution control. The size of gold nanocatalysts is thus paramount for their catalytic activity. In this paper, gold nanorods with different sizes were prepared by means of the improved seeding growth approach by adding aromatic additive. The sizes and aspect ratios of the obtained gold nanorods were calculated according to the TEM characterization. Then, we studied the catalytic activities of gold nanorods using a model reaction based on the reduction of Eosin Y by NaBH{sub 4}. By monitoring the absorption intensities of the radicals induced by gold nanorods in real time, we observed the clear size-dependent activity in the conversion of EY{sup 2−} to EY{sup 3−}. The conversion efficiency indicated that the gold nanorods with the smallest size were catalytically the most active probably due to their high number of coordinatively unsaturated surface atoms. In addition, a compensation effect dominated by the surface area of nanorods was observed in this catalytic reduction, which could be primarily attributed to the configuration of Eosin Y absorbed onto the surfaces of gold nanorods.

  4. Size-dependent production of radicals in catalyzed reduction of Eosin Y using gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Guojun; Qi, Ying; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostructures have been widely used as catalysts for chemical processes, energy conversion, and pollution control. The size of gold nanocatalysts is thus paramount for their catalytic activity. In this paper, gold nanorods with different sizes were prepared by means of the improved seeding growth approach by adding aromatic additive. The sizes and aspect ratios of the obtained gold nanorods were calculated according to the TEM characterization. Then, we studied the catalytic activities of gold nanorods using a model reaction based on the reduction of Eosin Y by NaBH 4 . By monitoring the absorption intensities of the radicals induced by gold nanorods in real time, we observed the clear size-dependent activity in the conversion of EY 2− to EY 3− . The conversion efficiency indicated that the gold nanorods with the smallest size were catalytically the most active probably due to their high number of coordinatively unsaturated surface atoms. In addition, a compensation effect dominated by the surface area of nanorods was observed in this catalytic reduction, which could be primarily attributed to the configuration of Eosin Y absorbed onto the surfaces of gold nanorods

  5. Continuous Size-Dependent Sorting of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Laser-Ablated Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a low-cost method of continuous size-dependent sorting of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer-based microfluidic devices by magnetic force. A neodymium permanent magnet was used to generate a magnetic field perpendicular to the fluid flow direction. Firstly, FeNi3 magnetic nanoparticles were chemically synthesized with diameter ranges from 80 nm to 200 nm; then, the solution of magnetic nanoparticles and a buffer were passed through the microchannel in laminar flow; the magnetic nanoparticles were deflected from the flow direction under the applied magnetic field. Nanoparticles in the microchannel will move towards the direction of high-gradient magnetic fields, and the degree of deflection depends on their sizes; therefore, magnetic nanoparticles of different sizes can be separated and finally collected from different output ports. The proposed method offers a rapid and continuous approach of preparing magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution from an arbitrary particle size distribution. The proposed new method has many potential applications in bioanalysis field since magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used as solid support for biological entities such as DNA, RNA, virus, and protein. Other than the size sorting application of magnetic nanoparticles, this approach could also be used for the size sorting and separation of naturally magnetic cells, including blood cells and magnetotactic bacteria.

  6. Nanoparticle separation based on size-dependent aggregation of nanoparticles due to the critical Casimir effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Stan, Gheorghe; Liu, Yun

    2018-02-21

    Nanoparticles typically have an inherent wide size distribution that may affect the performance and reliability of many nanomaterials. Because the synthesis and purification of nanoparticles with desirable sizes are crucial to the applications of nanoparticles in various fields including medicine, biology, health care, and energy, there is a great need to search for more efficient and generic methods for size-selective nanoparticle purification/separation. Here we propose and conclusively demonstrate the effectiveness of a size-selective particle purification/separation method based on the critical Casimir force. The critical Casimir force is a generic interaction between colloidal particles near the solvent critical point and has been extensively studied in the past several decades due to its importance in reversibly controlling the aggregation and stability of colloidal particles. Combining multiple experimental techniques, we found that the critical Casimir force-induced aggregation depends on relative particle sizes in a system with larger ones aggregating first and the smaller ones remaining in solution. Based on this observation, a new size-dependent nanoparticle purification/separation method is proposed and demonstrated to be very efficient in purifying commercial silica nanoparticles in the lutidine/water binary solvent. Due to the ubiquity of the critical Casimir force for many colloidal particles in binary solvents, this method might be applicable to many types of colloidal particles.

  7. Size dependence of adsorption kinetics of nano-MgO: a theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuting; Wen, Yanzhen; Cui, Zixiang; Xue, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles present tremendous differences in adsorption kinetics compared with corresponding bulk particles which have great influences on the applications of nanoparticles. A size-dependent adsorption kinetic theory was proposed, the relations between adsorption kinetic parameters, respectively, and particle size of nano-adsorbent were derived theoretically, and the influence mechanism of particle size on the adsorption kinetic parameters was discussed. In experiment, nanoscale magnesium oxide (nano-MgO) with different diameters between 11.5 and 41.4 nm with narrow size distribution and low agglomeration were prepared, and the kinetic parameters of adsorption of benzene on nano-MgO in aqueous solution were obtained. Then the influence regularities of the particle size on the adsorption kinetic parameters were obtained. The experimental results are consistent with the nano-adsorption kinetic theory. With particle size decreasing, the adsorption rate constant increases; the adsorption activation energy and the adsorption pre-exponential factor decrease. Furthermore, the logarithm of adsorption rate constant, the adsorption activation energy, and the logarithm of adsorption pre-exponential factor are linearly related to the reciprocal of particle diameter, respectively. The mechanism of particle size influence on the kinetic parameters is that the activation energy is influenced by the molar surface enthalpy of nano-adsorbent, the pre-exponential factor by the molar surface entropy, and the rate constant by both the molar surface enthalpy and the molar surface entropy

  8. Size-dependent production of radicals in catalyzed reduction of Eosin Y using gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Guojun; Qi, Ying; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2015-09-01

    Gold nanostructures have been widely used as catalysts for chemical processes, energy conversion, and pollution control. The size of gold nanocatalysts is thus paramount for their catalytic activity. In this paper, gold nanorods with different sizes were prepared by means of the improved seeding growth approach by adding aromatic additive. The sizes and aspect ratios of the obtained gold nanorods were calculated according to the TEM characterization. Then, we studied the catalytic activities of gold nanorods using a model reaction based on the reduction of Eosin Y by NaBH4. By monitoring the absorption intensities of the radicals induced by gold nanorods in real time, we observed the clear size-dependent activity in the conversion of EY2- to EY3-. The conversion efficiency indicated that the gold nanorods with the smallest size were catalytically the most active probably due to their high number of coordinatively unsaturated surface atoms. In addition, a compensation effect dominated by the surface area of nanorods was observed in this catalytic reduction, which could be primarily attributed to the configuration of Eosin Y absorbed onto the surfaces of gold nanorods.

  9. Size-dependent impact of CNTs on dynamic properties of calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Wang, Liming; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhao, Lina; Ji, Mingjuan; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2014-11-07

    There are growing concerns about the biosafety of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as their applications become more widespread. We report here a theoretical and experimental study of the binding of various sizes of CNTs [CNT (4,4), (5,5), (6,6) and (7,7)] to calmodulin (CaM) protein and, in particular, their impact on the Ca(2+)-dependent dynamic properties of CaM. Our simulations show that all the CNTs can plug into the hydrophobic binding pocket of Ca(2+)-bound CaM with binding affinities comparable with the native substrate M13 peptide. Even though CNT (4,4) shows a similar behavior to the M13 peptide in its dissociation from Ca(2+)-free CaM, wider CNTs still bind firmly to CaM, indicating a potential failure of Ca(2+) regulation. Such a size-dependent impact of CNTs on the dynamic properties of CaM is a result of the excessively strong hydrophobic interactions between the wider CNTs and CaM. These simulation results were confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, which showed that the secondary structures of CaM become insensitive to Ca(2+) concentrations after the addition of CNTs. Our findings indicate that the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles to proteins arises not only from the inhibition of static protein structures (binding pockets), but also from impacts on their dynamic properties.

  10. [Size dependent SERS activity of gold nanoparticles studied by 3D-FDTD simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-mei; Fang, Ping-ping; Yang, Zhi-lin; Huang, Wen-da; Wu, De-yin; Ren, Bin; Tian, Zhong-qun

    2009-05-01

    By synthesizing Au nanoparticles with the controllable size from about 16 to 160 nm and measuring their SERS activity, the authors found that Au nanoparticles film with a size in the range of 120-135 nm showed the highest SERS activity with the 632.8 nm excitation, which is different from previous experimental results and theoretical predictions. The three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD)method was employed to simulate the size dependent SERS activity. At the 632.8 nm excitation, the particles with a size of 110 nm shows the highest enhancement under coupling condition and presents an enhancement as high as 10(9) at the hot site. If the enhancement is averaged over the whole surface, the enhancement can still be as high as 10(7), in good agreement with our experimental data. For Au nanoparticles with a larger size such as 220 nm, the multipolar effect leads to the appearance of the second maximum enhancement with the increase in particles size. The averaged enhancement for the excitation line of 325 nm is only 10(2).

  11. Size-dependent tissue kinetics of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Cho, Minjung; Jeong, Jinyoung; Choi, Mina; Han, Beom Seok; Shin, Hyung-Seon; Hong, Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be used in various biomedical applications, however, very little is known about their size-dependent in vivo kinetics. Here, we performed a kinetic study in mice with different sizes of PEG-coated AuNPs. Small AuNPs (4 or 13 nm) showed high levels in blood for 24 h and were cleared by 7 days, whereas large (100 nm) AuNPs were completely cleared by 24 h. All AuNPs in blood re-increased at 3 months, which correlated with organ levels. Levels of small AuNPs were peaked at 7 days in the liver and spleen and at 1 month in the mesenteric lymph node, and remained high until 6 months, with slow elimination. In contrast, large AuNPs were taken up rapidly (∼ 30 min) into the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes with less elimination phase. TEM showed that AuNPs were entrapped in cytoplasmic vesicles and lysosomes of Kupffer cells and macrophages of spleen and mesenteric lymph node. Small AuNPs transiently activated CYP1A1 and 2B, phase I metabolic enzymes, in liver tissues from 24 h to 7 days, which mirrored with elevated gold levels in the liver. Large AuNPs did not affect the metabolic enzymes. Thus, propensity to accumulate in the reticuloendothelial organs and activation of phase I metabolic enzymes, suggest that extensive further studies are needed for practical in vivo applications.

  12. Ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Goswami, Prakash; Dhar, Jayabrata; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    We report a study on the ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip. Here, we derive an analytical solution for the potential distribution in a parallel plate microchannel, where the effects of finite sized ionic species are taken into account by invoking the free energy formalism. Following this, a purely electroosmotic flow of a simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT) fluid is considered. For the sPTT model, linear, quadratic, and exponential kernels are chosen for the stress coefficient function describing its viscoelastic nature across various ranges of Deborah number. The theoretical framework presented in our analysis has been successfully compared with experimental results available in the literature. We believe that the implications of the considered effects on the net volumetric throughput will not only provide a deeper theoretical insight to interpret the electrokinetic data in the presence of ionic species but also serve as a fundamental design tool for novel electrokinetically driven lab-on-a-chip biofluidic devices.

  13. A size dependent dynamic model for piezoelectric nanogenerators: effects of geometry, structural and environmental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh, Sadegh; Farshad Mir Saeed Ghazi, Seyyed

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric Nanogenerator (PENG) is one of the novel energy harvester systems that recently, has been a subject of interest for researchers. By the use of nanogenerators, it’s possible to harvest different forms of energy in the environment like mechanical vibrations and generate electricity. The structure of a PENG consists of vertical arrays of nanowires between two electrodes. In this paper, dynamic analysis of a PENG is studied numerically. The modified couple stress theory which includes one length scale material parameter is used to study the size-dependent behavior of PENGs. Then, by application of a complete form of linear hybrid piezoelectric—pyroelectric equations, and using the Euler-Bernoulli beam model, the equations of motion has been derived. Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method was employed to solve the equations of motion. The effect of damping ratio, temperature rise, excitation frequency and length scale parameter was studied. It was found that the PENG voltage maximizes at the resonant frequency of nanowire. The temperature rise has a significant effect on PENG’s efficiency. When temperature increases about 10 {{K}}, the maximum voltage increases about 26%. Increasing the damping ratio, the maximum voltage decreases gradually.

  14. Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections.

  15. Nano rare-earth oxides induced size-dependent vacuolization: an independent pathway from autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Chenguang; Huang, Guanyi; Wang, Changli; Wen, Longping

    2010-09-07

    Four rare earth oxides have been shown to induce autophagy. Interestingly, we often noticed plentiful vacuolization, which was not always involved in this autophagic process. In this study, we investigated three other rare-earth elements, including Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lanthanum (La). Autophagic effect could be induced by all of them but only Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) could cause massive vacuolization. Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) treated by sonication or centrifugation to reduce particle size were used to test vacuolization level in HeLa cell lines. The results showed that rare earth oxides-induced vacuolization is size-dependent and differs from autophagic pathway. To further clarify the characteristics of this autophagic process, we used MEF Atg-5 (autophagy associated gene 5) knockout cell line, and the result showed that the autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides is Atg-5-dependent and the observed vacuolization was independent from autophagy. Similar results could also be observed in our tests on 3-methyladenine(3-MA), a well-known autophagy inhibitor. In conclusion, for the first time, we clarified the relationship between massive vacuolization and autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides and pointed out the size effect of rare earth oxides on the formation of vacuoles, which give clues to further investigation on the mechanisms underlying their biological effects.

  16. Particle size dependent confinement and lattice strain effects in LiFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Raza; Murugavel, Sevi

    2013-11-21

    We report the intrinsic electronic properties of LiFePO4 (LFP) with different particle sizes measured by broad-band impedance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The electronic properties show typical size-dependent effects with decreasing particle size (up to 150 nm). However, at the nanoscale level, we observed an enhancement in the polaronic conductivity about an order of magnitude. We found that the origin of the enhanced electronic conductivity in LFP is due to the significant lattice strain associated with the reduction of particle size. The observed lattice strain component corresponds to the compressive part which leads to a decrease in the hopping length of the polarons. We reproduce nonlinearities in the transport properties of LFP with particle size, to capture the interplay between confinement and lattice strain, and track the effects of strain on the electron-phonon interactions. These results could explain why nano-sized LFP has a better discharge capacity and higher rate capability than the bulk counterpart. We suggest that these new correlations will bring greater insight and better understanding for the optimization of LFP as a cathode material for advanced lithium ion batteries.

  17. Size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration in a subtropical shallow lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lei; He, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Biyun; Dai, Zhigang; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2018-03-01

    To explore the size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration, we collected macrophyte, zooplankton and water quality samples seasonally from a subtropical shallow lake from 2010 to 2012. Special attention was given to changes in rotifers and crustaceans (cladocerans and copepods). The rotifers were grouped into three size classes (400 μm) to explore their size-related responses to macrophyte restoration. The results showed that during the restoration, the annual mean biomass and macrophyte coverage increased significantly from 0 to 637 g/m2 and 0 to 27%, respectively. In response, the density and biomass of crustaceans and the crustacean-to-rotifer ratio increased significantly, while the rotifer density decreased significantly. Moreover, rotifers showed significant sizedependent responses to macrophyte restoration. Specially, rotifers sized zooplankton tended to boom, while that of small rotifers was inhibited during macrophyte restoration. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed positive correlations between macrophytes and crustaceans, rotifers and COD or Chl- a, but negative correlations between macrophytes and COD or Chl- a, and between crustaceans and Chl- a. Moreover, the results indicate that increased predation on phytoplankton by large-sized zooplankton might be an important mechanism for macrophyte restoration during development of aquatic ecosystems, and that this mechanism played a very important role in promoting the formation of a clear-water state in subtropical shallow lakes.

  18. Size dependence of energy storage and dissipation in a discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of static friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E; Deshpande, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The initiation of frictional sliding between a flat-bottomed indenter and a planar single crystal substrate is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. Plastic deformation is modeled through the motion of edge dislocations in an elastic solid with the lattice resistance to dislocation motion,

  19. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  20. Continuum mechanics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Mase, G Thomas; Mase, George E

    2009-01-01

    Continuum TheoryContinuum MechanicsStarting OverNotationEssential MathematicsScalars, Vectors and Cartesian TensorsTensor Algebra in Symbolic Notation - Summation ConventionIndicial NotationMatrices and DeterminantsTransformations of Cartesian TensorsPrincipal Values and Principal DirectionsTensor Fields, Tensor CalculusIntegral Theorems of Gauss and StokesStress PrinciplesBody and Surface Forces, Mass DensityCauchy Stress PrincipleThe Stress TensorForce and Moment Equilibrium; Stress Tensor SymmetryStress Transformation LawsPrincipal Stresses; Principal Stress DirectionsMaximum and Minimum Stress ValuesMohr's Circles For Stress Plane StressDeviator and Spherical Stress StatesOctahedral Shear StressKinematics of Deformation and MotionParticles, Configurations, Deformations and MotionMaterial and Spatial CoordinatesLangrangian and Eulerian DescriptionsThe Displacement FieldThe Material DerivativeDeformation Gradients, Finite Strain TensorsInfinitesimal Deformation TheoryCompatibility EquationsStretch RatiosRot...

  1. Size-dependent tuning of horseradish peroxidase bioreactivity by gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Liu, Yi; Li, Meng; Chong, Yu; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Molecules with diverse biological functions, such as heme peroxidases, can be useful tools for identifying potential biological effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the molecular level. Here, using UV-Vis, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we report tuning of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bioactivity by reactant-free AuNPs with diameters of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 nm (Au-5 nm, Au-10 nm, Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm). HRP conjugation to AuNPs was observed with only Au-5 nm and Au-10 nm prominently increasing the α-helicity of the enzyme to extents inversely related to their size. Au-5 nm inhibited both HRP peroxidase activity toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and HRP compound I/II reactivity toward 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. Au-5 nm enhanced the HRP peroxidase activity toward ascorbic acid and the HRP compound I/II reactivity toward redox-active residues in the HRP protein moiety. Further, Au-5 nm also decreased the catalase- and oxidase-like activities of HRP. Au-10 nm showed similar, but weaker effects, while Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm had no effect. Results suggest that AuNPs can size-dependently enhance or inhibit HRP bioreactivity toward substrates with different redox potentials via a mechanism involving extension of the HRP substrate access channel and decline in the redox potentials of HRP catalytic intermediates.Molecules with diverse biological functions, such as heme peroxidases, can be useful tools for identifying potential biological effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the molecular level. Here, using UV-Vis, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we report tuning of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bioactivity by reactant-free AuNPs with diameters of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 nm (Au-5 nm, Au-10 nm, Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm). HRP conjugation to AuNPs was observed with only Au-5 nm and Au-10 nm prominently increasing the

  2. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  3. Size-Dependent Characterization of Atmospheric Particles during Winter in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two real-time instruments, NCSA (Nanoparticle Chemical Speciation Analyzer and ACSA (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Analyzer, were both deployed in Beijing, China to explore the sized-dependent characterization of atmospheric particles. The mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and sulfate and nitrate in the three size fractions were hourly measured in situ from 13 December 2013 to 7 January 2014. Generally, “sawtooth cycles” are common during winter in Beijing, with the PM concentrations increasing slowly over a few days, then falling to a low level abruptly in only a few hours. The secondary species, sulfate and nitrate, play important roles in haze formation and account for 10.5% and 11.1% of total PM1 mass on average. Based on the variation of PM1 mass concentrations, we classify the study periods into three categories, clean, slightly polluted, and polluted. The oxidation ratios of sulfur and nitrogen both increase from clean to polluted periods, indicating the significant contribution of secondary transformation to haze evolution. While the PM2.5/PM10 ratio shows high dependence on PM pollution level, the ratio of PM1/PM2.5 remains almost stable during the entire study, with an average of 0.90. With respect to the mass-size distribution of chemical components, both sulfate and nitrate show dominant contributions in PM1 size fraction, accounting for 80.7% and 60.3% of total sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Our results also reveal that the elevated sulfate in PM1, and the enhanced nitrate in PM1 and PM2.5–1 size fraction, prompt the formation of haze pollution.

  4. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF4 nanoparticles in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Jia, Guang; Duan, Jianlei; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF 4 ) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF 4 (NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future. - Highlights: • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles with three diameters have been synthesized. • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles could be uptaken by endothelial cells (ECs). • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles show a significant cytotoxicity on ECs. • The size of NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles may be important to their toxicology effect

  5. Size Dependent Male Reproductive Tactic in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utne-Palm, A C; Eduard, K; Jensen, K H; Mayer, I; Jakobsen, P J

    2015-01-01

    Male investment in testes and sperm duct gland in the polygamous nest breeding two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens (Fabricius) was investigated in relation to time in reproductive season and individual physical parameters. This small teleost fish is most likely the most abundant species found along the rocky shores of the North East Atlantic. The two-spotted goby has a single reproductive season, during which nest-caring males can raise several clutches of offspring. According to the literature the males are on average larger than the females. Here we report for the first time a population showing a reversal of this trend, with males on average being smaller than females, a difference likely caused by a large proportion of small males. Early in the breeding season these small males have typical sneaker characters, with relatively large testes and small seminal duct glands compared to the larger dominant territorial males. The presence of these two alternative male reproductive tactics is confirmed by histological studies, which shows the presence of sperm in the sperm duct glands (SDG) of smaller males, but not in the SDG of intermediate and larger males. To our knowledge, males with typical sneaker characters have not been reported in earlier studied populations of two-spotted goby. Interestingly we found that testes investment declined significantly over the course of the breeding season, and that this reduction was significantly more pronounced in small compared to the large males. Further, a significant increase in seminal duct gland (SDG) mass was observed for the smaller males over the breeding season. We propose that this indicates a possible shift in mating tactic by smaller males from a parasitic to a nest-holding tactic over the course of the breeding season. Thus, the observed size dependent plasticity in investment in SDG over time suggests that the reproductive tactic of G. flavescens is conditional, and possibly influenced by mate availability and

  6. Size-dependent properties of silica nanoparticles for Pickering stabilization of emulsions and foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ijung, E-mail: ijungkim@utexas.edu [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Worthen, Andrew J.; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin, McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); DiCarlo, David A.; Huh, Chun [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles are a promising alternative to surfactants to stabilize emulsions or foams in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes due to their effectiveness in very harsh environments found in many of the oilfields around the world. While the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the area of optics or cellular uptake, little is known on the effects of nanoparticle size on emulsion/foam generation, especially for EOR applications. In this study, silica nanoparticles with four different sizes (5, 12, 25, and 80 nm nominal diameter) but with the same surface treatment were employed to test their emulsion or foam generation behavior in high-salinity conditions. The decane-in-brine emulsion generated by sonication or flowing through sandpack showed smaller droplet size and higher apparent viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. Similarly, the CO{sub 2}-in-brine foam generation in sandstone or sandpacks was also significantly affected by the nanoparticle size, exhibiting higher apparent foam viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. In case of foam generation in sandstone cores with 5 nm nanoparticles, a noticeable hysteresis occurred when the flow velocity was initially increased and then decreased, implying a strong foam generation initially; and then the trapping of the generated foam in the rock pores, as the flow velocity decreased. On the other hand, weak foams stabilized with larger nanoparticles indicated a rapid coalescence of bubbles which prevented foam generation. Overall, stable emulsions/foams were achievable by the smaller particles as a result of greater diffusivity and/or higher number concentration, thus allowing more nanoparticles with higher surface area to volume ratio to be adsorbed at the fluid/fluid interfaces of the emulsion/foam dispersion.Graphical abstract.

  7. Size Dependent Male Reproductive Tactic in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Utne-Palm

    Full Text Available Male investment in testes and sperm duct gland in the polygamous nest breeding two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens (Fabricius was investigated in relation to time in reproductive season and individual physical parameters. This small teleost fish is most likely the most abundant species found along the rocky shores of the North East Atlantic. The two-spotted goby has a single reproductive season, during which nest-caring males can raise several clutches of offspring. According to the literature the males are on average larger than the females. Here we report for the first time a population showing a reversal of this trend, with males on average being smaller than females, a difference likely caused by a large proportion of small males. Early in the breeding season these small males have typical sneaker characters, with relatively large testes and small seminal duct glands compared to the larger dominant territorial males. The presence of these two alternative male reproductive tactics is confirmed by histological studies, which shows the presence of sperm in the sperm duct glands (SDG of smaller males, but not in the SDG of intermediate and larger males. To our knowledge, males with typical sneaker characters have not been reported in earlier studied populations of two-spotted goby. Interestingly we found that testes investment declined significantly over the course of the breeding season, and that this reduction was significantly more pronounced in small compared to the large males. Further, a significant increase in seminal duct gland (SDG mass was observed for the smaller males over the breeding season. We propose that this indicates a possible shift in mating tactic by smaller males from a parasitic to a nest-holding tactic over the course of the breeding season. Thus, the observed size dependent plasticity in investment in SDG over time suggests that the reproductive tactic of G. flavescens is conditional, and possibly influenced by mate

  8. Implications of the bedform phase diagram for size-dependent changes of ooid cortical fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. T.; Cowan, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Preliminary petrographic and electron microprobe analyses of well-preserved concentric and radial-concentric ooids in Late Cambrian carbonates of the Port au Port Group, western Newfoundland, Canada, show no Sr enrichment indicative of an aragonite precursor for ooid cortices. Dissolution features such as elephantine ooids, spalled cortices, and dropped nuclei reported by other authors in these and equivalent carbonates elsewhere were not analyzed in this study. It is likely that the pristine concentric and radial-concentric ooids studied here were originally calcite and may exhibit a "banded-radial" fabric (sensu Medwedeff and Wilkinson 1983). Thus, the change in petrographic fabric does not correspond to a change in mineralogy in these ooids. Furthermore, ooids in these rocks and in previous studies of similar rocks exhibit a change from radial to concentric fabric at locally consistent diameters. These two observations suggest that hydrodynamic conditions are the causal mechanism for shifts in ooid cortical fabric. Previous workers have taken this size-dependent shift in cortical fabric to represent increased abrasion that occurs with the transition from suspended load to bedload transport, but disregard bedform stability. We note that at a given flow velocity and depth, ooid growth can trigger a shift from the ripple stability field to the dune stability field. Observations of the rate of migration of modern meter-scale ooid tidal dunes in the Bahamas can be used to constrain ooid transport, and suggest that ooids in these settings may be transported for only minutes to hours twice per year. Therefore, the duration of ooid "sleep" (the time spent buried within the dune) may be 105 greater in dunes compared to ripples. This prolonged subsurface residence time may be a heretofore unconsidered control on the development of ooid cortices. It may dictate radial vs. concentric fabric; drastically diminish abrasion; sequester ooids chemically (and biochemically) from

  9. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injumpa, Wishulada; Ritprajak, Patcharee; Insin, Numpon

    2017-04-01

    incubation with the highest concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Although 1000 μg/mL of all sizes of the nanocomposites decreased macrophage viability, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposites was notably less than silica. The inflammatory response of macrophage was also observed by ELISA, and we found that the size of 20 and 40 nm, but not 100 and 200 nm, obviously stimulated IL-6 production. From this study, the preparations of multifunctional superparamagnetic nanocomposites of different sizes along with the size-dependent effects on cellular toxicity and inflammatory response were demonstrated and could be applied for designing of new drug carriers.

