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Sample records for size controlled synthesis

  1. Size-controlled synthesis of nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.; Kondoh, H.; Ohta, T.; Gao, S.

    2005-01-01

    A facile reduction approach with nickel acetylacetonate, Ni(acac) 2 , and sodium borohydride or superhydride leads to monodisperse nickel nanoparticles in the presence of hexadecylamine (HDA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The combination of HDA and TOPO used in the conventional synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals also provides better control over particle growth in the metal nanoparticle synthesis. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 3 to 11 nm, depending on the ratio of HDA to TOPO in the reaction system. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that Ni nanoparticles have narrow size distribution. SQUID magnetometry was also used in the characterization of Ni nanoparticles. The synthetic procedure can be extended to the preparation of high quality metal or alloy nanoparticles

  2. Size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers for targeted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research for synthesis of size-controlled carriers is currently challenging one. In this research paper, a ... There are many methods available for the prepara- tion of drug-loaded ... 2.3 Characterization of nanoparticles. 2.3a FT-IR spectral ...

  3. Size Controlled Synthesis of Starch Nanoparticles by a Microemulsion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles. The synthesis parameters such as stirring rates, ratios of oil/cosurfactant, oil phases, cosurfactants, and ratios of water/oil were found to affect the mean particle size of starch nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles with mean particles sizes of 109 nm were synthesized by direct nanoprecipitation method, whereas by using precipitation in microemulsion approach, starch nanoparticles with smaller mean particles sizes of 83 nm were obtained.

  4. Size Controlled Synthesis of Transition Metal Nanoparticles for Catalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Esparza, Angel

    2011-07-07

    Catalysis offers cleaner and more efficient chemical reactions for environmental scientists. More than 90% of industrial processes are performed with a catalyst involved, however research it is still required to improve the catalyst materials. The purpose of this work is to contribute with the development of catalysts synthesis with two different approaches. First, the precise size control of non-noble metals nanoparticles. Second, a new one-pot synthesis method based on a microemulsion system was developed to synthesize size-controlled metal nanoparticles in oxide supports. The one-pot method represents a simple approach to synthesize both support and immobilized nanometer-sized non-noble metal nanoparticles in the same reaction system. Narrow size distribution nickel, cobalt, iron and cobalt-nickel nanoparticles were obtained. High metal dispersions are attainable regardless the metal or support used in the synthesis. Thus, the methodology is adaptable and robust. The sizecontrolled supported metal nanoparticles offer the opportunity to study size effects and metal-support interactions on different catalytic reactions with different sets of metals and supports.

  5. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Carreon, Maria L.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ∼630 m"2 g"−"1 with relative narrow size distribution in the ∼5–60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m"2 g"−"1 range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ∼5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  6. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States); Carreon, Maria L. [University of Tulsa, Rusell School of Chemical Engineering (United States); Carreon, Moises A., E-mail: mcarreon@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ∼630 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with relative narrow size distribution in the ∼5–60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ∼5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  7. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Min [Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hyun [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bonghwan, E-mail: bhkim@cu.ac.kr [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica particles were easily prepared by an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. • The particle size was controlled by the ammonium hydroxide/water molar ratio. • The size-controlled diameter of silica particles ranged from 40 to 400 nm. • The particles were formed in a relatively short reaction time. - Abstract: Using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  8. Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Zhu Xinyuan

    2007-01-01

    Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra

  9. Refined Synthesis and Characterization of Controlled Diameter, Narrow Size Distribution Microparticles for Aerospace Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow visualization using polystyrene microspheres (PSL)s has enabled researchers to learn a tremendous amount of information via particle based diagnostic techniques. To better accommodate wind tunnel researchers needs, PSL synthesis via dispersion polymerization has been carried out at NASA Langley Research Center since the late 1980s. When utilizing seed material for flow visualization, size and size distribution are of paramount importance. Therefore, the work described here focused on further refinement of PSL synthesis and characterization. Through controlled variation of synthetic conditions (chemical concentrations, solution stirring speed, temperature, etc.) a robust, controllable procedure was developed. The relationship between particle size and salt concentration, MgSO4, was identified enabling the determination of PSL diameters a priori. Suggestions of future topics related to PSL synthesis, stability, and size variation are also described.

  10. Environment friendly approach for size controllable synthesis of biocompatible Silver nanoparticles using diastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Anna, Kiran Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A green, facile method for the size selective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using diastase as green reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. The thiol groups present in the diastase are mainly responsible for the rapid reaction rate of silver nanoparticles synthesis. The variation in the size and morphology of AgNPs were studied by changing the pH of diastase. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-vis, XRD, FTIR, TEM and SAED. The FTIR analysis revealed the stabilization of diastase molecules on the surface of AgNPs. Additionally, in-vitro cytotoxicity experiments concluded that the cytotoxicity of the as-synthesized AgNPs towards mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines is dose and size dependent. Furthermore, the present method is an alternative to the traditional chemical methods of size controlled AgNPs synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Size control synthesis of starch capped-gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajammul Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M.; Mazhar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of chloroaurate anions [AuCl 4 ] - solution with hydrazine in the aqueous starch and ethylene glycol solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized gold nanoparticles by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that average size of pure gold nanoparticles is 3.5 nm, they are spherical in shape and are pure metallic gold. The concentration effects of [AuCl 4 ] - anions, starch, ethylene glycol, and hydrazine, on particle size, were investigated, and the stabilization mechanism of Au nanoparticles by starch polymer molecules was also studied by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA analysis shows that hydroxyl groups of starch are responsible of capping and stabilizing gold nanoparticles. The UV-vis spectrum of these samples shows that there is blue shift in surface plasmon resonance peak with decrease in particle size due to the quantum confinement effect, a supporting evidence of formation of gold nanoparticles and this shift remains stable even after 3 months.

  12. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and size control by electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, K A; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2006-07-14

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by irradiating solutions, prepared by mixing AgNO{sub 3} and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), with 6 MeV electrons. The electron-irradiated solutions and the thin coatings cast from them were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. During electron irradiation, the process of formation of the silver nanoparticles appeared to be initiated at an electron fluence of {approx}2 x 10{sup 13} e cm{sup -2}. This was evidenced from the solution, which turned yellow and exhibited the characteristic plasmon absorption peak around 455 nm. Silver nanoparticles of different sizes in the range 60-10 nm, with a narrow size distribution, could be synthesized by varying the electron fluence from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. Silver nanoparticles of sizes in the range 100-200 nm were also synthesized by irradiating an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution with 6 MeV electrons.

  13. Size-controllable synthesis of bare gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser fragmentation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximova, Ksenia; Aristov, Andrei; Sentis, Marc; Kabashin, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    We report a size-controllable synthesis of stable aqueous solutions of ultrapure low-size-dispersed Au nanoparticles by methods of femtosecond laser fragmentation from preliminary formed colloids. Such approach makes possible the tuning of mean nanoparticle size between a few nm and several tens of nm under the size dispersion lower than 70% by varying the fluence of pumping radiation during the fragmentation procedure. The efficient size control is explained by 3D geometry of laser fragmentation by femtosecond laser-induced white light super-continuum and plasma-related phenomena. Despite the absence of any protective ligands, the nanoparticle solutions demonstrate exceptional stability due to electric repulsion effect associated with strong negative charging of formed nanoparticles. Stable aqueous solutions of bare gold nanoparticles present a unique object with a variety of potential applications in catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photovoltaics, biosensing and biomedicine. (paper)

  14. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Chris L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control.Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, refinement procedure, fluorescence spectra of ZnS samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05749f

  15. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A М; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1μm. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gas-phase laser synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.; Kraft, Rebecca; Camata, Renato P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanophase hydroxyapatite (HA) is finding applications in many areas of biomedical research, including bone tissue engineering, drug delivery, and intracellular imaging. Details in chemical composition, crystal phase makeup, size, and shape of HA nanoparticles play important roles in achieving the favorable biological responses required in these applications. Most of the nanophase HA synthesis techniques involve solution-based methods that exhibit substantial aggregation of particles upon precipitation. Typically these methods also have limited control over the particle size and crystal phase composition. In this study, we describe the gas-phase synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20–70 nm range using laser ablation followed by aerosol electrical mobility classification. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were obtained on solid substrates. Particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Samples are well represented by log-normal size distributions with geometric standard deviation σ g ≈ 1.2. The most suitable conditions for HA nanoparticle formation at a laser fluence of 5 J/cm 2 were found to be a temperature of 800 °C and a partial pressure of water of 160 mbar.

  17. Size controlled synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their activity in the oxidation of NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Parvathy R; Sandhyarani, N; Naseer, M; Udupa, N

    2012-01-01

    Size and shape controlled synthesis remains a major bottleneck in the research on nanoparticles even after the development of different methods for their preparation. By tuning the size and shape of a nanoparticle, the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticle can be controlled leading tremendous potential applications in different fields of science and technology. We describe a facile route for the one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water using monosodium glutamate as the reducing and stabilizing agent in the absence of seed particles. The particle diameter can be easily controlled by varying the pH of the reaction medium. Nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and dynamic light scattering. Zeta potential measurements were made to compare the stability of the different nanoparticles. The results suggest that lower pH favours a nucleation rate giving rise to smaller particles and higher pH favours a growth rate leading to the formation of larger particles. The synthesized nanoparticles are found to be stable and biocompatible. The nanoparticles synthesized at high pH exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).

  18. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  19. Nonthermal plasma synthesis of size-controlled, monodisperse, freestanding germanium nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gresback, Ryan; Holman, Zachary; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Germanium nanocrystals may be of interest for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics, primarily due to the tunability of their band gap from the infrared into the visible range of the spectrum. This letter discusses the synthesis of monodisperse germanium nanocrystals via a nonthermal plasma approach which allows for precise control of the nanocrystal size. Germanium crystals are synthesized from germanium tetrachloride and hydrogen entrained in an argon background gas. The crystal size can be varied between 4 and 50 nm by changing the residence times of crystals in the plasma between ∼30 and 440 ms. Adjusting the plasma power enables one to synthesize fully amorphous or fully crystalline particles with otherwise similar properties

  20. Size controlled synthesis of Co nanoparticles by combination of organic solvent and surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Liew, K.Y.; Li Jinlin

    2009-01-01

    Co particles were synthesized with mean particle sizes in the range of 3.2-171.4 nm in ambient atmosphere by reduction of cobalt salt with sodium borohydride as the reducing reagent, a combination of alcohols as solvents and a triblock copolymer P123 (EO 20 PO 70 EO 20 ) as the surfactant. The particle size and its distribution were controlled by varying the synthesis parameters such as the viscosity of the medium, the amount of alcohols or P123 in the reaction system. FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed the interaction between the oxygen atoms of P123 and Co 2+ or Co 0 . Detailed surface analyses by XPS and HRTEM revealed that the synthesized particles consisted of Co 0 metal surrounded by amorphous CoO, Co 2 B and chemisorbed P123.

  1. Size-controlled Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Chemical Coprecipitation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia Chin Hua; Sarani Zakaria; Farahiyan, R.; Liew Tze Khong; Mustaffa Abdullah; Sahrim Ahmad; Nguyen, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles have been synthesized using the chemical coprecipitation method. The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were likely formed via dissolution-recrystallization process. During the precipitation process, ferrihydrite and Fe(OH) 2 particles formed aggregates and followed by the formation of spherical Fe 3 O 4 particles. The synthesized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and in single crystal form. The synthesis temperature and the degree of agitation during the precipitation were found to be decisive in controlling the crystallite and particle size of the produced Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Lower temperature and higher degree of agitation were the favorable conditions for producing smaller particle. The magnetic properties (saturation magnetization and coercivity) of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles increased with the particle size. (author)

  2. Size-controlled synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles through chemical and photo-chemical routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeysh, Behzad

    The central objective of this work is developing convenient general procedures for controlling the formation and stabilization of nanoscale transition metal particles. Contemporary interest in developing alternative synthetic approaches for producing nanoparticles arises in large part from expanding applications of the nanomaterials in areas such as catalysis, electronics and medicine. This research focuses on advancing the existing nanoparticle synthetic routes by using a new class of polymer colloid materials as a chemical approach, and the laser irradiation of metal salt solution as a photo-chemical method to attain size and shape selectivity. Controlled synthesis of small metal nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 1 to 5nm is still a continuing challenge in nanomaterial synthesis. This research utilizes a new class of polymer colloid materials as nano-reactors and protective agents for controlling the formation of small transition metal nanoparticles. The polymer colloid particles were formed from cross-linking of dinegatively charged metal precursors with partially protonated poly dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PDMAEMA). Incorporation of [PtCl6]2- species into the colloidal particles prior to the chemical reduction was effectively employed as a new strategy for synthesis of unusually small platinum nanoparticles with narrow size distributions (1.12 +/-0.25nm). To explore the generality of this approach, in a series of proof-of-concept studies, this method was successfully employed for the synthesis of small palladium (1.4 +/-0.2nm) and copper nanoparticles (1.5 +/-0.6nm). The polymer colloid materials developed in this research are pH responsive, and are designed to self-assemble and/or disassemble by varying the levels of protonation of the polymer chains. This unique feature was used to tune the size of palladium nanoparticles in a small range from 1nm to 5nm. The procedure presented in this work is a new convenient room temperature route for synthesis of

  3. The synthesis and characterization of platinum nanoparticles: a method of controlling the size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Lakshminarayana, Gandham; Nogami, Masayuki; Chien, Nguyen Duc; Hirata, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles with good shapes of nanocubes and nano-octahedra and well-controlled sizes in the range 5-7 and 8-12 nm, respectively, have been successfully synthesized. The modified polyol method by adding silver nitrate and varying the molar ratio of the solutions of silver nitrate and H 2 PtCl 6 has been used to produce Pt nanoparticles of the size and shape to be controlled. The size and morphology of Pt nanoparticles have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results have shown that their very sharp and good shapes exist in the main forms of cubic, cuboctahedral, octahedral and tetrahedral shapes directly related to the crystal nucleation along various directions of the {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets during synthesis. In particular, various irregular and new shapes of Pt nanoparticles have been found. Here, it is concluded that the role of silver ions has to be considered as an important factor for promoting and controlling the development of Pt nanoparticles of {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets, and also directly orienting the growth and formation of Pt nanoparticles.

  4. Size-controlled soft-template synthesis of carbon nanodots toward versatile photoactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woosung; Lee, Gyeongjin; Do, Sungan; Joo, Taiha; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2014-02-12

    Size-controlled soft-template synthesis of carbon nanodots (CNDs) as novel photoactive materials is reported. The size of the CNDs can be controlled by regulating the amount of an emulsifier. As the size increases, the CNDs exhibit blue-shifted photoluminescence (PL) or so-called an inverse PL shift. Using time-correlated single photon counting, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-temperature PL measurements, it is revealed that the CNDs are composed of sp² clusters with certain energy gaps and their oleylamine ligands act as auxochromes to reduce the energy gaps. This insight can provide a plausible explanation on the origin of the inverse PL shift which has been debatable over a past decade. To explore the potential of the CNDs as photoactive materials, several prototypes of CND-based optoelectronic devices, including multicolored light-emitting diodes and air-stable organic solar cells, are demonstrated. This study could shed light on future applications of the CNDs and further expedite the development of other related fields. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Size-controlled synthesis of gold bipyramids using an aqueous mixture of CTAC and salicylate anions as the soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyojong; Jang, Min Hoon

    2013-08-07

    One-dimensional (1D) gold (Au) bipyramids are successfully synthesized through a facile seed-mediated method using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), Au seed nanoparticles, Ag(+) ions, and ascorbic acid. The length and optical properties of the synthesized Au bipyramids are controlled with precision by varying the amount of salicylate anions (Sal(-)) added during the synthesis. The micelles formed from CTA(+)-Sal(-) mixtures in aqueous solutions act as effective templates for the size-controlled synthesis of 1D nanocrystals.

  6. Size control of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles in electric double layered magnetic fluid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, R.; Tourinho, F.A.; Itri, R.; E Lara, M.C.F.L.; Depeyrot, J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method based on the pH of the synthesis to control the nanoparticle size during the ferrofluid elaboration. The particle diameter is determined by means of X-ray diffraction experiments. The measured mean size depends on the type of buffer used during the coprecipitation process. The results therefore confirm that the nanoparticle size can be monitored by the hydroxide concentration and suggest to consider the induced interplay between nucleation and crystal growth

  7. Size-controlled one-pot synthesis of fluorescent cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles in an apoferritin cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahori, K; Yamashita, I

    2008-01-01

    A simple size-controlled synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle (NP) cores in the cavity of apoferritin from horse spleen (HsAFr) was performed by a slow chemical reaction synthesis and a two-step synthesis protocol. We found that the CdS NP core synthesis was slow and that premature CdS NP cores were formed in the apoferritin cavity when the concentration of ammonia water was low. It was proven that the control of the ammonia water concentration can govern the CdS NP core synthesis and successfully produce size-controlled CdS NP cores with diameters from 4.7 to 7.1 nm with narrow size dispersion. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation characterized the CdS NP cores obtained as cubic polycrystalline NPs, which showed photoluminescence with red shifts depending on their diameters. From the research of CdS NP core synthesis in the recombinant apoferritins, the zeta potential of apoferritin is important for the biomineralization of CdS NP cores in the apoferritin cavity. These synthesized CdS NPs with different photoluminescence properties will be applicable in a wide variety of nano-applications.

  8. Seeded Growth Synthesis of Gold Nanotriangles: Size Control, SAXS Analysis, and SERS Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Christian; Mayer, Martin; Dulle, Martin; Moscoso, Ana; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Förster, Stephan; Fery, Andreas; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael

    2018-04-04

    We studied the controlled growth of triangular prismatic Au nanoparticles with different beveled sides for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. First, in a seedless synthesis using 3-butenoic acid (3BA) and benzyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC), gold nanotriangles (AuNTs) were synthesized in a mixture with gold nanooctahedra (AuNOCs) and separated by depletion-induced flocculation. Here, the influence of temperature, pH, and reducing agent on the reaction kinetics was initially investigated by UV-vis and correlated to the size and yield of AuNT seeds. In a second step, the AuNT size was increased by seed-mediated overgrowth with Au. We show for the first time that preformed 3BA-synthesized AuNT seeds can be overgrown up to a final edge length of 175 nm and a thickness of 80 nm while maintaining their triangular shape and tip sharpness. The NT morphology, including edge length, thickness, and tip rounding, was precisely characterized in dispersion by small-angle X-ray scattering and in dry state by transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. For sensor purposes, we studied the size-dependent SERS performance of AuNTs yielding analytical enhancement factors between 0.9 × 10 4 and 5.6 × 10 4 and nanomolar limit of detection (10 -8 -10 -9 M) for 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and BDAC. These results confirm that the 3BA approach allows the fabrication of AuNTs in a whole range of sizes maintaining the NT morphology. This enables tailoring of localized surface plasmon resonances between 590 and 740 nm, even in the near-infrared window of a biological tissue, for use as colloidal SERS sensing agents or for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Size-controllable synthesis of nanosized-TiO2 anatase using porous Vycor glass as template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazali, I.O.; Filho, A.G. Souza; Viana, B.C.; Filho, J. Mendes; Alves, O.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of TiO 2 nanocrystal dispersed into a porous Vycor glass. We have obtained very small TiO 2 nanocrystals in the anatase form. The nanocrystal size is controlled via the mass increment only thus preventing the growth through the coalescence process. The nanocrystal size was monitored through transmission electron microscope and Raman scattering. The coalescence control is attributed due to the obtention of nanocrystals dispersed into the host and to the terminal bonds present in the porous which act as an anchor thus resulting in a low diffusion of the nanocrystals through the porous network

  10. Thermodynamic-Controlled Gas Phase Process for the Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles of Adjustable Size and Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffeldt, Elena; Kauffeldt, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Gas phase processes are a successful route for the synthesis of nano materials. Nickel particles are used in applications ranging from catalysis to nano electronics and energy storage. The application field defines the required particle size, morphology, crystallinity and purity. Nickel tetracarbonyl is the most promising precursor for the synthesis of high purity nickel particles. Due to the toxicity of this precursor and to obtain an optimal process control we developed a two-step flow type process. Nickel carbonyl and nickel particles are synthesized in a sequence of reactions. The particles are formed in a hot wall reactor at temperatures below 400 deg. C in different gas compositions. Varying the process conditions enables the adjustment of the particle size in a range from 3 to 140 nm. The controllable crystalline habits are polycrystalline, single crystals or multiple twinned particles (MTP). Spectroscopic investigations show an excellent purity. We report about the process and first investigations of the properties of the synthesized nickel nanomaterial

  11. A Modified Thermal Treatment Method for the Up-Scalable Synthesis of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysar Sabah Keiteb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing demand for titania nanoparticles with controlled quality for various applications, the present work reports the up-scalable synthesis of size-controlled titanium dioxide nanocrystals with a simple and convenient thermal treatment route. Titanium dioxide nanocrystals with tetragonal structure were synthesized directly from an aqueous solution containing titanium (IV isopropoxide as the main reactant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as the capping agent, and deionized water as a solvent. With the elimination of the drying process in a thermal treatment method, an attempt was made to decrease the synthesis time. The mixture directly underwent calcination to form titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystalline powder, which was confirmed by FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The control over the size and optical properties of nanocrystals was achieved via variation in calcination temperatures. The obtained average sizes from XRD spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM images showed exponential variation with increasing calcination temperature. The optical properties showed a decrease in the band gap energy with increasing calcination temperature due to the enlargement of the nanoparticle size. These results prove that direct calcination of reactant solution is a convenient thermal treatment route for the potential large-scale production of size-controlled Titania nanoparticles.