  10. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  11. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, David; Lai, W Michael

    1994-01-01

    Continuum mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, and the book contains an abundance of illustrative examples and problems, many with solutions. Through the addition of more advanced material (solution of classical elasticity problems, constitutive e

  12. Particle size dependence on oxygen reduction reaction activity of electrodeposited TaOx catalysts in acidic media

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, J.

    2013-11-13

    The size dependence of the oxygen reduction reaction activity was studied for TaOx nanoparticles electrodeposited on carbon black for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Compared with a commercial Ta2O5 material, the ultrafine oxide nanoparticles exhibited a distinctively high onset potential different from that of the bulky oxide particles.

  13. Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in the gravitational field are written in the form convenient for numerical calculations. The energy-stress tensor is expressed through scalar and tensor products of three vectors frozen in the continuum. Examples of expansion of the energy-stress tensor into scalar and tensor invariants corresponding to some crystal classes are given. 47 refs

  14. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Injumpa, Wishulada [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ritprajak, Patcharee [Department of Microbiology, and RU in Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    incubation with the highest concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Although 1000 μg/mL of all sizes of the nanocomposites decreased macrophage viability, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposites was notably less than silica. The inflammatory response of macrophage was also observed by ELISA, and we found that the size of 20 and 40 nm, but not 100 and 200 nm, obviously stimulated IL-6 production. From this study, the preparations of multifunctional superparamagnetic nanocomposites of different sizes along with the size-dependent effects on cellular toxicity and inflammatory response were demonstrated and could be applied for designing of new drug carriers. - Highlights: • Magnetic iron oxide-silica nanocomposites (MNCs) size series were synthesized. • PPEGMA-MNCs exhibited low cytotoxicity against fibroblast and macrophage lines. • The effects on the sizes of PPEGMA-coated MNCs on immune responses were observed.

  15. Continuum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1976-09-01

    The mathematics of gauge fields and some related concepts are discussed: some corrections on the principal fiber bundles emphasize the idea that the present formulation of continuum theories is incomplete. The main ingredients used through the construction of the renormalized perturbation series are then described: the Faddeev Popov argument, and the Faddeev Popov Lagrangian; the Slavnov symmetry and the nature of the Faddeev Popov ghost fields; the Slavnov identity, with an obstruction: the Adler Bardeen anomaly, and its generalization to the local cohomology of the gauge Lie algebra. Some smooth classical configurations of gauge fields which ought to play a prominent role in the evaluation of the functional integral describing the theory are also reviewed

  16. Alfven continuum with toroidicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1985-06-01

    The symmetry property of the MHD wave propagation operator is utilized to express the toroidal eigenmodes as a superposition of the mutually orthogonal cylindrical modes. Because of the degeneracy among cylindrical modes with the same frequency but resonant surfaces of different helicity the toroidal perturbation produces a zeroth order mixing of the above modes. The toroidal eigenmodes of frequency ω 0 2 have multiple resonant surfaces, with each surface shifted relative to its cylindrical position and carrying a multispectral content. Thus a single helicity toroidal antenna of frequency ω 0 couples strongly to all different helicity resonant surfaces with matching local Alfven frequency. Zeroth order coupling between modes in the continuum and global Alfven modes also results from toroidicity and degeneracy. Our perturbation technique is the MHD counterpart of the quantum mechanical methods and is applicable through the entire range of the MHD spectrum

  17. Analytical determination of size-dependent natural frequencies of fully clamped rectangular microplates based on the modified couple stress theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, Amir R.; Tahani, Masoud [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents an analytical and size-dependent model for vibrational analysis of fully clamped rectangular microplates. Modified couple stress theory (MCST) and the Kirchhoff plate model are considered, and Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the size dependent equation of motion that accounts for the effect of residual stresses. The natural frequencies of the microplate are extracted analytically by extended Kantorovich method. The present findings are validated with the available results in the literature, and an excellent agreement is observed between them. In addition, a parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the significant effects of couple stress components on the natural frequencies of fully clamped microplates. The ratio of MCST natural frequencies to those obtained with classical theory depends only on the Poisson's ratio of the plate and is independent of the aspect ratio of the plate for cases with no residual stresses.

  18. Analytical determination of size-dependent natural frequencies of fully clamped rectangular microplates based on the modified couple stress theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Amir R.; Tahani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and size-dependent model for vibrational analysis of fully clamped rectangular microplates. Modified couple stress theory (MCST) and the Kirchhoff plate model are considered, and Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the size dependent equation of motion that accounts for the effect of residual stresses. The natural frequencies of the microplate are extracted analytically by extended Kantorovich method. The present findings are validated with the available results in the literature, and an excellent agreement is observed between them. In addition, a parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the significant effects of couple stress components on the natural frequencies of fully clamped microplates. The ratio of MCST natural frequencies to those obtained with classical theory depends only on the Poisson's ratio of the plate and is independent of the aspect ratio of the plate for cases with no residual stresses.

  19. Quantitative size-dependent structure and strain determination of CdSe nanoparticles using atomic pair distribution function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masadeh, A S; Bozin, E S; Farrow, C L; Paglia, G; Juhas, P; Billinge, S J. L.; Karkamkar, A; Kanatzidis, M G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 4 nm, has been studied using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method. The core structure of the measured CdSe nanoparticles can be described in terms of the wurtzite atomic structure with extensive stacking faults. The density of faults in the nanoparticles is {approx}50%. The diameter of the core region was extracted directly from the PDF data and is in good agreement with the diameter obtained from standard characterization methods, suggesting that there is little surface amorphous region. A compressive strain was measured in the Cd-Se bond length that increases with decreasing particle size being 0.5% with respect to bulk CdSe for the 2 nm diameter particles. This study demonstrates the size-dependent quantitative structural information that can be obtained even from very small nanoparticles using the PDF approach.

  20. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Porosity and permeability of reservoirs are key parameters for an economical use of hot water from geothermal installations and can be significantly reduced by precipitation of minerals, such as anhydrite. The borehole Allermöhe 1 near Hamburg (Germany) represents a failed attempt of geothermal heat mining due to anhydrite precipitation (Baermann et al. 2000). For a risk assessment of future boreholes it is essential to understand how and when anhydrite cementation occurred under reservoir conditions. From core samples of the Allermöhe borehole it was determined that anhydrite precipitation took place in regions of relatively high porosity while regions of low porosity remained uncemented (Wagner et al. 2005). These findings correspond to the fact that e.g. halite precipitation in porous media is found only in relatively large pores (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This study and others underline that pore size controls crystallization and that it is therefore necessary to establish a relation between pore size and nucleation. The work presented here is based on investigations of Emmanuel and Berkowitz (2007) who present such a relation by applying a thermodynamic approach. However this approach cannot explain the heterogeneous precipitation observed in the Allermöhe core samples. We chose an advanced approach by considering electric system properties resulting in another relation between pore size and crystallization. It is well known that a high fluid supersaturation can be maintained in porous rocks (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This clearly indicates that a supersaturation threshold exists exceeding thermodynamic equilibrium considerably. In order to quantify spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation a theoretical approach was chosen which considered the electric interaction between surface charges of the matrix and calcium and sulphate ions in the fluid. This approach was implemented into the numerical code SHEMAT (Clauser 2003) and used to simulate anhydrite

  1. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  2. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  3. Continuum robots and underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  4. Uniform TiO2 nanoparticles induce apoptosis in epithelial cell lines in a size-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingqing; Ishii, Takayuki; Kanehira, Koki; Sato, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    The size of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles is a vital parameter that determines their cytotoxicity. However, most reported studies have employed irregular shapes and sizes of TiO 2 nanoparticles, as it is difficult to produce nanoparticles of suitable sizes for research. We produced good model TiO 2 nanoparticles of uniform shape and size for use in studying their cytotoxicity. In this work, spherical, uniform polyethylene glycol-modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 -PEG) nanoparticles of differing sizes (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared using the sol-gel method. A size-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed with increasing nanoparticle size. Furthermore, apoptosis was found to be positively associated with nanoparticle size, as evidenced by an increase in caspase-3 activity with increasing nanoparticle size. Larger nanoparticles exhibited higher cellular uptake, suggesting that larger nanoparticles more strongly induce apoptosis. In addition, the cellular uptake of different sizes of nanoparticles was energy dependent, suggesting that there are size-dependent uptake pathways. We found that 100 and 200 nm (but not 300 nm) nanoparticles were taken up via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results utilizing uniform nanoparticles suggest that the size-dependent cytotoxicity of nanoparticles involves active cellular uptake, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in the epithelial cell line (NCI-H292). These findings will hopefully aid in the future design and safe use of nanoparticles.

  5. Nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials incorporating nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of biological applications such as drug delivery, biosensors and hemodialysis can be provided by nanoporous biomaterials due to their uniform pore size as well as considerable pore density. In the current study, the size dependency in the nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials is anticipated. To accomplish this end, a refined truncated cube is introduced to model the lattice structure of nanoporous biomaterial. Accordingly, analytical expressions for the mechanical properties of material are derived as functions of pore size. After that, based upon a nonlocal strain gradient beam model, the size-dependent nonlinear Duffing type equation of motion is constructed. The Galerkin technique together with the multiple time-scales method is employed to obtain the nonlocal strain gradient frequency-response and amplitude-response related to the nonlinear primary resonance of a micro/nano-beam made of the nanoporous biomaterial with different pore sizes. It is indicated that the nonlocality causes to decrease the response amplitudes associated with the both bifurcation points of the jump phenomenon, while the strain gradient size dependency causes to increase them. Also, it is found that increasing the pore size leads to enhance the nonlinearity, so the maximum deflection of response occurs at higher excitation frequency.

  6. Towards an improved continuum theory for phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijssens, M.G.A.; James, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a continuum theory for martensitic phase transformations in which explicit use is made of atomistic calculations based on density functional theory. Following the work of Rabe and coworkers, branches of the phonon-dispersion relation with imaginary frequencies are selected to construct a localized basis tailored to the symmetry of the crystal lattice. This so-called Wannier basis helps to construct an effective Hamiltonian of a particularly simple form. We extend the methodology by incorporating finite deformations and passing the effective Hamiltonian fully to continuum level. The developments so far are implemented on the shape memory material NiTi

  7. The continuum of behavior guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Behavior guidance is a continuum of techniques, basic and advanced, fundamental to the provision of quality dental care for pediatric patients. This practice must be individualized, pairing the correct method of behavior guidance with each child. To select the appropriate technique, the clinician must have a thorough understanding of each aspect of the continuum and anticipate parental expectations, child temperament, and the technical procedures necessary to complete care. By effectively using techniques within the continuum of behavior guidance, a healing relationship with the family is maintained while addressing dental disease and empowering the child to receive dental treatment throughout their lifetime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ICMS Workshop on Differential Geometry and Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knops, R

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the exciting interface between differential geometry and continuum mechanics, now recognised as being of increasing technological significance. Topics discussed include isometric embeddings in differential geometry and the relation with microstructure in nonlinear elasticity, the use of manifolds in the description of microstructure in continuum mechanics, experimental measurement of microstructure, defects, dislocations, surface energies, and nematic liquid crystals. Compensated compactness in partial differential equations is also treated. The volume is intended for specialists and non-specialists in pure and applied geometry, continuum mechanics, theoretical physics, materials and engineering sciences, and partial differential equations. It will also be of interest to postdoctoral scientists and advanced postgraduate research students. These proceedings include revised written versions of the majority of papers presented by leading experts at the ICMS Edinburgh Workshop on Differential G...

  9. Continuum of Care (COC) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs is to reduce the incidence of homelessness in CoC communities by assisting homeless...

  10. In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (≤ 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (≥ 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

  11. Aerosol size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow in the ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Posselt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition processes are highly efficient in the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere, and thus strongly influence global aerosol concentrations, and clouds, and their respective radiative forcings. In this study, physically detailed size-dependent below-cloud scavenging parameterizations for rain and snow are implemented in the ECHAM5-HAM global aerosol-climate model. Previously, below-cloud scavenging by rain in the ECHAM5-HAM was simply a function of the aerosol mode, and then scaled by the rainfall rate. The below-cloud scavenging by snow was a function of the snowfall rate alone. The global mean aerosol optical depth, and sea salt burden are sensitive to the below-cloud scavenging coefficients, with reductions near to 15% when the more vigorous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow is implemented. The inclusion of a prognostic rain scheme significantly reduces the fractional importance of below-cloud scavenging since there is higher evaporation in the lower troposphere, increasing the global mean sea salt burden by almost 15%. Thermophoretic effects are shown to produce increases in the global and annual mean number removal of Aitken size particles of near to 10%, but very small increases (near 1% in the global mean below-cloud mass scavenging of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Changes in the assumptions about the below-cloud scavenging by rain of particles with radius smaller than 10 nm do not cause any significant changes to the global and annual mean aerosol mass or number burdens, despite a change in the below-cloud number removal rate for nucleation mode particles by near to five-fold. Annual and zonal mean nucleation mode number concentrations are enhanced by up to 30% in the lower troposphere with the more vigourous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging. Closer agreement with different observations is found when the more physically detailed below-cloud scavenging parameterization is employed in the ECHAM5

  12. Quantum-Size Dependence of the Energy for Vacancy Formation in Charged Small Metal Clusters. Drop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, V. V.; Reva, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Self-consistent computations of the monovacancy formation energy are performed for Na N , Mg N , and Al N (12 < N ≤ 168) spherical clusters in the drop model for stable jelly. Scenarios of the Schottky vacancy formation and "bubble vacancy blowing" are considered. It is shown that the asymptotic behavior of the size dependences of the energy for the vacancy formation by these two mechanisms is different and the difference between the characteristics of a charged and neutral cluster is entirely determined by the difference between the ionization potentials of clusters and the energies of electron attachment to them.

  13. Size-dependent oriented attachment in the growth of pure and defect-free hexagonal boron nitride nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L X; Zheng, Y [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Li, Z H [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Ahmed, A S, E-mail: mtq10ll@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: zhaohuili@fzu.edu.cn, E-mail: zyingth@sina.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-27

    Pure and defect-free hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanocrystals with deep-ultraviolet light emissions at around 215 nm were prepared via a solid state reaction. This involved preparing a precursor from potassium borohydride and ammonium chloride powders, and then heating the precursor and additional ammonium chloride to 1000 deg. C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The hBN nanocrystals were studied using a variety of characterization techniques (e.g., TEM, AFM, N{sub 2} absorption/desorption). A growth mechanism based on size-dependent oriented attachment was proposed for the nanocrystals.

  14. Particle-size dependent sorption and desorption of pesticides within a water-soil-nonionic surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2008-05-01

    Although nonionic surfactants have been considered in surfactant-aided soil washing systems, there is little information on the particle-size dependence of these processes, and this may have significant implications for the design of these systems. In this study, Triton-100 (TX) was selected to study its effect on the sorption and desorption of two pesticides (Atrazine and Diuron) from different primary soil size fractions (clay, silt, and sand fractions) under equilibrium sorption and sequential desorption. Soil properties, TX sorption, and pesticide sorption and desorption all exhibited significant particle-size dependence. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the bulk soils and the soil fractions determined TX sorption capacity, which in turn determined the desorption efficiency. Desorption of pesticide out of the clay raction is the limiting factor in a surfactant-aided washing system. The solubilization efficiency of the individual surfactant micelles decreased as the amount of surfactant added to the systems increased. Thus, instead of attempting to wash the bulk soil, a better strategy might be to either (1) use only the amount of surfactant that is sufficient to clean the coarse fraction, then separate the fine fraction, and dispose or treat it separately, or (2) to separate the coarse fractions mechanically and then treatthe coarse and fine fractions separately. These results may be applicable to many other hydrophobic organic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) strongly sorbed onto soils and sediments.

  15. Size dependent magnetic and electrical properties of Ba-doped nanocrystalline BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mehedi, E-mail: mhrizvi@gce.buet.ac.bd; Hakim, M. A.; Zubair, M. A.; Hussain, A.; Islam, Md. Fakhrul [Department of Glass and Ceramic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Basith, M. A., E-mail: mabasith@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Md. Sarowar [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake City, Kolkata, West Bengal 700098 (India); Ahmmad, Bashir [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Improvement in magnetic and electrical properties of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} in conjunction with their dependence on particle size is crucial due to its potential applications in multifunctional miniaturized devices. In this investigation, we report a study on particle size dependent structural, magnetic and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Bi{sub 0.9}Ba{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles of different sizes ranging from ∼ 12 to 49 nm. The substitution of Bi by Ba significantly suppresses oxygen vacancies, reduces leakage current density and Fe{sup 2+} state. An improvement in both magnetic and electrical properties is observed for 10 % Ba-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles compared to its undoped counterpart. The saturation magnetization of Bi{sub 0.9}Ba{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles increase with reducing particle size in contrast with a decreasing trend of ferroelectric polarization. Moreover, a first order metamagnetic transition is noticed for ∼ 49 nm Bi{sub 0.9}Ba{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles which disappeared with decreasing particle size. The observed strong size dependent multiferroic properties are attributed to the complex interaction between vacancy induced crystallographic defects, multiple valence states of Fe, uncompensated surface spins, crystallographic distortion and suppression of spiral spin cycloid of BiFeO{sub 3}.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods and their size-dependent magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yichao; Wu, Songping, E-mail: chwsp@scut.edu.cn; Xu, Rui

    2017-03-01

    The HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process. The length of nanorods is readily controllable with basically constant diameter. HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods show recognizable divagation at T{sub N}(Ho) of 13 K between FC and ZFC curve due to the contribution of the magnetic ordering of holmium. Size-dependent magnetic properties (i.e. a critical length for magnetization) of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods can be ascribed to the competition between surface strain and uncompensated spin at the surface. - Highlights: • HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route. • HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods show recognizable divagation at T{sub N}(Ho) of 13 K between FC and ZFC. • Size-dependent magnetic properties of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods can be observed.

  17. Significance of size dependent and material structure coupling on the characteristics and performance of nanocrystalline micro/nano gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, K.; Ghommem, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Capacitive-based sensing microelectromechanical (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) gyroscopes have significant advantages over conventional gyroscopes, such as low power consumption, batch fabrication, and possible integration with electronic circuits. However, inadequacies in the modeling of these inertial sensors have presented issues of reliability and functionality of micro-/nano-scale gyroscopes. In this work, a micromechanical model is developed to represent the unique microstructure of nanocrystalline materials and simulate the response of micro-/nano-gyroscope comprising an electrostatically-actuated cantilever beam with a tip mass at the free end. Couple stress and surface elasticity theories are integrated into the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam model in order to derive a size-dependent model. This model is then used to investigate the influence of size-dependent effects on the static pull-in instability, the natural frequencies and the performance output of gyroscopes as the scale decreases from micro-to nano-scale. The simulation results show significant changes in the static pull-in voltage and the natural frequency as the scale of the system is decreased. However, the differential frequency between the two vibration modes of the gyroscope is observed to drastically decrease as the size of the gyroscope is reduced. As such, the frequency-based operation mode may not be an efficient strategy for nano-gyroscopes. The results show that a strong coupling between the surface elasticity and material structure takes place when smaller grain sizes and higher void percentages are considered.

  18. Size-dependent magnetic anisotropy of PEG coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles; comparing two magnetization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, C.; Manna, K.; Imam, A. A.; Alqasrawi, A. Y.; Obaidat, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the size dependent magnetic anisotropy of iron oxide nanoparticles is essential for the successful application of these nanoparticles in several technological and medical fields. PEG-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with core diameters of 12 nm, 15 nm, and 16 nm were synthesized by the usual co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were conducted using a SQUID. The effective magnetic anisotropy was calculated using two methods from the magnetization measurements. In the first method the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus temperature measurements were used at several applied magnetic fields. In the second method we used the temperature-dependent coercivity curves obtained from the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus magnetic field hysteresis loops. The role of the applied magnetic field on the effective magnetic anisotropy, calculated form the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus temperature measurements, was revealed. The size dependence of the effective magnetic anisotropy constant Keff obtained by the two methods are compared and discussed.

  19. Size dependence of spin-torque induced magnetic switching in CoFeB-based perpendicular magnetization tunnel junctions (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; Gajek, M. J.; Nowak, J.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Hu, G.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Brown, S. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are used as a model system for studies of size dependence in spin-torque-induced magnetic switching. For integrated solid-state memory applications, it is important to understand the magnetic and electrical characteristics of these magnetic tunnel junctions as they scale with tunnel junction size. Size-dependent magnetic anisotropy energy, switching voltage, apparent damping, and anisotropy field are systematically compared for devices with different materials and fabrication treatments. Results reveal the presence of sub-volume thermal fluctuation and reversal, with a characteristic length-scale of the order of approximately 40 nm, depending on the strength of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and exchange stiffness. To have the best spin-torque switching efficiency and best stability against thermal activation, it is desirable to optimize the perpendicular anisotropy strength with the junction size for intended use. It also is important to ensure strong exchange-stiffness across the magnetic thin film. These combine to give an exchange length that is comparable or larger than the lateral device size for efficient spin-torque switching.

  20. Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-G; Meng, J-L; Fan, B-L; Du, G-Z

    2008-11-01

    Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS.

  1. Investigation of Size-Dependency in Free-Vibration of Micro-Resonators Based on the Strain Gradient Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vatankhah

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the vibration behavior of micro-resonators based on the strain gradient theory, a non-classical continuum theory capable of capturing the size effect appearing in micro-scale structures. The micro-resonator is modeled as a clamped-clamped micro-beam with an attached mass subjected to an axial force. The governing equations of motion and both classical and non-classical sets of boundary conditions are developed based on the strain gradient theory. The normalized natural frequency of the micro-resonator is evaluated and the influences of various parameters are assessed. In addition, the current results are compared to those of the classical and modified couple stress continuum theories.

  2. Visible continuum pulses based on enhanced dispersive wave generation for endogenous fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.

  3. Size-dependent free vibration and dynamic analyses of piezo-electro-magnetic sandwich nanoplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent free vibration analysis of a sandwich nanoplate is presented. The sandwich nanoplate is including an elastic nano core and two piezo-electro-magnetic face-sheets as sensor and actuator actuated by electric and magnetic potentials. The sandwich nanoplate is resting on visco-Pasternak's foundation. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the governing equations of motion based on Kirchhoff plate and nonlocal elasticity theory. The numerical results are presented to study the influence of important parameters of the problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, nonlocal parameter and visco-Pasternak's parameters. Furthermore, the influence of various boundary conditions is discussed on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich nanoplate.

  4. Size-dependent electro-magneto-elastic bending analyses of the shear-deformable axisymmetric functionally graded circular nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper develops nonlocal elasticity equations and magneto-electro-elastic relations to size-dependent electro-magneto-elastic bending analyses of the functionally graded axisymmetric circular nanoplates based on the first-order shear deformation theory. All material properties are graded along the thickness direction based on exponential varying. It is assumed that a circular nanoplate is made from piezo-magnetic materials. The energy method and Ritz approach is employed for the derivation of governing equations of electro-magneto-elastic bending and the solution of the problem, respectively. The nanoplate is subjected to applied electric and magnetic potentials at top and transverse loads while it is rested on Pasternak's foundation. Some important numerical results are presented in various figures to show the influence of applied electric and magnetic potentials, small scale parameter and inhomogeneous index of an exponentially graded nanoplate.

  5. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  6. Size dependence of upconversion photoluminescence in MPA capped CdTe quantum dots: Existence of upconversion bright point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakumar, S.; Jayabalan, J.; Singh, Asha; Khan, Salahuddin; Babu, S. Moorthy; Chari, Rama

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) from semiconductor quantum dots can show a “PL bright point”, that is the PL from as prepared quantum dots is maximum at a particular size. In this work we show that, for CdTe quantum dots, upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) originating from nonlinear absorption shows a similar “UCPL bright point”. The PL and UCPL bright points occur at nearly the same size. The existence of a UCPL bright point has important implications for upconversion microscopy applications. - Highlights: • The size dependence of the upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) spectrum of CdTe quantum dots has been reported. • We show that the UCPL from the CdTe quantum dots is highest at a particular size. • Thus the occurrence of a "UCPL bright point" in CdTe quantum dots has been demonstrated. • It has been shown that the UCPL bright point occurs at nearly the same size as a normal bright point.

  7. Size-dependent piezoelectric energy-harvesting analysis of micro/nano bridges subjected to random ambient excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radgolchin, Moeen; Moeenfard, Hamid

    2018-02-01

    The construction of self-powered micro-electro-mechanical units by converting the mechanical energy of the systems into electrical power has attracted much attention in recent years. While power harvesting from deterministic external excitations is state of the art, it has been much more difficult to derive mathematical models for scavenging electrical energy from ambient random vibrations, due to the stochastic nature of the excitations. The current research concerns analytical modeling of micro-bridge energy harvesters based on random vibration theory. Since classical elasticity fails to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of micro-structures, strain gradient theory is employed as a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of the random vibration modeling of the micro-harvester. Equations of motion of the system in the time domain are derived using the Lagrange approach. These are then utilized to determine the frequency and impulse responses of the structure. Assuming the energy harvester to be subjected to a combination of broadband and limited-band random support motion and transverse loading, closed-form expressions for mean, mean square, correlation and spectral density of the output power are derived. The suggested formulation is further exploited to investigate the effect of the different design parameters, including the geometric properties of the structure as well as the properties of the electrical circuit on the resulting power. Furthermore, the effect of length scale parameters on the harvested energy is investigated in detail. It is observed that the predictions of classical and even simple size-dependent theories (such as couple stress) appreciably differ from the findings of strain gradient theory on the basis of random vibration. This study presents a first-time modeling of micro-scale harvesters under stochastic excitations using a size-dependent approach and can be considered as a reliable foundation for future research in the field of

  8. Size-dependent endocytosis of gold nanoparticles studied by three-dimensional mapping of plasmonic scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chia-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the endocytosis process of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs is important for the drug delivery and photodynamic therapy applications. The endocytosis in living cells is usually studied by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescent labeling suffers from photobleaching. Besides, quantitative estimation of the cellular uptake is not easy. In this paper, the size-dependent endocytosis of AuNPs was investigated by using plasmonic scattering images without any labeling. Results The scattering images of AuNPs and the vesicles were mapped by using an optical sectioning microscopy with dark-field illumination. AuNPs have large optical scatterings at 550-600 nm wavelengths due to localized surface plasmon resonances. Using an enhanced contrast between yellow and blue CCD images, AuNPs can be well distinguished from cellular organelles. The tracking of AuNPs coated with aptamers for surface mucin glycoprotein shows that AuNPs attached to extracellular matrix and moved towards center of the cell. Most 75-nm-AuNPs moved to the top of cells, while many 45-nm-AuNPs entered cells through endocytosis and accumulated in endocytic vesicles. The amounts of cellular uptake decreased with the increase of particle size. Conclusions We quantitatively studied the endocytosis of AuNPs with different sizes in various cancer cells. The plasmonic scattering images confirm the size-dependent endocytosis of AuNPs. The 45-nm-AuNP is better for drug delivery due to its higher uptake rate. On the other hand, large AuNPs are immobilized on the cell membrane. They can be used to reconstruct the cell morphology.

  9. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    numerical method, the finite element method, including means of mending inherent problems •An informal, yet precise exposition that emphasizes not just how a topic is treated, but discusses why a particular choice is made The book opens with a derivation of kinematically nonlinear 3-D continuum mechanics...

  10. The Co-creation Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Markovic, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    -creation - from tactical market research tool to strategic collaborative innovation method, and shows that brands can be positioned along a continuum between these two polarities. This article also presents the implications for those that want to seize the potential of co-creation....

  11. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  12. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO2 mesoporous films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO 2 films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO 2 films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO 2 films in air under illumination (440.6 μW/cm 2 ) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO 4 ). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS × 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS × 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  13. Variational principles of continuum mechanics I fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Berdichevskii, V L

    2009-01-01

    This is a concise and understandable book about variational principles of continuum mechanics. The book is accessible to applied mathematicians, physicists and engineers who have an interest in continuum mechanics.

  14. Variational principles of continuum mechanics II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berdichevsky, Victor L

    2009-01-01

    This concise and understandable book about variational principles of continuum mechanics presents the classical models. The book is accessible to applied mathematicians, physicists and engineers who have an interest in continuum mechanics.

  15. Continuum methods of physical modeling continuum mechanics, dimensional analysis, turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Kolumban

    2004-01-01

    The book unifies classical continuum mechanics and turbulence modeling, i.e. the same fundamental concepts are used to derive model equations for material behaviour and turbulence closure and complements these with methods of dimensional analysis. The intention is to equip the reader with the ability to understand the complex nonlinear modeling in material behaviour and turbulence closure as well as to derive or invent his own models. Examples are mostly taken from environmental physics and geophysics.

  16. Continuum-Kinetic Models and Numerical Methods for Multiphase Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Isaac Michael

    This thesis presents a continuum-kinetic approach for modeling general problems in multiphase solid mechanics. In this context, a continuum model refers to any model, typically on the macro-scale, in which continuous state variables are used to capture the most important physics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A kinetic model refers to any model, typically on the meso-scale, which captures the statistical motion and evolution of microscopic entitites. Multiphase phenomena usually involve non-negligible micro or meso-scopic effects at the interfaces between phases. The approach developed in the thesis attempts to combine the computational performance benefits of a continuum model with the physical accuracy of a kinetic model when applied to a multiphase problem. The approach is applied to modeling a single particle impact in Cold Spray, an engineering process that intimately involves the interaction of crystal grains with high-magnitude elastic waves. Such a situation could be classified a multiphase application due to the discrete nature of grains on the spatial scale of the problem. For this application, a hyper elasto-plastic model is solved by a finite volume method with approximate Riemann solver. The results of this model are compared for two types of plastic closure: a phenomenological macro-scale constitutive law, and a physics-based meso-scale Crystal Plasticity model.

  17. Energy and system size dependence of phi meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2008-10-28

    We study the beam-energy and system-size dependence of {phi} meson production (using the hadronic decay mode {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) by comparing the new results from Cu + Cu collisions and previously reported Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Data presented are from midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for 0.4 < p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c. At a given beam energy, the transverse momentum distributions for {phi} mesons are observed to be similar in yield and shape for Cu + Cu and Au + Au colliding systems with similar average numbers of participating nucleons. The {phi} meson yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions, normalized by the average number of participating nucleons, are found to be enhanced relative to those from p + p collisions with a different trend compared to strange baryons. The enhancement for {phi} mesons is observed to be higher at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV compared to 62.4 GeV. These observations for the produced {phi}(s{bar s}) mesons clearly suggest that, at these collision energies, the source of enhancement of strange hadrons is related to the formation of a dense partonic medium in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and cannot be alone due to canonical suppression of their production in smaller systems.

  18. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-06

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films' ability to structurally tune their HOMO-LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO 2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures' plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  19. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric [Division of Community, Environment, and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1656 E. Mabel St., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Ela, Wendell [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eduardo Sáez, A., E-mail: esaez@arizona.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A laboratory dust fractionator was developed for the production of respirable dust. • The size-dependent distribution of arsenic and lead in mine tailings dust is reported. • Metal and metalloid contaminants are enriched in particles smaller than 10 μm. • Lead isotope signatures show spread of mine tailings particles onto surrounding soils. - Abstract: The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of <10 μm aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure.

  20. Size-dependent dynamic stability analysis of microbeams actuated by piezoelectric voltage based on strain gradient elasticity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Bahrami, Mohsen [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    In the current paper, dynamic stability analysis of microbeams subjected to piezoelectric voltage is presented in which the microbeam is integrated with piezoelectric layers on the lower and upper surfaces. Both of the flutter and divergence instabilities of microbeams with clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are predicted corresponding to various values of applied voltage. To take size effect into account, the classical Timoshenko beam theory in conjunction with strain gradient elasticity theory is utilized to develop nonclassical beam model containing three additional internal length scale parameters. By using Hamilton's principle, the higher-order governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions are derived. Afterward, generalized differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the size-dependent governing differential equations along with clamped-clamped and clamped-free end supports. The critical piezoelectric voltages corresponding to various values dimensionless length scale parameter are evaluated and compared with those predicted by the classical beam theory. It is revealed that in the case of clamped-free boundary conditions, the both of flutter and divergence instabilities occur. However, for the clamped-clamped microbeams, only divergence instability takes place.

  1. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M.; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-01

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV–vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films’ ability to structurally tune their HOMO–LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures’ plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Size-Dependent Structural Problems by Using Low- Order Finite Elements with Strain Gradient Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Shik; Suh, Yeong Sung; Song, Seung

    2011-01-01

    An elasto-plastic finite element method using the theory of strain gradient plasticity is proposed to evaluate the size dependency of structural plasticity that occurs when the configuration size decreases to micron scale. For this method, we suggest a low-order plane and three-dimensional displacement-based elements, eliminating the need for a high order, many degrees of freedom, a mixed element, or super elements, which have been considered necessary in previous researches. The proposed method can be performed in the framework of nonlinear incremental analysis in which plastic strains are calculated and averaged at nodes. These strains are then interpolated and differentiated for gradient calculation. We adopted a strain-gradient-hardening constitutive equation from the Taylor dislocation model, which requires the plastic strain gradient. The developed finite elements are tested numerically on the basis of typical size-effect problems such as micro-bending, micro-torsion, and micro-voids. With respect to the strain gradient plasticity, i.e., the size effects, the results obtained by using the proposed method, which are simple in their calculation, are in good agreement with the experimental results cited in previously published papers

  3. Size-dependent nonlinear bending of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials including a refined truncated cube cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Morphology and pore size plays an essential role in the mechanical properties as well as the associated biological capability of a porous structure made of biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of nanoporous biomaterials including refined truncated cube cells based on a hyperbolic shear deformable beam model. Analytical relationships for the mechanical properties of nanoporous biomaterials are given as a function of the refined cell's dimensions. After that, the size dependency in the nonlinear bending behavior of micro/nano-beams made of such nanoporous biomaterials is analyzed using the nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory. It is assumed that the micro/nano-beam has one movable end under axial compression in conjunction with a uniform distributed lateral load. The Galerkin method together with an improved perturbation technique is employed to propose explicit analytical expression for nonlocal strain gradient load-deflection curves of the micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials subjected to uniform transverse distributed load. It is found that through increment of the pore size, the micro/nano-beam will undergo much more deflection corresponding to a specific distributed load due to the reduction in the stiffness of nanoporous biomaterial. This pattern is more prominent for lower value of applied axial compressive load at the free end of micro/nano-beam.

  4. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Critical currents in polycrystalline Y Ba2Cu3O7-x: Self-field and grain size dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, E.; Prester, M.; Dobrac, D.; Marohnic, Z.; Nazar, P.; Stastny, P.; Matacotta, F.C.

    1991-10-01

    The variation of critical currents (I c ) and their distributions (CCD) with thickness (t) has been investigated for two high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x samples with different average grain size (AG≅10 and 30 μm for samples S 1 and S 2 respectively) in the temperature range 78-90K and in the applied magnetic field H c ) for S 1 initially increased but later on leveled off on reducing the thickness, whereas for S 2 remained essentially unchanged even after three-fold reduction in thickness. Since the other parameters related to macroscopic homogeneity have not changed on reducing the thickness of the samples, the variations of J c are interpreted in terms of thickness and grain size dependent self-field effects. The same model explains well the changes of CCD curves with thickness and may also explain the variation of J c with the grain size, as reported recently for ceramic YBaCuO samples. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Size dependence of upconversion photoluminescence in MPA capped CdTe quantum dots: Existence of upconversion bright point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthakumar, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Jayabalan, J., E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Singh, Asha; Khan, Salahuddin [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Babu, S. Moorthy [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Chari, Rama [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2016-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) from semiconductor quantum dots can show a “PL bright point”, that is the PL from as prepared quantum dots is maximum at a particular size. In this work we show that, for CdTe quantum dots, upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) originating from nonlinear absorption shows a similar “UCPL bright point”. The PL and UCPL bright points occur at nearly the same size. The existence of a UCPL bright point has important implications for upconversion microscopy applications. - Highlights: • The size dependence of the upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) spectrum of CdTe quantum dots has been reported. • We show that the UCPL from the CdTe quantum dots is highest at a particular size. • Thus the occurrence of a 'UCPL bright point' in CdTe quantum dots has been demonstrated. • It has been shown that the UCPL bright point occurs at nearly the same size as a normal bright point.

  7. Size-dependent giant-magnetoresistance in millimeter scale GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in the electrical resistance induced by the application of a small magnetic field are potentially useful for device-applications. Such Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) effects also provide new insights into the physical phenomena involved in the associated electronic transport. This study examines a “bell-shape” negative GMR that grows in magnitude with decreasing temperatures in mm-wide devices fabricated from the high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2-Dimensional Electron System (2DES). Experiments show that the span of this magnetoresistance on the magnetic-field-axis increases with decreasing device width, W, while there is no concurrent Hall resistance, Rxy, correction. A multi-conduction model, including negative diagonal-conductivity, and non-vanishing off-diagonal conductivity, reproduces experimental observations. The results suggest that a size effect in the mm-wide 2DES with mm-scale electron mean-free-paths is responsible for the observed “non-ohmic” size-dependent negative GMR. PMID:24067264

  8. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A laboratory dust fractionator was developed for the production of respirable dust. • The size-dependent distribution of arsenic and lead in mine tailings dust is reported. • Metal and metalloid contaminants are enriched in particles smaller than 10 μm. • Lead isotope signatures show spread of mine tailings particles onto surrounding soils. - Abstract: The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of <10 μm aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure

  9. Size-dependent effects in supported highly dispersed Fe2O3 catalysts, doped with Pt and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Shopska, Maya; Mitov, Ivan; Kadinov, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    Series of Fe and Fe–Me (Me = Pt or Pd) catalyst supported on γ-Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 (anatase) or diatomite were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The metal loading was 8 wt.% Fe and 0.7 wt.% noble metal. The preparation and pretreatment conditions of all studied samples were kept to be the same. X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for characterization of the supports and the samples at different steps during their treatment and catalytic tests. The catalytic activity of the samples was tested in the reaction of total benzene oxidation. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained materials are compared with respect of the different chemical composition, dispersion of used carriers and of the supported phases. Samples with the same composition prepared by mechanical mixing are studied as catalysts for comparison and for clearing up the presence of size-dependent effect, also.

  10. Continuum description for jointed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum description is presented for a material containing regularly spaced and approximately parallel jointing planes within a representative elementary volume. Constitutive relationships are introduced for linear behavior of the base material and nonlinear normal and shear behavior across jointing planes. Furthermore, a fracture permeability tensor is calculated so that deformation induced alterations to the in-situ values can be measured. Examples for several strain-controlled loading paths are presented

  11. Frequency chirpings in Alfven continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, Herb; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin

    2017-10-01

    We have used a self-consistent mapping technique to describe both the nonlinear wave-energetic particle resonant interaction and its spatial mode structure that depends upon the resonant energetic particle pressure. At the threshold for the onset of the energetic particle mode (EPM), strong chirping emerges in the lower continuum close to the TAE gap and then, driven by strong continuum damping, chirps rapidly to lower frequencies in the Alfven continuum. An adiabatic theory was developed that accurately replicated the results from the simulation where the nonlinearity was only due to the EPM resonant particles. The results show that the EPM-trapped particles have their action conserved during the time of rapid chirping. This adiabaticity enabled wave trapped particles to be confined within their separatrix, and produce even larger resonant structures, that can produce a large amplitude mode far from linearly predicted frequencies. In the present work we describe the effect of additional MHD nonlinearity to this calculation. We studied how the zonal flow component and its nonlinear feedback to the fundamental frequency and found that the MHD nonlinearity doesn't significantly alter the frequency chirping response that is predicted by the calculation that neglects the MHD nonlinearity.

  12. Continuum mechanical and computational aspects of material behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.

    2000-02-10

    The focus of the work is the application of continuum mechanics to materials science, specifically to the macroscopic characterization of material behavior at small length scales. The long-term goals are a continuum-mechanical framework for the study of materials that provides a basis for general theories and leads to boundary-value problems of physical relevance, and computational methods appropriate to these problems supplemented by physically meaningful regularizations to aid in their solution. Specific studies include the following: the development of a theory of polycrystalline plasticity that incorporates free energy associated with lattice mismatch between grains; the development of a theory of geometrically necessary dislocations within the context of finite-strain plasticity; the development of a gradient theory for single-crystal plasticity with geometrically necessary dislocations; simulations of dynamical fracture using a theory that allows for the kinking and branching of cracks; computation of segregation and compaction in flowing granular materials.

  13. Diurnal and seasonal variability in size-dependent atmospheric deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Staebler, Ralf; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric gaseous and size-segregated particle samples were collected from urban Guangzhou at the heights of 100 and 150 m above the ground in daytime and at night in August and December 2010, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particulate PAHs were more abundant at night than in daytime, and significantly higher in winter than in summer. The observed vertical, diurnal, and seasonal variability in the occurrences of PAH were attributed to varying meteorological conditions and atmospheric boundary layers. More than 60% of the particulate PAHs were contained in particles in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic diameter (Dp) in the range of 0.1-1.8 μm. Different mass transfer velocities by volatilization and condensation are considered the main causes for the different particle size distributions among individual PAHs, while combustion at different temperatures and atmospheric transport were probable causes of the observed seasonal variation in the size distribution of PAHs. Based on the modeled size-dependent dry deposition velocities, daily mean dry deposition fluxes of particulate PAHs ranged from 604 to 1190 ng m-2 d-1, with PAHs in coarse particles (Dp > 1.8 μm) accounting for 55-95% of the total fluxes. In addition, gaseous PAHs were estimated to contribute 0.6-3.1% to the total dry deposition fluxes if a conservative dry deposition velocity for gaseous species (2 × 10-4 m s-1) were used. Finally, disequilibrium phase partitioning, meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport were regarded as the main reasons for the variances in dry deposition velocities of individual PAHs.

  14. Cation-Size-Dependent Conformational Locking of Glutamic Acid by Alkali Ions: Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Cryogenic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyne, Johanna; Bouchet, Aude; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Fujii, Masaaki; Dopfer, Otto

    2018-03-01

    Consolidated knowledge of conformation and stability of amino acids and their clusters is required to understand their biochemical recognition. Often, alkali ions interact with amino acids and proteins. Herein, infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of cryogenic metalated glutamic acid ions (GluM + , M = Li-Cs) are systematically analyzed in the isomer-specific fingerprint and XH stretch ranges (1100-1900, 2600-3600 cm -1 ) to provide a direct measure for cation-size-dependent conformational locking. GluM + ions are generated by electrospray ionization and cooled down to 15 K in a cryogenic quadrupole ion trap. The assignment of the IRPD spectra is supported by density functional theory calculations at the dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. In the global minimum of GluM + , the flexibility of Glu is strongly reduced by the formation of rigid ionic CO···M + ···OC metal bridges, corresponding to charge solvation. The M + binding energy decreases monotonically with increasing cation size from D 0 = 314 to 119 kJ/mol for Li-Cs. Whereas for Li and Na only the global minimum of GluM + is observed, for K-Cs at least three isomers exist at cryogenic temperature. The IRPD spectra of cold GluM + ions are compared to IR multiple-photon dissociation spectra measured at room temperature. Furthermore, we elucidate the differences of the impact of protonation and metalation on the structure and conformational locking of Glu.

  15. Size-dependent bending, buckling and vibration of higher-order shear deformable magneto-electro-thermo-elastic rectangular nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza; Gholami, Yousef

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a unified size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model for magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates by adopting the nonlocal elasticity theory to capture the size effect, and by utilizing a generalized shape function to consider the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia. By considering various shape functions, the proposed plate model can be reduced to the nonlocal plate model based upon the Kirchhoff, Mindlin and Reddy plate theories, as well as the parabolic, trigonometric, hyperbolic and exponential shear deformation plate theories. The governing equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions of METE nanoplates subjected to external in-plane, transverse loads as well as magnetic, electric and thermal loadings, are obtained using Hamilton’s principle. Then, as in some case studies, the static bending, buckling, and free vibration characteristics of simply-supported METE rectangular nanoplates are investigated based upon the Navier solution approach. Numerical results are provided in order to investigate the influences of various parameters including the nondimensional nonlocal parameter, type of transverse loading, temperature change, applied voltage, and external magnetic potential on the mechanical behaviors of METE nanoplates. Furthermore, comparisons are made between the results predicted by different nonlocal plate models by utilizing the developed unified nonlocal plate model and selecting the associated shape functions. It is illustrated that by using the presented unified nonlocal plate model, the development of a nonlocal plate model based upon any existing higher-order shear deformable plate theory is a simple task.

  16. Modeling the effect of intermolecular force on the size-dependent pull-in behavior of beam-type NEMS using modified couple stress theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beni, Yaghoub Tadi; Karimipour, Iman [Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadyan, Mohamadreza [Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Experimental observations reveal that the physical response of nano structures is size-dependent. Herein, modified couple stress theory has been used to study the effect of intermolecular van der Waals force on the size dependent pull-in of nano bridges and nano cantilevers. Three approaches including using differential transformation method, applying numerical method and developing a simple lumped parameter model have been employed to solve the governing equation of the systems. The pull-in parameters i.e. critical tip deflection and instability voltage of the nano structures have been determined. Effect of the van der Waals attraction and the size dependency and the importance of coupling between them on the pull-in performance have been discussed.

  17. Modeling the effect of intermolecular force on the size-dependent pull-in behavior of beam-type NEMS using modified couple stress theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, Yaghoub Tadi; Karimipour, Iman; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    2014-01-01

    Experimental observations reveal that the physical response of nano structures is size-dependent. Herein, modified couple stress theory has been used to study the effect of intermolecular van der Waals force on the size dependent pull-in of nano bridges and nano cantilevers. Three approaches including using differential transformation method, applying numerical method and developing a simple lumped parameter model have been employed to solve the governing equation of the systems. The pull-in parameters i.e. critical tip deflection and instability voltage of the nano structures have been determined. Effect of the van der Waals attraction and the size dependency and the importance of coupling between them on the pull-in performance have been discussed.

  18. Mirrored continuum and molecular scale simulations of the ignition of gamma phase RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Joshi, Kaushik; Lee, Kibaek

    2017-01-01

    We describe the ignition of an explosive crystal of gamma-phase RDX due to a thermal hot spot with reactive molecular dynamics (RMD), with first-principles trained, reactive force field based molecular potentials that represents an extremely complex reaction network. The RMD simulation is analyzed by sorting molecular product fragments into high and low molecular weight groups, to represent identifiable components that can be interpreted by a continuum model. A continuum model based on a Gibbs formulation has a single temperature and stress state for the mixture. The continuum simulation that mirrors the atomistic simulation allows us to study the atomistic simulation in the familiar physical chemistry framework and provides an essential, continuum/atomistic link.

  19. Study on Size-Dependent Young’s Modulus of a Silicon Nano beam by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, W.W.; Lei, S.Y.; Huang, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Young’s modulus of a silicon nano beam with a rectangular cross-section is studied by molecular dynamics method. Dynamic simulations are performed for doubly clamped silicon nano beams with lengths ranging from 4.888 to 12.491 nm and cross-sections ranging from 1.22 nm ×1.22 nm to 3.39 nm × 3.39 nm. The results show that Young’s moduli of such small silicon nano beams are much higher than the value of Young’s modulus for bulk silicon. Moreover, the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus of the Si nano beam are strongly dependent not only on the size of the nano beam but also on surface effects. Young’s modulus increases significantly with the decreasing of the thickness of the silicon nano beam. This result qualitatively agrees with one of the conclusions based on a semi continuum model, in which the surface relaxation and the surface tension were taken into consideration. The impacts of the surface reconstruction with (2 ×1) dimmers on the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus are studied in this paper too. It is shown that the surface reconstruction makes the silicon nano beam stiffer than the one without the surface reconstruction, resulting in a higher resonant frequency and a larger Young’s modulus

  20. Continuum theory for nanotube piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, P J; Sai, Na; Mele, E J

    2005-09-09

    We develop and solve a continuum theory for the piezoelectric response of one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, and apply the theory to study electromechanical effects in boron-nitride nanotubes. We find that the polarization of a nanotube depends on its aspect ratio, and a dimensionless constant specifying the ratio of the strengths of the elastic and electrostatic interactions. The solutions of the model as these two parameters are varied are discussed. The theory is applied to estimate the electric potential induced along the length of a boron-nitride nanotube in response to a uniaxial stress.