  12. Controlled synthesis of graphene sheets with tunable sizes by hydrothermal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chen; Chen Zhongxin; Fang Ming; Lu Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    We report a hydrothermal method that directly reduces graphene oxide (GO) into graphene nanosheets (GNs) with different sizes. In the presence of NaOH and hydrazine, the hydrothermal reaction at 80 °C resulted in the formation of GNs with a lateral size of ∼1 μm but the size of GNs decreased to ∼300 and ∼100 nm upon increasing the reaction temperature to 150 and 200 °C, respectively. The morphology of the resulting GNs was observed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The thickness of GNs is basically <3 nm, indicates the GNs stack together in a few-layer manner. XRD, XPS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural changes before and after reduction. The results suggested that the defect stability in GO and reduced GNs could be responsible for the temperature dependence of the size of reduced GNs.Graphical AbstractA hydrothermal method is proposed to simultaneously reduce and cut graphene oxide into graphene sheets with different sizes in a controlled manner, in which the reaction temperature as a critical parameter is used to control the size of resulting graphene sheets.

  13. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply ... quently used to synthesize magnetic ferrites from different iron precursors ... added to the mixture resulting in a dark brown precipitate. Figure 2. (a–c). TG–DTA .... Doyle P S, Bibette J, Bancaud A and Viovy J L 2002 Science. 295 2237.

  14. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan; Renuga, Velayutham; Manikandan, Ayyar

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  15. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan [Cauvery College for Women, Tamilnadu (India); Renuga, Velayutham [National College, Tamilnadu (India); Manikandan, Ayyar [Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-03-15

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  16. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand.

  17. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Li, Dongxiang; Wan, Gangqiang; Xu, Jie; Hou, Wanguo

    2011-07-01

    The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM) via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand.

  18. Seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in droplet microreactors separated by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2013-12-17

    Silver nanocrystals with uniform sizes were synthesized in droplet microreactors through seed-mediated growth. The key to the success of this synthesis is the use of air as a carrier phase to generate the droplets. The air not only separates the reaction solution into droplets but also provides O2 for the generation of reducing agent (glycolaldehyde). It also serves as a buffer space for the diffusion of NO, which is formed in situ due to the oxidative etching of Ag nanocrystals with twin defects. For the first time, we were able to generate Ag nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in continuous production by using droplet microreactors. For Ag nanocubes, their edge lengths could be readily controlled in the range of 30-100 nm by varying the reaction time, the amount of seeds, and the concentration of AgNO3 in the droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrated the synthesis of Ag octahedra in the droplet microreactors. We believe that the air-driven droplet generation device can be extended to other noble metals for the production of nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes.

  19. Process Design for Size-Controlled Flame Spray Synthesis of Li4Ti5O12 and Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waser Oliver

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive synthesis of electroceramic materials is required for efficient energy storage. Here the design of a scalable process, flame spray pyrolysis (FSP, for synthesis of size-controlled nanomaterials is investigated focusing on understanding the role of air entrainment (AE during their aerosol synthesis with emphasis on battery materials. The AE into the enclosed FSP reactor is analysed quantitatively by computational fluid dynamics (CFD and calculated temperatures are verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Various Li4Ti5O12 (LTO particle compositions are made and characterized by N2 adsorption, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction while the electrochemical performance of LTO is tested at various charging rates. Increasing AE decreases recirculation in the enclosing tube leading to lower reactor temperatures and particle concentrations by air dilution as well as shorter and narrower residence time distributions. As a result, particle growth by coagulation - coalescence decreases leading to smaller primary particles that are mostly pure LTO exhibiting high C-rate performance with more than 120 mAh/g galvanostatic specific charge at 40C, outperforming commercial LTO. The effect of AE on FSP-made particle characteristics is demonstrated also in combustion synthesis of LiFePO4 and ZrO2.

  20. Single-crystalline ceria nanocubes: size-controlled synthesis, characterization and redox property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiqiang; Zhou Kebin; Liu Xiangwen; Tian Qun; Lu Deyi; Yang Sen

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline CeO 2 nanocubes were synthesized through a hydrothermal treatment. By varying reaction temperature and the NaOH concentration, the size control of CeO 2 nanocubes has been achieved, which produces the nanocubes with a controllable edge length in the regime of 20-360 nm. HRTEM studies reveal that the CeO 2 nanocubes expose their high energy {001} planes. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the CeO 2 nanocubes exhibit excellent reducibility and high oxygen storage capacity, indicating they are potential novel catalytic materials

  1. Study of the synthesis of copper nanoparticles: the role of capping and kinetic towards control of particle size and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.granata@aoni.waseda.jp; Yamaoka, Taishi [Waseda University, School of Creative Science and Engineering (Japan); Pagnanelli, Francesca [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Fuwa, Akio [Waseda University, School of Creative Science and Engineering (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) by surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method was studied aiming to identify and quantify the role of kinetic and capping on particle size distribution. The use of a strong and a mild reducing agent (hydrazine, d-glucose) has been investigated as well as the use of three different capping agents: cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Experimental tests were arranged according to factorial designs. CuNPs were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Particle size distribution was determined by image analysis and significance of investigated factors was statistically assessed by analysis of variance. Under the investigated conditions, CTAB was found capable of preventing oxidation but it had a significant positive effect on nanoparticle size (about 40 and 30 nm); SDS determined a good size control but no stabilization, whilst PVP could provide both size control (significant negative effect of about 15 and 25 nm) and stability. Average size of CuNPs can be significantly reduced of about 50 nm by replacing d-glucose with hydrazine.Graphical Abstract.

  2. Size-controllable synthesis of hierarchical copper carbodiimide microcrystals and their pronounced photoelectric response under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qihui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Liu, Yufeng, E-mail: yfliu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Dai, Guozhang [Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tian, Li [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411101 (China); Xu, Jiayue; Zhao, Guoying; Zhang, Na; Fang, Yongzheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A controllably aqueous method was presented to synthesize two types of CuNCN microcrystals (MCs) at room temperature. • The size and nanostructure can be tuned via controlling the ratio of [NH{sub 3}]/[Cu{sup +}]. • Moreover, prounounced photoelectric response of the as-prepared CuNCN was observed for the first time under the irradiation of visible light at room temperature. • The aqueous synthetic route can provide an inspiration to acquire the other metal carbodiimides nano/microcrystals without the aid of reducing agents. - Abstract: Similar to cupric oxides and sulfides, the nitrogen-containing analogue copper carbodiimide (CuNCN) is considered as a potentially promising photoelectric material. However, there is lack of fundamental investigations on controllable synthesis and photoelectric properties of CuNCN nano/microcrystals. Herein, a facile method was developed to synthesize high-quality CuNCN semiconductor microcrystals with different sizes and hierarchical nanostructures at room temperature. This reaction was carried out in aqueous solutions, avoiding the involvement of non-aqueous solutions and high temperature solid phase reaction during the synthesis of CuNCN microcrystals. Photoelectric response of as-prepared CuNCN microcrystals was first observed under the irradiation of visible light at room temperature. The aqueous synthetic route can also provide an inspiration to acquire other metal carbodiimides nano/microcrystals.

  3. Synthesis of Magnetic Rattle-Type Silica with Controllable Magnetite and Tunable Size by Pre-Shell-Post-Core Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Tan, Longfei; Meng, Xianwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have developed the pre-shell-post-core route to synthesize the magnetic rattle-type silica. This method has not only simplified the precursor's process and reduced the reacting time, but also ameliorated the loss of magnetite and made the magnetite content and the inner core size controllable and tunable. The magnetite contents and inner core size can be easily controlled by changing the type and concentration of alkali, reaction system and addition of water. The results show that alkali aqueous solution promotes the escape of the precursor iron ions from the inner space of rattle-type silica and results in the loss of magnetite. In this case, NaOH ethanol solution is better for the formation of magnetite than ammonia because it not only offers an appropriate alkalinity to facilitate the synthesis of. magnetic particles, but also avoids the escape of the iron ions from the mesopores of rattle-type silica. The synthesis process is very simple and efficient, and it takes no more than 2 hours to complete the total preparation and handling of the magnetic rattle-type silica. The end-product Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites also have good magnetic properties which will perform potential application in biomedical science.

  4. Facile and solvent-free routes for the synthesis of size-controllable Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Thanh Hieu; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Hung Manh; Le, Van Hong; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Tran, Vinh Hoang

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials that are widely used in both medically diagnostic and therapeutic research. In this paper, we present some facile and non-toxic synthetic approaches for size-controllable preparations of magnetite nanoparticles, which are appropriate for biomedical applications, namely (i) co-precipitation; (ii) reduction–precipitation and (iii) oxidation–precipitation. Magnetic characterizations of the obtained nanoparticles have been studied and discussed. The oxidation precipitation route was chosen for investigation of the dependence of kinetic driven activation energy and that of coercive force on particle size (and temperature) during the course of the reaction. The structural–magnetic behavior was also correlated. Being solvent and surfactant-free, these methods are advantageous for synthesis and further functionalization towards biomedical applications

  5. Size control in the synthesis of 1-6 nm gold nanoparticles via solvent-controlled nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Kim, Dukhan; Lee, Dongil

    2011-11-15

    We report a facile synthetic route for size-controlled preparation of gold nanoparticles. Nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles with core diameters of 1-6 nm were obtained by reducing AuP(Phenyl)(3)Cl with tert-butylamine borane in the presence of dodecanethiol in the solvent mixture of benzene and CHCl(3). Mechanism studies have shown that the size control is achieved by the solvent-controlled nucleation in which the nuclei concentration increases with increasing the fraction of CHCl(3), leading to smaller particles. It was also found that, following the solvent-controlled nucleation, particle growth occurs via ligand replacement of PPh(3) on the nuclei by Au(I)thiolate generated by the digestive etching of small particles. This synthetic strategy was successfully demonstrated with other alkanethiols of different chain length with which size-controlled, monodisperse gold nanoparticles were prepared in remarkable yield without requiring any postsynthesis treatments.

  6. Controlled synthesis of size-tunable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; Shankar, Ravi; Mozumdar, Subho; De, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Industrial demands have generated a growing need to synthesize pure metal and metal–oxide nanoparticles of a desired size. We report a novel and convenient method for the synthesis of spherical, size tunable, well dispersed, stable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles by reduction of nickel nitrate at room temperature in a TX-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water system by a reverse microemulsion route. We determined that reduction with alkaline sodium borohydrate in nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of nickel nanoparticles, while the use of hydrazine hydrate in aerobic conditions leads to the formation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. The influence of several reaction parameters on the size of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles were evaluated in detail. It was found that the size can be easily controlled either by changing the molar ratio of water to surfactant or by simply altering the concentration of the reducing agent. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction analysis (EDA) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that synthesized nanoparticles are of high purity and have an average size distribution of 5–100 nm. The nanoparticles prepared by our simple methodology have been successfully used for catalyzing various chemical reactions. (paper)

  7. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles in the Layers of Montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs were synthesized using chemical coprecipitation method. Fe3O4-NPs are located in interlamellar space and external surfaces of montmorillonite (MMT as a solid supported at room temperature. The size of magnetite nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the amount of NaOH as reducing agent in the medium. The interlamellar space changed from 1.24 nm to 2.85 nm and average diameter of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was from 12.88 nm to 8.24 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using some instruments such as transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Seed-mediated growth and manipulation of Au nanorods via size-controlled synthesis of Au seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juncheng; Duggan, Jennifer N.; Morgan, Joshua; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth of gold (Au) nanorods with highly controllable length, width, and aspect ratio was accomplished via carefully size-controlled synthesis of the original Au seeds. A slow dynamic growth of Au nanoparticle seeds was observed after reduction of the Au salt (i.e., hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate) by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). As such, the size of the Au nanoparticle seeds can therefore be manipulated through control over the duration of the reaction period (i.e., aging times of 2, 8, 48, 72, and 144 h were used in this study). These differently sized Au nanoparticles were subsequently used as seeds for the growth of Au nanorods, where the additions of Au salt, CTAB, AgNO 3 , and ascorbic acid were employed. Smaller Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via short growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with higher aspect ratio and thus longer longitudinal surface plasmon wavelength (LSPW). The larger Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via longer growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with lower aspect ratio and shorter LSPW.

  9. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Christopher L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe₍₁₋ᵪ₎S and Bi₂S₃, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth d...

  10. Radiation synthesis of size-controlled poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) nanogels and their use as antimicrobial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isik, S.D.; Gueven, O.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanogels are swollen networks of hydrophilic polymers generally developed to carry drugs, proteins and biologically active substances for biomedical applications. They can be prepared by 1) physical assembling of interactive polymers, 2) polymerization of monomers in micro or nanoscale environment, 3) crosslinking of preformed polymers, 4) template-assisted nanofabrication of nanogel particles. Among these methods crosslinking of preformed polymer chains provide excellent applications, especially when ionizing radiation is used as the tool to induce crosslinking. Due to its low cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility and non-carcinogenic and non-allergic properties, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) has been widely used in biomedical applications, hence the main reason for its selection in this work for the synthesis of its nanogels. PVP nanogels were prepared by gamma irradiation of its dilute aqueous solutions up to 15 kGy. The coil sizes of PVP chains were initially controlled by using acetone/water mixture as the solvent and further irradiations fixed the sizes by intramolecular crosslinking. By changing the concentration of PVP solutions, solvent composition and dose it was possible to prepare nanogels within 40-230 nm sizes. The nanogels were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. GPC has also been used to follow the changes in the coil sizes and distributions upon irradiations. The PVP nanogels thus synthesized were complexed with iodine in aqueous KI-I 2 solutions. Nanogels comprised of typical PVP-iodine complexes were tested for their antiseptic properties.

  11. Toward industrial scale synthesis of ultrapure singlet nanoparticles with controllable sizes in a continuous gas-phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jicheng; Biskos, George; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles is associated with rapid agglomeration, which can be a limiting factor for numerous applications. In this report, we challenge this paradigm by providing experimental evidence to support that gas-phase methods can be used to produce ultrapure non-agglomerated “singlet” nanoparticles having tunable sizes at room temperature. By controlling the temperature in the particle growth zone to guarantee complete coalescence of colliding entities, the size of singlets in principle can be regulated from that of single atoms to any desired value. We assess our results in the context of a simple analytical model to explore the dependence of singlet size on the operating conditions. Agreement of the model with experimental measurements shows that these methods can be effectively used for producing singlets that can be processed further by many alternative approaches. Combined with the capabilities of up-scaling and unlimited mixing that spark ablation enables, this study provides an easy-to-use concept for producing the key building blocks for low-cost industrial-scale nanofabrication of advanced materials.

  12. Ni foam assisted synthesis of high quality hexagonal boron nitride with large domain size and controllable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Li, Xiuting; Li, Deshuai; Huang, Mingqiang; Wan, Wen; Yao, Qian; Chen, Xiangping; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Le; Chen, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    The scalable synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is of great interest for its numerous applications in novel electronic devices. Highly-crystalline h-BN films, with single-crystal sizes up to hundreds of microns, are demonstrated via a novel Ni foam assisted technique reported here for the first time. The nucleation density of h-BN domains can be significantly reduced due to the high boron solubility, as well as the large specific surface area of the Ni foam. The crystalline structure of the h-BN domains is found to be well aligned with, and therefore strongly dependent upon, the underlying Pt lattice orientation. Growth-time dependent experiments confirm the presence of a surface mediated self-limiting growth mechanism for monolayer h-BN on the Pt substrate. However, utilizing remote catalysis from the Ni foam, bilayer h-BN films can be synthesized breaking the self-limiting effect. This work provides further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the growth of h-BN and proposes a facile synthesis technique that may be applied to further applications in which control over the crystal alignment, and the numbers of layers is crucial.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) Crystals with Controllable Size and Morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Lestari, Gabriella

    2012-05-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) is a new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with zeolite-like properties such as permanent porosity, uniform pore size, and exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Until recently, ZIF materials have been mostly synthesized by solvothermal method. In this thesis, further analysis to tune the size and morphology of ZIF-8 is done upon our group’s recent success in preparing ZIF-8 crystals in pure aqueous solutions. Compositional parameters (molar ratio of 2-methylimidazole/Zn2+, type of zinc salt reagents, reagent concentrations, addition of surfactants) as well as process parameters (temperature and time) were systematically investigated. Upon characterizations of as-synthesized samples by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, N2 adsorption, and field-emission scanning electron microscope, the results show that the particle size and morphology of ZIF-8 crystals are extremely sensitive to the compotional parameters of reagent concentration and addition of surfactants. The particle size and morphology of hydrothermally synthesized ZIF-8 crystals can be finely tuned; with the size ranging from 90 nm to 4 μm and the shape from truncated cubic to rhombic dodecahedron.

  14. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/029/06/0617-0621. Keywords. Iron oxide; thermal decomposition; TEM; VSM. Abstract. We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  15. Liquid-liquid interface assisted synthesis of size- and thickness-controlled Ag nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Mingshang; Kuang Qin; Han Xiguang; Xie Shuifen; Xie Zhaoxiong; Zheng Lansun

    2010-01-01

    Here we proposed a synthetic method of high-purity Ag nanoplates by the reduction of aqueous Ag + ions at the aqueous-organic interface with the reductant ferrocene. We demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag nanoplates can be widely tunable from 600 nm to 7 μm in size and from 10 to 35 nm in thickness, simply by adjusting the component of organic phase. To our knowledge, there are few methods to tailor the size and the thickness of metal nanoplates in such a large range although many efforts have been made aiming to realize it. Our proposed synthetic strategy is rapid, template-free, seed-less, and high-yield, and could be applied to synthesize analogous two-dimensional nanostructures of other noble metals, such as Pt, Au, and Pd. - Graphical abstract: High-purity Ag nanoplates were synthesized by the reduction of aqueous Ag + ions at the aqueous-organic interface with the reductant ferrocene, the size and thickness of which were widely tunable.

  16. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip; Tan, Hua; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-11-25

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of cobalt sulfide nanotubes: The size control and its application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Houzhao; Ji, Xiao; Jiang, Jianjun; Yu, Jingwen; Miao, Ling; Zhang, Li; Bie, Shaowei; Chen, Haichao; Ruan, Yunjun

    2013-12-01

    Cobalt sulfide nanotubes are synthesized by hydrothermal method. The precursor is characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM. We study the influence of temperature on the evolution of this special coarse shape nanostructure and analyze relationship between the sizes of cobalt sulfide nanotubes and the capacitive properties of active materials. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to study the effects of microstructure and morphology of the samples on their capacitance and conductivity. The specific capacitance of cobalt sulfide nanotubes (obtained in 80 °C) electrode exhibits a capacitance of 285 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 as well as rather good cycling stability. Moreover, during the cycling process, the coulombic efficiency remains 99%. The as-prepared cobalt sulfide nanotubes electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  20. Scalable shape- and size-controlled synthesis of metal nano-alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-01-21

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a continuous-flow reactor, methods of making metal nano-alloys, and metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the continuous-flow reactor includes a first tubular component having a tubular inlet and a tubular outlet, and a heated tube-in-tube gas reactor fluidly connected to the first tubular component, wherein the heated tube-in-tube gas reactor comprises an inner tube having a gas permeable surface and an outer tube. An embodiment of the method of producing metal nano-alloys, includes contacting a reducible metal precursor and a reducing fluid in a continuous-flow reactor to form a mixed solution; and flowing the mixed solution through the continuous-flow reactor for a residence time to form the metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the composition includes a plurality of metal nano-alloys having a monodisperse size distribution and a uniform shape distribution.