  1. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  2. BCS equations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, N.; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of nuclei close to the drip line are significantly influenced by the continuum part of the single-particle spectrum. The main role is played by the resonant states which are largely confined in the region of nuclear potential and therefore stronger coupled with the bound states in an excitation process. Resonant states are also important in the nuclei beyond the drip line. In this case the decay properties of the nucleus can be directly related to the widths of the narrow resonances occupied by the unbound nucleons. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative for evaluating the effect of the resonant part of single-particle spectrum on the pairing correlations calculated within the BCS approximation. We estimated the role of resonances in the case of the isotope 170 Sn. The Resonant-BCS (RBCS) equations are solved for the case of a seniority force. The BCS approximation based on a seniority force cannot be applied in the case of a nucleus immersed in a box if all discrete states simulating the continuum are considered. In such a case the pairing correlations will increase with the number of states in the box. In our case one can still apply a seniority force with RBCS because the effect of the continuum appears here through a finite number of physical resonances, well defined by the given mean field. Because these resonances have a spatial distribution concentrated within the region of the nuclear potential, one expects that the localization probability of nucleons, far out from the nuclear surface, to be small. The gap obtained taking correctly the contribution of resonances, according to RBCS equations, is about 1.3 MeV, while pairing gap calculated only with the bound single-particle spectrum has the value Δ = 1.10 MeV. If we introduce also the resonant states, neglecting completely their widths, the gap will increase to the value Δ = 1.880 MeV. Therefore, one cannot estimate properly the pairing correlations by supplementing the spectrum

  3. Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Ellen; Muthumbi, Agnes; Kamanu, Chomba Peter; Vanreusel, Ann

    2008-03-01

    The gastropod Terebralia palustris often dominates the surface of muddy to sandy substrates of intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, where they clearly destabilize the sediment. In the present study, it was investigated whether and to what extent the behaviour of juvenile and adult snails differs among habitats (mudflat vs. mangrove stand) in a Sonneratia alba mangal at Gazi Bay, Kenya. For this purpose we: (1) examined their distribution along three land-sea transects; and (2) applied stable isotope analysis to determine the feeding patterns of different-sized snails from the mangrove and mudflat habitats. Additionally, we investigated if these gastropods exert an impact on microphytobenthic (diatom) biomass, and whether this is size-dependent. The latter objective was met by either enclosing or excluding different-sized snails from experimental cages on the intertidal mudflat and the subsequent assessment of a change in pigment concentration of the sediment surface. In agreement with several previous studies conducted in other mangroves and geographical locations, a spatial segregation was demonstrated between juveniles (more common on the mudflat) and adults (more common in the mangrove forest). On the intertidal mudflat juveniles avoided sediment patches characterized by highly saline water in intertidal pools and a high mud content, while adults tended to dwell on substrates covered by a high amount of leaf litter. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the foot tissue of snails sampled from the S. alba stand and the mudflat indicated a transition in food source when a shell length of 51 mm is reached. Considering the δ13C value of juveniles, it seems they might be selecting for microphytobenthos, which might explain their preference for the mudflat. The diet of size classes found in both habitats did not differ significantly, although juveniles inhabiting the mangrove forest were slightly more depleted in 13C compared to those residing on the mudflat

  4. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  5. Continuum radiation of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Yachkov, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple completely analytical method of the calculation of radiative continuum of plasmas is derived and an analysis of experimental data on continuum radiation of argon plasma is made. The method is based on the semiclassical quantum defect theory. To calculate radial matrix elements of dipole transitions the asymptotic expansion in powers of E c /ω 2/3 , with an accuracy to the linear term, where E, is the arithmetic mean of the initial and final energies of the transition, is used. This expansion has the same form for free-free, free-bound and bound-bound transitions. If the quantum defects are also approximated by a linear function of energy, the integration over the electron energy (the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is assumed) can be performed in analytical form. For Rydberg states the sum of photoionization continua can be replaced by an integral. We have calculated the absorption coefficient pf argon plasma. The photoionization cross section is calculated for all the states of 4s, 5s, 6s, 4p, 5p, 3d, 4d, 4s', 5s', 6s', 4p', 5p', 3d' and 4d' configurations taking into account P-coupling and multiplet splitting (56 states). Other excited states are allowed for by the integral formula together with free-free transitions

  6. Magnetic properties of natural pyrrhotite Part I : Behaviour of initial susceptibility and saturation-magnetization-related rock-magnetic parameters in a grain-size dependent framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The grain-size dependence of the initial susceptibility, saturation magnetization, saturation remanence , coercive force, remanent coercive force and remanent acquisition coercive force, is reported for four natural pyrrhotites in a grain-size range from 250 µm down to <5 µm.

  7. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  8. Passing waves from atomistic to continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Diaz, Adrian; Xiong, Liming; McDowell, David L.; Chen, Youping

    2018-02-01

    Progress in the development of coupled atomistic-continuum methods for simulations of critical dynamic material behavior has been hampered by a spurious wave reflection problem at the atomistic-continuum interface. This problem is mainly caused by the difference in material descriptions between the atomistic and continuum models, which results in a mismatch in phonon dispersion relations. In this work, we introduce a new method based on atomistic dynamics of lattice coupled with a concurrent atomistic-continuum method to enable a full phonon representation in the continuum description. This permits the passage of short-wavelength, high-frequency phonon waves from the atomistic to continuum regions. The benchmark examples presented in this work demonstrate that the new scheme enables the passage of all allowable phonons through the atomistic-continuum interface; it also preserves the wave coherency and energy conservation after phonons transport across multiple atomistic-continuum interfaces. This work is the first step towards developing a concurrent atomistic-continuum simulation tool for non-equilibrium phonon-mediated thermal transport in materials with microstructural complexity.

  9. Size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoclusters formed after ion implantation in MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2005-01-01

    The band gap as well as the optical and structural properties of semiconductor CdSe nanoclusters change as a function of the nanocluster size. Embedded CdSe nanoclusters in MgO were created by means of sequential Cd and Se ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. Changes during annealing were monitored using optical absorption and positron annihilation spectroscopy. High-resolution TEM on cross-sections after annealing at a temperature of 1300 K showed that clusters with a size below 5 nm have the high-pressure rock-salt structure and are in a cube-on-cube orientation relation with MgO, whereas clusters larger than 5 nm adopt the stable wurtzite crystal structure and were observed in two different orientation relations with MgO

  10. Anomalous vibrational properties in the continuum limit of glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masanari; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Ikeda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The low-temperature thermal properties of glasses are anomalous with respect to those of crystals. These thermal anomalies indicate that the low-frequency vibrational properties of glasses differ from those of crystals. Recent studies revealed that, in the simplest model of glasses, i.e., the harmonic potential system, phonon modes coexist with soft localized modes in the low-frequency (continuum) limit. However, the nature of low-frequency vibrational modes of more realistic models is still controversial. In the present work, we study the Lennard-Jones (LJ) system using large-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation and establish that the vibrational property of the LJ glass converges to coexistence of the phonon modes and the soft localized modes in the continuum limit as in the case of the harmonic potential system. Importantly, we find that the low-frequency vibrations are rather sensitive to the numerical scheme of potential truncation, which is usually implemented in the MD simulation, and this is the reason why contradictory arguments have been reported by previous works. We also discuss the physical origin of this sensitiveness by means of a linear stability analysis.

  11. Physics of the continuum of borromean nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagen, J S; Rogde, T [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Danilin, B V [RRC The Kurchatov Inst., Kurchatov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, S N [JINR, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation); Thompson, I J [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zhukov, M V [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); RNBT Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The continuum states of two-neutron halo nuclei are calculated in the method of hyperspherical harmonics. Using DWIA theory appropriate for dilute halo matter we have probed the structure of the low-lying {sup 6}He continuum via calculations of charge-exchange and inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  12. Giant resonances in the deformed continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, T.; Yabana, K.

    2004-01-01

    Giant resonances in the continuum for deformed nuclei are studied with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory in real time and real space. The continuum effect is effectively taken into account by introducing a complex Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC). (orig.)

  13. Continuum Level Density in Complex Scaling Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Myo, T.; Kato, K.

    2005-01-01

    A new calculational method of continuum level density (CLD) at unbound energies is studied in the complex scaling method (CSM). It is shown that the CLD can be calculated by employing the discretization of continuum states in the CSM without any smoothing technique

  14. Sample-size dependence of diversity indices and the determination of sufficient sample size in a high-diversity deep-sea environment

    OpenAIRE

    Soetaert, K.; Heip, C.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Diversity indices, although designed for comparative purposes, often cannot be used as such, due to their sample-size dependence. It is argued here that this dependence is more pronounced in high diversity than in low diversity assemblages and that indices more sensitive to rarer species require larger sample sizes to estimate diversity with reasonable precision than indices which put more weight on commoner species. This was tested for Hill's diversity number N sub(0) to N sub( proportional ...

  15. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  16. Parallel algorithms for continuum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.L.; Liebrock, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Simply porting existing parallel programs to a new parallel processor may not achieve the full speedup possible; to achieve the maximum efficiency may require redesigning the parallel algorithms for the specific architecture. The authors discuss here parallel algorithms that were developed first for the HEP processor and then ported to the CRAY X-MP/4, the ELXSI/10, and the Intel iPSC/32. Focus is mainly on the most recent parallel processing results produced, i.e., those on the Intel Hypercube. The applications are simulations of continuum dynamics in which the momentum and stress gradients are important. Examples of these are inertial confinement fusion experiments, severe breaks in the coolant system of a reactor, weapons physics, shock-wave physics. Speedup efficiencies on the Intel iPSC Hypercube are very sensitive to the ratio of communication to computation. Great care must be taken in designing algorithms for this machine to avoid global communication. This is much more critical on the iPSC than it was on the three previous parallel processors

  17. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  18. Continuum spectra in light-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Udagawa, T. [Texas Univ., Austin (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of multi-step direct reaction method, to fit continuum cross sections of light-ion reactions, are reviewed. There has been a long-standing difficulty in reproducing sufficiently large (p, p') continuum cross section, but it has now been all but removed. It will be discussed in some detail, how this was achieved. Analyses of very recent data on analyzing powers in the continuum of (p, p') and (p, ..cap alpha..) reactions will also be discussed. Finally, analysis of the breakup of h into d and p will be presented.

  19. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity

  20. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  1. Commitment to Quality throughout the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    This editorial by the president of the Council for Exceptional Children indicates the organization's support of a continuum of special education placements for students with special needs and calls for improving transition of students from one placement to another. (JDD)

  2. Computational Method for Atomistic-Continuum Homogenization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The homogenization method is used as a framework for developing a multiscale system of equations involving atoms at zero temperature at the small scale and continuum mechanics at the very large scale...

  3. Continuum emission from classical nova winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The emergent continuum of a slow classical nova during outburst is considered in the quasi-steady optically thick, transonic wind model. Models are presented for various steady mass loss rates and are related to the evolution of slow novae during decline and early post-maximum. The continuum emission is found to depart radically from a blackbody spectrum and to exhibit features common to highly extended stellar atmospheres. (author)

  4. Loop quantization as a continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Elisa; Oeckl, Robert; Weber, Axel; Zapata, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    We present an implementation of Wilson's renormalization group and a continuum limit tailored for loop quantization. The dynamics of loop-quantized theories is constructed as a continuum limit of the dynamics of effective theories. After presenting the general formalism we show as a first explicit example the 2D Ising field theory, an interacting relativistic quantum field theory with local degrees of freedom quantized by loop quantization techniques

  5. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  6. Continuum of active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, C.; Durret, F.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the luminosity of active galactic nuclei (NAG) is radiated in the form of a continuum extending from radio to X-ray energies. It is important to understand the origin of this continuum in order to explain the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal processes in the different classes of NAG. We present here the observational aspect. A detailed study of the mechanisms will be presented by J.L. Masnou [fr

  7. Changing public stigma with continuum beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Schmidt, Annie; Bink, Andrea B; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Al-Khouja, Maya A; Qin, Sang; Discont, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Given the egregious effect of public stigma on the lives of people with mental illness, researchers have sought to unpack and identify effective components of anti-stigma programs. We expect to show that continuum messages have more positive effect on stigma and affirming attitudes (beliefs that people with mental illness recover and should be personally empowered) than categorical perspectives. The effect of continuum beliefs will interact with contact strategies. A total of 598 research participants were randomly assigned to online presentations representing one of the six conditions: three messages (continuum, categorical, or neutral control) by two processes (education or contact). Participants completed measures of continuum beliefs (as a manipulation check), stigma and affirming attitudes after viewing the condition. Continuum messages had significantly better effect on views that people with mental illness are "different," a finding that interacted with contact. Continuum messages also had better effects on recovery beliefs, once again an effect that interacted significantly with contact. Implications of these findings for improving anti-stigma programs are discussed.

  8. Queue Length and Server Content Distribution in an Infinite-Buffer Batch-Service Queue with Batch-Size-Dependent Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze an infinite-buffer batch-size-dependent batch-service queue with Poisson arrival and arbitrarily distributed service time. Using supplementary variable technique, we derive a bivariate probability generating function from which the joint distribution of queue and server content at departure epoch of a batch is extracted and presented in terms of roots of the characteristic equation. We also obtain the joint distribution of queue and server content at arbitrary epoch. Finally, the utility of analytical results is demonstrated by the inclusion of some numerical examples which also includes the investigation of multiple zeros.

  9. On size-effects in single crystal wedge indentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    constitutive length parameters to model sizeeffects. The problem is studied numerically using a strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity theory formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009). It is shown how the force-indentation relation is affected due to size-dependence in the material. Size...

  10. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Size-dependent filtration of nanoparticles on porous films composed by polystyrene microsphere monolayers and applications in site-selective deposition of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Weidong; Zhou, Tieli; Sun, Chengbin; Tao, Yanchun; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Bing; Cui, Yinqiu

    2015-01-01

    Composite films composed of polystyrene (PS) microsphere monolayers and gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) decorations were prepared by a novel size-dependent filtration effect on close-packed PS microsphere arrays. The uniform pores inlaid in the PS monolayer films acted as the transport tunnels for NPs. The steric restriction induced by the size of the pores was used as a main strategy to fabricate hybrid micro/nano films, which were composed of PS microspheres with inhomogeneous anisotropic decorations. The Au and Ag NPs were used as the building blocks to decorate the PS microspheres through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with the aid of polyelectrolyte coupling agents. Only the small particles which could pass through the micropores could reach to and deposit on the inner surfaces of the PS microsphere monolayer films. Large particles remained on the outside and could only deposit on the outer surfaces. Thus, the inhomogeneous anisotropic decoration was obtained. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating anisotropic micro/nanostructures by the size-dependent filtration effect of NPs on porous films and has the potential in applications of anisotropic self-assembly, sensor, and surface modifications at nanoscale.

  12. Size-dependent filtration of nanoparticles on porous films composed by polystyrene microsphere monolayers and applications in site-selective deposition of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Weidong [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials (China); Zhou, Tieli [Changchun University, College of Food Engineering and Landscape Architecture (China); Sun, Chengbin; Tao, Yanchun; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Bing, E-mail: zhaob@mail.jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials (China); Cui, Yinqiu, E-mail: cuiyq@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2015-10-15

    Composite films composed of polystyrene (PS) microsphere monolayers and gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) decorations were prepared by a novel size-dependent filtration effect on close-packed PS microsphere arrays. The uniform pores inlaid in the PS monolayer films acted as the transport tunnels for NPs. The steric restriction induced by the size of the pores was used as a main strategy to fabricate hybrid micro/nano films, which were composed of PS microspheres with inhomogeneous anisotropic decorations. The Au and Ag NPs were used as the building blocks to decorate the PS microspheres through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with the aid of polyelectrolyte coupling agents. Only the small particles which could pass through the micropores could reach to and deposit on the inner surfaces of the PS microsphere monolayer films. Large particles remained on the outside and could only deposit on the outer surfaces. Thus, the inhomogeneous anisotropic decoration was obtained. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating anisotropic micro/nanostructures by the size-dependent filtration effect of NPs on porous films and has the potential in applications of anisotropic self-assembly, sensor, and surface modifications at nanoscale.

  13. The shadow continuum : testing the records continuum model through the Djogdja Documenten and the migrated archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabinos, Michael Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than

  14. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  15. Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2016-01-01

    This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...

  16. Lattice gravity near the continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, G.; Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.; Ren, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    We prove that the lattice gravity always approaches the usual continuum limit when the link length l -> 0, provided that certain general boundary conditions are satisfied. This result holds for any lattice, regular or irregular. Furthermore, for a given lattice, the deviation from its continuum limit can be expressed as a power series in l 2 . General formulas for such a perturbative calculation are given, together with a number of illustrative examples, including the graviton propagator. The lattice gravity satisfies all the invariance properties of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In addition, it is symmetric under a new class of transformations that are absent in the usual continuum theory. The possibility that the lattice theory (with a nonzero l) may be more fundamental is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Schierholz, G.; Wiese, U.J.

    1993-01-01

    On the lattice some of the salient features of pure gauge theories and of gauge theories with fermions in complex representations of the gauge group seem to be lost. These features can be recovered by considering part of the theory in the continuum. The prerequisite for that is the construction of continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields. Such a construction, which is gauge covariant and complies with geometrical constructions of the topological charge on the lattice, is given in this paper. The procedure is explicitly carried out in the U(1) theory in two dimensions, where it leads to simple results. (orig.)

  18. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica R; Young, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight (MW) peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high MW peaks than did plastic bottles.

  19. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  20. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nano composites-A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.R.; Vejayakumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nano composite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nano composites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nano composites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nano silica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  1. On the Size Dependence of Molar and Specific Properties of Independent Nano-phases and Those in Contact with Other Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, George

    2018-05-01

    Nano-materials are materials with at least one nano-phase. A nano-phase is a phase with at least one of its dimensions below 100 nm. It is shown here that nano-phases have at least 1% of their atoms along their surface layer. The ratio of surface atoms is proportional to the specific surface area of the phase, defined as the ratio of its surface area to its volume. Each specific/molar property has its bulk value and its surface value for the given phase, being always different, as the energetic states of the atoms in the bulk and in the surface layer of a phase are different. The average specific/molar property of a nano-phase is modeled here as a linear combination of the bulk and surface values of the same property, scaled with the ratio of the surface atoms. That makes the performance of all nano-phases proportional to their specific surface area. As the characteristic size of the nano-phase is inversely proportional to its specific surface area, all specific/molar properties of nano-phases are inversely proportional to the characteristic size of the phase. This is applied to the size dependence of the molar Gibbs energy of the nano-phase, which appears to be in agreement with the thermodynamics of Gibbs. This agreement proves the general validity of the present model on the size dependence of the specific/molar properties of independent nano-phases. It is shown that the properties of nano-phases are different for independent nano-phases (surrounded only by their equilibrium vapor phase) and for nano-phases in multi-phase situations, such as a liquid nano-droplet in the sessile drop configuration.

  2. Nano/micro Sr{sub 2}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 18} crystallites: Size dependent structural, second harmonic and piezoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukaram, Shet; Bhimireddi, Rajasekhar; Varma, K.B.R., E-mail: kbrvarma@mrc.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of Sr{sub 2}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 18} nano/micro crystallites and their size dependent non-linear optical and piezoelectric responses. - Highlights: • Nano/microcrystallites of Sr{sub 2}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 18} were synthesized via sol-gel route. • Crystallite size dependent structural and physical properties were studied. • SHG intensity (1.4 times that of KDP powder) from these crystallites was recorded. • PFM studies on isolated crystallite of 480 nm exhibited d{sub 33} as high as 27 pm/V. • Single domain nature of the crystallites below 160 nm was observed. - Abstract: Strontium bismuth titanate (Sr{sub 2}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 18}) powders comprising crystallites of average sizes in the range of 94–1400 nm were prepared via citrate-assisted sol-gel route. With an increase in the average crystallite size there was a change in the lattice parameters and shift in the Raman vibration modes. Second harmonic signal (532 nm) intensity of the Sr{sub 2}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 18} powders increased with the increase in the average crystallite size and the maximum intensity obtained in the reflection mode was 1.4 times as high as that of the powdered KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Piezo Force Microscopic analyses carried out on isolated crystallite of size 74 nm, established a single domain nature with the coercive field as high as 347 kV/cm. There was a systematic increase in the d{sub 33} value with an increase in the size of the isolated crystallites and a high piezoelectric coefficient of ∼27 pm/V was obtained from an isolated crystallite of size 480 nm.

  3. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  4. Mechanistic study on lowering the sensitivity of positive atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometric analyses: size-dependent reactivity of solvent clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Choi, Cheol Ho; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the mechanism of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is important for studies employing APPI liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In this study, the APPI mechanism for polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds dissolved in toluene and methanol or water mixture was investigated by use of MS analysis and quantum mechanical simulation. In particular, four different mechanisms that could contribute to the signal reduction were considered based on a combination of MS data and quantum mechanical calculations. The APPI mechanism is clarified by combining MS data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To obtain MS data, a positive-mode (+) APPI Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer was used to analyze each solution. DFT calculations were performed using the general atomic and molecular electronic structure system (GAMESS). The experimental results indicated that methanol significantly reduced the signal in (+) APPI, but no significative signal reduction was observed when water was used as a co-solvent with toluene. The signal reduction is more significant especially for molecular ions than for protonated ions. Therefore, important information about the mechanism of methanol-induced signal reduction in (+) APPI-MS can be gained due its negative impact on APPI efficiency. The size-dependent reactivity of methanol clusters ((CH3 OH)n , n = 1-8) is an important factor in determining the sensitivity of (+) APPI-MS analyses. Clusters can compete with toluene radical ions for electrons. The reactivity increases as the sizes of the methanol clusters increase and this effect can be caused by the size-dependent ionization energy of the solvent clusters. The resulting increase in cluster reactivity explains the flow rate and temperature-dependent signal reduction observed in the analytes. Based on the results presented here, minimizing the sizes of methanol clusters can improve the sensitivity of LC/(+)-APPI-MS. Copyright © 2015 John

  5. Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)

  6. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.)

  7. Continuum emission in the 1980 July 1 solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Neidig, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of continuum measurements of the 1980 July 1 flare at Big Bear Solar Observatory and Sacramento Peak Observatory show strong blue emission kernels with the ratio of Balmer continuum (Bac):lambda3862 continuum:continuum above 4275 A to be about 10:5:1. The blue continuum at 3862 A is too strong to be explained by unresolved lines. The Bac intensity was 2.5 times the photosphere and the strongest lambda3862 continuum was 2 times the photosphere. The brightest continuum kernel occurred late in the flare, after the hard X-ray peak and related in time to an isolated peak in the 2.2 MeV line, suggesting that the continuum was excited by protons above 20 MeV

  8. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp; Tchipev, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm

  9. On the design of the NIF Continuum Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, D. B.; MacPhee, A.; Ayers, J.; Galbraith, J.; Hardy, C. M.; Izumi, N.; Bradley, D. K.; Pickworth, L. A.; Bachmann, B.; Kozioziemski, B.; Landen, O.; Clark, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Nagel, S.; Bell, P. M.; Person, S.; Khater, H. Y.; Smith, C.; Kilkenny, J.

    2017-08-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), measurements of average ion temperature using DT neutron time of flight broadening and of DD neutrons do not show the same apparent temperature. Some of this may be due to time and space dependent temperature profiles in the imploding capsule which are not taken into account in the analysis. As such, we are attempting to measure the electron temperature by recording the free-free electron-ion scattering-spectrum from the tail of the Maxwellian temperature distribution. This will be accomplished with the new NIF Continuum Spectrometer (ConSpec) which spans the x-ray range of 20 keV to 30 keV (where any opacity corrections from the remaining mass of the ablator shell are negligible) and will be sensitive to temperatures between ˜ 3 keV and 6 keV. The optical design of the ConSpec is designed to be adaptable to an x-ray streak camera to record time resolved free-free electron continuum spectra for direct measurement of the dT/dt evolution across the burn width of a DT plasma. The spectrometer is a conically bent Bragg crystal in a focusing geometry that allows for the dispersion plane to be perpendicular to the spectrometer axis. Additionally, to address the spatial temperature dependence, both time integrated and time resolved pinhole and penumbral imaging will be provided along the same polar angle. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument is presented along with estimates for the dispersion, solid angle, photometric sensitivity, and performance.

  10. Continuum of eLearning: 2012 Project Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    multimedia, and Continuum of eLearning | Purpose and Vision 19 << UNCLASSIFIED>> (limited) situated learning. Future versions of the CoL self-paced...Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report Continuum of eLearning The Next Evolution of Joint Training on JKO October 2012 Joint...Technical Report November 2011 – August 2012 Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report N00140-06-D-0060 David T. Fautua, Sae Schatz, Andrea

  11. Jacobian elliptic wave solutions in an anharmonic molecular crystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, C.G.R.; Lee, B.S.; Koo, W.K.

    1997-07-01

    Explicit Jacobian elliptic wave solutions are found in the anharmonic molecular crystal model for both the continuum limit and discrete modes. This class of wave solutions include the famous pulse-like and kink-like solitary modes. We would also like to report on the existence of some highly discrete staggered solitary wave modes not found in the continuum limit. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  12. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, EE137, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yao-Ching [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsu [Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guewha Steven, E-mail: gstevehuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China (China)

    2010-05-14

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  13. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia, E-mail: hx.wang@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} films in air under illumination (440.6 {mu}W/cm{sup 2}) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO{sub 4}). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS Multiplication-Sign 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS Multiplication-Sign 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  14. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-05-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  15. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  16. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - and Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...

  17. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - And Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...

  18. Continuum analogues of contragredient Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, M.V.; Vershik, A.M.

    1989-03-01

    We present an axiomatic formulation of a new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras - the generalizations of Z-graded Lie algebras with, generally speaking, an infinite-dimensional Cartan subalgebra and a contiguous set of roots. We call such algebras ''continuum Lie algebras''. The simple Lie algebras of constant growth are encapsulated in our formulation. We pay particular attention to the case when the local algebra is parametrized by a commutative algebra while the Cartan operator (the generalization of the Cartan matrix) is a linear operator. Special examples of these algebras are the Kac-Moody algebras, algebras of Poisson brackets, algebras of vector fields on a manifold, current algebras, and algebras with differential or integro-differential Cartan operator. The nonlinear dynamical systems associated with the continuum contragredient Lie algebras are also considered. (author). 9 refs

  19. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.; Guerrero, P.; Alarcon, T.; Maini, P. K.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  2. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  3. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B

    2015-01-01

    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  4. How do we model continuum QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The nonperturbative aspects of continuum QCD are so complex that one can only hope to approach them through well-motivated models. The author reviews the general properties that any such model must have, based on the understanding of the gluon condensate in the QCD vacuum. A specific, practical model is proposed motivated by a picture of the condensate as made of thick vortex sheets self-consistently constructed from dynamically massive gluons. (author)

  5. New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs

  6. Self-cavity lasing in optically pumped single crystals of p-sexiphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Hisao; Tamura, Kenji; Sasaki, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Organic single-crystal self-cavities are prepared by solution growth of p-sexiphenyl (p-6P). Based on Fabry-Pérot feedback inside a quasi-lozenge-shaped platelet crystal, edge-emitting laser is obtained under optical pumping. The multimode lasing band appears at the 0-1 or 0-2 vibronic progressions depending on the excitation conditions which affect the self-absorption effect. Cavity-size dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is investigated with laser-etched single crystals of p-6P. As the cavity length of square-shaped crystal is reduced from 100 to 10 μm, ASE threshold fluence is decreased probably due to size-dependent light confinement in the crystal cavity.

  7. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS, ...... with the measured radiative rates. Our results are relevant for applications of CdSe quantum dots in spontaneous emission control and cavity quantum electrodynamics.......We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS......, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  8. Tuning the size-dependent He-irradiated tolerance and strengthening behavior of crystalline/amorphous Cu/Ta nanostructured multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, X.Q.; Zhang, J.Y., E-mail: jinyuzhang1002@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Y.Q.; Wu, S.H.; Zeng, F.; Wu, K.; Liu, G., E-mail: lgsammer@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, G.J.; Sun, J.

    2016-08-30

    Nanoindentation methodology was used to measure the hardness of Cu/Ta crystalline/amorphous nanostructured multilayers (CANMs) before and after He ion-implantation at room temperature. These CANMs have a constant modulation period (λ=25 nm) but different modulation ratios (η=h{sub Ta} / h{sub Cu}) spanning from 0.11 to 1.0. It is found that in sharp contrast to previously reported Cu/Cu-Zr CANMs by Zhang et al. [9], the He-irradiated Cu/Ta samples exhibit much greater microstructure stability without radiation-induced devitrification (RID) of glassy Ta nanolayers at smaller η (except the sample at η=1.0). Both the as-deposited and irradiated Cu/Ta CANMs manifest the monotonically increased hardness with decreasing η, however, there is an unexpected transition from size-dependent irradiation hardening at η<1.0 to softening at η≥1.0 caused by a competition between dislocation-bubble interactions in crystalline nanolayers and RID in glassy nanolayers. These findings not only provide fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect effect on plastic characteristics of CANMs, but also offer guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization at a critical modulation ratio under extreme conditions.

  9. Size-dependent plastic deformation characteristics in He-irradiated nanostructured Cu/Mo multilayers: Competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zeng, F.L.; Wu, K.; Wang, Y.Q.; Liang, X.Q.; Liu, G.; Zhang, G.J.; Sun, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoindentation methodology was used to investigate the plastic deformation characteristics, including the hardness (H), strain rate sensitivity (SRS, m) and activation volume (V * ), of Cu/Mo nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 10 to 200 nm before and after He-implantation at room temperature. Compared with the as-deposited Cu/Mo NMMs, the irradiated Cu/Mo samples exhibited the enhanced hardness particularly at great h, which is caused by the bubble-hardening effect. Unlike the as-deposited Cu/Mo NMMs displayed a monotonic increase in SRS (or a monotonic decrease in activation volume) with reducing h, the irradiated Cu/Mo samples manifested an unexpected non-monotonic variation in SRS as well as in activation volume. It was clearly unveiled that the SRS of irradiated Cu/Mo firstly decreased with reducing h down to a critical size of ~50 nm and subsequently increased with further reducing h, leaving a minimum value at the critical h. These phenomena are rationalized by considering a competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions. A thermally activated model based on the depinning process of bowed-out partial dislocations was employed to quantitatively account for the size-dependent SRS of Cu/Mo NMMs before and after irradiation. Our findings not only provide fundamental understanding of the effects of radiation-induced defects on plastic characteristics of NMMs, but also offer guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization at extremes.

  10. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kanaya, Yugo; Saito, Masahiko

    2017-07-05

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (Eurasia (15,256 km 2 ) could have been ~16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km 2 ) when applying the correction factors proposed in this study. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  11. Seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the southern South China Sea under the influence of the East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Tan, Y.; Huang, L.; Hu, Z.; Ke, Z.

    2015-11-01

    To examine seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in oligotrophic tropical waters under the influence of seasonal reversing monsoon, dilution experiments were conducted during the summer of 2009 (21 May to 9 June) and winter 2010 (9 to 18 November) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS). The results showed that environmental variables, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton growth rate (μ), microzooplankton grazing rate (m), and correlationship (coupling) between the μ and m, rather than the microzooplankton grazing impact on phytoplankton (m/μ) significantly varied between the two seasons. Higher relative preference index (RPI) for the larger-sized (> 3 μm) phytoplankton than pico-phytoplankton (intermittent arrivals of the northeast winter monsoon could lead to the low μ and m, and the decoupling between the μ and m in the SSCS, through influencing nutrient supply to the surface water, and inducing surface seawater salinity decrease. The low m/μ (waters such as that of the SSCS.

  12. Size-dependent effects in supported highly dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, doped with Pt and Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Shopska, Maya, E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Mitov, Ivan; Kadinov, Georgi [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2010-06-15

    Series of Fe and Fe-Me (Me = Pt or Pd) catalyst supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} (anatase) or diatomite were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The metal loading was 8 wt.% Fe and 0.7 wt.% noble metal. The preparation and pretreatment conditions of all studied samples were kept to be the same. X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for characterization of the supports and the samples at different steps during their treatment and catalytic tests. The catalytic activity of the samples was tested in the reaction of total benzene oxidation. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained materials are compared with respect of the different chemical composition, dispersion of used carriers and of the supported phases. Samples with the same composition prepared by mechanical mixing are studied as catalysts for comparison and for clearing up the presence of size-dependent effect, also.

  13. Size-Dependent Affinity of Glycine and Its Short Oligomers to Pyrite Surface: A Model for Prebiotic Accumulation of Amino Acid Oligomers on a Mineral Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Rehana; Ganbaatar, Narangerel; Aono, Masashi; Cleaves, H. James; Yano, Taka-aki; Hara, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    The interaction strength of progressively longer oligomers of glycine, (Gly), di-Gly, tri-Gly, and penta-Gly, with a natural pyrite surface was directly measured using the force mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). In recent years, selective activation of abiotically formed amino acids on mineral surfaces, especially that of pyrite, has been proposed as an important step in many origins of life scenarios. To investigate such notions, we used AFM-based force measurements to probe possible non-covalent interactions between pyrite and amino acids, starting from the simplest amino acid, Gly. Although Gly itself interacted with the pyrite surface only weakly, progressively larger unbinding forces and binding frequencies were obtained using oligomers from di-Gly to penta-Gly. In addition to an expected increase of the configurational entropy and size-dependent van der Waals force, the increasing number of polar peptide bonds, among others, may be responsible for this observation. The effect of chain length was also investigated by performing similar experiments using l-lysine vs. poly-l-lysine (PLL), and l-glutamic acid vs. poly-l-glutamic acid. The results suggest that longer oligomers/polymers of amino acids can be preferentially adsorbed on pyrite surfaces. PMID:29370126

  14. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  15. Continuum regularized Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadun, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Using the machinery of stochastic quantization, Z. Bern, M. B. Halpern, C. Taubes and I recently proposed a continuum regularization technique for quantum field theory. This regularization may be implemented by applying a regulator to either the (d + 1)-dimensional Parisi-Wu Langevin equation or, equivalently, to the d-dimensional second order Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations. This technique is non-perturbative, respects all gauge and Lorentz symmetries, and is consistent with a ghost-free gauge fixing (Zwanziger's). This thesis is a detailed study of this regulator, and of regularized Yang-Mills theory, using both perturbative and non-perturbative techniques. The perturbative analysis comes first. The mechanism of stochastic quantization is reviewed, and a perturbative expansion based on second-order SD equations is developed. A diagrammatic method (SD diagrams) for evaluating terms of this expansion is developed. We apply the continuum regulator to a scalar field theory. Using SD diagrams, we show that all Green functions can be rendered finite to all orders in perturbation theory. Even non-renormalizable theories can be regularized. The continuum regulator is then applied to Yang-Mills theory, in conjunction with Zwanziger's gauge fixing. A perturbative expansion of the regulator is incorporated into the diagrammatic method. It is hoped that the techniques discussed in this thesis will contribute to the construction of a renormalized Yang-Mills theory is 3 and 4 dimensions

  16. Integral equation hierarchy for continuum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis a projection operator technique is presented that yields hierarchies of integral equations satisfied exactly by the n-point connectedness functions in a continuum version of the site-bond percolation problem. The n-point connectedness functions carry the same structural information for a percolation problem as then-point correlation functions do for a thermal problem. This method extends the Potts model mapping of Fortuin and Kastelyn to the continuum by exploiting an s-state generalization of the Widom-Rowlinson model, a continuum model for phase separation. The projection operator technique is used to produce an integral equation hierarchy for percolation similar to the Born-Green heirarchy. The Kirkwood superposition approximation (SA) is extended to percolation in order to close this hierarchy and yield a nonlinear integral equation for the two-point connectedness function. The fact that this function, in the SA, is the analytic continuation to negative density of the two-point correlation function in a corresponding thermal problem is discussed. The BGY equation for percolation is solved numerically, both by an expansion in powers of the density, and by an iterative technique due to Kirkwood. It is argued both analytically and numerically, that the BYG equation for percolation, unlike its thermal counterpart, shows non-classical critical behavior, with η = 1 and γ = 0.05 ± .1. Finally a sequence of refinements to the superposition approximations based in the theory of fluids by Rice and Lekner is discussed

  17. Comet Halley: An optical continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    From an analysis of narrowband CCD images of Comet Halley from 1986 January, March, and April, certain dust structures which are redder than the remainder of the dust coma have become apparent. Mie calculations suggest that this reddening is due to an enhancement of particles with sizes comparable to the observing wavelengths. Although the mass range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of the limitations of Mie theory, these values are in the expected range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of particle sizes which would be both sensitive to radiation pressure and significantly reddened with respect to the solar spectrum at the observing wavelengths. Thus, the red envelopes are plausibly the result of size sorting by solar radiation pressure. The red jets observed on 1986 January 10, March 1 and March 9 can then be explained by the enhanced dust flux at the jet sources, and the subsequent trapping of a relative excess of intermediate mass (i.e. red) particles into the jets which are visible in the continuum images. Analysis of narrowband photometry of the optical continuum of Comet Halley reveals no correlation between the color of the dust and heliocentric distance, phase angle, strength of the continuum or gas-to-dust ratio. The photometric data are thus consistent with a post-ejection sorting mechanism. Chemical inhomogeneities of the nucleus are therefore not necessary to explain the observed structure in the color of the dust in Comet Halley

  18. Lyman continuum observations of solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. E.; Noyes, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of Lyman continuum observations of solar flares, using data obtained by the EUV spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount. It is found that there are two main types of flare regions: an overall 'mean' flare coincident with the H-alpha flare region, and transient Lyman continuum kernels which can be identified with the H-alpha and X-ray kernels observed by other authors. It is found that the ground level hydrogen population in flares is closer to LTE than in the quiet sun and active regions, and that the level of Lyman continuum formation is lowered in the atmosphere from a mass column density .000005 g/sq cm in the quiet sun to .0003 g/sq cm in the mean flare, and to .001 g/sq cm in kernels. From these results the amount of chromospheric material 'evaporated' into the high temperature region is derived, which is found to be approximately 10 to the 15th g, in agreement with observations of X-ray emission measures.

  19. Geometrical foundations of continuum mechanics an application to first- and second-order elasticity and elasto-plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the deep roots of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first- order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type) elasticity and elasto-plasticity.   After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second- order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II. Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second- order geometrically nonlinear con...

  20. Development of Advanced Continuum Models that Incorporate Nanomechanical Deformation into Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian

    2008-09-01

    Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to model both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J

  1. Nanoparticles in liquid crystals, and liquid crystals in nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Liquid crystals are remarkably sensitive to interfacial interactions. Small perturbations at a liquid crystal interface, for example, can be propagated over relatively long length scales, thereby providing the basis for a wide range of applications that rely on amplification of molecular events into macroscopic observables. Our recent research efforts have focused on the reverse phenomenon; that is, we have sought to manipulate the interfacial assembly of nanoparticles or the organization of surface active molecules by controlling the structure of a liquid crystal. This presentation will consist of a review of the basic principles that are responsible for liquid crystal-mediated interactions, followed by demonstrations of those principles in the context of two types of systems. In the first, a liquid crystal is used to direct the assembly of nanoparticles; through a combination of molecular and continuum models, it is found that minute changes in interfacial energy and particle size lead to liquid-crystal induced attractions that can span multiple orders of magnitude. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by experimental observations, which also suggest that LC-mediated assembly provides an effective means for fabrication of plasmonic devices. In the second type of system, the structure of a liquid crystal is controlled by confinement in submicron droplets. The morphology of the liquid crystal in a drop depends on a delicate balance between bulk and interfacial contributions to the free energy; that balance can be easily perturbed by adsorption of analytes or nanoparticles at the interface, thereby providing the basis for development of hierarchical assembly of responsive, anisotropic materials. Theoretical predictions also indicate that the three-dimensional order of a liquid crystal can be projected onto a two-dimensional interface, and give rise to novel nanostructures that are not found in simple isotropic fluids.

  2. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  3. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  4. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  5. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  6. Energy and system size dependence of Ξ- and anti Ξ+ production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovski, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The strong nuclear force is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the parallel field theory to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) that describes the electromagnetic force. It is propagated by gluons analogously to photons in the electromagnetic force, but unlike photons, which do not carry electric charge, gluons carry color, and they can self-interact. However, as individual quarks have never been observed in nature, it is postulated that the color charge itself is confined, and hence all baryons and mesons must be colorless objects. To study nuclear matter under extreme conditions, it is necessary to create hot and dense nuclear matter in the laboratory. In such conditions the confinement between quarks and gluons is cancelled (deconfinement). This state is characterized with a quasi-free behavior of quarks and gluons. The strange (s) and anti-strange (anti-s) quarks are not contained in the colliding nuclei, but are newly produced and show up in the strange hadrons in the final state. It was suggested that strange particle production is enhanced in the QGP with respect to that in a hadron gas. This enhancement is relative to a collision where a transition to a QGP phase does not take place, such as p+p collisions where the system size is very small. Therefore the energy- and system size dependence is studied to receive a picture about the initial state. In this thesis experimental results on the energy- and system size dependence of Xi hyperon production at the CERN SPS is shown. All measurements were performed with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS. NA49 took central lead-lead collisions from 20 - 158 AGeV, minimus bias lead-lead collisions at 40 and 158 AGeV, and semi-central silicon-silicon collisions at 158 AGeV. The NA49 experiment features a large acceptance in the forward hemisphere allowing for measurements of Xi rapidity spectra. At the SPS accelerator at CERN Pb+Pb collisions are performed with beam energies to 158 AGeV. The analyzed data sets were

  7. Energy and system size dependence of {xi}{sup -} and anti {xi}{sup +} production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovski, M.K.

    2007-11-21

    The strong nuclear force is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the parallel field theory to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) that describes the electromagnetic force. It is propagated by gluons analogously to photons in the electromagnetic force, but unlike photons, which do not carry electric charge, gluons carry color, and they can self-interact. However, as individual quarks have never been observed in nature, it is postulated that the color charge itself is confined, and hence all baryons and mesons must be colorless objects. To study nuclear matter under extreme conditions, it is necessary to create hot and dense nuclear matter in the laboratory. In such conditions the confinement between quarks and gluons is cancelled (deconfinement). This state is characterized with a quasi-free behavior of quarks and gluons. The strange (s) and anti-strange (anti-s) quarks are not contained in the colliding nuclei, but are newly produced and show up in the strange hadrons in the final state. It was suggested that strange particle production is enhanced in the QGP with respect to that in a hadron gas. This enhancement is relative to a collision where a transition to a QGP phase does not take place, such as p+p collisions where the system size is very small. Therefore the energy- and system size dependence is studied to receive a picture about the initial state. In this thesis experimental results on the energy- and system size dependence of Xi hyperon production at the CERN SPS is shown. All measurements were performed with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS. NA49 took central lead-lead collisions from 20 - 158 AGeV, minimus bias lead-lead collisions at 40 and 158 AGeV, and semi-central silicon-silicon collisions at 158 AGeV. The NA49 experiment features a large acceptance in the forward hemisphere allowing for measurements of Xi rapidity spectra. At the SPS accelerator at CERN Pb+Pb collisions are performed with beam energies to 158 AGeV. The analyzed data sets were

  8. TiO2 nanoparticles disrupt cell adhesion and the architecture of cytoskeletal networks of human osteoblast-like cells in a size dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Schoelermann, Julia; Mustafa, Kamal; Cimpan, Mihaela R

    2018-04-30

    Human exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) is increasing. An internal source of nano-TiO 2 is represented by titanium-based orthopedic and dental implants can release nanoparticles (NPs) upon abrasion. Little is known about how the size of NPs influences their interaction with cytoskeletal protein networks and the functional/homeostatic consequences that might follow at the implant-bone interface with regard to osteoblasts. We investigated the effects of size of anatase nano-TiO 2 on SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells exposed to clinically relevant concentrations (0.05, 0.5, 5 mg/L) of 5 and 40 nm spherical nano-TiO 2 . Cell viability and proliferation, adhesion, spread and migration were assessed, as well as the orientation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks. The phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK Y397 ) and the expression of vinculin in response to nano-TiO 2 were also assessed. Treatment with nano-TiO 2 disrupted the actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks leading to morphological modifications of SaOS-2 cells. The phosphorylation of p-FAK Y397 and the expression of vinculin were also modified depending on the particle size, which affected cell adhesion. Consequently, the cell migration was significantly impaired in the 5 nm-exposed cells compared to unexposed cells. The present work shows that the orientation of cytoskeletal networks and the focal adhesion proteins and subsequently the adhesion, spread and migration of SaOS-2 cells were affected by the selected nano-TiO 2 in a size dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Size-dependent plastic deformation characteristics in He-irradiated nanostructured Cu/Mo multilayers: Competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zeng, F.L.; Wu, K.; Wang, Y.Q.; Liang, X.Q.; Liu, G., E-mail: lgsammer@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, G.J.; Sun, J., E-mail: junsun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Nanoindentation methodology was used to investigate the plastic deformation characteristics, including the hardness (H), strain rate sensitivity (SRS, m) and activation volume (V{sup *}), of Cu/Mo nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 10 to 200 nm before and after He-implantation at room temperature. Compared with the as-deposited Cu/Mo NMMs, the irradiated Cu/Mo samples exhibited the enhanced hardness particularly at great h, which is caused by the bubble-hardening effect. Unlike the as-deposited Cu/Mo NMMs displayed a monotonic increase in SRS (or a monotonic decrease in activation volume) with reducing h, the irradiated Cu/Mo samples manifested an unexpected non-monotonic variation in SRS as well as in activation volume. It was clearly unveiled that the SRS of irradiated Cu/Mo firstly decreased with reducing h down to a critical size of ~50 nm and subsequently increased with further reducing h, leaving a minimum value at the critical h. These phenomena are rationalized by considering a competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions. A thermally activated model based on the depinning process of bowed-out partial dislocations was employed to quantitatively account for the size-dependent SRS of Cu/Mo NMMs before and after irradiation. Our findings not only provide fundamental understanding of the effects of radiation-induced defects on plastic characteristics of NMMs, but also offer guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization at extremes.

  10. Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by the combustion method: Comparison between aspartic acid and glycine as fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugavani, A.; Kalai Selvan, R.; Layek, Samar; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-01-01

    Using two different fuels such as aspartic acid and glycine, the spinel zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the combustion method at different pH values. The thermochemical calculations for both the fuel assisted materials and its adiabatic flame temperature were calculated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of single phase ZnFe 2 O 4 with high crystallinity. The characteristic functional groups of Fe3O and Zn3O were identified through FTIR analysis. Uniform size distribution of spherical particle in the average size range of 35–100 nm was inferred from SEM images. The room temperature DC conductivities of ZnFe 2 O 4 particles prepared by using aspartic and glycine are in the order of 10 −7 and 10 −8 respectively. The dielectric spectral analysis inferred that the obtained dielectric constant is high at low frequency and decreases with increase in frequency. This dielectric behavior is in accordance with the Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization. VSM and Mössbauer analysis revealed that the prepared material exhibits paramagnetic behavior and Fe 3+ state of iron content in ZnFe 2 O 4 at room temperature. - Highlights: • For the first time aspartic acid is used as a fuel to synthesize ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. • Theoretical adiabatic flame temperature for the formation of ZnFe 2 O 4 is calculated. • Individual spherical shape particles are achieved by combustion synthesis. • Enhanced room temperature conductivity for aspartic acid assisted particles are revealed. • Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties are demonstrated

  11. Determination of strain concentration by microfluorescent densitometry of X-ray topography: a bridge between microfracture and continuum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, Z.H.; Chaudhuri, J.; Weng, G.J.; Weissmann, S.

    1980-01-01

    The strain distribution in the vicinity of the notches of a double-notched, elastically bent silicon crystal was determined by measuring the diffracted X-ray intensities. The measurements were carried out on traverse-oscillation topographs of a crystal section extending through both notches. Strain distributions were determined by measuring the local densities of silver deposits (measurements of 'opacities') with a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that both the density range and spatial resolution of X-ray densitometry were larger by an order of magnitude than those of optical densitometry. The strain concentration factors associated with the notches were measured experimentally and calculated by continuum mechanics. The results were in satisfactory agreement. Also, the experimentally found rise of strains, to a maximum in the critical area adjacent to the notch root, followed the trend predicted by continuum mechanics. (Auth.)

  12. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  13. Effect of couplings in the resonance continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, J; Larson, A; Orel, A E

    2004-01-01

    Electronic coupling of two or more resonances via the electron scattering continuum is investigated. The effect of this coupling as a function of the resonance curves and autoionization widths is investigated, and the conditions for the maximum effect are determined. The theory is applied to two physical problems, the product state distribution produced by the dissociative recombination of electrons with HeH + and a one-dimensional model for ion-pair production resulting from electron collisions with H + 3 . It is found that the coupling does not affect the product state distribution in HeH + but produces a significant effect in the H + 3 model

  14. Discrete expansions of continuum functions. General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Different discrete expansions of the continuum wave functions are considered: pole expansion (according to the Mittag-Lefler theorem), Weinberg states. The general property of these groups of states is their completeness in the finite region of space. They satisfy the Schroedinger type equations and are matched with free solutions of the Schroedinger equation at the boundary. Convergence of expansions for the S matrix, the Green functions and the continuous-spectrum wave functions is studied. A new group of states possessing the best convergence is introduced

  15. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  16. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  17. On nonlocal modeling in continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Martowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to provide an overview of nonlocal formulations for models of elastic solids. The author presents the physical foundations for nonlocal theories of continuum mechanics, followed by various analytical and numerical techniques. The characteristics and range of practical applications for the presented approaches are discussed. The results of numerical simulations for the selected case studies are provided to demonstrate the properties of the described methods. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from peridynamic analyses. Fatigue and axial stretching were simulated to show the capabilities of the developed numerical tools.

  18. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  19. Quasi-bound states in continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio

    2007-08-01

    We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)

  20. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  1. Renal tissue alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which in turn may induce stress in the renal cells to undergo atrophy and necrosis. The produced alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more affects and related with time exposure of GNPs.

  2. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Jianzheng

    2007-01-01

    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime

  3. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  4. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  5. Continuum capture in the three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    The three-body problem, especially the problem of electron capture to the continuum in heavy particle collisions is reviewed. Major topics covered include: second born-induced asymmetry in electron capture to the continuum; historical context, links to other tests of atomic scattering theory; experiments characterizing the velocity distribution of ECC electrons; other atomic physics tests of high velocity Born expansions; atom capture; capture by positrons; and pion capture to the continuum

  6. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  7. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  8. A continuum theory of edge dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    Continuum theory of dislocation aims to describe the behavior of large ensembles of dislocations. This task is far from completion, and, most likely, does not have a "universal solution", which is applicable to any dislocation ensemble. In this regards it is important to have guiding lines set by benchmark cases, where the transition from a discrete set of dislocations to a continuum description is made rigorously. Two such cases have been considered recently: equilibrium of dislocation walls and screw dislocations in beams. In this paper one more case is studied, equilibrium of a large set of 2D edge dislocations placed randomly in a 2D bounded region. The major characteristic of interest is energy of dislocation ensemble, because it determines the structure of continuum equations. The homogenized energy functional is obtained for the periodic dislocation ensembles with a random contents of the periodic cell. Parameters of the periodic structure can change slowly on distances of order of the size of periodic cells. The energy functional is obtained by the variational-asymptotic method. Equilibrium positions are local minima of energy. It is confirmed the earlier assertion that energy density of the system is the sum of elastic energy of averaged elastic strains and microstructure energy, which is elastic energy of the neutralized dislocation system, i.e. the dislocation system placed in a constant dislocation density field making the averaged dislocation density zero. The computation of energy is reduced to solution of a variational cell problem. This problem is solved analytically. The solution is used to investigate stability of simple dislocation arrays, i.e. arrays with one dislocation in the periodic cell. The relations obtained yield two outcomes: First, there is a state parameter of the system, dislocation polarization; averaged stresses affect only dislocation polarization and cannot change other characteristics of the system. Second, the structure of

  9. Particle size dependence of oxygen evolution reaction on nanocrystalline RuO.sub.2./sub. and Ru.sub.0.8./sub.Co.sub.0.2./sub.O.sub.2-x./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirkovský, Jakub; Makarova, Marina; Krtil, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2006), s. 1417-1422 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Ruthenium dioxide * electroanalysis * size dependence * DEMS Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.484, year: 2006

  10. Morphological evolution of dissolving feldspar particles with anisotropic surface kinetics and implications for dissolution rate normalization and grain size dependence: A kinetic modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Lüttge, Andreas

    2009-11-01

    surface area normalizations have been used to normalize the bulk dissolution rate. For each of the treatments, time consistence and grain size dependence of the normalized dissolution rate have been evaluated and the results revealed significant dependences on the magnitude of surface kinetic anisotropy under differing environmental conditions. In general, the normalized dissolution rates are strongly dependent on grain size. Time-consistent normalization treatment varies with the investigated condition. The modeling results suggest that the sphere-, cube-, and BET-normalized dissolution rates are appropriate under the far-from-equilibrium conditions at low pH where these normalizations are time-consistent and are slightly dependent on grain size.