  1. Controlled synthesis of triangular and hexagonal Ni nanosheets and their size-dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Yonghua; Wang Yuntao; Li Xingguo; Liu Tong; Takahashhi, Seiki

    2006-01-01

    A solution phase method has been used to synthesize triangular and hexagonal Ni nanosheets with different edge lengths by controlling the reaction kinetics. This procedure is realized by introducing Fe(CO) 5 into the reaction system to slow the formation rate of Ni(0). The introduced Fe(CO) 5 exists as Fe(III) ions in the solution, which could oxidize Ni(0) back to Ni(II). By controlling the nucleation density, the sheet edge lengths could be changed from 19 nm to several hundreds of nanometres. The Ni nanosheets exhibit the transition from superparamagnetism to ferromagnetism with increasing sheet edge lengths. Their blocking temperature decreases with applied field and increasing sheet edge lengths. The Ni nanosheets also exhibit a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) feature, which is quite different from that of the Ni nanoparticles

  2. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasso, Carlo, E-mail: cmorasso@dongnocchi.it; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP) (Italy); Zanchetta, Giuliano [Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale (Italy); Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Prosperi, Davide [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze (Italy); Gramatica, Furio [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au{sup 3+} reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag{sup +} ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  3. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au 3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag + ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated

  4. Role of Carboxylate ligands in the Synthesis of AuNPs: Size Control, Molecular Interaction and Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Aljohani, Hind Abdullah

    2016-05-22

    low temperature. The structure of the citrate layer on the AuNP surface may be a key factor in gaining a more detailed understanding of nanoparticle formation and stabilization. This can be affecting the catalytic activity. These thoughts invited us to systematically examine the role of sodium citrate as a stabilizer of gold nanoparticles, which is the main theme of this thesis. This research is focused on three main objectives, controlling the size of the gold nanoparticles based on citrate (and other carboxylate ligands Trisodium citrate dihydrate, Isocitric Acid, Citric acid, Trimesic acid, Succinic Acid, Phthalic acid, Disodium glutarate, Tartaric Acid, Sodium acetate, Acetic Acid and Formic Acid by varying the concentration of Gold/sodium citrate, investigating the interaction of the citrate layer on the AuNP surface, and testing the activity of the Au/TiO2 catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. This thesis will be divided into five chapters. In Chapter 1, a general literature study on the various applications and methods of synthesis of Au nanoparticles is described. Then we present the main synthetic pathways of Au nanoparticles we selected. A part of the bibliographic study was given to the use of Au nanoparticles in catalysis. In Chapter 2, we give a brief description of the different experimental procedures and characterization techniques utilized over the course of the present work. The study of the size control and the interaction between gold nanoparticles and the stabilizer (carboxylate groups) was achieved by using various characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Chapter 3, we discuss the synthesis and size control of Au nanoparticles by following the growth of these nanoparticles by UV-Visible spectroscopy and TEM. We

  5. Size-controlled synthesis of SnO{sub 2} quantum dots and their gas-sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jianping, E-mail: dujp518@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhao, Ruihua [Shanxi Kunming Tobacco Limited Liability Company, Taiyuan 030012, Shanxi (China); Xie, Yajuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Li, Jinping, E-mail: jpli211@hotmail.com [Research Institute of Special Chemicals, Taiyuan University of Technology, Shanxi, 030024 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The gas-sensing property of quantum dots is related to their sizes. SnO{sub 2} quantum dots (TQDs) were synthesized and the sizes were controlled by a simple strategy. The results show that controlling QDs size is efficient to detect low-concentration hazardous volatile compounds selectively. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} quantum dots with controllable size were synthesized by hydrothermal route. • The sizes of SnO{sub 2} quantum dots (TQDs) were controlled by a simple strategy. • The responses to volatile chemicals strongly depend on the size of quantum dots. • Small-size TQDs exhibit a good selectivity and response to triethylamine. • Controlling size is efficient to detect low-concentration toxic gases selectively. - Abstract: Tin dioxide quantum dots (TQDs) with controllable size were synthesized by changing the amount of alkaline reagent in the hydrothermal process. The gas-sensing properties were investigated by operating chemoresistor type sensor. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis and Raman spectrometry. The as-synthesized SnO{sub 2} shows the characteristics of quantum dots and the narrowest size distribution is about 2–3 nm. The gas-sensing results indicate that the responses are strongly dependent on the size of quantum dots. TQDs with different sizes exhibit different sensitivities and selectivities to volatile toxic chemicals such as aldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and amine. Especially, when the sensors are exposed to 100 ppm triethylamine (TEA), the sensing response value of TQDs with small size is two times higher than that of the large-size TQDs. The maximum response values of TQDs to 1 ppm and 100 ppm TEA are 15 and 153, respectively. The response time is 1 s and the recovery time is 47 s upon exposure to 1 ppm TEA. The results suggest that it is an effective method by regulating the size of SnO{sub 2} quantum dots to detect low

  6. Size-controlled synthesis of SnO2 quantum dots and their gas-sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jianping; Zhao, Ruihua; Xie, Yajuan; Li, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The gas-sensing property of quantum dots is related to their sizes. SnO 2 quantum dots (TQDs) were synthesized and the sizes were controlled by a simple strategy. The results show that controlling QDs size is efficient to detect low-concentration hazardous volatile compounds selectively. - Highlights: • SnO 2 quantum dots with controllable size were synthesized by hydrothermal route. • The sizes of SnO 2 quantum dots (TQDs) were controlled by a simple strategy. • The responses to volatile chemicals strongly depend on the size of quantum dots. • Small-size TQDs exhibit a good selectivity and response to triethylamine. • Controlling size is efficient to detect low-concentration toxic gases selectively. - Abstract: Tin dioxide quantum dots (TQDs) with controllable size were synthesized by changing the amount of alkaline reagent in the hydrothermal process. The gas-sensing properties were investigated by operating chemoresistor type sensor. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis and Raman spectrometry. The as-synthesized SnO 2 shows the characteristics of quantum dots and the narrowest size distribution is about 2–3 nm. The gas-sensing results indicate that the responses are strongly dependent on the size of quantum dots. TQDs with different sizes exhibit different sensitivities and selectivities to volatile toxic chemicals such as aldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and amine. Especially, when the sensors are exposed to 100 ppm triethylamine (TEA), the sensing response value of TQDs with small size is two times higher than that of the large-size TQDs. The maximum response values of TQDs to 1 ppm and 100 ppm TEA are 15 and 153, respectively. The response time is 1 s and the recovery time is 47 s upon exposure to 1 ppm TEA. The results suggest that it is an effective method by regulating the size of SnO 2 quantum dots to detect low-concentration hazardous

  7. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm-1 with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm-1 (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs.

  8. Colloidal Synthesis of Quantum Confined Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Nanosheets with Lateral Size Control up to the Micrometer Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Javad; Dang, Zhiya; Bianchini, Paolo; Canale, Claudio; Stasio, Francesco Di; Brescia, Rosaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2016-06-15

    We report the nontemplated colloidal synthesis of single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets with lateral sizes up to a few micrometers and with thickness of just a few unit cells (i.e., below 5 nm), hence in the strong quantum confinement regime, by introducing short ligands (octanoic acid and octylamine) in the synthesis together with longer ones (oleic acid and oleylamine). The lateral size is tunable by varying the ratio of shorter ligands over longer ligands, while the thickness is mainly unaffected by this parameter and stays practically constant at 3 nm in all the syntheses conducted at short-to-long ligands volumetric ratio below 0.67. Beyond this ratio, control over the thickness is lost and a multimodal thickness distribution is observed.

  9. One-Pot Synthesis of Size- and Composition-Controlled Ni-Rich NiPt Alloy Nanoparticles in a Reverse Microemulsion System and Their Application

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory

    2017-08-16

    Bimetallic nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous research studies in the nanotechnology field, in particular for catalytic applications. Control of the size, morphology, and composition has become a key challenge due to the relationship between these parameters and the catalytic behavior of the particles in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability. Here, we present a one-pot air synthesis of 2 nm NiPt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Control of the size and composition of the alloy particles is achieved at ambient temperature, in the aqueous phase, by the simultaneous reduction of nickel and platinum precursors with hydrazine, using a reverse microemulsion system. After deposition on an alumina support, this Ni-rich nanoalloy exhibits unprecedented stability under the harsh conditions of methane dry reforming.

  10. One-Pot Synthesis of Size- and Composition-Controlled Ni-Rich NiPt Alloy Nanoparticles in a Reverse Microemulsion System and Their Application

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory; Laveille, Paco; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous research studies in the nanotechnology field, in particular for catalytic applications. Control of the size, morphology, and composition has become a key challenge due to the relationship between these parameters and the catalytic behavior of the particles in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability. Here, we present a one-pot air synthesis of 2 nm NiPt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Control of the size and composition of the alloy particles is achieved at ambient temperature, in the aqueous phase, by the simultaneous reduction of nickel and platinum precursors with hydrazine, using a reverse microemulsion system. After deposition on an alumina support, this Ni-rich nanoalloy exhibits unprecedented stability under the harsh conditions of methane dry reforming.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis of SnO2 quantum dots and their gas-sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianping; Zhao, Ruihua; Xie, Yajuan; Li, Jinping

    2015-08-01

    Tin dioxide quantum dots (TQDs) with controllable size were synthesized by changing the amount of alkaline reagent in the hydrothermal process. The gas-sensing properties were investigated by operating chemoresistor type sensor. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and Raman spectrometry. The as-synthesized SnO2 shows the characteristics of quantum dots and the narrowest size distribution is about 2-3 nm. The gas-sensing results indicate that the responses are strongly dependent on the size of quantum dots. TQDs with different sizes exhibit different sensitivities and selectivities to volatile toxic chemicals such as aldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and amine. Especially, when the sensors are exposed to 100 ppm triethylamine (TEA), the sensing response value of TQDs with small size is two times higher than that of the large-size TQDs. The maximum response values of TQDs to 1 ppm and 100 ppm TEA are 15 and 153, respectively. The response time is 1 s and the recovery time is 47 s upon exposure to 1 ppm TEA. The results suggest that it is an effective method by regulating the size of SnO2 quantum dots to detect low-concentration hazardous volatile compounds.

  12. Synthesis of nanoparticles in a flame aerosol reactor with independent and strict control of their size, crystal phase and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Chen, D-R; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    A flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) was developed to synthesize nanoparticles with desired properties (crystal phase and size) that could be independently controlled. The methodology was demonstrated for TiO 2 nanoparticles, and this is the first time that large sets of samples with the same size but different crystal phases (six different ratios of anatase to rutile in this work) were synthesized. The degree of TiO 2 nanoparticle agglomeration was determined by comparing the primary particle size distribution measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to the mobility-based particle size distribution measured by online scanning mobility particle spectrometry (SMPS). By controlling the flame aerosol reactor conditions, both spherical unagglomerated particles and highly agglomerated particles were produced. To produce monodisperse nanoparticles, a high throughput multi-stage differential mobility analyser (MDMA) was used in series with the flame aerosol reactor. Nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (geometric standard deviation less than 1.05) could be collected in sufficient mass quantities (of the order of 10 mg) in reasonable time (1 h) that could be used in other studies such as determination of functionality or biological effects as a function of size

  13. Synthesis of nanoparticles in a flame aerosol reactor with independent and strict control of their size, crystal phase and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jingkun; Chen, D-R; Biswas, Pratim [Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, Campus Box 1180, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2007-07-18

    A flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) was developed to synthesize nanoparticles with desired properties (crystal phase and size) that could be independently controlled. The methodology was demonstrated for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and this is the first time that large sets of samples with the same size but different crystal phases (six different ratios of anatase to rutile in this work) were synthesized. The degree of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle agglomeration was determined by comparing the primary particle size distribution measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to the mobility-based particle size distribution measured by online scanning mobility particle spectrometry (SMPS). By controlling the flame aerosol reactor conditions, both spherical unagglomerated particles and highly agglomerated particles were produced. To produce monodisperse nanoparticles, a high throughput multi-stage differential mobility analyser (MDMA) was used in series with the flame aerosol reactor. Nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (geometric standard deviation less than 1.05) could be collected in sufficient mass quantities (of the order of 10 mg) in reasonable time (1 h) that could be used in other studies such as determination of functionality or biological effects as a function of size.

  14. Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes 18–32 nm in Edge Length: The Effects of Polyol on Reduction Kinetics, Size Control, and Reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18–32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG) -- the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis -- with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in the early stage to generate a large number of seeds and a relatively slow growth rate thereafter; both factors were critical to the formation of Ag nanocubes with small sizes and in high purity (>95%). The edge length of the Ag nanocubes could be easily tailored in the range of 18–32 nm by quenching the reaction at different time points. For the first time, we were able to produce uniform sub-20 nm Ag nanocubes in a hydrophilic medium and on a scale of ~20 mg per batch. It is also worth pointing out that the present protocol was remarkably robust, showing good reproducibility between different batches and even for DEGs obtained from different vendors. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity of synthesis outcomes to the trace amounts of impurities in a polyol, a major issue for reproducibility and scale up synthesis, did not exist in the present system. PMID:23317148

  15. Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18-32 nm in edge length: the effects of polyol on reduction kinetics, size control, and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-02-06

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18-32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG)--the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis--with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in the early stage to generate a large number of seeds and a relatively slow growth rate thereafter; both factors were critical to the formation of Ag nanocubes with small sizes and in high purity (>95%). The edge length of the Ag nanocubes could be easily tailored in the range of 18-32 nm by quenching the reaction at different time points. For the first time, we were able to produce uniform sub-20 nm Ag nanocubes in a hydrophilic medium and on a scale of ∼20 mg per batch. It is also worth pointing out that the present protocol was remarkably robust, showing good reproducibility between different batches and even for DEGs obtained from different vendors. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity of synthesis outcomes to the trace amounts of impurities in a polyol, a major issue for reproducibility and scale up synthesis, did not exist in the present system.

  16. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  17. A High-Yield Synthesis of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 Nanoparticles with Exceptional Size Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivin Sun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report high-yield and efficient size-controlled syntheses of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles by decomposing molecular single source precursors (SSPs via microwave irradiation in the presence of 1,2-ethanedithiol at reaction temperatures as low as 100°C and times as short as 30 minutes. The nanoparticles sizes were 1.8 nm to 10.8 nm as reaction temperatures were varied from 100°C to 200°C with the bandgaps from 2.71 eV to 1.28 eV with good size control and high yields (64%–95%. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis, ICP-OES, XPS, SEM, EDS, and HRTEM. Titration studies by 1H NMR using SSP 1 with 1,2-ethanedithiol and benzyl mercaptan were conducted to elucidate the formation of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles.

  18. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H{sub 2}S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanh, Le Thi [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Hoa, Tran Thai, E-mail: trthaihoa@yahoo.com [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Cuong, Nguyen Duc [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Hue University, 22 Lam Hoang, Hue City (Viet Nam); Khieu, Dinh Quang [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Quang, Duong Tuan [College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi, Hue City (Viet Nam); Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Hieu, Nguyen, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H{sub 2}S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H{sub 2}S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine.

  19. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H2S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanh, Le Thi; Hoa, Tran Thai; Cuong, Nguyen Duc; Khieu, Dinh Quang; Quang, Duong Tuan; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H 2 S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H 2 S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine

  20. Phase- and size-controllable synthesis of hexagonal upconversion rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals through an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Chunlei; Ma, Jiebing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-05-07

    Herein, we introduce a facile, user- and environmentally friendly (n-octanol-induced) oleic acid (OA)/ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for the phase- and size-controllable synthesis of water-soluble hexagonal rare earth (RE = La, Gd, and Y) fluoride nanocrystals with uniform morphologies (mainly spheres and elongated particles) and small sizes (size are discussed in detail. More importantly, the mechanism of the (n-octanol-induced) OA/IL two-phase system, the formation of the RE fluoride nanocrystals, and the distinctive size- and morphology-controlling capacity of the system are presented. BmimPF(6) is versatile in term of crystal-phase manipulation, size and shape maintenance, and providing water solubility in a one-step reaction. The luminescent properties of Er(3+)-, Ho(3+)-, and Tm(3+)-doped LaF(3), NaGdF(4), and NaYF(4) nanocrystals were also studied. It is worth noting that the as-prepared products can be directly dispersed in water due to the hydrophilic property of Bmim(+) (cationic part of the IL) as a capping agent. This advantageous feature has made the IL-capped products favorable in facile surface modifications, such as the classic Stober method. Finally, the cytotoxicity evaluation of NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals before and after silica coating was conducted for further biological applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Eco-friendly synthesis of size-controllable amine-functionalized graphene quantum dots with antimycoplasma properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Chen, Daiqin; Li, Ruimin; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Guoqiang; Li, Shumu; Zheng, Junpeng; Huang, Naiyan; Gu, Ying; Wang, Chunru; Shu, Chunying

    2013-02-07

    Size-controllable amine-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are prepared by an eco-friendly method with graphene oxide sheets, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide as starting materials. Using a Sephadex G-25 gel column for fine separation, for the first time we obtain GQDs with either single or double layers. By atomic force microscopy characterization, we confirm that hydrogen peroxide and ammonia play a synergistic role on graphene oxide (GO), in which the former cuts the GO into small pieces and the latter passivates the active surface to give amine-modified GQDs. Due to the low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility of the obtained amine-functionalized GQDs, besides the multiwavelength imaging properties of GQDs, for the first time we find that this kind of GQD exhibits good antimycoplasma properties. Given the superior antimycoplasma effect of the GQDs and their eco-friendly mass production with low cost, these new GQDs may offer opportunities for the development of new antimycoplasma agents, thus extending their widespread application in biomedicine.

  2. Water-Soluble N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Protected Gold Nanoparticles: Size-Controlled Synthesis, Stability, and Optical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Salorinne, Kirsi; Man, Renee W.Y.; Li, Chien-Hung; Taki, Masayasu; Nambo, Masakazu; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    NHC-Au(I) complexes were used to prepare stable, water-soluble, NHC-protected gold nanoparticles. The water-soluble, charged nature of the nanoparticles permitted analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which showed that the nanoparticles were highly monodisperse, with tunable core diameters between 2.0 and 3.3 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. Temporal, thermal, and chemical stability of the nanoparticles were determined to be high. Treatment with thiols caused etching...

  3. Spatially confined synthesis of SiOx nano-rod with size-controlled Si quantum dots in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yi-Hao; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2011-01-17

    By depositing Si-rich SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using PECVD, the spatially confined synthesis of Si quantum-dots (Si-QDs) with ultra-bright photoluminescence spectra are demonstrated after low-temperature annealing. Spatially confined SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane greatly increases the density of nucleated positions for Si-QD precursors, which essentially impedes the route of thermally diffused Si atoms and confines the degree of atomic self-aggregation. The diffusion controlled growth mechanism is employed to determine the activation energy of 6.284 kJ mole(-1) and diffusion length of 2.84 nm for SiO1.5 nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane. HRTEM results verify that the reduced geometric dimension of the SiOx host matrix effectively constrain the buried Si-QD size at even lower annealing temperature. The spatially confined synthesis of Si-QD essentially contributes the intense PL with its spectral linewidth shrinking from 210 to 140 nm and its peak intensity enhancing by two orders of magnitude, corresponding to the reduction on both the average Si-QD size and its standard deviation from 2.6 to 2.0 nm and from 25% to 12.5%, respectively. The red-shifted PL wavelength of the Si-QD reveals an inverse exponential trend with increasing temperature of annealing, which is in good agree with the Si-QD size simulation via the atomic diffusion theory.

  4. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of size-controllable Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) nanoparticles and its application in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Harraz, F.A.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of YVO 4 nanopowders prepared at different hydrothermal times; where Y 1 = 4 h, Y 2 = 8 h, Y 3 = 12 h and Y 4 = 24 h. Highlights: ► Size control of Yttrium Orthovanadate. ► Hydrothermal synthesis. ► Removal of direct blue dye. - Abstract: Sized-controlled YVO 4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method by changing hydrothermal time from 4 to 24 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET)), and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) measurements. The results showed that the size of as-synthesized YVO 4 nanoparticles was in the range of 11–40 nm and was extremely dependent on the hydrothermal time. Photocatalytic measurement showed that the YVO 4 nanoparticles with particle size of about 11 nm (prepared by 4 h hydrothermal time) possess superior photocatalytic properties in the decolorization of direct blue dye. Due to simple preparation, high photocatalytic oxidation of direct blue dye and low cost, the YVO 4 photocatalyst is a potential candidate for pollutants removal and will find wide application in the coming future in photocatalytic oxidation processes. The overall kinetics of photodegradation of direct blue dye using YVO 4 nanopowders photocatalyst was found to be of first order. The photocatalyst could be easily removed from the reaction mixture and its recyclability with no loss of activity was possible for six times. The catalytic performance was found to decrease by 5% after run number six.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of size-controllable Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO{sub 4}) nanoparticles and its application in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R.M., E-mail: redama123@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Harraz, F.A. [Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Mkhalid, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of YVO{sub 4} nanopowders prepared at different hydrothermal times; where Y{sub 1} = 4 h, Y{sub 2} = 8 h, Y{sub 3} = 12 h and Y{sub 4} = 24 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size control of Yttrium Orthovanadate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of direct blue dye. - Abstract: Sized-controlled YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method by changing hydrothermal time from 4 to 24 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) measurements. The results showed that the size of as-synthesized YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles was in the range of 11-40 nm and was extremely dependent on the hydrothermal time. Photocatalytic measurement showed that the YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with particle size of about 11 nm (prepared by 4 h hydrothermal time) possess superior photocatalytic properties in the decolorization of direct blue dye. Due to simple preparation, high photocatalytic oxidation of direct blue dye and low cost, the YVO{sub 4} photocatalyst is a potential candidate for pollutants removal and will find wide application in the coming future in photocatalytic oxidation processes. The overall kinetics of photodegradation of direct blue dye using YVO{sub 4} nanopowders photocatalyst was found to be of first order. The photocatalyst could be easily removed from the reaction mixture and its recyclability with no loss of activity was possible for six times. The catalytic performance was found to decrease by 5% after run number six.