  11. Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model

  12. Constraining Lyman continuum escape using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sambit K.; Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Cubo, Rubén; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will observe the rest-frame ultraviolet/optical spectra of galaxies from the epoch of reionization (EoR) in unprecedented detail. While escaping into the intergalactic medium, hydrogen-ionizing (Lyman continuum; LyC) photons from the galaxies will contribute to the bluer end of the UV slope and make nebular emission lines less prominent. We present a method to constrain leakage of the LyC photons using the spectra of high redshift (z >~ 6) galaxies. We simulate JWST/NIRSpec observations of galaxies at z =6-9 by matching the fluxes of galaxies observed in the Frontier Fields observations of galaxy cluster MACS-J0416. Our method predicts the escape fraction fesc with a mean absolute error Δfesc ~ 0.14. The method also predicts the redshifts of the galaxies with an error .

  13. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...

  14. Embodiment design of soft continuum robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary project where mechatronic engineers worked alongside biologists to develop a soft robotic arm that captures key features of octopus anatomy and neurophysiology. The concept of embodiment (the dynamic coupling between sensory-motor control, anatomy, materials and environment that allows for the animal to achieve adaptive behaviours is used as a starting point for the design process but tempered by current engineering technologies and approaches. In this article, the embodied design requirements are first discussed from a robotic viewpoint by taking into account real-life engineering limitations; then, the motor control schemes inspired by octopus nervous system are investigated. Finally, the mechanical and control design of a prototype is presented that appropriately blends bio-inspiration and engineering limitations. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed continuum robotic arm is able to reproduce octopus-like motions for bending, reaching and grasping.

  15. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: faus@mit.edu [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-12-05

    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  16. Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serpieri, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...

  17. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  18. Advanced dielectric continuum model of preferential solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Mikhail; Odinokov, Alexey; Nikitina, Ekaterina; Grigoriev, Fedor; Petrov, Nikolai; Alfimov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    A continuum model for solvation effects in binary solvent mixtures is formulated in terms of the density functional theory. The presence of two variables, namely, the dimensionless solvent composition y and the dimensionless total solvent density z, is an essential feature of binary systems. Their coupling, hidden in the structure of the local dielectric permittivity function, is postulated at the phenomenological level. Local equilibrium conditions are derived by a variation in the free energy functional expressed in terms of the composition and density variables. They appear as a pair of coupled equations defining y and z as spatial distributions. We consider the simplest spherically symmetric case of the Born-type ion immersed in the benzene/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent mixture. The profiles of y(R ) and z(R ) along the radius R, which measures the distance from the ion center, are found in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is shown that for a given solute ion z(R ) does not depend significantly on the composition variable y. A simplified solution is then obtained by inserting z(R ), found in the MD simulation for the pure DMSO, in the single equation which defines y(R ). In this way composition dependences of the main solvation effects are investigated. The local density augmentation appears as a peak of z(R ) at the ion boundary. It is responsible for the fine solvation effects missing when the ordinary solvation theories, in which z =1, are applied. These phenomena, studied for negative ions, reproduce consistently the simulation results. For positive ions the simulation shows that z ≫1 (z =5-6 at the maximum of the z peak), which means that an extremely dense solvation shell is formed. In such a situation the continuum description fails to be valid within a consistent parametrization.

  19. Continuum shell-model with complicated configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.W.; Hoehn, J.

    1977-05-01

    The traditional shell model has been combined with the coupled channels method in order to describe resonance reactions. For that purpose the configuration space is divided into two subspaces (Feshbach projection method). Complicated shell-model configurations can be included into the subspace of discrete states which contains the single particle resonance states too. In the subspace of scattering states the equation of motion is solved by using the coupled channels method. Thereby the orthogonality between scattering states and discrete states is ensured. Resonance states are defined with outgoing waves in all channels. By means of simple model calculations the special role of the continuum is investigated. In this connection the energy dependence of the resonance parameters, the isospin mixture via the continuum, threshold effect, as well as the influence of the number of channels taken into account on the widths, positions and dipole strengths of the resonance are discussed. The model is mainly applied to the description of giant resonances excited by the scattering of nucleons and photo-nucleus processes (source term method) found in reactions on light nuclei. The giant resonance observed in the 15 N(p,n) reaction is explained by the inclusion of 2p-2h states. The same is true for the giant resonance in 13 C(J = 1/2, 3/2) as well as for the giant resonance built on the first 3 - state in 16 O. By means of a correlation analysis for the reduced widths amplitudes an access to the doorway conception is found. (author)

  20. Continuum Damage Mechanics A Continuum Mechanics Approach to the Analysis of Damage and Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in engineering and technology have brought about serious and enlarged demands for reliability, safety and economy in wide range of fields such as aeronautics, nuclear engineering, civil and structural engineering, automotive and production industry.  This, in turn, has caused more interest in continuum damage mechanics and its engineering applications.   This book aims to give a concise overview of the current state of damage mechanics, and then to show the fascinating possibility of this promising branch of mechanics, and to provide researchers, engineers and graduate students with an intelligible and self-contained textbook.   The book consists of two parts and an appendix.  Part I  is concerned with the foundation of continuum damage mechanics.  Basic concepts of material damage and the mechanical representation of damage state of various kinds are described in Chapters 1 and 2.  In Chapters 3-5, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic constitutive theory and its application ...

  1. Teaching Continuum Mechanics in a Mechanical Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a graduate course, continuum mechanics, which is designed for and taught to graduate students in a Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. The significance of continuum mechanics in engineering education is demonstrated and the course structure is described. Methods used in teaching this course such as topics, class…

  2. Stonefly (Plecoptera) Feeding Modes: Variation Along a California River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Bottorff; Allen W. Knight

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Plecoptera along a California river was used to test several predictions of the River Continuum Concept about how functional feeding groups should change along a stream's length. Stoneflies were collected from stream orders 1-6 (123 km) of the Cosumnes River continuum in the central Sierra Nevada. The 69 stonefly species collected were...

  3. Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…

  4. Bursts and shocks in a continuum shell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We study a burst event, i.e., the evolution of an initial condition having support only in a finite interval of k-space, in the continuum shell model due to Parisi. We show that the continuum equation without forcing or dissipation can be explicitly written in characteristic form and that the right...

  5. Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  6. A Behavioral Continuum: A Look at Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George; Kirk, Nancy A.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorders are not discrete diagnostic categories, but that they lie along a continuum and have in common the dimensions of degree of self-centeredness and degree of differentiation. Presents evidence supporting existence of continuum of behavior rather than discrete diagnostic…

  7. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  8. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koralewska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow of BaSO4 crystal magma in a mixing chamber. For comparison purposes the experimental data corresponding to a continuous DT (Draft Tube crystallizer with propeller agitator are presented and discussed. The various types of laboratory crystallizers used were fed with concentrated water solution of barium chloride (of 10 or 24 mass % and - in a stoichiometric proportion - crystalline ammonium sulphate, assuming isothermal (348 K and hydrodynamic (average residence time of suspension in a crystallizer: 900 s process conditions. The observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals were estimated on the basis of crystal size distributions (CSDs using convenient calculation scheme derived for an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal model approach. Considering the experimental population density distribution courses, a size-dependent growth (SDG phenomenon was taken into account in the kinetic calculations. Five SDG kinetic models recommended in the accessible literature were used for kinetic parameter values estimation. It was proved statistically, that Rojkowski’s two SDG models (hyperbolic and exponential best suit for our own experimental data description. The experimental data presented can be practically applied for improving the constructions of liquid jet-pump DTM crystallizers recommended for reaction crystallization of sparingly soluble inorganic salts (especially for high concentrations of reaction substrates in the modern

  9. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  10. Patients' experiences with continuum of care across hospitals. A multilevel analysis of Consumer Quality Index Continuum of Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Berendsen, Annette J.

    Objective: Communication between professionals is essential because it contributes to an optimal continuum of care. Whether patients experience adequate continuum of care is uncertain. To address this, a questionnaire was developed to elucidate this care process from a patients' perspective. In this

  11. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  12. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  13. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  14. Identity of Particles and Continuum Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2001-04-01

    Why all electrons are the same? Unlike other objects, particles and atoms (same isotopes) are forbidden to have individuality or personal history (or reveal their hidden variables, even if they do have them). Or at least, what we commonly call physics so far was unable to disprove particle's sameness (Berezin and Nakhmanson, Physics Essays, 1990). Consider two opposing hypotheses: (A) particles are indeed absolutely same, or (B) they do have individuality, but it is beyond our capacity to demonstrate. This dilemma sounds akin to undecidability of Continuum Hypothesis of existence (or not) of intermediate cardinalities between integers and reals (P.Cohen). Both yes and no of it are true. Thus, (alleged) sameness of electrons and atoms may be a physical translation (embodiment) of this fundamental Goedelian undecidability. Experiments unlikely to help: even if we find that all electrons are same within 30 decimal digits, could their masses (or charges) still differ in100-th digit? Within (B) personalized informationally rich (infinitely rich?) digital tails (starting at, say, 100-th decimal) may carry individual record of each particle history. Within (A) parameters (m, q) are indeed exactly same in all digits and their sameness is based on some inherent (meta)physical principle akin to Platonism or Eddington-type numerology.

  15. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  16. Multigrid treatment of implicit continuum diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett

    2017-10-01

    Implicit treatment of diffusive terms of various differential orders common in continuum mechanics modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics, is investigated with spectral and multigrid algorithms in non-periodic 2D domains. In doubly periodic time dependent problems these terms can be efficiently and implicitly handled by spectral methods, but in non-periodic systems solved with distributed memory parallel computing and 2D domain decomposition, this efficiency is lost for large numbers of processors. We built and present here a multigrid algorithm for these types of problems which outperforms a spectral solution that employs the highly optimized FFTW library. This multigrid algorithm is not only suitable for high performance computing but may also be able to efficiently treat implicit diffusion of arbitrary order by introducing auxiliary equations of lower order. We test these solvers for fourth and sixth order diffusion with idealized harmonic test functions as well as a turbulent 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is also shown that an anisotropic operator without cross-terms can improve model accuracy and speed, and we examine the impact that the various diffusion operators have on the energy, the enstrophy, and the qualitative aspect of a simulation. This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  17. Performance-based shape optimization of continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qingquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a performance-based optimization (PBO) method for optimal shape design of continuum structures with stiffness constraints. Performance-based design concepts are incorporated in the shape optimization theory to achieve optimal designs. In the PBO method, the traditional shape optimization problem of minimizing the weight of a continuum structure with displacement or mean compliance constraints is transformed to the problem of maximizing the performance of the structure. The optimal shape of a continuum structure is obtained by gradually eliminating inefficient finite elements from the structure until its performance is maximized. Performance indices are employed to monitor the performance of optimized shapes in an optimization process. Performance-based optimality criteria are incorporated in the PBO method to identify the optimum from the optimization process. The PBO method is used to produce optimal shapes of plane stress continuum structures and plates in bending. Benchmark numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PBO method for generating the maximum stiffness shape design of continuum structures. It is shown that the PBO method developed overcomes the limitations of traditional shape optimization methods in optimal design of continuum structures. Performance-based optimality criteria presented can be incorporated in any shape and topology optimization methods to obtain optimal designs of continuum structures.

  18. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.

  19. Continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic, A.; Praprotnik, M.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest...... as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently by continuum flow...

  20. Expansion of continuum functions on resonance wave functions and amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Gareev, F.A.; Gizzatkulov, M.H.; Goncharov, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered with wave functions of continuum spectrum (for example, in a shell model with continuum) the pole expansion (by the Mittag-Leffler theorem) of wave functions, scattering amplitudes and the Green functions with positive energies are considered. It is shown that resonance functions (the Gamov functions) form a complete set over which the continuum functions could be expanded. The general view of these expansions for final potentials and for the Coulomb repulsion potential are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the application of the method to nuclear structure calculations leads to simple algebraic equations

  1. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; Zhang, Li De

    2014-01-08

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile.

  2. 2D director calculation for liquid crystal optical phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, J; Wu, L Y

    2005-01-01

    A practical numerical model for a liquid crystal cell is set up based on the geometrical structure of liquid crystal optical phased arrays. Model parameters include width and space of electrodes, thickness of liquid crystal layer, alignment layers and glass substrates, pre-tilted angles, dielectric constants, elastic constants and so on. According to electrostatic field theory and Frank-Oseen elastic continuum theory, 2D electric potential distribution and 2D director distribution are calculated by means of the finite difference method on non-uniform grids. The influence of cell sizes on director distribution is analyzed. The fringe field effect between electrodes is also discussed

  3. Excitons and continuum transitions of rubidium halides in the 10 - 26 eV photon energy range at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierau, W.; Skibowski, M.

    1975-04-01

    The reflection spectra of RbCl, RbBr and RbI single crystals were investigated for temperatures between 300 K and 8 K in order to study excitations from the Rb + 4p level (> approximately 16 eV) as well as the higher continuum transitions from the valence band (> approximately 10 eV). The measurements were performed by use of the synchrotron radiation of DESY. The sensitivity for detecting details of the fine structure was increased by simultaneously measuring the wavelength modulated spectra. The experimental procedure is briefly described. New spectral features have been resolved for the exciton multiplets from the Rb + 4p level. They are discussed in light of the predictions of a recent model for the Rb + 4p excitons based on ligand field theory. The continuum transitions associated with the valence band and the Rb + 4p level show characteristic structure which is compared with calculations of the joint density of states. (orig.) [de

  4. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅱ)-MICROMORPHIC CONTINUUM THEORY AND COUPLE STRESS THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.

  5. Role of crystal orientation on chemical mechanical polishing of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Aibin, E-mail: abzhu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Dayong; Luo, Wencheng; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The role of crystal orientation in cooper CMP by quasi-continuum was studied. • The atom displacement diagrams were obtained and analyzed. • The stress distribution diagrams and load-displacement curves were analyzed. • This research is helpful to revealing the material removal mechanism of CMP. - Abstract: The material removal mechanism of single crystal copper in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has not been intensively investigated. And the role of crystal orientation in CMP of single crystal cooper is not quite clear yet. Quasi-continuum method was adopted in this paper to simulate the process of nano-particles grinding on single crystal copper in CMP process. Three different crystal orientations, i.e. x[100]y[001], x[001]y[110] and x[–211]y[111], were chosen for analysis. The atom displacement diagrams, stress distribution diagrams and load-displacement curves were obtained. After analyzing the deformation mechanism, residual stress of the work piece material and cutting force, results showed that, the crystal orientation of work piece has great influence on the deformation characteristics and surface quality of work piece during polishing. In the A(001)[100] orientation, the residual stress distribution after polishing is deeper, and the stress is larger than that in the B(110)[001] and C(111)[–211] orientations. And the average tangential cutting force in the A(001)[100] orientation is much larger than those in the other two crystal orientation. This research is helpful to revealing the material removal mechanism of CMP process.

  6. IUTAM-Symposium on The Generalized Cosserat Continuum and the Continuum Theory of Dislocations with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    1968-01-01

    5 The symposium was held in Freudenstadt from 28\\h to 31 \\ ofAugust st nd 1967 and in Stuttgart from 1 to 2 of September 1967. The proposal to hold this symposium originated with the German Society of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM) late in 1964 and was examined by a committee of IUTAM especially appointed for this purpose. The basis of this examination was a report in which the present situation in the field and the possible aims of the symposium were surveyed. Briefly, the aims of the symposium were stated to be 1. the unification of the various approaches developed in recent years with the aim of penetrating into the microscopic world of matter by means of continuum theories; 2. the bridging of the gap between microscopic (or atomic) research on mechanics on one hand, and the phenomenological (or continuum mechanical) approach on the other hand; 3. the physical interpretation and the relation to actual material behaviour of the quantities and laws introduced into the new theories, together with ap...

  7. Continuum approximation of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martina, L.

    1979-01-01

    A continuum approximation method is applied in order to discuss the connection between some properties of the infinite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice and the ones displayed by the Korteweg-de Vries equation

  8. Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.

  9. Gamma-ray continuum spectra from heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Sarantites, D.G.; Westerberg, L.W.; Geoffroy, K.; Woodward, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the yrast continuum was attempted by subtracting the underlying statistical continnuum in a way that makes allowance for ignorance of its detailed shape. This procedure makes it possible to obtain the moment of inertia as a function of spin over a wide range of spins. The results of this continuum spectra shape analysis can be used to calculate the first and second moments of the continuum multiplicity distribution. Continuum spectra were taken during the bombardment of 150 Nd by 115- and 130-MeV beams of 20 Ne, also the first and second moments of the γ-ray multiplicity distribution as a function of the gamma energy. The moment of inertia versus spin and the deduced Yrast continuua are shown. 10 references

  10. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    for the 'fine scale' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can

  11. Hybrid molecular–continuum methods: From prototypes to coupling software

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp; Eckhardt, Wolfgang; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review software requirements in hybrid molecular-continuum simulations. For this purpose, we analyze a prototype implementation which combines two frameworks-the Molecular Dynamics framework MarDyn and the framework Peano

  12. Evaluation the Effectiveness of the US Navy Leadership Continuum Curricula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan-White, Delores

    1997-01-01

    .... A Leadership Continuum Survey Questionnaire was developed to identified and analyze the student's attitudes concerning the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills taught in the course and how these...

  13. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  14. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  15. Dynamic Modelling for Planar Extensible Continuum Robot Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to the OCTARM continuum ma- nipulator. The OCTARM manipulator is a biologically inspired soft robot manipulator resembling an elephant trunk or an... octopus arm [18]. The OCTARM, shown in Figure 1, is a three-section robot with nine degrees of freedom. Aside from two axis bending with constant...increasing interest in designing �biologically inspired � continuum robots . Some of these designs are mimicking trunks [8], [25], tentacles [17], [21], [24

  16. Identification of a transcriptional signature for the wound healing continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Peake, Matthew A; Caley, Mathew; Giles, Peter J; Wall, Ivan; Enoch, Stuart; Davies, Lindsay C; Kipling, David; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2014-01-01

    There is a spectrum/continuum of adult human wound healing outcomes ranging from the enhanced (nearly scarless) healing observed in oral mucosa to scarring within skin and the nonhealing of chronic skin wounds. Central to these outcomes is the role of the fibroblast. Global gene expression profiling utilizing microarrays is starting to give insight into the role of such cells during the healing process, but no studies to date have produced a gene signature for this wound healing continuum. Mi...

  17. On deformation of complex continuum immersed in a plane space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Murashkin, E. V.; Radayev, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of complex continua deformations considered as immersed in an external plane space. The complex continuum is defined as a differential manifold supplied with metrics induced by the external space. A systematic derivation of strain tensors by notion of isometric immersion of the complex continuum into a plane space of a higher dimension is proposed. Problem of establishing complete systems of irreducible objective strain and extrastrain tensors for complex continuum immersed in an external plane space is resolved. The solution to the problem is obtained by methods of the field theory and the theory of rational algebraic invariants. Strain tensors of the complex continuum are derived as irreducible algebraic invariants of contravariant vectors of the external space emerging as functional arguments in the complex continuum action density. Present analysis is restricted to rational algebraic invariants. Completeness of the considered systems of rational algebraic invariants is established for micropolar elastic continua. Rational syzygies for non-quadratic invariants are discussed. Objective strain tensors (indifferent to frame rotations in the external plane space) for micropolar continuum are alternatively obtained by properly combining multipliers of polar decompositions of deformation and extra-deformation gradients. The latter is realized only for continua immersed in a plane space of the equal mathematical dimension.

  18. Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.

  19. The Monte Carlo simulations of liquid crystal cell with bend distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhidong

    2010-01-01

    Strong anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell with bend distortions is studied, This liquid crystal cell has fast response in application prospects. The continuum theory has given that the surface elastic energy k 13 term causes surface discontinuities of the liquid crystal director. Study based on molecular theory, the pair potential parameters link directly to the surface elastic energy coefficient k 13 . The effect of finite temperature is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The second rank ordering tensor is calculated, the largest eigenvalue gives the order parameter, and its corresponding eigenvector identifies the director in the continuum theory. It is shown that it doesn't present the surface discontinuities based on the molecular theory and the k 13 term in pair potential will increase the fluctuation in the middle of the cell. By inference, the boundary discontinuity caused by k 13 item in continuum theory is resulted from the neglecting of the higher items than the second rank of the elastic energy. (authors)

  20. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  1. Integrated radio continuum spectra of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Eilek, Jean, E-mail: josh.marvil@csiro.au [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of –0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, –0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and –0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = –0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later

  2. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii-Tabar, Hashem, E-mail: rafii-tabar@nano.ipm.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-06

    Insight into the mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures is of fundamental interest and indeed poses a great challenge to the research communities around the world. These structures are ultra fine in size and consequently performing standard experiments to measure their various properties is an extremely difficult and expensive endeavor. Hence, to predict the mechanical characteristics of the nanoscopic structures, different theoretical models, numerical modeling techniques, and computer-based simulation methods have been developed. Among several proposed approaches, the nonlocal continuum-based modeling is of particular significance because the results obtained from this modeling for different nanoscopic structures are in very good agreement with the data obtained from both experimental and atomistic-based studies. A review of the essentials of this model together with its applications is presented here. Our paper is a self contained presentation of the nonlocal elasticity theory and contains the analysis of the recent works employing this model within the field of nanoscopic structures. In this review, the concepts from both the classical (local) and the nonlocal elasticity theories are presented and their applications to static and dynamic behavior of nanoscopic structures with various morphologies are discussed. We first introduce the various nanoscopic structures, both carbon-based and non carbon-based types, and then after a brief review of the definitions and concepts from classical elasticity theory, and the basic assumptions underlying size-dependent continuum theories, the mathematical details of the nonlocal elasticity theory are presented. A comprehensive discussion on the nonlocal version of the beam, the plate and the shell theories that are employed in modeling of the mechanical properties and behavior of nanoscopic structures is then provided. Next, an overview of the current literature discussing the application of the nonlocal models

  3. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures is of fundamental interest and indeed poses a great challenge to the research communities around the world. These structures are ultra fine in size and consequently performing standard experiments to measure their various properties is an extremely difficult and expensive endeavor. Hence, to predict the mechanical characteristics of the nanoscopic structures, different theoretical models, numerical modeling techniques, and computer-based simulation methods have been developed. Among several proposed approaches, the nonlocal continuum-based modeling is of particular significance because the results obtained from this modeling for different nanoscopic structures are in very good agreement with the data obtained from both experimental and atomistic-based studies. A review of the essentials of this model together with its applications is presented here. Our paper is a self contained presentation of the nonlocal elasticity theory and contains the analysis of the recent works employing this model within the field of nanoscopic structures. In this review, the concepts from both the classical (local) and the nonlocal elasticity theories are presented and their applications to static and dynamic behavior of nanoscopic structures with various morphologies are discussed. We first introduce the various nanoscopic structures, both carbon-based and non carbon-based types, and then after a brief review of the definitions and concepts from classical elasticity theory, and the basic assumptions underlying size-dependent continuum theories, the mathematical details of the nonlocal elasticity theory are presented. A comprehensive discussion on the nonlocal version of the beam, the plate and the shell theories that are employed in modeling of the mechanical properties and behavior of nanoscopic structures is then provided. Next, an overview of the current literature discussing the application of the nonlocal models

  4. On modeling micro-structural evolution using a higher order strain gradient continuum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, S. A.; Nielsen, K. L.; Niordson, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    is to improve the micro-structural response predicted using strain gradient crystal plasticity within a continuum mechanics framework. One approach to modeling the dislocation structures observed is through a back stress formulation, which can be related directly to the strain gradient energy. The present work...... the experimentally observed micro-structural behavior, within a framework based on continuous field quantities, poses obvious challenges, since the evolution of dislocation structures is inherently a discrete and discontinuous process. This challenge, in particular, motivates the present study, and the aim...... offers an investigation of constitutive equations for the back stress based on both considerations of the gradient energy, but also includes results obtained from a purely phenomenological starting point. The influence of model parameters is brought out in a parametric study, and it is demonstrated how...

  5. Continuum mechanical and computational aspects of phase field elasticity as applied to phase transitions and fracture. Final report: DE-FG02-97ER25318, June 1, 1997 - May 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.