  7. Particle size-controllable microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 using water/ethylene glycol solvent blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Haering, Dominik; Doeff, Marca M.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Particle size-tuned platelets of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 for Li-ion batteries have been synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process using an array of water/ethylene glycol (EG) solvent mixtures. Particle size control was achieved by altering the concentration of the EG co-solvent in the mixture between 0 and 100 vol%, with amounts of 0-80 vol% EG producing single phase, olivine-type LiCoPO4. The particle sizes of the olivine materials were significantly reduced from about 1.2 μm × 1.2 μm × 500 nm (0 vol% EG) to 200 nm × 100 nm × 50 nm (80 vol% EG) with increasing EG content, while specific surface areas increased from 2 to 13 m2 g-1. The particle size reduction could mainly be attributed to the modified viscosities of the solvent blends. Owing to the soft template effect of EG, the crystals exhibited the smallest dimensions along the [010] direction of the Li diffusion pathways in the olivine crystal structure, resulting in enhanced lithium diffusion properties. The relationship between the synthesis, crystal properties and electrochemical performance was further elucidated, indicating that the electrochemical performances of the as-prepared materials mainly depend on the solvent composition and the respective particle size range. LiCoPO4 products obtained from reaction media with low and high EG contents exhibited good electrochemical performances (initial discharge capacities of 87-124 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C), whereas materials made from medium EG concentrations (40-60 vol% EG) showed the highest capacities and gravimetric energy densities (up to 137 mAh g-1 and 658 Wh kg-1 at 0.1 C), excellent rate capabilities, and cycle life.

  8. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo Guoqiang, E-mail: qhy2013@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV-vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current-voltage (I-V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  9. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo; Luo Guoqiang; Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. ► The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. ► The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. ► The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV–vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current–voltage (I–V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  10. Controlled size and one-dimensional growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    875–881. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of azamacrocycle stabilized palladium nanoparticles: Controlled size and one-dimensional growth. JEYARAMAN ATHILAKSHMI and DILLIP KUMAR CHAND. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India e-mail: dillip@iitm.ac.

  11. Synthesis and synchrotron characterisation of novel dual-template of hydroxyapatite scaffolds with controlled size porous distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thiago A. R. M.; Ilavsky, Jan; Hammons, Joshua; Sarmento, Victor H. V.; Rey, José F. Q.; Valerio, Mário E. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) scaffolds with a hierarchical porous architecture were prepared by a new dual-template (corn starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant) used to cast HAP nanoparticles and development scaffolds with size hierarchical porous distribution. The Powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that only the HAP crystalline phase is present in the samples after calcination; the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Small Angle (SAXS) and Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS) techniques showed that the porous arrangement is promoted by needle-like HAP nanoparticles, and that the pore size distributions depend on the drip-order of the calcium and the phosphate solutions during the template preparation stage.

  12. Self-reduction and size controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles on carbon nanospheres by grafting triazine-based molecular layer for conductivity improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio

    2016-02-01

    A facile, self-reduction and size controlled synthesis method has been explored to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on carbon nanosphere (CNs) under mild conditions. Without using predeposition of seed metals and reducing agent, a uniform and complete layer of Ag NPs was formed through grafting a molecular layer on CNs surfaces under UV irradiation. The size and thickness of Ag NPs were effectively tuned by adjusting the UV irradiation time. This direct formation of Ag NPs was attributed to self seed in aqueous Ag(NH3)2+ complex solution through a triazine-based silane coupling agent molecular layer, even at 25 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the Ag NPs' properties. A substantial conductivity improvement of prepared Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere was demonstrated. The presented method is simple and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere in conduct electricity paint and coating applications.

  13. Uniformly sized gold nanoparticles derived from PS-b-P2VP block copolymer templates for the controllable synthesis of Si nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer Q; Yi, Sung Soo

    2006-04-25

    A monolayer of gold-containing surface micelles has been produced by spin-coating solution micelles formed by the self-assembly of the gold-modified polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymer in toluene. After oxygen plasma removed the block copolymer template, highly ordered and uniformly sized nanoparticles have been generated. Unlike other published methods that require reduction treatments to form gold nanoparticles in the zero-valent state, these as-synthesized nanoparticles are in form of metallic gold. These gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an excellent catalyst system for growing small-diameter silicon nanowires. The uniformly sized gold nanoparticles have promoted the controllable synthesis of silicon nanowires with a narrow diameter distribution. Because of the ability to form a monolayer of surface micelles with a high degree of order, evenly distributed gold nanoparticles have been produced on a surface. As a result, uniformly distributed, high-density silicon nanowires have been generated. The process described herein is fully compatible with existing semiconductor processing techniques and can be readily integrated into device fabrication.

  14. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of nanometre ZnO from a simple solution route at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H L; Qian, X F; Gong, Q; Du, W M; Ma, X D; Zhu, Z K

    2006-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with a diameter of about 5 nm were synthesized without the presence of any surfactants in ethanol solvent at room temperature. Nanodots and nanorods with different size and shape could be observed by TEM via simply altering NaOH concentration and reaction time. The polar ZnO nanorod growth mechanism was discussed by the 'Ostwald ripening' mechanism. Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods have been characterized. The UV absorption spectrum revealed a clear blue-shift with a single absorption peak centred at 350 nm

  15. Size-controlled synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their surface coating by gold for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, H.; Simchi, A.; Imani, M.; Costa, B. F. O.

    2012-11-01

    The size mono-dispersity, saturation magnetization, and surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are recognized as critical factors for efficient biomedical applications. Here, we performed modified water-in-oil inverse nano-emulsion procedure for preparation of stable colloidal superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with high saturation magnetization. To achieve mono-dispersed SPIONs, optimization process was probed on several important factors including molar ratio of iron salts [Fe3+ and Fe2+], the concentration of ammonium hydroxide as reducing agent, and molar ratio of water to surfactant. The biocompatibility of the obtained NPs, at various concentrations, was evaluated via MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the results showed that the NPs were non-toxic at concentrations gold (˜4 nm) through chemical reduction of attached gold salts at the surface of the SPIONs. The Fe3O4 core/Au shell particles demonstrate strong plasmon resonance absorption and can be separated from solution using an external magnetic field. Experimental data from both physical and chemical determinations of the changes in particle size, surface plasmon resonance optical band, phase components, core-shell surface composition, and magnetic properties have confirmed the formation of the mono-dispersed core-shell nanostructure.

  16. Controllable synthesis in a continuous mode of unsupported molybdenum catalysts with micro/nano size for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Hill, J.M.; Pereira Almao, P.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Heavy oils contain significant amounts of impurities compared to conventional oils, thereby posing a challenge for hydroprocessing operations at refineries. Hydrodesulfurization is one of the important reactions involved in hydroprocessing. Transition metal sulfides have excellent properties in terms of sulphur removal. Molybdenum based catalysts have been used extensively in the petroleum industry for hydrotreating heavy oil fractions. Supported molybdenum based catalysts suffer strong deactivation in the traditional hydrotreating process due to the deposition of carbonaceous components on the surface of the catalyst when they are used in conventional fixed bed reactors. Unsupported catalysts have higher catalytic activity with better metal dispersion. Laboratory experiments were conducted in which micro/nano size unsupported molybdenum catalysts were synthesized from a water/oil emulsion. The catalysts were prepared in a continuous mode for online application to hydroprocessing or in situ upgrading. Dispersed molybdenum catalysts are more suitable for processing heavier feeds because they are less prone to deactivation. Also, their submicron size ensure high activities due to a large specific surface area. They are also sufficiently small to be readily dispersed in the residual oil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  18. Size-controlled synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their surface coating by gold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleki, H.; Simchi, A.; Imani, M.; Costa, B.F.O.

    2012-01-01

    The size mono-dispersity, saturation magnetization, and surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are recognized as critical factors for efficient biomedical applications. Here, we performed modified water-in-oil inverse nano-emulsion procedure for preparation of stable colloidal superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with high saturation magnetization. To achieve mono-dispersed SPIONs, optimization process was probed on several important factors including molar ratio of iron salts [Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ ], the concentration of ammonium hydroxide as reducing agent, and molar ratio of water to surfactant. The biocompatibility of the obtained NPs, at various concentrations, was evaluated via MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the results showed that the NPs were non-toxic at concentrations 3 O 4 core/Au shell particles demonstrate strong plasmon resonance absorption and can be separated from solution using an external magnetic field. Experimental data from both physical and chemical determinations of the changes in particle size, surface plasmon resonance optical band, phase components, core–shell surface composition, and magnetic properties have confirmed the formation of the mono-dispersed core–shell nanostructure. - Highlights: ► Increasing the concentration of iron salts, cubic-shape SPION NPs were formed. The magnetic saturation of the SPIONs was also increased. ► The concentration of reducing agent exhibited marginal effect on the size of SPIONs but influenced the crystallinity of the NPs. A lower magnetic saturation was obtained at higher NH 4 OH concentrations. ► Mono-dispersed SPIONs can be prepared by nano-emulsion procedure at w=23, [Fe]=2.12 M, and [NH 4 OH]=30%. Under this condition, NPs with dimension of 9±3 nm and magnetic saturation of 54 emu/g are obtained. The synthesized SPIONs exhibited acceptable biocompatibility, >80% viability after 24 h incubation in L929 cells at concentrations <0

  19. Size-controlled synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their surface coating by gold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, H. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, M. [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Department, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Costa, B.F.O. [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2012-11-15

    The size mono-dispersity, saturation magnetization, and surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are recognized as critical factors for efficient biomedical applications. Here, we performed modified water-in-oil inverse nano-emulsion procedure for preparation of stable colloidal superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with high saturation magnetization. To achieve mono-dispersed SPIONs, optimization process was probed on several important factors including molar ratio of iron salts [Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}], the concentration of ammonium hydroxide as reducing agent, and molar ratio of water to surfactant. The biocompatibility of the obtained NPs, at various concentrations, was evaluated via MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the results showed that the NPs were non-toxic at concentrations <0.1 mg/mL. Surface functionalization was performed by conformal coating of the NPs with a thin shell of gold ({approx}4 nm) through chemical reduction of attached gold salts at the surface of the SPIONs. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/Au shell particles demonstrate strong plasmon resonance absorption and can be separated from solution using an external magnetic field. Experimental data from both physical and chemical determinations of the changes in particle size, surface plasmon resonance optical band, phase components, core-shell surface composition, and magnetic properties have confirmed the formation of the mono-dispersed core-shell nanostructure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the concentration of iron salts, cubic-shape SPION NPs were formed. The magnetic saturation of the SPIONs was also increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of reducing agent exhibited marginal effect on the size of SPIONs but influenced the crystallinity of the NPs. A lower magnetic saturation was obtained at higher NH{sub 4}OH concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mono-dispersed SPIONs can be prepared

  20. Controllable 5-sulfosalicylic acid assisted solvothermal synthesis of monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoclusters with tunable size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wentao [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tang, Bingtao, E-mail: tangbt@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Suli; Gao, Zhanming; Ju, Benzhi [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Teng, Xiaoxu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408100 (China); Zhang, Shufen [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoclusters were synthesized in a one-pot solvothermal route with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) as the functional ligand in a mixed-solvent system of diethylene glycol/ethylene glycol (DEG/EG). Nucleation and aggregation growth model was responsible for the formation of secondary structure of the clusters. In the process, the size of the clusters can be effectively controlled by varying the amounts of SSA and the volume ratio of DEG/EG. The nanoclusters exhibited superparamagnetic properties with high saturation magnetization value of about 68.7 emu g{sup −1} at room temperature. The water-soluble small-molecule SSA grafted on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals rendered the superparamagnetic clusters dispersible in water, which is crucial for potential applications in biomedical fields. - Graphical abstract: 5-sulfosalicylic acid assisted solvothermal synthesis of monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoclusters with tunable size by a mixed-solvent system of DEG/EG. - Highlights: • Monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoclusters were synthesized in a one-pot 5-sulfosalicylic acid assisted solvothermal route. • The size of the clusters are tunable by varying the amounts of 5-sulfosalicylic acid and the volume ratio of DEG/EG. • The nanoclusters exhibited superparamagnetic properties with high saturation magnetization value. • The 5-sulfosalicylic acid grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoclusters can be dispersed in water.

  1. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis and catalytic performance of iron-aluminum mixed oxide nanoparticles for NOX and SO₂ removal with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhong, Qin; Zhang, Shule; Cai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, reproducible and low-cost strategy is introduced for the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of iron-aluminum mixed oxide nanoparticles (NIAO(x/y)). The as-synthesized NIAO(x/y) catalyze decomposition of H2O2 yielding highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) for NOX and SO2 removal. 100% SO2 removal is achieved. NIAO(x/y) with Fe/Al molar ratio of 7/3 (NIAO(7/3)) shows the highest NOX removal of nearly 80% at >170°C, whereas much lower NOX removal (oxides in NIAO(7/3) promotes the formation of lamellar products, thus improving the specific surface areas and mesoporous distribution, benefiting the production of OH radicals. Furthermore, the NIAO(7/3) leads to the minor increase of points of zero charges (PZC), apparent enhancement of FeOH content and high oxidizing ability of Fe(III), further improving the production of OH radicals. However, the NIAO(3/7) results in the formation of aluminum surface-enriched spherical particles, thus decreasing the surface atomic ratio of iron oxides, decreasing OH radical production. More importantly, the generation of FeOAl causes the decline of active sites. Finally, the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on NIAO(x/y) is proposed. And the well catalytic stability of NIAO(7/3) is obtained for evaluation of 30 h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of hydrophilic Ln(3+)-doped KGdF4 (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb, Dy) nanoparticles with controllable size: energy transfer, size-dependent and color-tunable luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Guogang; Kang, Xiaojiao; Cheng, Ziyong; Ma, Ping'an; Peng, Chong; Lian, Hongzhou; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2012-06-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, template-free, reproducible and one-step synthesis of hydrophilic KGdF(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb and Dy) nanoparticles (NPs) via a solution-based route at room temperature. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that the use of water-diethyleneglycol (DEG) solvent mixture as the reaction medium not only allows facile particle size control but also endows the as-prepared samples with good water-solubility. In particular, the mean size of NPs is monotonously reduced with the increase of DEG content, from 215 to 40 nm. The luminescence intensity and absolute quantum yields for KGdF(4): Ce(3+), Tb(3+) NPs increase remarkably with particle sizes ranging from 40 to 215 nm. Additionally, we systematically investigate the magnetic and luminescence properties of KGdF(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb and Dy) NPs. They display paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties with mass magnetic susceptibility values of 1.03 × 10(-4) emu g(-1)·Oe and 3.09 × 10(-3) emu g(-1)·Oe at 300 K and 2 K, respectively, and multicolor emissions due to the energy transfer (ET) process Ce(3+)→ Gd(3+)→ (Gd(3+))(n)→ Ln(3+), in which Gd(3+) ions play an intermediate role in this process. Representatively, it is shown that the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) occurs mainly via the dipole-quadrupole interaction by comparison of the theoretical calculation and experimental results. This kind of magnetic/luminescent dual-function materials may have promising applications in multiple biolabels and MR imaging.

  3. Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes 18–32 nm in Edge Length: The Effects of Polyol on Reduction Kinetics, Size Control, and Reproducibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18–32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG) -- the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis -- with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in...

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe 2 O 4 NPs with (C 4 H 9 ) 3 N as hydroxylating agent. • PEG 4000 was used as surfactant to control sizes of NPs. • The TEM images revealed the material to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–10 nm. • NiFe 2 O 4 was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid. - Abstract: A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe 2 O 4 and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2–10 nm. These NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  5. Compositional Synthesis of Safety Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis I investigate compositional techniques for synthesis of safety controllers. A safety controller, in this context, is a state machine that gives the set of safe control outputs for every possible sequence of observations from the plant under control. Compositionality, in this context,

  6. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar, E-mail: ssd_iitg@hotmail.com

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs with (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 3}N as hydroxylating agent. • PEG 4000 was used as surfactant to control sizes of NPs. • The TEM images revealed the material to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–10 nm. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid. - Abstract: A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2–10 nm. These NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  7. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilin [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu, Yunle [School of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Zili [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Weimin, E-mail: wangwm@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Zhengyi [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  8. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B 2 O 3 and KBH 4 as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed

  9. Gestural Control Of Wavefield synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Di Carlo, Diego; Portillo, Jorge Madrid

    2016-01-01

    We present a report covering our preliminary research on the control of spatial sound sources in wavefield synthesis through gesture based interfaces. After a short general introduction on spatial sound and few basic concepts on wavefield synthesis, we presents a graphical application called sp......AAce which let users to con- trol real-time movements of sound sources by drawing tra- jectories on a screen. The first prototype of this application has been developed bound to WFSCollider, an open-source software based on Supercollider which let users control wavefield synthesis. The spAAce application has...... been im- plemented using Processing, a programming language for sketches and prototypes within the context of visual arts, and communicates with WFSCollider through the Open Sound Control protocol. This application aims to create a new way of interaction for live performance of spatial composition...

  10. Synthesis and fabrication of sized-controlled nanoparticles: Using surface self-assemblies as building blocks for developing supralattices on nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Chanel Kitmon

    2001-10-01

    A general one-phase synthesis for self-assembling thiols onto gold, platinum, palladium and iridium nanoparticles using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the solvent, and lithium triethylborohydride (superhydride) as the reducing agent, is presented. Using the same synthetic procedure gold nanoparticles functionalized with 11-hydroxyundecane-1-thiol and 4'-bromo-4-mercaptobiphenyl were prepared to show that the availability and reflexibility of this method could lead to surface fabrication with various type of facial moieties. Alkyl selenide- and alkyl thiolate-functionalized gold nanoparticles were also prepared by the same method at 6°C. The properties were compared to their counterparts made at 25°C. The formation of the Se-Au bond and S-Au bonds was investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the bond nature in each case was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Particle size was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and further confirmed by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). Superparamagnetic Fe and Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by ultrasound irradiation and post-fabricated with alkyl sulfonic acids of various chain lengths and octadecyl phosphonic acid. TEM reveals nanoparticles of 5--10 mn in diameter. FTIR spectra suggest that the alkyl chains are packed in a solid-like assembly with packing disorder increasing with the decreasing chain length. The octadecyl sulfonic acid coating displays the lowest magnetization within the sulfonic acid series, which may be explained by the high packing and ordering of the alkyl chains on the particle surface. The smallest value of magnetization in the OPA case suggests that the spin-state of surface Fe3+ ions is affected by the bonded surfactant, and that the phosphonate empty d-orbitals increase magnetic interactions between neighboring Fe3+ spins. To build superstructures beyond the monolayer level, a general route for the attachment of amino

  11. Synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) and functionalized polyaniline (F-PANI) nanoparticles with controlled size by solvent displacement method. Application in fluorescence detection and bacteria killing by photothermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni Abel, Silvestre; Yslas, Edith I.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Barbero, Cesar A.

    2018-03-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could be controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer’s nature. The functionalization and fluorescence of NPs were checked by spectroscopic techniques. Since polyaniline show only weak intrinsic luminescence, fluorescent groups were linked to the polyaniline chains prior to the nanoparticle formation using a linker. Polyaniline chains were functionalized by nucleophilic addition of cysteamine trough the thiol group thereby incorporating pendant primary aliphatic amine groups to the polyaniline backbone. Then, dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl), which could act as an extrinsic chromophore, was conjugated to the amine pendant groups. Later, the functionalized polyaniline was used to produce nanoparticles by solvent displacement. The optical and functional properties of fluorescent nanoparticles (F-PANI-NPs) were determined. F-PANI-NPs in the conductive state (pH causes bacterial death. Therefore, the F-PANI-NPs could be tracked and applied to inhibit different diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and resistant to antibiotics as well as a new disinfection method to surgical materials.