    2001-04-20

    The central focus of the research carried out under this grant is the application of continuum mechanics to materials science, specifically to the macroscopic characterization of material behavior at small length scales. Specifically, research was carried out in the following general areas: dislocations in solids; point defects in liquid crystals; dynamic fracture; diffusional phase transitions in deformable solids; incoherent phase interfaces; phase field simulations of twinning and coarsening in solids; crystal plasticity; microforce theories for diffusion and recrystallization; granular flow.

  6. Crystal structure mediates mode of cell death in TiO2 nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schaeublin, Nicole M.; Murdock, Richard C.; Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2009-01-01

    Certain properties that nanoparticles possess differentiate them from their bulk counterparts, and these characteristics must be evaluated prior to nanoparticle studies and include: size, shape, dispersion, physical and chemical properties, surface area, and surface chemistry. Early nanotoxicity studies evaluating TiO 2 have yielded conflicting data which identify either size or crystal structure as the mediating property for nano-TiO 2 toxicity. However, it is important to note that none of these studies examined size with the crystal structure composition controlled for or examined crystal structure while controlling the nanoparticle size. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of size and crystal structure in TiO 2 nanotoxicity while controlling for as many other nanoproperties as possible using the HEL-30 mouse keratinocyte cell line as a model for dermal exposure. In the size-dependent studies, all the nanoparticles are 100% anatase, and aggregate sizes were determined in order to take into account the effect of agglomeration on size-dependent toxicity. In addition, varying crystal structures were assessed while the size of the nanoparticles was controlled. We were able to identify that both size and crystal structure contribute to cytotoxicity and that the mechanism of cell death varies based on crystal structure. The 100% anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles, regardless of size, induced cell necrosis, while the rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles initiated apoptosis through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  7. Crystal structure mediates mode of cell death in TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schaeublin, Nicole M.; Murdock, Richard C. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (United States); Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering (United States); Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: Saber.Hussain@wpafb.af.mi [Wright-Patterson AFB, Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Certain properties that nanoparticles possess differentiate them from their bulk counterparts, and these characteristics must be evaluated prior to nanoparticle studies and include: size, shape, dispersion, physical and chemical properties, surface area, and surface chemistry. Early nanotoxicity studies evaluating TiO{sub 2} have yielded conflicting data which identify either size or crystal structure as the mediating property for nano-TiO{sub 2} toxicity. However, it is important to note that none of these studies examined size with the crystal structure composition controlled for or examined crystal structure while controlling the nanoparticle size. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of size and crystal structure in TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity while controlling for as many other nanoproperties as possible using the HEL-30 mouse keratinocyte cell line as a model for dermal exposure. In the size-dependent studies, all the nanoparticles are 100% anatase, and aggregate sizes were determined in order to take into account the effect of agglomeration on size-dependent toxicity. In addition, varying crystal structures were assessed while the size of the nanoparticles was controlled. We were able to identify that both size and crystal structure contribute to cytotoxicity and that the mechanism of cell death varies based on crystal structure. The 100% anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, regardless of size, induced cell necrosis, while the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles initiated apoptosis through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  9. ALMA BAND 8 CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM ORION SOURCE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoko [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Motogi, Kazuhito; Honma, Mareki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hoshigaoka2-12, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu-shi, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Burns, Ross A., E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest–southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700–800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton–electron or H{sup −} free–free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck and Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  10. Reducing Actuator Requirements in Continuum Robots Through Optimized Cable Routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer C; White, Edward L; SunSpiral, Vytas; Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Continuum manipulators offer many advantages compared to their rigid-linked counterparts, such as increased degrees of freedom and workspace volume. Inspired by biological systems, such as elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, many continuum manipulators are made of multiple segments that allow large-scale deformations to be distributed throughout the body. Most continuum manipulators currently control each segment individually. For example, a planar cable-driven system is typically controlled by a pair of cables for each segment, which implies two actuators per segment. In this article, we demonstrate how highly coupled crossing cable configurations can reduce both actuator count and actuator torque requirements in a planar continuum manipulator, while maintaining workspace reachability and manipulability. We achieve highly coupled actuation by allowing cables to cross through the manipulator to create new cable configurations. We further derive an analytical model to predict the underactuated manipulator workspace and experimentally verify the model accuracy with a physical system. We use this model to compare crossing cable configurations to the traditional cable configuration using workspace performance metrics. Our work here focuses on a simplified planar robot, both in simulation and in hardware, with the goal of extending this to spiraling-cable configurations on full 3D continuum robots in future work.

  11. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  12. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  13. Supercontinuum Generation in a Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Pei-Guang; RUAN Shuang-Chen; LIN Hao-Jia; DU Chen-Lin; YU Yong-Qin; LU Ke-Cheng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nearly 1000-nm broad continuum from 390nm to 1370nm is generated in a 2-m long photonic crystal fibre. The maximum total power of supercontinuum is measured to be 60mW with the pumping power of 800mW output from a 200-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The evolution of the pumping light into supercontinuum is experimentally studied in detail. It is found that the mechanism for supercontinuum generation has direct relations with Raman effect and soliton effect, and the four-wave mixing plays an important role in the last phase of the supercontinuum generation.

  14. An advanced kinetic theory for morphing continuum with inner structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2017-12-01

    Advanced kinetic theory with the Boltzmann-Curtiss equation provides a promising tool for polyatomic gas flows, especially for fluid flows containing inner structures, such as turbulence, polyatomic gas flows and others. Although a Hamiltonian-based distribution function was proposed for diatomic gas flow, a general distribution function for the generalized Boltzmann-Curtiss equations and polyatomic gas flow is still out of reach. With assistance from Boltzmann's entropy principle, a generalized Boltzmann-Curtiss distribution for polyatomic gas flow is introduced. The corresponding governing equations at equilibrium state are derived and compared with Eringen's morphing (micropolar) continuum theory derived under the framework of rational continuum thermomechanics. Although rational continuum thermomechanics has the advantages of mathematical rigor and simplicity, the presented statistical kinetic theory approach provides a clear physical picture for what the governing equations represent.

  15. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    1992-06-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  16. Alfven continuum and high-frequency eigenmodes in optimized stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; Wobig, H.; Yakovenko, Yu.V.; Fesenyuk, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    An equation of shear Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in optimized stellarators of Wendelstein line (Helias configurations) is derived. The metric tensor coefficients, which are contained in this equation, are calculated analytically. Two numerical codes are developed: the first one, COBRA (COntinuum BRanches of Alfven waves), is intended for the investigation of the structure of Alfven continuum; the second, BOA (Branches Of Alfven modes), solves the eigenvalue problem. The family of possible gaps in Alfven continuum of a Helias configuration is obtained. It is predicted that there exist gaps which arise due to or are strongly affected by the variation of the shape of the plasma cross section along the large azimuth of the torus. In such gaps, discrete eigenmodes, namely, helicity-induced eigenmodes (HAE 21 ) and mirror-induced eigenmodes (MAE) are found. It is shown that plasma inhomogeneity may suppress the AEs with a wide region of localization

  17. Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....

  18. Transport of optical excitations on dendrimers in the continuum approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaming, S.M.; Heijs, D.J.; Knoester, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the incoherent transport of optical excitations created at the rim of a dendritic molecule to a trap occurring at the core. The corresponding discrete random walk is treated in a continuum approximation, resulting in a diffusion-like process which admits semi-analytical solutions. The thus obtained arrival time distribution for the excitation at the trap is compared with the one for the original, discrete problem. In the case of an inward bias or even a weak outward one, the agreement is very good and the continuum approximation provides a good alternative description of the energy transfer process, even for small dendrimers. In the case of a strong outward bias, the mean trapping time, which sets the time scale for the entire distribution, depends exponentially on the number of generations in both approaches, but with a different base. The failure of the continuum approximation for this case is explained from the peaked behavior of the excitation density near the rim

  19. Lattice fluid dynamics from perfect discretizations of continuum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, E.; Wiese, U.

    1998-01-01

    We use renormalization group methods to derive equations of motion for large scale variables in fluid dynamics. The large scale variables are averages of the underlying continuum variables over cubic volumes and naturally exist on a lattice. The resulting lattice dynamics represents a perfect discretization of continuum physics, i.e., grid artifacts are completely eliminated. Perfect equations of motion are derived for static, slow flows of incompressible, viscous fluids. For Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a channel with a square cross section the equations reduce to a perfect discretization of the Poisson equation for the velocity field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The perfect large scale Poisson equation is used in a numerical simulation and is shown to represent the continuum flow exactly. For nonsquare cross sections one can use a numerical iterative procedure to derive flow equations that are approximately perfect. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Continuum solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G.; Pusch, M.; Soff, G.

    1987-10-01

    We construct explicit solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation for continuum states. The role of the energy in the single-particle Klein-Gordon theory is elucidated. Special emphasis is laid on the determination of resonance states in the continuum for overcritical potentials. As examples for long-range interaction we depict solutions for the Coulomb potential of a point-like nucleus as an extended nucleus. The square-well potential and the exponential potential are treated to exemplify pecularities of short-range interactions. We also derive continuum solutions for a scalar interaction of square-well type. Finally we discuss the behaviour of a spin-0 particle in an external homogeneous magnetic field. (orig.)

  1. HIV continuum of care in Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, R S; Rice, B; Rüütel, K; Delpech, V; Attawell, K A; Hales, D K; Velasco, C; Amato-Gauci, A J; Pharris, A; Tavoschi, L; Noori, T

    2017-08-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) supports countries to monitor progress in their response to the HIV epidemic. In line with these monitoring responsibilities, we assess how, and to what extent, the continuum of care is being measured across countries. The ECDC sent out questionnaires to 55 countries in Europe and Central Asia in 2014. Nominated country representatives were questioned on how they defined and measured six elements of the continuum. We present our results using three previously described frameworks [breakpoints; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets; diagnosis and treatment quadrant]. Forty countries provided data for at least one element of the continuum. Countries reported most frequently on the number of people diagnosed with HIV infection (37; 93%), and on the number in receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (35; 88%). There was little consensus across countries in their approach to defining linkage to, and retention in, care. The most common breakpoint (>19% reduction between two adjacent elements) related to the estimated number of people living with HIV who were diagnosed (18 of 23; 78%). We present continuum data from multiple countries that provide both a snapshot of care provision and a baseline against which changes over time in care provision across Europe and Central Asia may be measured. To better inform HIV testing and treatment programmes, standard data collection approaches and definitions across the HIV continuum of care are needed. If countries wish to ensure an unbroken HIV continuum of care, people living with HIV need to be diagnosed promptly, and ART needs to be offered to all those diagnosed. © 2017 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  2. Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.

  3. Relativistic continuum physics for the description of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, Bela

    1986-01-01

    The application of relativistic continuum physics to the description of the nuclear fireball evolution from the start of expansion to the breaking is discussed. The basic formalism and basic assumptions of relativistic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics are analyzed in detail. The four basic assumptions are not valid in the case of nuclear fireball produced in heavy ion collisions, but thermodynamics can be extended in different ways to incorporate anisotropy, fluctuations, gradients and the lack of the local equilibrium. The extended continuum formalism is applicable to the description of the nuclear fireball dynamics, including the nuclear - quark matter phase transition. (D.Gy.)

  4. Continuum damage mechanics method for fatigue growth of surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiqiao; He Shuyan

    1997-01-01

    With the background of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of pressurized vessels and pipes in nuclear plants, the fatigue growth problem of either circumferential or longitudinal semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to cyclic loading is studied by using a continuum damage mechanics method. The fatigue damage is described by a scalar damage variable. From the damage evolution equation at the crack tip, a crack growth equation similar to famous Paris' formula is derived, which shows the physical meaning of Paris' formula. Thereby, a continuum damage mechanics approach is developed to analyze the configuration evolution of surface cracks during fatigue growth

  5. Fractional Quantum Field Theory: From Lattice to Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to formulate fractional field theories on unbounded lattice space-time is suggested. A fractional-order analog of the lattice quantum field theories is considered. Lattice analogs of the fractional-order 4-dimensional differential operators are proposed. We prove that continuum limit of the suggested lattice field theory gives a fractional field theory for the continuum 4-dimensional space-time. The fractional field equations, which are derived from equations for lattice space-time with long-range properties of power-law type, contain the Riesz type derivatives on noninteger orders with respect to space-time coordinates.

  6. Shape Modeling of a Concentric-tube Continuum Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Shaoping; Xing, Charles Chuhao

    2012-01-01

    Concentric-tube continuum robots feature with simple and compact structures and have a great potential in medical applications. The paper is concerned with the shape modeling of a type of concentric-tube continuum robot built with a collection of super-elastic NiTiNol tubes. The mechanics...... is modeled on the basis of energy approach for both the in-plane and out-plane cases. The torsional influences on the shape of the concentric-tube robots are considered. An experimental device was build for the model validation. The results of simulation and experiments are included and analyzed....

  7. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  9. Strain gradient crystal plasticity: A continuum mechanics approach to modeling micro-structural evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2015-01-01

    In agreement with dislocation theory, recent experiments show, both quantitatively and qualitatively, how geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) distribute in dislocation wall and cell structures. Hence, GND density fields are highly localized with large gradients and discontinuities occurring...

  10. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  11. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-07

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Size-dependent variation in plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D

    2017-09-11

    The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees. The study of plant forms did not truly begin until the romantic poet and naturalist Goethe proposed the concept of a hypothetical 'Plant Archetype', declared "Alles ist Blatt", and first coined the word morphologie, which inspired the French anatomist Cuvier (who established the field of comparative morphology), the English naturalist Darwin (who saw his theory of evolution reinforced by it), and the Scottish mathematician D'Arcy Thompson (who attempted to quantify it). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Size dependent optical characteristics of chemically deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    films since it is simple, relatively less expensive and con- venient for large area ... reported in this paper. In recent years, interest in the physical properties of .... mission, WRO, Pune, for financial support under the pro- ject (No. F47-15/2003).

  14. Size dependent optical characteristics of chemically deposited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Thin film; ZnS; CBD method; optical properties. Abstract. ZnS thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by chemical bath deposition using thiourea and zinc acetate as S2- and Zn2+ source. The effect of film thickness on the optical and structural properties was studied. The optical absorption studies in the ...

  15. Size dependent polaronic conduction in hematite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Monika; Banday, Azeem; Murugavel, Sevi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110 007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Lithium Ion Batteries have been attracted as the major renewable energy source for all portable electronic devices because of its advantages like superior energy density, high theoretical capacity, high specific energy, stable cycling and less memory effects. Recently, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been considered as a potential anode material due to high specific capacity, low cost, high abundance and environmental benignity. We have synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with various sizes by using the ball milling and sol-gel procedure. Here, we report the dc conductivity measurement for the crystallite size ranging from 15 nm to 50 nm. It has been observed that the enhancement in the polaronic conductivity nearly two orders in magnitude while reducing the crystallite size from bulk into nano scale level. The enhancement in the conductivity is due to the augmented to compressive strain developed in the material which leads to pronounced decrease in the hopping length of polarons. Thus, nanocrystaline α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} may be a better alternative anode material for lithium ion batteries than earlier reported systems.

  16. Size dependent polaronic conduction in hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Banday, Azeem; Murugavel, Sevi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium Ion Batteries have been attracted as the major renewable energy source for all portable electronic devices because of its advantages like superior energy density, high theoretical capacity, high specific energy, stable cycling and less memory effects. Recently, α-Fe_2O_3 has been considered as a potential anode material due to high specific capacity, low cost, high abundance and environmental benignity. We have synthesized α-Fe_2O_3 with various sizes by using the ball milling and sol-gel procedure. Here, we report the dc conductivity measurement for the crystallite size ranging from 15 nm to 50 nm. It has been observed that the enhancement in the polaronic conductivity nearly two orders in magnitude while reducing the crystallite size from bulk into nano scale level. The enhancement in the conductivity is due to the augmented to compressive strain developed in the material which leads to pronounced decrease in the hopping length of polarons. Thus, nanocrystaline α-Fe_2O_3 may be a better alternative anode material for lithium ion batteries than earlier reported systems.

  17. Size Dependent Orientation of Knudsen Force

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan; Ye, Wenjing; Zhang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    in the experiment. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical

  18. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T.H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 was found

  19. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T. H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1988-12-01

    Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and YBa2Cu3O7 was found.

  20. Continuum modeling of twinning, amorphization, and fracture: theory and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. D.; Knap, J.

    2018-03-01

    A continuum mechanical theory is used to model physical mechanisms of twinning, solid-solid phase transformations, and failure by cavitation and shear fracture. Such a sequence of mechanisms has been observed in atomic simulations and/or experiments on the ceramic boron carbide. In the present modeling approach, geometric quantities such as the metric tensor and connection coefficients can depend on one or more director vectors, also called internal state vectors. After development of the general nonlinear theory, a first problem class considers simple shear deformation of a single crystal of this material. For homogeneous fields or stress-free states, algebraic systems or ordinary differential equations are obtained that can be solved by numerical iteration. Results are in general agreement with atomic simulation, without introduction of fitted parameters. The second class of problems addresses the more complex mechanics of heterogeneous deformation and stress states involved in deformation and failure of polycrystals. Finite element calculations, in which individual grains in a three-dimensional polycrystal are fully resolved, invoke a partially linearized version of the theory. Results provide new insight into effects of crystal morphology, activity or inactivity of different inelasticity mechanisms, and imposed deformation histories on strength and failure of the aggregate under compression and shear. The importance of incorporation of inelastic shear deformation in realistic models of amorphization of boron carbide is noted, as is a greater reduction in overall strength of polycrystals containing one or a few dominant flaws rather than many diffusely distributed microcracks.

  1. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Stupka, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  2. Crystals: animal, vegetable or mineral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Stephen T

    2015-08-06

    The morphologies of biological materials, from body shapes to membranes within cells, are typically curvaceous and flexible, in contrast to the angular, facetted shapes of inorganic matter. An alternative dichotomy has it that biomolecules typically assemble into aperiodic structures in vivo, in contrast to inorganic crystals. This paper explores the evolution of our understanding of structures across the spectrum of materials, from living to inanimate, driven by those naive beliefs, with particular focus on the development of crystallography in materials science and biology. The idea that there is a clear distinction between these two classes of matter has waxed and waned in popularity through past centuries. Our current understanding, driven largely by detailed exploration of biomolecular structures at the sub-cellular level initiated by Bernal and Astbury in the 1930s, and more recent explorations of sterile soft matter, makes it clear that this is a false dichotomy. For example, liquid crystals and other soft materials are common to both living and inanimate materials. The older picture of disjoint universes of forms is better understood as a continuum of forms, with significant overlap and common features unifying biological and inorganic matter. In addition to the philosophical relevance of this perspective, there are important ramifications for science. For example, the debates surrounding extra-terrestrial life, the oldest terrestrial fossils and consequent dating of the emergence of life on the Earth rests to some degree on prejudices inferred from the supposed dichotomy between life-forms and the rest.

  3. Continuum limit and improved action in lattice theories. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symanzik, K.

    1983-03-01

    Corrections to continuum theory results stemming from finite lattice-spacing can be diminished systematically by use of lattice actions that include also suitable irrelevant terms. We describe in detail the principles of such constructions at the example of PHI 4 theory. (orig.)

  4. Proposed higher order continuum-based models for an elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three new variants of continuum-based models for an elastic subgrade are proposed. The subgrade is idealized as a homogenous, isotropic elastic layer of thickness H overlying a firm stratum. All components of the stress tensor in the subgrade are taken into account. Reasonable assumptions are made regarding the ...

  5. On the continuum limit of a classical compressible Heisenberg chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived for the classical compressible Heisenberg chain in the continuum limit to lowest non-trivial order in the derivatives. It is possible to eliminate the translations from the equation for the spins. The resulting equation does not admit of simple magnetic solitary wave solutions, in contradiction to the results of other authors. (author)

  6. From discrete particles to continuum fields in mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Yu, A; Dong, K; Yang, R; Luding, S; Luding, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel way to extract continuum fields from discrete particle systems that is applicable to flowing mixtures as well as boundaries and interfaces. The mass and momentum balance equations for mixed flows are expressed in terms of the partial densities, velocities, stresses and interaction

  7. Modeling of Continuum Manipulators Using Pythagorean Hodograph Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Amara, Yacine; Melingui, Achille; Mani Pathak, Pushparaj; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2018-05-10

    Research on continuum manipulators is increasingly developing in the context of bionic robotics because of their many advantages over conventional rigid manipulators. Due to their soft structure, they have inherent flexibility, which makes it a huge challenge to control them with high performances. Before elaborating a control strategy of such robots, it is essential to reconstruct first the behavior of the robot through development of an approximate behavioral model. This can be kinematic or dynamic depending on the conditions of operation of the robot itself. Kinematically, two types of modeling methods exist to describe the robot behavior; quantitative methods describe a model-based method, and qualitative methods describe a learning-based method. In kinematic modeling of continuum manipulator, the assumption of constant curvature is often considered to simplify the model formulation. In this work, a quantitative modeling method is proposed, based on the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) curves. The aim is to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the shape of the continuum manipulator with variable curvature, allowing the calculation of its inverse kinematic model (IKM). It is noticed that the performances of the PH-based kinematic modeling of continuum manipulators are considerable regarding position accuracy, shape reconstruction, and time/cost of the model calculation, than other kinematic modeling methods, for two cases: free load manipulation and variable load manipulation. This modeling method is applied to the compact bionic handling assistant (CBHA) manipulator for validation. The results are compared with other IKMs developed in case of CBHA manipulator.

  8. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin

    2008-08-26

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume"element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate"granular element" defined at the scale of observed dynamical correlations (roughly three to five particle diameters) has a reasonable continuum interpretation. By viewing all the simulations as an ensemble of granular elements which deform and move with the flow, we can track material evolution at a local level. Our results confirm some of the hypotheses of classical plasticity theory while contradicting others and suggest a subtle physical picture of granular failure, combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-like dependence on strain. Our computational methods and results can be used to guide the development of more realistic continuum models, based on observed local relationships betweenaverage variables.

  9. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics – classical approaches and new trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, H.

    2018-04-01

    Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous manifold. Continuum mechanics models begin mostly by introducing of three-dimensional Euclidean space. The points within this region are defined as material points with prescribed properties. Each material point is characterized by a position vector which is continuous in time. Thus, the body changes in a way which is realistic, globally invertible at all times and orientation-preserving, so that the body cannot intersect itself and as transformations which produce mirror reflections are not possible in nature. For the mathematical formulation of the model it is also assumed to be twice continuously differentiable, so that differential equations describing the motion may be formulated. Finally, the kinematical relations, the balance equations, the constitutive and evolution equations and the boundary and/or initial conditions should be defined. If the physical fields are non-smooth jump conditions must be taken into account. The basic equations of continuum mechanics are presented following a short introduction. Additionally, some examples of solid deformable continua will be discussed within the presentation. Finally, advanced models of continuum mechanics will be introduced. The paper is dedicated to Alexander Manzhirov’s 60th birthday.

  10. Absorption of continuum radiation in a resonant expanding gaseous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparev, N Y

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with absorption of external continuum radiation in a self-similarly expanding gaseous sphere. Frequency probability and integral probability of radiation absorption in the resonance frequency range are determined depending on the expansion velocity gradient and thickness of the optical medium. It is shown that expansion results in a reduced optical thickness of the medium and enhanced integral absorption. (paper)

  11. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  12. The Continuum of Literacy in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    1995-01-01

    Describes the O'odham language and oral tradition of the Tohono O'odham Indians of southern Arizona, relating it to the development of O'odham children's English literacy. Oral tradition and school literacy constitute opposite ends of a literacy continuum, in which English literacy is often isolated from and in conflict with O'odham literacy. (10…

  13. Self-Assessment Exercises in Continuum Mechanics with Autonomous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Gil, LLuís; Pérez, Marco A.; Sánchez, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to generate a set of exercises to improve the autonomous learning in "Continuum Mechanics" through a virtual platform. Students will have to resolve four exercises autonomously related to the subject developed in class and they will post the solutions on the virtual platform within a deadline. Students…

  14. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  15. Shouldering the blame for impingement: the rotator cuff continuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article was to summarise recent research on shoulder impingement and rotator cuff pathology. A continuum model of rotator cuff pathology is described, and the challenges of accurate clinical diagnosis, imaging and best management discussed. Keywords: shoulder impingement syndrome, subacromial ...

  16. One millimeter continuum observations of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, D.J.; Soifer, B.T.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to the one-millimeter continuum flux densities of the high redshift quasars B2 1225 + 31, Ton 490, and PHL 957 are presented. The upper limit to the power observed from these quasars at 1 mm is, on the average, one half of the observed power in the continuum at L-alpha. These observations are used to constrain the temperature of a hypothetical dust shell which reddens the quasar line and continuum emission by an extinction optical depth sufficient to account for the anomalously low L-alpha/H-alpha emission line ratio observed in each of these quasars. For the quasars studied, dust shell temperatures between 25 K and 50 to 95 K are prohibited by the present data. A dust shell at a temperature within this span reradiating all the power absorbed from the quasar ultraviolet continuum would produce a one-millimeter flux density greater than the measured upper limit. The average radius of the model dust shell cannot be between 70 kpc and 1 Mpc

  17. Nuclear structure investigations with inclusion of continuum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1983-09-01

    The influence of the continuum on the properties of discrete nuclear states is reviewed. It is described on the basis of a continuum shell model. The coupling of the discrete states to the continuum results in an additional term to the Hamiltonian, commonly used in the study of nuclear structure, and an additional term to the wavefunction of the discrete state. These additional terms characterise finite nuclei in contrast to nuclear matter. They result in some symmetry violation of the residual nuclear interaction such as charge symmetry violation, and describe the nuclear surface, respectively. The energies and widths of resonance states result from the complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. The partial widths are shown to be factorisable into a spectroscopic factor and into a penetration factor if the spectroscopic factor is large. An expression for the S-matrix is derived in which instead of the so-called resonance parameters, functions appear which are calculated in the framework of the model. The line shape of resonances is also influenced by these functions. As an extreme case, a resonance may have the appearance of a cusp. The conclusions drawn are supported by the results of numerical calculations performed in the continuum shell model for light nuclei with realistic shell model wavefunctions. (author)

  18. Photon pairs: Quantum chromodynamics continuum and the Higgs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resummation is needed to obtain reliable predictions in the range of transverse momentum where the cross-section is the largest. Results are compared with data from the Fermilab Tevatron and predictions are made for the large hadron collider. The QCD continuum is shown to have a softer spectrum than the Higgs boson ...