  12. Theory of Nanocluster Size Distributions from Ion Beam Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Yi, D.O.; Sharp, I.D.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-06-13

    Ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters is studied via both kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and the self-consistent mean-field solution to a set of coupled rate equations. Both approaches predict the existence of a steady state shape for the cluster size distribution that depends only on a characteristic length determined by the ratio of the effective diffusion coefficient to the ion flux. The average cluster size in the steady state regime is determined by the implanted species/matrix interface energy.

  13. Synthesis of pneumatic controll systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the basic tool for automating the production processes are the PLCs. However, in many areas application of the pneumaticcontrol systems may be more reasonable. The main factor determining choice of the control technology are costs. In the case of pneumaticsystems, the costs shall be determined by the number of elements used. Therefore, during the design works it is important to choose anappropriate method for the pneumatic control systems synthesis. The article presents the MTS method, which may be used for a discretetechnological processes modeling and PLC programming, as well as for a pneumatic control systems designing. An important element ofthe MTS method is the network of actions, which graphically presents an algorithm of the implemented process. Based on the actionnetwork and operating machine’s functional diagram, the diagram of different states is determinated, which graphically shows changes ofthe control system’s input and output signals. Analysis of the diagram of different states, makes it easy to determine a schematic equation, which shall be the basis for the control system implementation. Advantage of the MTS method is the lack of restrictions on the number of the control system’s input and output signals. The resulting solution is characterized by a minimum number of elements needed to implement the control system.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of controllable size, morphology and optical properties of β-NaGdF{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} microcrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ting; Jiang, Xiaojiao [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, No. 5 Jing' an Road, Jinjiang District, Chengdu 610068 (China); Zhong, Cheng [Department of Basic Education, Dazhou Vocational and Technical College, No. 448 Xu' jiaba Road, Tongchuan District, Dazhou 635001 (China); Tang, Xiaoxue; Ren, Shanshan; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Mengjiao; Lai, Xin; Bi, Jian [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, No. 5 Jing' an Road, Jinjiang District, Chengdu 610068 (China); Gao, Daojiang, E-mail: daojianggao@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, No. 5 Jing' an Road, Jinjiang District, Chengdu 610068 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Eu{sup 3+}-doped β-NaGdF{sub 4} (hexagonal NaGdF{sub 4}) microcrystals with various sizes and morphologies have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route with and without trisodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) under different Ln{sup 3+}/NaF (Ln=Gd, Eu) molar ratios and pH values. The microstructures and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized microcrystals were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Moreover, the photoluminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+}-doped β-NaGdF{sub 4} samples synthesized at different pH values were systematically discussed. As a result, monodisperse and uniform spherical and rod-like crystals were successfully synthesized by varying Ln{sup 3+}/NaF molar ratio, Ln{sup 3+}/Na{sub 3}Cit molar ratio and pH value, and the obtained feasible range of pH value is 8–11, the optimal molar ratios of Ln{sup 3+}/NaF and Ln{sup 3+}/Na{sub 3}Cit are 1:6 and 1:3, respectively. Our results show that there is an energy transfer process between the host and activator ions, emissions from high energy configurations to ground state are gradually quenched in the β-NaGdF{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphors obtained in the strong alkaline solution. In addition, pure orange-red photoluminescent color can be obtained from β-NaGdF{sub 4}: 2 mol% Eu{sup 3+} phosphors synthesized under the obtained processing conditions. - Highlights: • A facile hydrothermal technique is used to prepare β-NaGdF{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} microcrystals. • Phosphors with higher performance can be obtained in proper hydrothermal conditions. • The as-synthesized β-NaGdF{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} microcrystals can exhibit orange-red emissions.

  15. Synthesis of uniform-sized zeolite from windshield waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Chan; Choi, Mingu; Song, Hee Jo; Park, Jung Eun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of A-type zeolite from mechanically milled windshield waste via acid treatment and a low-temperature hydrothermal method. As-received windshield cullet was crushed to a fine powder and impurities were removed by HNO 3 treatment. The resulting glass powder was used as the source material for the hydrothermal synthesis of A-type zeolite. Crystal structure, morphology, and elemental composition changes of the windshield waste were evaluated at each step of the process through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, etc. After a high-energy milling process, the glass had an average particle size of 520 nm; after acid treatment, its composition was over 94% silica. Zeolite was successfully synthesized in the A-type phase with a uniform cubic shape. - Highlights: • Environmental-friendly recycling of windshield waste for high valuable product of zeolite. • Synthesis of zeolite form windshield waste via a low-temperature hydrothermal process. • High-energy milling effect on the uniform cubic shape and high-purity A-type zeolite.

  16. Synthesis of micro-sized polystyrene magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Juliete S.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z.; Umpierre, Alexandre P.; Machado, Fabricio; Souza Junior, Fernando G. de

    2011-01-01

    The present work illustrates the synthesis of spherical and micro-sized polystyrene magnetic particles by using a water-based suspension polymerization process to incorporate in situ surface modified superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size of Fe 3 O 4 was determined to be equal to 7.7 nm, based on Scherrer's equation and XRD measurement. According to EDX analyses, Fe 3 O 4 / polystyrene nanocomposites particles show strong characteristic peaks Kα and Kβ of iron at the interval from 6.38 KeV to 7.04 KeV with an amount of iron in the samples equal to 98 %, indicating that the inorganic material dispersed in the polystyrene matrix is essentially Fe in the form of iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ). The obtained polymeric materials presented good magnetic behavior, indicating that the modified Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were successfully dispersed in the polystyrene particles. (author)

  17. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  18. Size Matters, if You Control Your Junk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Israel, Ronen

    that do not rely on market prices, is weak internationally, and is subsumed by proxies for illiquidity. We find, however, that these challenges are dismantled when controlling for the quality, or the inverse "junk", of a firm. A significant size premium emerges, which is stable through time, robust...... to the specification, more consistent across seasons and markets, not concentrated in microcaps, robust to non-price based measures of size, and not captured by an illiquidity premium. Controlling for quality/junk also explains interactions between size and other return characteristics such as value and momentum.......The size premium has been challenged along many fronts: it has a weak historical record, varies significantly over time, in particular weakening after its discovery in the early 1980s, is concentrated among microcap stocks, predominantly resides in January, is not present for measures of size...

  19. Controlled synthesis of Zn{sup 0} nanoparticles by bioreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizal, G. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Schabes-Retchkiman, P.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nal. Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, C.P. 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Liu, Hong Bo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ascencio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ascencio@imp.mx

    2006-06-10

    Synthesis of metallic Zn nanoparticles through bio-reduction methods is reported for the first time. The structure, shape and size of the nanoparticles are critically controlled through the pH used in the sample preparation. High resolution electron microscopy was used in order to determine the structure of individual nanoparticles. Formation of quantum dots and the efficiency of ion reduction in the synthesis process are studied through the optical absorption in colloids. The structure and stability of the Zn clusters (up to 4000 atoms) were determined through the calculation of minimum energy configurations using molecular and quantum mechanics approximations and image simulation. The structure of the obtained nanoparticles was preferentially hexagonal, although multiple twinned and fcc-like structures were identified. The size controlled synthesis of small nanoparticles in the quantum-dot range was demonstrated successfully.

  20. Controlled synthesis of Zn0 nanoparticles by bioreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizal, G.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P.S.; Pal, U.; Liu, Hong Bo; Ascencio, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of metallic Zn nanoparticles through bio-reduction methods is reported for the first time. The structure, shape and size of the nanoparticles are critically controlled through the pH used in the sample preparation. High resolution electron microscopy was used in order to determine the structure of individual nanoparticles. Formation of quantum dots and the efficiency of ion reduction in the synthesis process are studied through the optical absorption in colloids. The structure and stability of the Zn clusters (up to 4000 atoms) were determined through the calculation of minimum energy configurations using molecular and quantum mechanics approximations and image simulation. The structure of the obtained nanoparticles was preferentially hexagonal, although multiple twinned and fcc-like structures were identified. The size controlled synthesis of small nanoparticles in the quantum-dot range was demonstrated successfully

  1. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF CHEMICAL REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Labutin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the analytical synthesis of the synergetic control system of chemical reactor for the realization of a complex series-parallel exothermal reaction has been solved. The synthesis of control principles is performed using the analytical design method of aggregated regulators. Synthesized nonlinear control system solves the problem of stabilization of the concentration of target component at the exit of reactor and also enables one to automatically transfer to new production using the equipment.

  2. Role of proteins in controlling selenium nanoparticle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobias, J; Suvorova, E I; Bernier-Latmani, R

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the potential for harnessing the association of bacterial proteins to biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to control the size distribution and the morphology of the resultant SeNPs. We conducted a proteomic study and compared proteins associated with biogenic SeNPs produced by E. coli to chemically synthesized SeNPs as well as magnetite nanoparticles. We identified four proteins (AdhP, Idh, OmpC, AceA) that bound specifically to SeNPs and observed a narrower size distribution as well as more spherical morphology when the particles were synthesized chemically in the presence of proteins. A more detailed study of AdhP (alcohol dehydrogenase propanol-preferring) confirmed the strong affinity of this protein for the SeNP surface and revealed that this protein controlled the size distribution of the SeNPs and yielded a narrow size distribution with a three-fold decrease in the median size. These results support the assertion that protein may become an important tool in the industrial-scale synthesis of SeNPs of uniform size and properties.

  3. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  4. Size control synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles and its application as ZnO-water based nanofluid in heat transfer enhancement in light water nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Deepak; Pandey, Krishna Murari [National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-03-15

    A novel and facile approach for size-tunable synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) is reported. Size-tuning was attained by using PEG (polyethylene glycol) of molecular weights 400 and 4000. ZnO NPs was synthesized using homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal. Here triethylamine (TEA) was used as a hydroxylating agent. As-synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticle was used for the preparation of ZnO-water based nanofluid and its application in heat transfer enhancement in light water nuclear reactor. In this work, ZnO-water based nanofluid of different volume concentration (1%, 2% and 3%) and particle size of 10 nm and 20 nm is used for enhancement in heat transfer in annular channel by using two phase approach. The particle size of 10 nm gives better result for enhancing the heat transfer rate in comparison to 20 nm particle size in nuclear reactor.

  5. Size Matters, if you Control Your Junk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Cliff; Frazzini, Andrea; Israel, Ronen

    The size premium has been challenged along many fronts: it has a weak historical record, varies significantly over time, in particular weakening after its discovery, is concentrated among microcap stocks, resides predominantly in January, is not present for non-price based measures of size, is weak...... emerges, which is: stable through time, robust to specification, more consistent across seasons and markets, not concentrated in microcaps, robust to non-price based measures of size, and not captured by an illiquidity premium. These results are replicated in 30 different industries and in 24 different...... internationally, and is argued to be subsumed by proxies for illiquidity. We find, however, that these challenges are systematically dismantled when controlling for the quality, or its inverse “junk”, of a firm. Across a wide variety of quality measures proposed in the literature a significant size premium...

  6. Simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and nanocrystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    applications such as a photo-sensor [11]. Thus, it is desirable to have, not only a control on the size of the nanocrystals, but also an independent tunability of the ... 1-thioglycerol) in 25 ml methanol under inert atmosphere. 10 ml of 0.2 M sodium sulfide solution is then added to the reaction mixture dropwise and the reaction.

  7. Advanced Attitude Control af Pico Sized Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper A.; Amini, Rouzbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    accuracy of better than 5 degrees. Cost, size, weight and power requirements, on the other hand, impose selecting relative simple sensors and actuators which leads to an attitude control requirement of less than 1 degree. This precision is obtained by a combination of magnetorquers and momentum wheels...

  8. Robust control synthesis for uncertain dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Sunkel, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents robust control synthesis techniques for uncertain dynamical systems subject to structured parameter perturbation. Both QFT (quantitative feedback theory) and H-infinity control synthesis techniques are investigated. Although most H-infinity-related control techniques are not concerned with the structured parameter perturbation, a new way of incorporating the parameter uncertainty in the robust H-infinity control design is presented. A generic model of uncertain dynamical systems is used to illustrate the design methodologies investigated in this paper. It is shown that, for a certain noncolocated structural control problem, use of both techniques results in nonminimum phase compensation.

  9. [Influence of slot size on torque control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Liu, Zhong-Hao; Zhang, Ding; Wu, Chuan-Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the influence of two slot size brackets on torque control when teeth interacted in the same arch. After the upper arch was aligned and leveled in Typodont study, the inclinations of upper teeth 5 +/- 5 were measured when 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm OPA-K brackets and 0.558 8 mmx0.711 2 mm OPA-K brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire. This experiment was duplicated 10 times. The inclin of each tooth were transformed to the absolute values of the torque play angle psi by computing program, and paired-t test was used. The two kinds of slot size brackets were different with statistical significance on torque control. When the brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire, the absolute values of the angle psi in 0.558 8 mm x 0.711 2 mm and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size brackets were 6.140 degrees +/- 3.758 degrees and 2.608 degrees +/- 1.479 degrees respectively, and the average difference of that between the two slot size brackets was 3.532 degrees. The absolute values of the angle psi in the upper left and right canine brackets were 2.560 degrees +/- 2.605 degrees, 4.230 degrees +/- 2.817 degrees, 1.260 degrees +/- 0.747 degrees and 2.070 degrees +/- 0.663 degrees respectively, and average differences between them were smaller than that in the other teeth. There was difference between the two kinds of slot size brackets on torque control, and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size bracket controls torque better when filled with the same size wire. In this study, the teeth interaction in the same arch probably caused the result that the difference of two slot size brackets on torque control was less than the study results of the theory calculations and material studys before.

  10. Influence of synthesis parameters on iron nanoparticle size and zeta potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Nikki; Greenlee, Lauren F.

    2012-03-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles are of increasing interest in clean water treatment applications due to their reactivity toward organic contaminants and their potential to degrade a variety of compounds. This study focuses on the effect of organophosphate stabilizers on nanoparticle characteristics, including particle size distribution and zeta potential, when the stabilizer is present during nanoparticle synthesis. Particle size distributions from DLS were obtained as a function of stabilizer type and iron precursor (FeSO4·7H2O or FeCl3), and nanoparticles from 2 to 200 nm were produced. Three different organophosphate stabilizer compounds were compared in their ability to control nanoparticle size, and the size distributions obtained for particle volume demonstrated differences caused by the three stabilizers. A range of stabilizer-to-iron (0.05-0.9) and borohydride-to-iron (0.5-8) molar ratios were tested to determine the effect of concentration on nanoparticle size distribution and zeta potential. The combination of ferrous sulfate and ATMP or DTPMP phosphonate stabilizer produced stabilized nanoparticle suspensions, and the stabilizers tested resulted in varying particle size distributions. In general, higher stabilizer concentrations resulted in smaller nanoparticles, and excess borohydride did not decrease nanoparticle size. Zeta potential measurements were largely consistent with particle size distribution data and indicated the stability of the suspensions. Probe sonication, as a nanoparticle resuspension method, was minimally successful in several different organic solvents.

  11. Influence of synthesis parameters on iron nanoparticle size and zeta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Nikki; Greenlee, Lauren F., E-mail: lauren.greenlee@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Reliability Division (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles are of increasing interest in clean water treatment applications due to their reactivity toward organic contaminants and their potential to degrade a variety of compounds. This study focuses on the effect of organophosphate stabilizers on nanoparticle characteristics, including particle size distribution and zeta potential, when the stabilizer is present during nanoparticle synthesis. Particle size distributions from DLS were obtained as a function of stabilizer type and iron precursor (FeSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O or FeCl{sub 3}), and nanoparticles from 2 to 200 nm were produced. Three different organophosphate stabilizer compounds were compared in their ability to control nanoparticle size, and the size distributions obtained for particle volume demonstrated differences caused by the three stabilizers. A range of stabilizer-to-iron (0.05-0.9) and borohydride-to-iron (0.5-8) molar ratios were tested to determine the effect of concentration on nanoparticle size distribution and zeta potential. The combination of ferrous sulfate and ATMP or DTPMP phosphonate stabilizer produced stabilized nanoparticle suspensions, and the stabilizers tested resulted in varying particle size distributions. In general, higher stabilizer concentrations resulted in smaller nanoparticles, and excess borohydride did not decrease nanoparticle size. Zeta potential measurements were largely consistent with particle size distribution data and indicated the stability of the suspensions. Probe sonication, as a nanoparticle resuspension method, was minimally successful in several different organic solvents.

  12. Influence of synthesis parameters on iron nanoparticle size and zeta potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Nikki; Greenlee, Lauren F.

    2012-01-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles are of increasing interest in clean water treatment applications due to their reactivity toward organic contaminants and their potential to degrade a variety of compounds. This study focuses on the effect of organophosphate stabilizers on nanoparticle characteristics, including particle size distribution and zeta potential, when the stabilizer is present during nanoparticle synthesis. Particle size distributions from DLS were obtained as a function of stabilizer type and iron precursor (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O or FeCl 3 ), and nanoparticles from 2 to 200 nm were produced. Three different organophosphate stabilizer compounds were compared in their ability to control nanoparticle size, and the size distributions obtained for particle volume demonstrated differences caused by the three stabilizers. A range of stabilizer-to-iron (0.05–0.9) and borohydride-to-iron (0.5–8) molar ratios were tested to determine the effect of concentration on nanoparticle size distribution and zeta potential. The combination of ferrous sulfate and ATMP or DTPMP phosphonate stabilizer produced stabilized nanoparticle suspensions, and the stabilizers tested resulted in varying particle size distributions. In general, higher stabilizer concentrations resulted in smaller nanoparticles, and excess borohydride did not decrease nanoparticle size. Zeta potential measurements were largely consistent with particle size distribution data and indicated the stability of the suspensions. Probe sonication, as a nanoparticle resuspension method, was minimally successful in several different organic solvents.

  13. Protein synthesis controls phosphate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element assimilated largely as orthophosphate (Pi). Cells respond to Pi starvation by importing Pi from their surroundings. We now report that impaired protein synthesis alone triggers a Pi starvation response even when Pi is plentiful in the extracellular milieu. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , this response entails phosphorylation of the regulatory protein PhoB and transcription of PhoB-dependent Pi transporter genes and is eliminated upon stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When protein synthesis is impaired due to low cytoplasmic magnesium (Mg 2+ ), Salmonella triggers the Pi starvation response because ribosomes are destabilized, which reduces ATP consumption and thus free cytoplasmic Pi. This response is transient because low cytoplasmic Mg 2+ promotes an uptake in Mg 2+ and a decrease in ATP levels, which stabilizes ribosomes, resulting in ATP consumption and Pi increase, thus ending the response. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis also elicited a Pi starvation response in the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our findings identify a regulatory connection between protein synthesis and Pi homeostasis that is widespread in nature. © 2018 Pontes and Groisman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by controlling its particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nudelman, F.; Sonmezler, E.; Bomans, P.H.H.; With, de G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles of different size are prepared using a flow system. Post-synthesis stabilization with a layer of poly[(a,ß)-DL-aspartic acid] leads to stabilization of the ACC, but only for particles

  15. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  16. Supervisory control synthesis for a waterway lock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, F.F.H.; Goorden, M.A.; van de Mortel - Fronczak, J.M.; Rooda, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Formal methods help in coping with the growing functionality and complexity, time-to-market and costs in cyber-physical systems (CPSs). Supervisory control synthesis (SCS) is such a method. It can be used to synthesize a controller for a CPS from the uncontrolled system model (plant) and the

  17. Automatic Synthesis of Robust and Optimal Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to apply recent tools for the automatic synthesis of robust and near-optimal controllers for a real industrial case study. We show how to use three different classes of models and their supporting existing tools, Uppaal-TiGA for synthesis, phaver for verification......, and Simulink for simulation, in a complementary way. We believe that this case study shows that our tools have reached a level of maturity that allows us to tackle interesting and relevant industrial control problems....

  18. Synthesis of nanometer-size inorganic materials for the examination of particle size effects on heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Sean Christian

    The effect of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation on the precipitation of inorganic catalytic materials, specifically titania supported gold, was investigated. The overall objective was to understand the fundamental factors involved in synthesizing nanometer-size catalytic materials in the 1--10 nm range in a cavitating field. Materials with grain sizes in this range have been associated with enhanced catalytic activity compared to larger grain size materials. A new chemical approach was used to produce titania supported gold by co-precipitation with higher gold yields compared to other synthesis methods. Using this approach, it was determined that acoustic cavitation was unable to influence the gold mean crystallite size compared to non-sonicated catalysts. However, gold concentration on the catalysts was found to be very important for CO oxidation activity. By decreasing the gold concentration from a weight loading of 0.50% down to approximately 0.05%, the rate of reaction per mole of gold was found to increase by a factor of 19. Hydrodynamic cavitation at low pressures (6.9--48 bar) was determined to have no effect on gold crystallite size at a fixed gold content for the same precipitation technique used in the acoustic cavitation studies. By changing the chemistry of the precipitation system, however, it was found that a synergy existed between the dilution of the gold precursor solution, the orifice diameter, and the reducing agent addition rate. Individually, these factors were found to have little effect and only their interaction allowed gold grain size control in the range of 8--80 nm. Further modification of the system chemistry and the use of hydrodynamic cavitation at pressures in excess of 690 bar allowed the systematic control of gold crystallite size in the range of 2--9 nm for catalysts containing 2.27 +/- 0.17% gold. In addition, it was shown that the enhanced mixing due to cavitation led to larger gold yields compared to classical syntheses. The

  19. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes -- or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature, concentration of reagents, residence times, etc. affect the structure of nanoparticles dramatically; therefore when the conditions vary locally in the reaction vessel, different sized nanoparticles form, causing polydispersity. In widely-used batch wise synthesis techniques, large sized reaction vessels are used to mix and heat reagents. In these types of systems, it is very hard to avoid thermal gradients and to achieve rapid mixing times as well as to control residence times. Also it is not possible to make rapid changes in the reaction parameters during the synthesis. The other drawback of conventional methods is that it is not possible to separate the nucleation of nanoparticles from their growth; this leads to combined nucleation and growth and subsequently results in polydisperse size distributions. Microfluidics is an alternative method by which the limitations of conventional techniques can be addressed. Due to the small size, it is possible to control temperature and concentration of reagents precisely as well as to make rapid changes in mixing ratios of reagents or temperature of the reaction zones. There have been several microfluidic reactors -- (microreactors) in literature that were designed to improve the size distribution of nanoparticles. In this work, two novel microfluidic systems were developed for achieving controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The first microreactor was made out of a chemically robust polymer, polyurethane, and it was used for low

  20. Controller Synthesis using Qualitative Models and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Ramamoorthy, Subramanian; Kuipers, Benjamin J

    2004-01-01

    Many engineering systems require the synthesis of global behaviors in nonlinear dynamical systems. Multiple model approaches to control design make it possible to synthesize robust and optimal versions of such global behaviors. We propose a methodology called Qualitative Heterogeneous Control that enables this type of control design. This methodology is based on a separation of concerns between qualitative correctness and quantitative optimization. Qualitative sufficient conditions are derive...

  1. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kubel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nano-crystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nano-crystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nano-crystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nano-dots (ca. 4 nm) and nano-rods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised. (authors)

  2. EPICS Controlled Collimator for Controlling Beam Sizes in HIPPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitano, Arthur Soriano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Controlling the beam spot size and shape in a diffraction experiment determines the probed sample volume. The HIPPO - High-Pressure-Preferred Orientation– neutron time-offlight diffractometer is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center in Los Alamos National Laboratories. HIPPO characterizes microstructural parameters, such as phase composition, strains, grain size, or texture, of bulk (cm-sized) samples. In the current setup, the beam spot has a 10 mm diameter. Using a collimator, consisting of two pairs of neutron absorbing boron-nitride slabs, horizontal and vertical dimensions of a rectangular beam spot can be defined. Using the HIPPO robotic sample changer for sample motion, the collimator would enable scanning of e.g. cylindrical samples along the cylinder axis by probing slices of such samples. The project presented here describes implementation of such a collimator, in particular the motion control software. We utilized the EPICS (Experimental Physics Interface and Control System) software interface to integrate the collimator control into the HIPPO instrument control system. Using EPICS, commands are sent to commercial stepper motors that move the beam windows.

  3. Synthesis of different-sized silver nanoparticles by simply varying reaction conditions with leaf extracts of Bauhinia variegata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Yadav, S K

    2012-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the crucial requirements in today's climate change scenario all over the world. In view of this, leaf extract (LE) of Bauhinia variegata L. possessing strong antidiabetic and antibacterial properties has been used to synthesise silver nanoparticles (SNP) in a controlled manner. Various-sized SNP (20-120 nm) were synthesised by varying incubation temperature, silver nitrate and LE concentrations. The rate of SNP synthesis and their size increased with increase in AgNO(3) concentration up to 4 mM. With increase in LE concentration, size and aggregation of SNP was increased. The size and aggregation of SNP were also increased at temperatures above and below 40°C. This has suggested that size and dispersion of SNP can be controlled by varying reaction components and conditions. Polarity-based fractionation of B. variegata LE has suggested that only water-soluble fraction is responsible for SNP synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the attachment of polyphenolic and carbohydrate moieties to SNP. The synthesised SNPs were found stable in double distilled water, BSA and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). On the contrary, incubation of SNP with NaCl induced aggregation. This suggests the safe use of SNP for various in vivo applications.

  4. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  5. Particle size studies to reveal crystallization mechanisms of the metal organic framework HKUST-1 during sonochemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mitchell R; Senthilnathan, Sethuraman; Balzer, Christopher J; Shan, Bohan; Chen, Liang; Mu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic studies of key operating parameters for the sonochemical synthesis of the metal organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1(also called CuBTC) were performed including reaction time, reactor volume, sonication amplitude, sonication tip size, solvent composition, and reactant concentrations analyzed through SEM particle size analysis. Trends in the particle size and size distributions show reproducible control of average particle sizes between 1 and 4μm. These results along with complementary studies in sonofragmentation and temperature control were conducted to compare these results to kinetic crystal growth models found in literature to develop a plausible hypothetical mechanism for ultrasound-assisted growth of metal-organic-frameworks composed of a competitive mechanism including constructive solid-on-solid (SOS) crystal growth and a deconstructive sonofragmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueshen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene on the back side of copper foil using CH4 as the precursor. The influence of growth time and the pressure ratio of CH4/H2 on the structure of graphene are examined. An optimized polymer-assisted method is used to transfer the synthesized graphene onto a SiO2/Si substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the graphene.

  7. Flow cell coupled dynamic light scattering for real-time monitoring of nanoparticle size during liquid phase bottom-up synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, N.; van Ee, R.; Stevens, R.; Mourad, M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kambly, N.; Armenta, R.; Buskens, P.

    2018-01-01

    To tailor the properties of nanoparticles and nanocomposites, precise control over particle size is of vital importance. Real-time monitoring of particle size during bottom-up synthesis in liquids would allow a detailed study of particle nucleation and growth, which provides valuable insights in the

  8. Synthesis of Nanometer-Sized Poly (methyl methacrylate) Polymer Network by Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Ken; Hsieh, Shang-Yu; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Dai, Bau-Tong

    2003-06-01

    Gold nanoparticle/polymer composites have been produced using a one-system polymer synthesis. The linear polymer, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, MW = 15,000 g/mol) is applied for the stabilization of gold nanoparticles. The Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR) analysis data and transition electron microscopy (TEM) image reveal that the core shell structure of gold/PMMA nanocomposite has been synthesized. The ratio of the concentration of the capping polymer material to the concentration of the gold precursor could control the sizes of gold nanoparticles. With specific concentration of the reductant, the core-shell nanostructure could be fluctuated in order. After heating treatment, the network structure of PMMA capped gold nanoparticles could be synthesized as confirmed by the TEM image. The result indicates that PMMA not only acts as the stabilizer, but also as the bridge of the neighboring gold nanoparticles.

  9. Modelling of the enzymatic kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Fretz, C.B.; Bruin, de V.H.; Berendsen, W.; Moody, H.M.; Roos, E.C.; Roon, van J.L.; Kroon, P.J.; Strubel, M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the influence of diffusion limitation on enzymatic kinetically controlled cephalexin synthesis from phenylglycine amide and 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporinic acid (7-ADCA) was investigated systematically. It was found that if diffusion limitation occurred, both the synthesis/hydrolysis

  10. Sample Size for Biosimilar Trials: In Defense of Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy; Jo, Sook Jung; Phillips, Alan

    2018-05-01

    Biosimilars are biological products similar to, but not the same as, the innovator products. Both the European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have released detailed guidance on the development of biosimilars. This guidance requires the pivotal phase 3 clinical study to have an equivalence design, which means that the study objective is to demonstrate that one treatment is neither "worse than" nor "better than" the other by some "clinically unimportant" amount. The most critical and controversial step in designing such a study is the choice of equivalence margin, as this determines the conclusion of the study. In this paper, we outline the methodology for determining an equivalence margin and, through case studies on biosimilar trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN ) and biosimilar bevacizumab (AVASTIN), explain the challenges of applying this in practice and why the synthesis method should be given greater consideration by regulatory authorities and biosimilar developers.

  11. Controller Synthesis for Periodically Forced Chaotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michele; Genesio, Roberto; Giovanardi, Lorenzo

    Delayed feedback controllers are an appealing tool for stabilization of periodic orbits in chaotic systems. Despite their conceptual simplicity, specific and reliable design procedures are difficult to obtain, partly also because of their inherent infinite-dimensional structure. This chapter considers the use of finite dimensional linear time invariant controllers for stabilization of periodic solutions in a general class of sinusoidally forced nonlinear systems. For such controllers — which can be interpreted as rational approximations of the delayed ones — we provide a computationally attractive synthesis technique based on Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), by mixing results concerning absolute stability of nonlinear systems and robustness of uncertain linear systems. The resulting controllers prove to be effective for chaos suppression in electronic circuits and systems, as shown by two different application examples.

  12. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang

    2016-02-23

    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  13. Synthesis and characterization of submicron-sized mesoporous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values of the pore diameters being in the range 15–20 Å (table 1). The pore size of the aluminosilicate spheres is smaller than that of the pure silica spheres. We could estimate the diameter of the pores from the low-angle XRD peaks by making use of the relation ao = (2d100)/(3)1/2. The values of the diameter obtained are ...

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO 4 2− ) into hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6−x (SO 4 ) x (OH) 2−x ) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO 4 2− ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O), ((NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ) and (Na 2 SO 4 ) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO 4 2− ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure

  16. Methods of Synthesis of Automatic Control Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Lapeta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the procedure for introduction of systems containing delay elements. Shortcomings and difficulties in the synthesis of regulators and precompensators of control systems with delays in output and control channel where determined. The author focused on two approaches for the formation of promatrix and synthesis of control systems, considering the factor of delay.

  17. Controller synthesis for negative imaginary systems: a data driven approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed; Petersen, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    -driven controller synthesis methodology for NI systems is presented. In this approach, measured frequency response data of the plant is used to construct the controller frequency response at every frequency by minimising a cost function. Then, this controller

  18. Synthesis of variable size molecules using poly-homologation of boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    During this work, we developed a method of original synthesis allowing to lead mixtures of molecules of variable size with an aim of discovering new chelating molecules of cesium. This method utilizes a reaction of poly-homologation of borated compounds with the nucleophilic ones comprising a grouping leaving in alpha of the negative charge. We tested various families from nucleophilic like anions of sulfones, sulfonium ylides, anions of hydrazones, tri-methylsilyldiazomethane and arsonium ylides. The first three families did not allow us to carry out reactions of poly-homologation. The tri-methylsilyldiazomethane possesses not either the capacity to carry out reactions successive insertions but this property was exploited to propose a chemical conversion of olefinic hydrocarbon into alkyl-methanol corresponding. The arsonium ylides made it possible to carry out reactions of poly-homologation with boronates and boranes. The alkyl-arsonium ylides were used to form polymers of controlled size having a ramification on each carbon atom of the principal chain. This type of polymer is not accessible by the current methods of polymerization. The allyl-arsonium ylides have a particular reactivity since the allyl boranes formed during the insertion reactions undergo a sigma-tropic [1,3] rearrangement before reacting again with a ylide. It is thus possible to lead with polymers of big size to which the structure is close to that of the natural rubber. By this method it is possible to lead with linear or cyclic polymers. This method is currently under development at the laboratory to form chelating structures of cesium. (author) [fr

  19. Controlling microbial PHB synthesis via CRISPRi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Lv, Li; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biopolyesters with properties similar to petroleum plastics such as polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP). Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most common PHA known so far. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi), a technology recently developed to control gene expression levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, was employed to regulate PHB synthase activity influencing PHB synthesis. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring an operon of three PHB synthesis genes phaCAB cloned from Ralstonia eutropha, was transformed with various single guided RNA (sgRNA with its guide sequence of 20-23 bases) able to bind to various locations of the PHB synthase PhaC, respectively. Depending on the binding location and the number of sgRNA on phaC, CRISPRi was able to control the phaC transcription and thus PhaC activity. It was found that PHB content, molecular weight, and polydispersity were approximately in direct and reverse proportion to the PhaC activity, respectively. The higher the PhaC activity, the more the intracellular PHB accumulation, yet the less the PHB molecular weights and the wider the polydispersity. This study allowed the PHB contents to be controlled in the ranges of 1.47-75.21% cell dry weights, molecular weights from 2 to 6 millions Dalton and polydispersity of 1.2 to 1.43 in 48 h shake flask studies. This result will be very important for future development of ultrahigh molecular weight PHA useful to meet high strength application requirements.

  20. Evolutionary Sound Synthesis Controlled by Gestural Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fornari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the interdisciplinary research involving Computer Music and Generative Visual Art. We describe the implementation of two interactive artistic systems based on principles of Gestural Data (WILSON, 2002 retrieval and self-organization (MORONI, 2003, to control an Evolutionary Sound Synthesis method (ESSynth. The first implementation uses, as gestural data, image mapping of handmade drawings. The second one uses gestural data from dynamic body movements of dance. The resulting computer output is generated by an interactive system implemented in Pure Data (PD. This system uses principles of Evolutionary Computation (EC, which yields the generation of a synthetic adaptive population of sound objects. Considering that music could be seen as “organized sound” the contribution of our study is to develop a system that aims to generate "self-organized sound" – a method that uses evolutionary computation to bridge between gesture, sound and music.

  1. Use of surfactants to control island size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Jason; Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald B.

    2017-08-15

    Methods of controlling island size and density on an OMVPE growth film may comprise adding a surfactant at a critical concentration level, allowing a growth phase for a first period of time, and ending the growth phase when desired island size and density are achieved. For example, the island size and density of an OMVPE grown InGaN thin film may be controlled by adding an antimony surfactant at a critical concentration level.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  3. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I., E-mail: idaliagomezmx@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria, 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  4. Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.

  5. Synthesis and Tribological Performance of Different Particle-Sized Nickel-Ion-Exchanged α-Zirconium Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Dong, Jinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Nickel-ion-exchanged α-zirconium phosphate (Ni-α-ZrP) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal synthesis method. Different raw material ratios (NaF/H3PO4/Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) influence the particle size of the Ni-α-ZrP samples. The grain size could be controlled and distributed from 20 to 600 nm. Ni-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in lithium grease in a four-ball test. A 3.0 wt.% addition of Ni-α-ZrP to lithium grease yielded maximum non-seizure load values of 1235 N, and the wear scar diameter on the lower balls is 0.42 mm at 294 N. Compared with smaller particles, the addition of Ni-α-ZrP with a larger particle size to grease yields a better load-carrying capacity.

  6. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  7. Energetic tradeoffs control the size distribution of aquatic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, William; McClain, Craig R.; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2018-04-01

    Four extant lineages of mammals have invaded and diversified in the water: Sirenia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Lutrinae. Most of these aquatic clades are larger bodied, on average, than their closest land-dwelling relatives, but the extent to which potential ecological, biomechanical, and physiological controls contributed to this pattern remains untested quantitatively. Here, we use previously published data on the body masses of 3,859 living and 2,999 fossil mammal species to examine the evolutionary trajectories of body size in aquatic mammals through both comparative phylogenetic analysis and examination of the fossil record. Both methods indicate that the evolution of an aquatic lifestyle is driving three of the four extant aquatic mammal clades toward a size attractor at ˜500 kg. The existence of this body size attractor and the relatively rapid selection toward, and limited deviation from, this attractor rule out most hypothesized drivers of size increase. These three independent body size increases and a shared aquatic optimum size are consistent with control by differences in the scaling of energetic intake and cost functions with body size between the terrestrial and aquatic realms. Under this energetic model, thermoregulatory costs constrain minimum size, whereas limitations on feeding efficiency constrain maximum size. The optimum size occurs at an intermediate value where thermoregulatory costs are low but feeding efficiency remains high. Rather than being released from size pressures, water-dwelling mammals are driven and confined to larger body sizes by the strict energetic demands of the aquatic medium.

  8. The Functionalization, Size Control and Properties of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Recent years, Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) materials have drawn great attentions due to their potential applications in gas sorption/separation and luminescent sensing. In this dissertation, the recent progress of MOF materials is reviewed, with specific focus on the functionalization, size....... A nanoscale MOF material with controllable size was realized whose morphology has been simulated base on the BFDH method, and the sensing of bacteria endospores was research in detail. We also report the synthesis and sensing of nitroaromatic explosives of a nanoscale MOF material....

  9. Particle size control of detergents in mixed flow spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jonathan Crosby

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle size is a key quality parameter of a powder detergent as it determines its performance, the bulk density and the look and feel of the product. Consequently, it is essential that particle size is controlled to ensure the consistency of performance when comparing new formulations. The majority of study reported in the literature relating to particle size control, focuses on the spray produced by the atomisation technique. One approach advocated to achieve particle size control is the manipulation of the ratio of the mass slurry rate and mass flow rate of gas used for atomisation. Within this study, ratio control was compared with an automatic cascade loop approach using online measurements of the powder particle size on a small-scale pilot plant. It was concluded that cascade control of the mean particle size, based on manipulating the mass flow rate of gas, resulted in tighter, more responsive control. The effect of a ratio change varied with different formulations and different slurry rates. Furthermore, changes in slurry rate caused complications, as the impact on particle size growth in the dryer is non-linear and difficult to predict. The cascade loop enables further study into the effect of particle size on detergent performance.

  10. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  11. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  12. Sample size calculations for case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This R package can be used to calculate the required samples size for unconditional multivariate analyses of unmatched case-control studies. The sample sizes are for a scalar exposure effect, such as binary, ordinal or continuous exposures. The sample sizes can also be computed for scalar interaction effects. The analyses account for the effects of potential confounder variables that are also included in the multivariate logistic model.

  13. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  14. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  15. Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V. (Duke)

    2012-04-02

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  16. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand; Alliez, Pierre; Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse

  17. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew; Macdonald, Colin; Ong, Benjamin; Spiteri, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step

  18. On the anomalies in gold nanoparticles prepared by micelle nanolithography and their impact on one-dimensional material synthesis. Role of substrate, size effects and impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbenkum, B.N.

    2007-07-23

    The synthesis of one-dimensional (1-D) inorganic semiconductor materials such as nanotubes and silicon (Si) nanowires is usually achieved by catalyst nanoparticlemediated synthetic routes. Despite the well-established nature of this technique, problems such as low temperature synthesis and adequate control of catalyst nanoparticle diameter in order to control 1-D material diameter still prevail. Additionally, the expansion of this technology from crystalline to cheaper substrates such as glass remains demanding. This work employs a previously established selfassembly route to produce controlled spatial distribution of substrate anchored small diameter gold nanoparticles with controlled size. This enabled successful synthesis of Si 1-D structures with controlled diameters less than 20 nm. Low temperature synthesis due to enhanced catalytic activity was achieved via introduction of impurity by treatment of gold nanoparticles in different plasma environments. This enabled Si 1-D structure growth on Si, SiO{sub x}/Si and borosilicate glass substrates at 320 C. Substrate-induced stress affected Si diffusion at the gold nanoparticle determining whether Si nanowires or nanotubes were grown. These results are of technological relevance because low temperature synthesis provides an economical approach and controlled diameter enhances material functionality. Additionally, exploiting substrate-induced stress to influence Si diffusion in nanoparticles provides an alternate route to tuning Si 1-D structure. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of Noise Mechanisms in Cell-Size Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Saurabh; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar Augusto; Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Singh, Abhyudai

    2017-06-06

    At the single-cell level, noise arises from multiple sources, such as inherent stochasticity of biomolecular processes, random partitioning of resources at division, and fluctuations in cellular growth rates. How these diverse noise mechanisms combine to drive variations in cell size within an isoclonal population is not well understood. Here, we investigate the contributions of different noise sources in well-known paradigms of cell-size control, such as adder (division occurs after adding a fixed size from birth), sizer (division occurs after reaching a size threshold), and timer (division occurs after a fixed time from birth). Analysis reveals that variation in cell size is most sensitive to errors in partitioning of volume among daughter cells, and not surprisingly, this process is well regulated among microbes. Moreover, depending on the dominant noise mechanism, different size-control strategies (or a combination of them) provide efficient buffering of size variations. We further explore mixer models of size control, where a timer phase precedes/follows an adder, as has been proposed in Caulobacter crescentus. Although mixing a timer and an adder can sometimes attenuate size variations, it invariably leads to higher-order moments growing unboundedly over time. This results in a power-law distribution for the cell size, with an exponent that depends inversely on the noise in the timer phase. Consistent with theory, we find evidence of power-law statistics in the tail of C. crescentus cell-size distribution, although there is a discrepancy between the observed power-law exponent and that predicted from the noise parameters. The discrepancy, however, is removed after data reveal that the size added by individual newborns in the adder phase itself exhibits power-law statistics. Taken together, this study provides key insights into the role of noise mechanisms in size homeostasis, and suggests an inextricable link between timer-based models of size control and

  20. Adipocyte lipid synthesis coupled to neuronal control of thermogenic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that downregulation of fatty acid synthesis via FASN depletion in white adipocytes of mature mice can stimulate neuronal signaling to control thermogenic programming in iWAT.