  19. Continuum limit of discrete Sommerfeld problems on square lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASANT LAL SHARMA

    Sommerfeld half-plane; crack; rigid ribbon; continuum limit; Wiener–Hopf; Toeplitz ... case of which, when it approaches zero, is called 'contin- .... etc, denote constants in expressions, inequalities, etc. The ..... The latter holds on a possibly weighted space, depending ..... where jj ء jj refers to the corresponding operator norm.

  20. Some aspects of continuum physics used in fuel pin modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.

    1975-06-01

    The mathematical formulation used in fuel pin modeling is described. Fuel pin modeling is not a simple extension of the experimental and interpretative methods used in classical mechanics. New concepts are needed to describe materials in a reactor environment. Some aspects of continuum physics used to develop these new constitutive equations for fuel pins are presented. (U.S.)

  1. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-10-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  2. Cellular Automata in Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an optimization algorithm based on cellular automata (CA) is developed for topology optimization of continuum structures with shear and flexural behavior. The design domain is divided into small triangle elements and each cell is considered as a finite element. The stress analysis is performed by the Constant ...

  3. Photon pairs: Quantum chromodynamics continuum and the Higgs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is the largest. Results are compared with data from the Fermilab Tevatron and predictions are made for the large hadron collider. The QCD continuum is shown to have a softer spectrum than the Higgs boson signal at the LHC. Keywords. Higgs; photon pairs; quantum chromodynamics. PACS Nos 12.15.Ji; 12.38.Cy; 13.85.

  4. Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duysinx, Pierre; Bendsøe, Martin P

    1998-01-01

    We introduce an extension of current technologies for topology optimization of continuum structures which allows for treating local stress criteria. We first consider relevant stress criteria for porous composite materials, initially by studying the stress states of the so-called rank 2 layered m...

  5. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM

    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The

  6. Observation of plastic deformation in freestanding single crystal Au nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongyun; Zhao Manhong; Wei Xiaoding; Chen Xi; Jun, Seong C.; Hone, James; Herbert, Erik G.; Oliver, Warren C.; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Freestanding single crystal nanowires of gold were fabricated from a single grain of pure gold leaf by standard lithographic techniques, with center section of 7 μm in length, 250 nm in width, and 100 nm in thickness. The ends remained anchored to a silicon substrate. The specimens were deflected via nanoindenter until plastic deformation was achieved. Nonlocalized and localized plastic deformations were observed. The resulting force-displacement curves were simulated using continuum single crystal plasticity. A set of material parameters which closely reproduce the experimental results suggests that the initial critical resolved shear stress was as high as 135 MPa

  7. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  8. Reverberation Mapping of the Continuum Source in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausnaugh, Michael Martin

    I present results from a monitoring campaign of 11 active galactic nuclei (AGN) conducted in Spring of 2014. I use the reverberation mapping method to probe the interior structures of the AGN, specifically the broad line regions (BLRs) and accretion disks. One of these AGN, NGC 5548, was also subject to multi-wavelength (X-ray, UV, optical, and near-IR) monitoring using 25 ground-based telescopes and four space-based facilities. For NGC 5548, I detect lags between the continuum emission at different wavelengths that follow a trend consistent with the prediction for continuum reprocessing by an accretion disk with temperature profile T ∝ R -3/4. However, the lags imply a disk radius that is 3 times larger than the prediction from standard thin-disk models. The lags at wavelengths longer than the Vband are also equal to or greater than the lags of high-ionization-state emission lines (such as HeII lambda1640 and lambda4686), suggesting that the continuum-emitting source is of a physical size comparable to the inner broad-line region. Using optical spectra from the Large Binocular Telescope, I estimate the bias of the interband continuum lags due to BLR emission observed in the filters, and I find that the bias for filters with high levels of BLR contamination (˜20%) can be important for the shortest continuum lags. This likely has a significant impact on the u and U bands owing to Balmer continuum emission. I then develop a new procedure for the internal (night-to-night) calibration of time series spectra that can reach precisions of ˜1 millimagnitude and improves traditional techniques by up to a factor of 5. At this level, other systematic issues (e.g., the nightly sensitivity functions and Fe II contamination) limit the final precision of the observed light curves. Using the new calibration method, I next present the data and first results from the optical spectroscopic monitoring component of the reverberation mapping campaign. Five AGN were sufficiently

  9. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  10. 77 FR 45421 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Continuum of Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... which service providers are familiar. The following highlights key definitions used in the Continuum of... Continuum of Care in 1995. Local grantees and stakeholders are familiar with the Continuum of Care as the... violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. In developing the baseline requirements for a...

  11. Antieigenvalue analysis for continuum mechanics, economics, and number theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Karl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available My recent book Antieigenvalue Analysis, World-Scientific, 2012, presented the theory of antieigenvalues from its inception in 1966 up to 2010, and its applications within those forty-five years to Numerical Analysis, Wavelets, Statistics, Quantum Mechanics, Finance, and Optimization. Here I am able to offer three further areas of application: Continuum Mechanics, Economics, and Number Theory. In particular, the critical angle of repose in a continuum model of granular materials is shown to be exactly my matrix maximum turning angle of the stress tensor of the material. The important Sharpe ratio of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is now seen in terms of my antieigenvalue theory. Euclid’s Formula for Pythagorean triples becomes a special case of my operator trigonometry.

  12. Topology and layout optimization of discrete and continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    The basic features of the ground structure method for truss structure an continuum problems are described. Problems with a large number of potential structural elements are considered using the compliance of the structure as the objective function. The design problem is the minimization of compliance for a given structural weight, and the design variables for truss problems are the cross-sectional areas of the individual truss members, while for continuum problems they are the variable densities of material in each of the elements of the FEM discretization. It is shown how homogenization theory can be applied to provide a relation between material density and the effective material properties of a periodic medium with a known microstructure of material and voids.

  13. Three-body continuum states on a Lagrange mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Tursunov, E.; Baye, D.

    2006-01-01

    Three-body continuum states are investigated with the hyperspherical method on a Lagrange mesh. The R-matrix theory is used to treat the asymptotic behaviour of scattering wave functions. The formalism is developed for neutral as well as for charged systems. We point out some specificities of continuum states in the hyperspherical method. The collision matrix can be determined with a good accuracy by using propagation techniques. The method is applied to the 6 He (=α+n+n) and 6 Be (=α+p+p) systems, as well as to 14 Be (=Be12+n+n). For 6 He, we essentially recover results of the literature. Application to 14 Be suggests the existence of an excited 2 + state below threshold. The calculated B(E2) value should make this state observable with Coulomb excitation experiments

  14. Continuum modelling for carbon and boron nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M

    2007-01-01

    Continuum based models are presented here for certain boron nitride and carbon nanostructures. In particular, certain fullerene interactions, C 60 -C 60 , B 36 N 36 -B 36 N 36 and C 60 -B 36 N 36 , and fullerene-nanotube oscillator interactions, C 60 -boron nitride nanotube, C 60 -carbon nanotube, B 36 N 36 -boron nitride nanotube and B 36 N 36 -carbon nanotube, are studied using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach, which assumes a uniform distribution of atoms on the surface of each molecule. Issues regarding the encapsulation of a fullerene into a nanotube are also addressed, including acceptance and suction energies of the fullerenes, preferred position of the fullerenes inside the nanotube and the gigahertz frequency oscillation of the inner molecule inside the outer nanotube. Our primary purpose here is to extend a number of established results for carbon to the boron nitride nanostructures

  15. Continuum-mediated dark matter–baryon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Andrey; Sajjad, Aqil

    2016-01-01

    Many models of dark matter scattering with baryons may be treated either as a simple contact interaction or as the exchange of a light mediator particle. We study an alternative, in which a continuum of light mediator states may be exchanged. This could arise, for instance, from coupling to a sector which is approximately conformal at the relevant momentum transfer scale. In the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-baryon scattering, which is useful for parametrizing direct detection signals, the effect of such continuum mediators is to multiply the amplitude by a function of the momentum transfer q, which in the simplest case is just a power law. We develop the basic framework and study two examples: the case where the mediator is a scalar operator coupling to the Higgs portal (which turns out to be highly constrained) and the case of an antisymmetric tensor operator ${\\cal O}_{\\mu \

  16. Derivation of Electromagnetism from the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We derive Electromagnetism from the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum based on the identification of the theory’s antisymmetric rotation tensor with the elec- tromagnetic field-strength tensor. The theory provides a physical explanation of the electromagnetic potential, which arises from transverse ( shearing displacements of the spacetime continuum, in contrast to mass which arises from longitudinal (dilatational displacements. In addition, the theory provides a physical explanation of the current density four-vector, as the 4-gradient of the volume dilatation of the spacetime con- tinuum. The Lorentz condition is obtained directly from the theory. In addition, we obtain a generalization of Electromagnetism for the situation where a volume force is present, in the general non-macroscopic case. Maxwell’s equations are found to remain unchanged, but the current density has an additional term proportional to the volume force.

  17. PCE: web tools to compute protein continuum electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Maria A.; Tufféry, Pierre; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2005-01-01

    PCE (protein continuum electrostatics) is an online service for protein electrostatic computations presently based on the MEAD (macroscopic electrostatics with atomic detail) package initially developed by D. Bashford [(2004) Front Biosci., 9, 1082–1099]. This computer method uses a macroscopic electrostatic model for the calculation of protein electrostatic properties, such as pKa values of titratable groups and electrostatic potentials. The MEAD package generates electrostatic energies via finite difference solution to the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Users submit a PDB file and PCE returns potentials and pKa values as well as color (static or animated) figures displaying electrostatic potentials mapped on the molecular surface. This service is intended to facilitate electrostatics analyses of proteins and thereby broaden the accessibility to continuum electrostatics to the biological community. PCE can be accessed at . PMID:15980492

  18. Global spiral structure of M81 - radio continuum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.; Kaufman, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus)

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from M81 at 6 and 20 cm are presented and used to check the predictions of density-wave theories. Both thermal and nonthermal radiation from the spiral arms are detected. Most of the bright knots along the radio arms are giant radio H II regions. The nonthermal emission defines spiral arms that are patchy and well-resolved, with a width of 1-2 kpc. The observed nonthermal arms are too broad to agree with the continuum gasdynamical calculations of Roberts (1969), Shu et al. (1972), and Visser (1978, 1980) for a classical density wave model. The observed arm widths appear consistent with the predictions of density-wave models that emphasize the clumpy nature of the ISM. The 20 cm arms appear to spiral outward from a faint inner H I ring, suggesting that the ring is produced by the inner Lindblad resonance. 36 references

  19. Continuum effects in the scattering of exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druet, T. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Physique Quantique, C.P. 165/82, Brussels (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, Brussels (Belgium); Descouvemont, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    We discuss continuum effects in the scattering of exotic nuclei, and more specifically on the {sup 11}Be + {sup 64}Zn scattering. {sup 11}Be is a typical example of an exotic nucleus, with a low binding energy. Elastic, inelastic and breakup cross-sections of the {sup 11}Be + {sup 64}Zn system are computed in the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel formalism, at energies near the Coulomb barrier. We show that converged cross-sections need high angular momenta as well as as large excitation energies in the wave functions of the projectile. Extensions to other systems are simulated by different collision energies, and by varying the binding energy of {sup 11}Be. (orig.)

  20. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  1. Non compact continuum limit of two coupled Potts models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernier, Éric; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    We study two Q-state Potts models coupled by the product of their energy operators, in the regime 2  3 (2) vertex model. It corresponds to a selfdual system of two antiferromagnetic Potts models, coupled ferromagnetically. We derive the Bethe ansatz equations and study them numerically for two arbitrary twist angles. The continuum limit is shown to involve two compact bosons and one non compact boson, with discrete states emerging from the continuum at appropriate twists. The non compact boson entails strong logarithmic corrections to the finite-size behaviour of the scaling levels, an understanding of which allows us to correct an earlier proposal for some of the critical exponents. In particular, we infer the full set of magnetic scaling dimensions (watermelon operators) of the Potts model. (paper)

  2. Elucidating a Goal-Setting Continuum in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Anne W; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Trentham, Barry; Polatajko, Helene J; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2015-08-01

    For individuals with brain injury, active participation in goal setting is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes. However, clinicians report difficulty engaging these clients in goal setting due to perceived or real deficits (e.g., lack of awareness). We conducted a study using grounded theory methods to understand how clinicians from occupational therapy facilitate client engagement and manage challenges inherent in goal setting with this population. Through constant comparative analysis, a goal-setting continuum emerged. At one end of the continuum, therapists embrace client-determined goals and enable clients to decide their own goals. At the other, therapists accept preset organization-determined goals (e.g., "the goal is discharge") and pay little attention to client input. Although all participants aspired to embrace client-determined goal setting, most felt powerless to do so within perceived organizational constraints. Views of advocacy and empowerment help to explain our findings and inform more inclusive practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Radio continuum emission from young stellar objects in L1641

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.; Snell, R.L.; Strom, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a 6 and 20 cm radio continuum survey of young stellar objects in the L1641 region located south of the Orion Nebula are presented. Four are identified as low-luminosity young stellar objects in L1641 and three more as Herbig-Haro or Herbig-Haro-like objects. These objects have bolometric luminosities between 80 and 300 solar, and their 6-20 cm spectral index suggests optically thick, free-free emission. They are characterized by a rising spectrum between 2.2 and 25 microns, have no optical counterparts, and are associated with stellar wind activity. Thus, detectable radio continuum emission may be produced only by the youngest and most luminous objects in L1641. 34 refs

  4. Plastic dislocation motion via nonequilibrium molecular and continuum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.; Ladd, A.J.C.; Hoover, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    The classical two-dimensional close-packed triangular lattice, with nearest-neighbor spring forces, is a convenient standard material for the investigation of dislocation motion and plastic flow. Two kinds of calculations, based on this standard material, are described here: (1) Molecular Dynamics simulations, incorporating adiabatic strains described with the help of Doll's Tensor, and (2) Continuum Dynamics simulations, incorporating periodic boundaries and dislocation interaction through stress-field superposition

  5. Haro 11: Where is the Lyman Continuum Source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, Ryan P.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Identifying the mechanism by which high-energy Lyman continuum (LyC) photons escaped from early galaxies is one of the most pressing questions in cosmic evolution. Haro 11 is the best known local LyC-leaking galaxy, providing an important opportunity to test our understanding of LyC escape. The observed LyC emission in this galaxy presumably originates from one of the three bright, photoionizing knots known as A, B, and C. It is known that Knot C has strong Ly α emission, and Knot B hosts an unusually bright ultraluminous X-ray source, which may be a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. To clarify the LyC source, we carry out ionization-parameter mapping (IPM) by obtaining narrow-band imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 and ACS cameras to construct spatially resolved ratio maps of [O iii]/[O ii] emission from the galaxy. IPM traces the ionization structure of the interstellar medium and allows us to identify optically thin regions. To optimize the continuum subtraction, we introduce a new method for determining the best continuum scale factor derived from the mode of the continuum-subtracted, image flux distribution. We find no conclusive evidence of LyC escape from Knots B or C, but instead we identify a high-ionization region extending over at least 1 kpc from Knot A. This knot shows evidence of an extremely young age (≲1 Myr), perhaps containing very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}). It is weak in Ly α , so if it is confirmed as the LyC source, our results imply that LyC emission may be independent of Ly α emission.

  6. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L∼1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  7. Continuum symmetry restoration in lattice models with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, A.

    1986-09-01

    This talk is a report on results obtained by T. Jolicoeur, R. Lacaze, B. Petersson and the author: staggered fermions can be consistently interpreted as flavoured quarks in the continuum limit of asymptotically free theories on the lattice. This statement is supported by analytical results for the Gross-Neveu model at large N and for a QCD two point function, and by a numerical simulation of SU(2) quenched QCD

  8. Large mass limit of the continuum theories in Kaplan's formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Kikukawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Being inspired by Kaplan's proposal for simulating chiral fermions on a lattice, we examine the continuum analogue of his domain-wall construction for two-dimensional chiral Schwinger models. Adopting a slightly unusual dimensional regularization, we explicitly evaluate the one-loop effective action in the limit that the domain-wall mass goes to infinity. For anomaly-free cases, the effective action turns out to be gauge invariant in the two-dimensional sense

  9. Perturbative matching of continuum and lattice quasi-distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Matching of the quasi parton distribution functions between continuum and lattice is addressed using lattice perturbation theory specifically withWilson-type fermions. The matching is done for nonlocal quark bilinear operators with a straightWilson line in a spatial direction. We also investigate operator mixing in the renormalization and possible O(a operators for the nonlocal operators based on a symmetry argument on lattice.

  10. Constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.

    1989-09-01

    In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included

  11. New numerical methods for quantum field theories on the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirdag, P.; Easter, R.; Guralnik, G.S.; Hahn, S.C

    2000-03-01

    The Source Galerkin Method is a new numerical technique that is being developed to solve Quantum Field Theories on the continuum. It is not based on Monte Carlo techniques and has a measure to evaluate relative errors. It promises to increase the accuracy and speed of calculations, and takes full advantage of symmetries of the theory. The application of this method to the non-linear {sigma} model is outlined.

  12. Properties of warm nuclei in the quasi-continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear thermodynamic quantities are extracted from nuclear level densities measured with the CACTUS detector array at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The experiments are performed with light-particle inelastic or transfer reactions. A simple combinatorial model is used to describe the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exponential increasing level density as function of excitation energy. The calculated number of broken Cooper pairs and the parity distribution in continuum are discussed.

  13. A Geometry Deformation Model for Braided Continuum Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hadi Sadati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuum manipulators have gained significant attention in the robotic community due to their high dexterity, deformability, and reachability. Modeling of such manipulators has been shown to be very complex and challenging. Despite many research attempts, a general and comprehensive modeling method is yet to be established. In this paper, for the first time, we introduce the bending effect in the model of a braided extensile pneumatic actuator with both stiff and bendable threads. Then, the effect of the manipulator cross-section deformation on the constant curvature and variable curvature models is investigated using simple analytical results from a novel geometry deformation method and is compared to experimental results. We achieve 38% mean reference error simulation accuracy using our constant curvature model for a braided continuum manipulator in presence of body load and 10% using our variable curvature model in presence of extensive external loads. With proper model assumptions and taking to account the cross-section deformation, a 7–13% increase in the simulation mean error accuracy is achieved compared to a fixed cross-section model. The presented models can be used for the exact modeling and design optimization of compound continuum manipulators by providing an analytical tool for the sensitivity analysis of the manipulator performance. Our main aim is the application in minimal invasive manipulation with limited workspaces and manipulators with regional tunable stiffness in their cross section.

  14. The quantum and the continuum : Einstein's dichotomous legacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    This talk begins with a summary of some of Einstein's seminal contributions in the quantum domain, like Brownian motion and the Light Quantum Hypothesis, as well as on the spacetime continuum enshrined in the theories of special and general relativity. Following up on Einstein's rationale for postulating the Light Quantum Hypothesis, we attempt to point to a possible dichotomy in his thinking about these two legacies of his, which may have been noticed by him, but was not much discussed by him in the public domain. One may speculate that this may have had something to do with his well-known distaste for the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics as a fundamental interpretation. We argue that Einstein's general relativity theory itself contains the seeds of a dramatic modification of our ideas of the Einsteinian spacetime continuum, thus underlining the dichotomy even more strongly. We then survey one modern attempt to resolve the dichotomy, at least partly, by bringing into the spacetime continuum, aspects of quantum mechanics with its underlying statistical interpretation, an approach which Einstein may not have whole-heartedly endorsed, but which seems to work so far, with good prospects for the future. (author)

  15. Variational principles of continuum mechanics. Vol. 1. Fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevsky, Victor L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The book reviews the two features of the variational approach: its use as a universal tool to describe physical phenomena and as a source for qualitative and quantitative methods of studying particular problems. Berdichevsky's work differs from other books on the subject in focusing mostly on the physical origin of variational principles as well as establishing their interrelations. For example, the Gibbs principles appear as a consequence of the Einstein formula for thermodynamic fluctuations rather than as the first principles of the theory of thermodynamic equilibrium. Mathematical issues are considered as long as they shed light on the physical outcomes and/or provide a useful technique for the direct study of variational problems. In addition, a thorough account of variational principles discovered in various branches of continuum mechanics is given. In this book, the first volume, the author covers the variational principles for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom; the variational principles of thermodynamics; the basics of continuum mechanics; the variational principles for classical models of continuum mechanics, such as elastic and plastic bodies, and ideal and viscous fluids; and direct methods of calculus of variations. (orig.)

  16. Identification of a transcriptional signature for the wound healing continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Matthew A; Caley, Mathew; Giles, Peter J; Wall, Ivan; Enoch, Stuart; Davies, Lindsay C; Kipling, David; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2014-01-01

    There is a spectrum/continuum of adult human wound healing outcomes ranging from the enhanced (nearly scarless) healing observed in oral mucosa to scarring within skin and the nonhealing of chronic skin wounds. Central to these outcomes is the role of the fibroblast. Global gene expression profiling utilizing microarrays is starting to give insight into the role of such cells during the healing process, but no studies to date have produced a gene signature for this wound healing continuum. Microarray analysis of adult oral mucosal fibroblast (OMF), normal skin fibroblast (NF), and chronic wound fibroblast (CWF) at 0 and 6 hours post-serum stimulation was performed. Genes whose expression increases following serum exposure in the order OMF healing phenotype (the dysfunctional healing group), whereas genes with the converse pattern are potentially associated with a positive/preferential healing phenotype (the enhanced healing group). Sixty-six genes in the enhanced healing group and 38 genes in the dysfunctional healing group were identified. Overrepresentation analysis revealed pathways directly and indirectly associated with wound healing and aging and additional categories associated with differentiation, development, and morphogenesis. Knowledge of this wound healing continuum gene signature may in turn assist in the therapeutic assessment/treatment of a patient's wounds. PMID:24844339

  17. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  18. Spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadzie, S. Kokou, E-mail: k.dadzie@glyndwr.ac.uk [Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); Reese, Jason M., E-mail: jason.reese@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-06

    We investigate the relationship between spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows. A kinetic model for a dilute gas is developed using strictly a stochastic molecular model reasoning, without primarily referring to either the Liouville or the Boltzmann equations for dilute gases. The kinetic equation, a stochastic version of the well-known deterministic Boltzmann equation for dilute gas, is then associated with a set of macroscopic equations for the case of a monatomic gas. Tests based on a heat conduction configuration and sound wave dispersion show that spatial stochasticity can explain some non-continuum effects seen in gases. -- Highlights: ► We investigate effects of molecular spatial stochasticity in non-continuum regime. ► Present a simplify spatial stochastic kinetic equation. ► Present a spatial stochastic macroscopic flow equations. ► Show effects of the new model on sound wave dispersion prediction. ► Show effects of the new approach in density profiles in a heat conduction.

  19. YM2: Continuum expectations, lattice convergence, and lassos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The two dimensional Yang-Mills theory (YM 2 ) is analyzed in both the continuum and the lattice. In the complete axial gauge the continuum theory may be defined in terms of a Lie algebra valued white noise, and parallel translation may be defined by stochastic differential equations. This machinery is used to compute the expectations of gauge invariant functions of the parallel translation operators along a collection of curves C. The expectation values are expressed as finite dimensional integrals with densities that are products of the heat kernel on the structure group. The time parameters of the heat kernels are determined by the areas enclosed by the collection C, and the arguments are determined by the crossing topologies of the curves in C. The expectations for the Wilson lattice models have a similar structure, and from this it follows that in the limit of small lattice spacing the lattice expectations converge to the continuum expectations. It is also shown that the lasso variables advocated by L. Gross exist and are sufficient to generate all the measurable functions on the YM 2 -measure space. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid continuum-coarse-grained modeling of erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jinming; Chen, Paul G.; Boedec, Gwenn; Leonetti, Marc; Jaeger, Marc

    2018-06-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a composite structure, consisting of a phospholipid bilayer and an underlying membrane-associated cytoskeleton. Both continuum and particle-based coarse-grained RBC models make use of a set of vertices connected by edges to represent the RBC membrane, which can be seen as a triangular surface mesh for the former and a spring network for the latter. Here, we present a modeling approach combining an existing continuum vesicle model with a coarse-grained model for the cytoskeleton. Compared to other two-component approaches, our method relies on only one mesh, representing the cytoskeleton, whose velocity in the tangential direction of the membrane may be different from that of the lipid bilayer. The finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) spring force law in combination with a repulsive force defined as a power function (POW), called FENE-POW, is used to describe the elastic properties of the RBC membrane. The mechanical interaction between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton is explicitly computed and incorporated into the vesicle model. Our model includes the fundamental mechanical properties of the RBC membrane, namely fluidity and bending rigidity of the lipid bilayer, and shear elasticity of the cytoskeleton while maintaining surface-area and volume conservation constraint. We present three simulation examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of this hybrid continuum-coarse-grained model for the study of RBCs in fluid flows.