  1. Role of Acid–Base Equilibria in the Size, Shape, and Phase Control of Cesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A binary ligand system composed of aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary amines of various chain lengths is commonly employed in diverse synthesis methods for CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, we have carried out a systematic study examining how the concentration of ligands (oleylamine and oleic acid) and the resulting acidity (or basicity) affects the hot-injection synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs. We devise a general synthesis scheme for cesium lead bromide NCs which allows control over size, size distribution, shape, and phase (CsPbBr3 or Cs4PbBr6) by combining key insights on the acid–base interactions that rule this ligand system. Furthermore, our findings shed light upon the solubility of PbBr2 in this binary ligand system, and plausible mechanisms are suggested in order to understand the ligand-mediated phase control and structural stability of CsPbBr3 NCs. PMID:29381326

  2. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

  3. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen ad...

  4. Preparation of size-controlled (30-100 nm) magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, K.; Ikeda, M.; Gokon, N.; Tsubouchi, S.; Narimatsu, H.; Mochizuki, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Sandhu, A.; Abe, M.; Handa, H.

    2007-01-01

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with several dozen nanometers (nm) were synthesized for biomedical applications. Nanoparticles of single-phase magnetite, as revealed by X-ray analyses and magnetic measurements, were prepared by oxidizing ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 ) with a weak oxidant NaNO 3 in an N 2 -deaerated aqueous NaOH solution (pH=12-13) at various temperatures below 37 deg. C. As the synthesis temperature increases from 4 to 37 deg. C, the MNPs are decreased in size (d) from 102±5.6 to 31.7±4.9 nm and widened in size distribution, Δd/d increases from 5.5% to 15%. Prepared without using any surfactant, the MNPs are advantageous for immobilizing functional molecules stably on the surfaces for biomedical applications

  5. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  6. Fabrication and size control of Ag nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Batvandi, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to fabricate Ag nanoparticles and control their sizes. Colloidal Ag nanoparticles with particle size of 30 nm were prepared by dissolving AgNO 3 in ethanol and through the chemical reduction of Ag + in alcohol solution. To control the nanoparticle size, different samples were fabricated by changing the AgNO 3 and stabilizer concentrations and the effects of different factors on the shape and size of nanoparticles were investigated. The samples were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and EDX analysis. The results showed that by increasing the AgNO 3 concentration, the average size of nanoparticles increases and nanoparticles lose their spherical shape. Also, we found that by using the stabilizer, it is possible to produce stable nanoparticles but increasing the stabilizer concentration caused an increase in size of nanoparticles. Fabrication of nanoparticles without using stabilizer was achieved but the results showed the nanoparticles size had a growth of 125 nm/h in the alcoholic media.

  7. Robust Temperature Control of a Thermoelectric Cooler via μ -Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkçü, Burak; Kasnakoğlu, Coşku

    2018-02-01

    In this work robust temperature control of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) via μ -synthesis is studied. An uncertain dynamical model for the TEC that is suitable for robust control methods is derived. The model captures variations in operating point due to current, load and temperature changes. A temperature controller is designed utilizing μ -synthesis, a powerful method guaranteeing robust stability and performance. For comparison two well-known control methods, namely proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and internal model control (IMC), are also realized to benchmark the proposed approach. It is observed that the stability and performance on the nominal model are satisfactory for all cases. On the other hand, under perturbations the responses of PID and IMC deteriorate and even become unstable. In contrast, the μ -synthesis controller succeeds in keeping system stability and achieving good performance under all perturbations within the operating range, while at the same time providing good disturbance rejection.

  8. Controlling semiconductor nanoparticle size distributions with tailored ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroeder, R; Miclea, M; Hommes, V

    2006-01-01

    The laser generation of size-controlled semiconductor nanoparticle formation under gas phase conditions is investigated. It is shown that the size distribution can be changed if picosecond pulse sequences of tailored ultra short laser pulses (<200 fs) are employed. By delivering the laser energy in small packages, a temporal energy flux control at the target surface is achieved, which results in the control of the thermodynamic pathway the material takes. The concept is tested with silicon and germanium, both materials with a predictable response to double pulse sequences, which allows deduction of the materials' response to complicated pulse sequences. An automatic, adaptive learning algorithm was employed to demonstrate a future strategy that enables the definition of more complex optimization targets such as particle size on materials less predictable than semiconductors

  9. Synthesis of size-controlled Bi particles by electrochemical deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Bi nanostructures include the formation of one-dimen- sional wires by ... epoxy and copper wire. This served as the ... was performed on the powder obtained by scrapping off ... determine the chemical composition of the coatings and also to ...

  10. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  11. Insights in the Diffusion Controlled Interfacial Flow Synthesis of Au Nanostructures in a Microfluidic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amol A; Sebastian Cabeza, Victor

    2017-12-19

    Continuous segmented flow interfacial synthesis of Au nanostructures is demonstrated in a microchannel reactor. This study brings new insights into the growth of nanostructures at continuous interfaces. The size as well as the shape of the nanostructures showed significant dependence on the reactant concentrations, reaction time, temperature, and surface tension, which actually controlled the interfacial mass transfer. The microchannel reactor assisted in achieving a high interfacial area, as well as uniformity in mass transfer effects. Hexagonal nanostructures were seen to be formed in synthesis times as short as 10 min. The wettability of the channel showed significant effect on the particle size as well as the actual shape. The hydrophobic channel yielded hexagonal structures of relatively smaller size than the hydrophilic microchannel, which yielded sharp hexagonal bipyramidal particles (diagonal distance of 30 nm). The evolution of particle size and shape for the case of hydrophilic microchannel is also shown as a function of the residence time. The interfacial synthesis approach based on a stable segmented flow promoted an excellent control on the reaction extent, reduction in axial dispersion as well as the particle size distribution.

  12. Sonocrystallization—Case Studies of Salicylamide Particle Size Reduction and Isoniazid Derivative Synthesis and Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Two case studies of salicylamide particle size reduction and isoniazid derivative synthesis and crystallization realized using sonocrystallization were investigated. The size, habit, structure, thermal behavior, and spectrometric properties of sonocrystallized crystals were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of the operating parameters, such as sonication intensity, sonication duration, and solution concentration, on sonocrystallization were compared. The crystal size of salicylamide was reduced from 595 μm (the original size and was efficiently manipulated to be between 40 and 80 μm. Moreover, compared with the crystal habits of unprocessed crystals and recrystallized crystals fabricated through conventional methods, the crystal habit of salicylamide could be modified to present a regular shape. The structure, thermal behavior, and spectrometric properties of sonocrystallized salicylamide were found to be in agreement with those of an unprocessed sample. For producing isoniazid derivative crystals, N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide was synthesized using isoniazid in acetone at 318 K. The resulting solution was then cooled by applying power ultrasound to isolate N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide crystals. The solid-state properties of the synthesized N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide was verified through PXRD, DSC, and FTIR spectroscopy. The feasibility of particle size manipulation was then demonstrated through sonocrystallization.

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of size-selected CoPt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournus, F.; Blanc, N.; Tamion, A.; Hillenkamp, M.; Dupuis, V.

    2011-01-01

    CoPt nanoparticles are widely studied, in particular for their potentially very high magnetic anisotropy. However, their magnetic properties can differ from the bulk ones and they are expected to vary with the particle size. In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of well-defined CoPt nanoparticle samples produced in ultrahigh vacuum conditions following a physical route: the mass-selected low energy cluster beam deposition technique. This approach relies on an electrostatic deviation of ionized clusters which allows us to easily adjust the particle size, independently from the deposited equivalent thickness (i.e. the surface or volume particle density in a sample). Diluted samples made of CoPt particles, with different diameters, embedded in amorphous carbon are studied by transmission electron microscopy and superconducting interference device magnetometry, which gives access to the magnetic anisotropy energy distribution. We then compare the magnetic properties of two different particle sizes. The results are found to be consistent with an anisotropy constant (including its distribution) which does not evolve with the particle size in the range considered. - Highlights: → Samples of mass-selected CoPt nanoparticles are synthesized by an original physical method. → The magnetic properties of two different particle sizes are compared. → The anisotropy constant (including its dispersion) does not evolve in the range considered. → These results illustrate some invariance properties of ZFC curves.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  15. Facile synthesis of uniform large-sized InP nanocrystal quantum dots using tris(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)phosphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal III-V semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots [NQDs] have attracted interest because they have reduced toxicity compared with II-VI compounds. However, the study and application of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals are limited by difficulties in their synthesis. In particular, it is difficult to control nucleation because the molecular bonds in III-V semiconductors are highly covalent. A synthetic approach of InP NQDs was presented using newly synthesized organometallic phosphorus [P] precursors with different functional moieties while preserving the P-Si bond. Introducing bulky side chains in our study improved the stability while facilitating InP formation with strong confinement at a readily low temperature regime (210°C to 300°C). Further shell coating with ZnS resulted in highly luminescent core-shell materials. The design and synthesis of P precursors for high-quality InP NQDs were conducted for the first time, and we were able to control the nucleation by varying the reactivity of P precursors, therefore achieving uniform large-sized InP NQDs. This opens the way for the large-scale production of high-quality Cd-free nanocrystal quantum dots. PMID:22289352

  16. Using Micromanipulation to Analyze Control of Vertebrate Meiotic Spindle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takagi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of microtubules (MTs have been reported to contribute to control of the size and shape of spindles, but quantitative analysis of how the size and shape correlate with the amount and density of MTs in the spindle remains incomplete. Here, we measured these parameters using 3D microscopy of meiotic spindles that self-organized in Xenopus egg extracts and presented a simple equation describing the relationship among these parameters. To examine the validity of the equation, we cut the spindle into two fragments along the pole-to-pole axis by micromanipulation techniques that rapidly decrease the amount of MTs. The spheroidal shape spontaneously recovered within 5 min, but the size of each fragment remained small. The equation we obtained quantitatively describes how the spindle size correlates with the amount of MTs while maintaining the shape and the MT density.

  17. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  18. Controlled synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles in capillary micro-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengtai; Liu Yulan; Maeda, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    In this study, using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary tube as a micro-flow reactor, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles were controllably synthesized with different flow rates of precursory solution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images and UV-visible absorbance spectra showed that silver nanoparticles with large size can be prepared with slow flow rate in the PTFE capillary reactor. The effects of tube diameters on the growth of colloidal silver nanoparticles were investigated. Experiment results demonstrated that using tube with small diameter was more propitious for the controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles with different sizes.

  19. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...... and to estimate the transcription time for the rRNA operon under different conditions. In steady states of growth with growth rates ranging from 0.75 to 2.3 doublings/h, as well as during the transition after a shift-down, the transcription time of the rRNA operon was constant. The rate of synthesis of r......RNA correlated during this transition – in contrast to the rate of accumulation (M. T. Hansen et al., J. Bacteriol. 122: 585-591, 1975) – with the ppGpp pool in the same way as has been observed during partial amino acid starvation....

  20. Droplet size prediction in ultrasonic nebulization for non-oxide ceramic powder synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mariana; Goutier, Simon; Foucaud, Sylvie; Mariaux, Gilles; Poirier, Thierry

    2018-03-01

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used for the synthesis of non-oxide ceramic powders from liquid precursors in the Si/C/N system. Particles with a high thermal stability and with variable composition and size distribution have been obtained. In this process, the mechanisms involved in precursor decomposition and gas phase recombination of species are still unknown. The final aim of this work consists in improving the whole process comprehension by an experimental/modelling approach that helps to connect the synthesized particles characteristics to the precursor properties and process operating parameters. It includes the following steps: aerosol formation by a piezoelectric nebulizer, its transport and the chemical-physical phenomena involved in the reaction processes. This paper focuses on the aerosol characterization to understand the relationship between the liquid precursor properties and the liquid droplet diameter distribution. Liquids with properties close to the precursor of interest (hexamethyldisilazane) have been used. Experiments have been performed using a shadowgraphy technique to determine the drop size distribution of the aerosol. For all operating parameters of the nebulizer device and liquids used, bimodal droplet size distributions have been obtained. Correlations proposed in the literature for the droplet size prediction by ultrasonic nebulization were used and adapted to the specific nebulizer device used in this study, showing rather good agreement with experimental values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulian Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The false discovery proportion (FDP, the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.

  2. Controller synthesis for L2 behaviors using rational kernel representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, M.E.C.; Weiland, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the controller synthesis problem for the class of linear time-invariant L2 behaviors. We introduce classes of LTI L2 systems whose behavior can be represented as the kernel of a rational operator. Given a plant and a controlled system in this class, an algorithm is developed

  3. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Sized Hexagonal and Spherical Nanoparticles of Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moghri Moazzen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO plays an important role in many semiconductors technological aspects.  Here,  direct  precipitation  method  was  employed  for  the synthesis of nano-sized hexagonal ZnO particles, which is based on chemical  reactions between  raw materials used  in  the  experiment. ZnO  nanoparticles  were  synthesized  by  calcinations  of  the  ZnO precursor precipitates  at 250  ˚C  for 3hours. The particle  size  and structure of the products have been confirmed by XRD. The FT-IR study  confirms  the  presence  of  functional  groups.  Also,  the morphology  and  size  distribution  of  ZnO  nanoparticles  was analyzed by TEM images. The optical properties were investigated by UV–Visible  spectroscopy. The XRD  results  show  that  the  size of  the prepared nanoparticles  is  in  the  range  of 20–40 nm, which this value  is  in good agreement with  the TEM  results. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates the formation of an interfacial chemical bond between Zn and O. Also  the UV absorption depends on  the particles  size  and morphology,  so  the  optical properties  enhances with  decreasing  nanoparticles  size.  Moreover  the  direct precipitation technique is a feasible method for production of ZnO nanopowders.

  5. Automatic synthesis of supervisory control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Sequential composition is an effective supervisory control method for addressing control problems in nonlinear dynamical systems. It executes a set of controllers sequentially to achieve a control specification that cannot be realized by a single controller. Sequential composition focuses on the

  6. Green synthesis and structural control of metal and mineral nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian

    of nanoparticle formation which, however, entails the development of new methods. Two approaches to the advancement of solution synthesis of gold nanomaterials for energy technology were exploited, namely the development of techniques to study nanoparticle formation and the synthesis of active, composite...... nanomaterials. In the first approach, time-resolved chronopotentiometry, pH, conductivity and turbidity, and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy were employed to follow the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Several distinct phases were observed with all techniques providing a broad picture...... of the complex processes. Strong indications of sequential reduction were found and details about ligands and surface immobilized molecules disclosed. This platform is a widely available alternative to traditionally used synchrotron techniques. In the second approach, systematic efforts toward size and shape...

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beta vulgaris: Role of process conditions on size distribution and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R., E-mail: parameshviews@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kalaiselvam, S., E-mail: kalai@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Applied Science and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The present work reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Beta vulgaris peel extract with a subsequent investigation on the size distribution and surface structure of nanoparticles formed under various process conditions. The green-chemical reduction mechanism of silver ions to nanoparticles by the active organic functional groups present in the extract was characterized, using the respective spectroscopic techniques. The effects of various process parameters, including induced intraparticle ripening, were attributed to the controlled formation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles within the supporting matrix of the extract. The plasmon absorption and resonance scattering properties were expected to be favourable for small and larger size nanoparticles (below 25 nm and above 75 nm) respectively, which was considered to be an indicative aspect for synthesizing nanoparticles of narrow size distribution. The zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results suggest the good stability and mono-dispersed size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope, selective area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction studies infer that the nanoparticles formed were spherical/quasi-spherical in shape, which primarily exhibited a face centred cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The green-chemical reduction of organic phases in the extract (especially amine (NH{sub 2}) groups) as reflected through shifts observed in the Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) peaks, reveal the possible interaction of the organic molecules with the silver ions in the effective formation, surface modification and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Functionally stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles were green synthesized. • Beta vulgaris peel extract was used as potential reducing and stabilizing agent. • Amine groups in extract were expected to reduce Ag{sup +} and stabilize nanoparticles. • Induced

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beta vulgaris: Role of process conditions on size distribution and surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.; Jayavel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Beta vulgaris peel extract with a subsequent investigation on the size distribution and surface structure of nanoparticles formed under various process conditions. The green-chemical reduction mechanism of silver ions to nanoparticles by the active organic functional groups present in the extract was characterized, using the respective spectroscopic techniques. The effects of various process parameters, including induced intraparticle ripening, were attributed to the controlled formation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles within the supporting matrix of the extract. The plasmon absorption and resonance scattering properties were expected to be favourable for small and larger size nanoparticles (below 25 nm and above 75 nm) respectively, which was considered to be an indicative aspect for synthesizing nanoparticles of narrow size distribution. The zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results suggest the good stability and mono-dispersed size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope, selective area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction studies infer that the nanoparticles formed were spherical/quasi-spherical in shape, which primarily exhibited a face centred cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The green-chemical reduction of organic phases in the extract (especially amine (NH 2 ) groups) as reflected through shifts observed in the Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) peaks, reveal the possible interaction of the organic molecules with the silver ions in the effective formation, surface modification and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Functionally stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles were green synthesized. • Beta vulgaris peel extract was used as potential reducing and stabilizing agent. • Amine groups in extract were expected to reduce Ag + and stabilize nanoparticles. • Induced intraparticle

  9. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy.

  10. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Yoon, Tae Jong; Yoon, Young Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy

  11. Synthesis of Uncarbonised Coconut Shell Nanoparticles: Characterisation and Particle Size Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Bello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using mechanical milling for the synthesis of uncarbonised coconut shell nanoparticles (UCSNPs has been investigated. UCSNPs were synthesized from discarded coconut shells (CSs using top down approach. The sundried CSs were crushed, ground and then sieved using hammer crusher, a two disc grinder and set of sieves with shine shaker respectively. The CS powders retained in the pan below 37 µm sized sieve were milled for 70 hours to obtain UCSNPS. Samples for analysis were taken at 16 and 70 hours. UCSNPs were analyzed using transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM with attached EDS and Gwyddion software. Samples of UCSNPs obtained at 16 and 70hours show that the deep brown colour of the initial CS powder became fading as the milling hour increased. The size determination from TEM image revealed spherical particles with an average size of 18.23 nm for UCSNPs obtained at 70 hour milling. The EDS spectrographs revealed an increase in the carbon counts with increased milling hours. This is attributable to dryness of the CS powders by the heat generated during the milling process due to absorption of kinetic energy by the CS powders from the milling balls. SEM micrographs revealed UCSNPs in agglomerated networks. The SEM micrograph/Gyweddion particles size determination showed average particles of 170.5 ±3 and 104.9 ±4.1 nm for UCSNPs obtained at 16 and 70 hours respectively. Therefore, production of UCSNPs through mechanical milling using mixture of ceramic balls of different sizes has been established especially when the particles of the sourced/initial CS powders falls below 37 µm.

  12. Tailoring the synthesis of supported Pd catalysts towards desired structure and size of metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gatla; Radnik, Jörg; Kalevaru, Venkata Narayana; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Schneider, Matthias; Lücke, Bernhard; Martin, Andreas; Madaan, Neetika; Brückner, Angelika

    2010-05-14

    In a systematic study, the influence of different preparation parameters on phase composition and size of metal crystallites and particles in Pd-Cu/TiO(2) and Pd-Sb/TiO(2) catalyst materials has been explored. Temperature and atmosphere of thermal pretreatment (pure He or 10% H(2)/He), nature of metal precursors (chlorides, nitrates or acetates) as well as of ammonium additives (ammonium sulfate, nitrate, carbonate) and urea were varied with the aim of tailoring the synthesis procedure for the preferential formation of metal particles with similar size and structure as observed recently in active catalysts after long-term equilibration under catalytic reaction conditions in acetoxylation of toluene to benzylacetate. Among the metal precursors and additives, the chloride metal precursors and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) were most suitable. Upon thermal pretreatment of Pd-Sb or Pd-Cu precursors, chloroamine complexes of Pd and Cu are formed, which decompose above 220 degrees C to metallic phases independent of the atmosphere. In He, metallic Pd particles were formed with both the co-components. In H(2)/He flow, Pd-Cu precursors were converted to core-shell particles with a Cu shell and a Pd core, while Sb(1)Pd(1) and Sb(7)Pd(20) alloy phases were formed in the presence of Sb. Metal crystallites of about 40 nm agglomerate to particles of up to 150 nm in He and to even larger size in H(2)/He.

  13. Controlled synthesis of the tricontinuous mesoporous material IBN-9 and its carbon and platinum derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-08-23

    Controlled synthesis of mesoporous materials with ultracomplicated pore configurations is of great importance for both fundamental research of nanostructures and the development of novel applications. IBN-9, which is the only tricontinuous mesoporous silica with three sets of interpenetrating three-dimensional channel systems, appears to be an excellent model mesophase for such study. The extensive study of synthesis space diagrams proves mesophase transition among the cylindrical MCM-41, tricontinuous IBN-9 and bicontinuous MCM-48, and also allows a more precise control of phase-pure synthesis. On the other hand, rational design of structure-directing agents offers a possibility to extend the synthesis conditions of IBN-9, as well as tailor its pore size. Moreover, an unprecedented helical structure consisting of twisted 3-fold interwoven mesoporous channels is reported here for the first time. The unique tricontinuous mesostructure of IBN-9 has been well-replicated by other functional materials (e.g., carbon and platinum) via a "hard- templating" synthesis route. The obtained carbon material possesses large surface area (∼1900 m2/g), high pore volume (1.56 cm 3/g), and remarkable gas adsorption capability at both cryogenic temperatures and room temperature. The platinum material has an ordered mesostructure composed of highly oriented nanocrystals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Size Control of Sessile Microbubbles for Reproducibly Driven Acoustic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Andreas; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-05-01

    Acoustically actuated bubbles are receiving growing interest in microfluidic applications, as they induce a streaming field that can be used for particle sorting and fluid mixing. An essential but often unspoken challenge in such applications is to maintain a constant bubble size to achieve reproducible conditions. We present an automatized system for the size control of a cylindrical bubble that is formed at a blind side pit of a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel. Using a pressure control system, we adapt the protrusion depth of the bubble into the microchannel to a precision of approximately 0.5 μ m on a timescale of seconds. By comparing the streaming field generated by bubbles of width 80 μ m with a protrusion depth between -12 and 60 μ m , we find that the mean velocity of the induced streaming fields varies by more than a factor of 4. We also find a qualitative change of the topology of the streaming field. Both observations confirm the importance of the bubble size control system in order to achieve reproducible and reliable bubble-driven streaming experiments.

  15. Scalable preparation of sized-controlled Co-N-C electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Kelong; Li, Zelun; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2017-11-01

    Heat-treated metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) materials are emerging as promising non-precious catalysts to replace expensive Pt-based materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in energy conversion and storage devices. Despite recent progress, their activity and durability are still far from satisfactory. The activity site and particle size are among the most important factors for the ORR activity of M-N-C catalysts. Extensive efforts have been made to reveal the correlation of active site and activity. However, it remains unclear to what extent the particle size will influence the ORR activity of M-N-C materials. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, controllable synthesis of M-N-C catalysts with high-density activity sites remains elusive. Herein, we develop a straightforward method to produce a monodisperse and size-controlled Co-N-C (Nano-P-ZIF-67) electrocatalyst, and systemically investigate its catalytic mechanisms. Only by optimizing the particle size, Nano-P-ZIF-67 outperforms the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C regarding all evaluating indicators for ORR catalysts in alkaline media including higher catalytic activity, durability, and stronger methanol tolerance. Nano-P-ZIF-67 is assembled into a cell, and the cell shows a power density of 45.5 mW/cm2, which is the highest value among currently studied cathode catalysts. We expect Nano-P-ZIF-67 to be a highly interesting candidate for the next generation of ORR catalysts.

  16. Carbon-coated NiPt, CoPt nanoalloys: size control and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.A. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany); Hampel, S.; Leonhardt, A.; Khavrus, V.; Buechner, B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany); Klingeler, R. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Controlled synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with well-defined size and composition is always a challenge in material-based nanoscience. Here, we apply the high pressure chemical vapour deposition technique (HPCVD) to obtain carbon-shielded magnetic alloy nanoparticles under control of the particle size. Carbon encapsulated NiPt, CoPt (NiPt rate at C, CoPt rate at C) nanoalloys were synthesized by means of HPCVD starting from sublimating appropriate metal-organic precursors. Structural characterization by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction indicated the formation of coated bimetallic Ni{sub x}Pt{sub 100-x} and CoxPt{sub 100-x} nanoparticles. Adjusting the sublimation temperature of the different precursors allowed tuning the core sizes with small size distribution. In addition, detailed studies of the magnetic properties are presented. AC magnetic heating studies imply the potential of the coated nanoalloys for hyperthermia therapy.

  17. Size and morphology controlled NiSe nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Marakatti, Vijaykumar S. [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Amshumali, Mungalimane K. [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Jnanasagara Campus, Cantonment, Bellary 583105 (India); Loukya, B. [International Center for Materials Science, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Singh, Dheeraj Kumar [Chemistry & Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Datta, Ranjan [International Center for Materials Science, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Facile and efficient ball milling and polyol methods were employed for the synthesis of nickel selenide (NiSe) nanoparticle. The particle size of the NiSe nanoparticle has been controlled mechanically by varying the ball size in the milling process. The role of the surfactants in the formation of various morphologies was studied. The compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The efficiency of the NiSe nanoparticle as a catalyst was tested for the reduction of para-nitroaniline (PNA) to para-phenyldiamine (PPD) and para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP) using NaBH{sub 4} as the reducing agent. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant played a crucial role in the reduction process. - Graphical abstract: NiSe nanoparticles in different size and morphology were synthesized using facile ball milling and polyol methods. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant in these materials played a crucial role in the hydrogenation of PNA and PNP. - Highlights: • NiSe nanoparticles synthesized using ball milling and solution phase methods. • NiSe nanoparticle is an efficient catalyst for the reduction of PNA and PNP. • NiSe is found to be better than the best reported noble metal catalysts.

  18. Size and morphology controlled NiSe nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Marakatti, Vijaykumar S.; Amshumali, Mungalimane K.; Loukya, B.; Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Datta, Ranjan; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-01-01

    Facile and efficient ball milling and polyol methods were employed for the synthesis of nickel selenide (NiSe) nanoparticle. The particle size of the NiSe nanoparticle has been controlled mechanically by varying the ball size in the milling process. The role of the surfactants in the formation of various morphologies was studied. The compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The efficiency of the NiSe nanoparticle as a catalyst was tested for the reduction of para-nitroaniline (PNA) to para-phenyldiamine (PPD) and para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP) using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant played a crucial role in the reduction process. - Graphical abstract: NiSe nanoparticles in different size and morphology were synthesized using facile ball milling and polyol methods. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant in these materials played a crucial role in the hydrogenation of PNA and PNP. - Highlights: • NiSe nanoparticles synthesized using ball milling and solution phase methods. • NiSe nanoparticle is an efficient catalyst for the reduction of PNA and PNP. • NiSe is found to be better than the best reported noble metal catalysts.

  19. Patch size and base composition of ultraviolet light-induced repair synthesis in toluenized Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishai, R; Sharon, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa

    1978-04-15

    Small patch repair in ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli was saturated at deoxynucleoside triphosphate concentrations (approximately 2..mu..M of each dNTP) that are severly limiting for DNA replication. The low requirement of the repair process for dNTPs permitted direct demonstration of u.v.-induced DNA synthesis by incorporation of labelled dNTP and determination of its extent, base composition and patch size. It is concluded that DNA polymerase 1 is involved in small patch repair and that an average of 13 to 16 nucleotides are re-inserted per pyrimidine dimer excised. The average base composition of the repaired stretches adjacent to the dimers is similar to that of total E.coli DNA. An assay utilizing endogenous u.v.-specific endonuclease to determine dimer excision is described.

  20. Control valve sizing and specification: The first step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkins, J.F.; Hoyle, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Today's modern control valve can satisfy almost any application. Special trim, materials, operators, and body configurations have been developed to meet the most severe operating conditions. The missing link in the chain connecting design to application is often the interpretation and communication of the requirements for determining the proper valve for each application. This paper addresses an important but often neglected requirement for proper selection and sizing of control valves: the determination of correct input data. It presents criteria necessary to ensure that the data given the manufacturer accurately reflects the conditions under which the control valve will operate. It highlights the importance of communication between the system design engineer, the valve specifying engineer, and the control valve supplier, to ensure that the final system design meets the true requirements of the application. An example is provided of a simple liquid-handling system, for which line losses and variations in flow and equipment capacities are tabulated and requirements shown graphically on typical control valve characteristic curves. The effects of seemingly harmless, conservative assumptions regarding line losses, equipment capacities and selection, sizing practices, and the selection of various flow data can have on the final valve selection are illustrated. Also discussed is the proper selection of equipment and input data, based on the example

  1. Data Driven Synthesis of Three Term Digital Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Lee H.; Mitra, Sandipan; Bhattacharyya, Shankar P.

    This paper presents a method for digital PID and first order controller synthesis based on frequency domain data alone. The techniques given here first determine all stabilizing controllers from measurement data. In both PID and first order controller cases, the only information required are frequency domain data (Nyquist-Bode data) and the number of open-loop RHP poles. Specifically no identification of the plant model is required. Examples are given for illustration.

  2. Size Tunable Synthesis of Highly Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles using Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo; Maedler, Lutz; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2003-01-01

    Highly crystalline, dense BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a size range from 30 to 360nm with a narrow size distribution (σ g = 1.2-1.4) were prepared at various synthesis temperatures using a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis (SASP) method without the need for post-annealing. The effect of synthesis temperature on particle size, crystallinity and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the crystalline structure was analyzed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size decreased with decreasing operation temperature. The crystal phase was transformed from tetragonal to cubic at a particles size of about 50nm at room temperature. SASP can be used to produce high weight fraction of tetragonal BaTiO 3 nanoparticles down to 64nm in a single step

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Drug Loading of Multiresponsive p[NIPAm-co-PEGMA] (core/p[NIPAm-co-AAc] (Shell Nanogels with Monodisperse Size Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Raju

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and properties of temperature- and pH-responsive p([NIPAm-co-PEGMA] (core/[NIPAm-co-AAc] (shell nanogels with narrow size distributions, tunable sizes and increased drug loading efficiencies. The core-shell nanogels were synthesized using an optimized two-stage seeded polymerization methodology. The core-shell nanogels show a narrow size distribution and controllable physico-chemical properties. The hydrodynamic sizes, charge distributions, temperature-induced volume phase transition behaviors, pH-responsive behaviors and drug loading capabilities of the core-shell nanogels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential measurements, dynamic light scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The size of the core-shell nanogels was controlled by polymerizing NIPAm with crosslinker poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA of different molecular weights (Mn-200, 400, 550 and 750 g/mol during the core synthesis. It was found that the swelling/deswelling kinetics of the nanogels was sharp and reversible; with its volume phase transition temperature in the range of 40–42 °C. Furthermore, the nanogels loaded with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, using a modified breathing-in mechanism, showed high loading and encapsulation efficiencies, providing potential possibilities of such nanogels for biomedical applications.

  4. Control of nanoparticle size, reactivity and magnetic properties during the bioproduction of magnetite by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, J. M.; Telling, N. D.; Coker, V. S.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Laan, G. van der; Arenholz, E.; Tuna, F.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2011-08-02

    The bioproduction of nano-scale magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria offers a potentially tunable, environmentally benign route to magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the size of magnetite nanoparticles produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, by adjusting the total biomass introduced at the start of the process. The particles have a narrow size distribution and can be controlled within the range of 10-50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that controlled production of a number of different biominerals is possible via this method including goethite, magnetite and siderite, but their formation is strongly dependent upon the rate of Fe(III) reduction and total concentration and rate of Fe(II) produced by the bacteria during the reduction process. Relative cation distributions within the structure of the nanoparticles has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and indicates the presence of a highly reduced surface layer which is not observed when magnetite is produced through abiotic methods. The enhanced Fe(II)-rich surface, combined with small particle size, has important environmental applications such as in the reductive bioremediation of organics, radionuclides and metals. In the case of Cr(VI), as a model high-valence toxic metal, optimised biogenic magnetite is able to reduce and sequester the toxic hexavalent chromium very efficiently in the less harmful trivalent form.

  5. Crystal size control of sulfathiazole using high pressure carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, Y.; Masuoka, H.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of the pressurization method of carbon dioxide on the crystallization behavior and crystal size of sulphathiazole (SUT) was investigated. In the "stepwise pressurization" method exceptionally large pillar-like crystals of 2-6 mm were obtained as mainly a scaling on the wall of the crystallizer. In the "rapid pressurization" method, crystals with a size one third to half of that obtained in the stepwise method precipitated, indicating the accelerated nucleation rate by the rapid increase of the supersaturation degree with a vigorous bubbling. With the new method of "two-step pressurization", in the first step the nucleation is accelerated with a much larger pressure instantly created, and in the second step the growth rate is retarded with the lower pressure. By this method much more fine crystals (from a few tens to several hundred micrometers) were produced and the scaling was suppressed. In this method a large supersaturation degree at an interface between the gas (bubble) and liquid phase under a vigorous bubbling may play an important role in accelerating the nucleation. The average size of the crystals tended to become smaller with increase of the first pressure and the expansion ratio at a decompression point, and it tended to get larger with increase of the second pressure. These results show that the GAS method is very useful for the control of crystal size over a wide range.

  6. A microfluidic tubing method and its application for controlled synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Chen, Wenwen; Sun, Jiashu; Liu, Chao; Yin, Qifang; Zhang, Lu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Shi, Xinghua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-05-21

    This report describes a straightforward but robust tubing method for connecting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to external equipment. The interconnection is irreversible and can sustain a pressure of up to 4.5 MPa that is characterized experimentally and theoretically. To demonstrate applications of this high-pressure tubing technique, we fabricate a semicircular microfluidic channel to implement a high-throughput, size-controlled synthesis of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 135 nm in diameter. This microfluidic device allows for a total flow rate of 410 mL h(-1), resulting in enhanced convective mixing which can be utilized to precipitate small size nanoparticles with a good dispersion. We expect that this tubing technique would be widely used in microfluidic chips for nanoparticle synthesis, cell manipulation, and potentially nanofluidic applications.

  7. Continuous Flow Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pulsed Mixing Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs with uniform sizes, fine morphology, and good monodispersity, a pulsed mixing microfluidic system based on PZT actuation was presented. The system includes PZT micropump and Y type micromixer. By adjusting voltage (entrance flow rate, pulsed frequency, phase, and other parameters, a variety of mixing modes can be achieved, so as to realize the controllable synthesis of nanoparticles in a certain range. By numerical simulation and analysis, the channel section size, entrance angle, and pulse frequency were optimized. Based on the optimized structure and working parameters, the test prototype has been manufactured in lab, and the related synthesis tests of AuNPs were carried out. The test results indicate that AuNPs with uniform morphology and good monodispersity can be synthesized using the system with the section size (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm, the entrance channel angle (60° under condition of the pulsed frequency (300 Hz, and the entrance flow rate (4 mL/min. The average diameter and its standard deviation of AuNPs synthesized were 21.6 nm, 4.83 nm, respectively. The research work above can be applied to the fields such as the controlled synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles, biomedicine, and microchemical system.

  8. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  9. Biosynthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: A Fresh Look at the Control of Shape, Size and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Amar Dahoumane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies have been devised for the design of nanomaterials. The “Holy Grail” for materials scientists is the cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of nanomaterials with controlled sizes, shapes and compositions, as these features confer to the as-produced nanocrystals unique properties making them appropriate candidates for valuable bio-applications. The present review summarizes published data regarding the production of nanomaterials with special features via sustainable methodologies based on the utilization of natural bioresources. The richness of the latter, the diversity of the routes adopted and the tuned experimental parameters have led to the fabrication of nanomaterials belonging to different chemical families with appropriate compositions and displaying interesting sizes and shapes. It is expected that these outstanding findings will encourage researchers and attract newcomers to continue and extend the exploration of possibilities offered by nature and the design of innovative and safer methodologies towards the synthesis of unique nanomaterials, possessing desired features and exhibiting valuable properties that can be exploited in a profusion of fields.

  10. Size and shape control in the overgrowth of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratto, Fulvio; Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We report on a new sustainable approach to manipulate the optical behaviour and geometrical properties of gold nanorods in aqueous solutions by fine control of their overgrowth. In our approach, the overgrowth is realized by modulation of the reduction of the gold ions which are left as Au 1+ after the primary step of the synthesis (typically as much as ∼80% of the gold ions available in the growth solution). The progress of the reduction requires the gradual addition of ascorbic acid, which transforms the Au 1+ into Au 0 and may be performed in the original growth solution with no need for any further manipulation. By control of the total amount and rate of administration of the ascorbic acid, we prove the possibility to realize a systematic modulation of the average lengths, diameters, shapes (rod or dog-bone like), and light extinction of the nanoparticles. A slow overgrowth leads to a gradual enlargement of the lengths and diameters at almost constant shape. In contrast, a faster overgrowth results into a more complex modification of the overall shape of the gold nanorods.

  11. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate .... C in mixed solvents of 50 mL ethanol and 30 mL water for different reaction times was characterized by .... Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, Wang J and Lieber C M 2001 Nature 409 66.

  12. Application of flexible multibody modelling for control synthesis in mechatronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; van Dijk, Johannes; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Jonker, Jan B.; Samin, J.C.; Fisette, P.

    2011-01-01

    The models used in the conceptual phase of the mechatronic design should not be too complicated, yet they should capture the dominant system behaviour. This includes the computation of natural frequencies and mode shapes in a relevant frequency range. For the control system synthesis the low

  13. Hydrologic Controls on Shallow Landslide Location, Size, and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, D.; Milledge, D.; Perron, T.; McKean, J. A.; Dietrich, W.; Rulli, M.

    2012-12-01

    Shallow landslides, typically involving just the soil mantle, are principally controlled by topography, soil and root strengths, and soil thickness, and are typically triggered by storm-induced increases in pore water pressure. The response of a landscape to landslide-triggering storms will thus depend on factors such as rainfall totals, storm intensity and duration, and antecedent moisture conditions. The two dominant mechanisms that generate high pore water pressures at a point are topographically-steered lateral subsurface flow (over timescales of days to weeks), and rapid vertical infiltration (over timescales of minutes to hours). We aim to understand the impact of different storm characteristics and hydrologic regimes on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We have developed a regional-scale model, which applies a low-parameter grid-based multi-dimensional slope stability model within a novel search algorithm, to generate discrete landslide predictions. This model shows that the spatial organization of parameters such as root strength and pore water pressure has a strong control on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We apply this model to a field site near Coos Bay, OR, where a ten-year landslide inventory has been mapped onto high-resolution topographic data. Our model predicts landslide size generally increases with increasing rainfall intensity, except when root strength is extremely high and pore pressures are topographically steered. The distribution of topographic index values (the ratios of contributing area to slope) of predicted landslides is a clear signature of the pore water pressure generation mechanism: as laterally dominated flow increases, landslides develop in locations with lower slopes and higher contributing areas; in contrast, in the case of vertically-dominated pore pressure rise, landslides are consistently found in locations with higher slopes and lower contributing areas. While in both cases landslides are found in

  14. Control of beam size and polarization time in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wiedemann, H.

    1975-07-01

    In this report we describe a method of controlling beam size in which the focusing functions are not altered with beam energy but the curvature function is drastically altered in a few locations which comprise only a very small fraction of the circumference. As will be described in the following paper we are proposing to control the quantum excitation and radiation damping of the particles by means of special excitation magnets or /open quotes/wigglers/close quotes/. Since the mean square energy deviation and radial beam emittance are proportional approximately to E/sup 2//l angle/G/sup 3//r angle//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle//sup /minus/1 while the damping times are proportional to (E/sup 3//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle/)/sup /minus/1/, it is possible to achieve constant beam size in a constant focusing configuration while the damping times vary roughly as E/sup /minus/2/. In addition, it is possible to reduce the beam polarization time with these devices. A scheme for beam-size and damping control based on the same principle was described by M. Bassetti about a year ago, in which all of the storage-ring bending magnets were involved as wigglers, and a substantial increase in magnet cost resulted. The consequences for polarization times were not explored. The design formulae are derived and two specific applications to the PEP design in which the wigglers are installed in three of the six 5-m straight sections are described with attention given to practical magnet design, synchrotron radiation handling and other matters. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl4 by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of 20 and 120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4-8 and 10-30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  16. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae, E-mail: nicolae.leopold@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2014-12-15

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of ∼20 and ∼120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4–8 and 10–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  17. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  18. Converting a Natural Protein Compartment into a Nanofactory for the Size-Constrained Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessen, Tobias W; Silver, Pamela A

    2016-12-16

    Engineered biological systems are used extensively for the production of high value and commodity organics. On the other hand, most inorganic nanomaterials are still synthesized via chemical routes. By engineering cellular compartments, functional nanoarchitectures can be produced under environmentally sustainable conditions. Encapsulins are a new class of microbial nanocompartments with promising applications in nanobiotechnology. Here, we engineer the Thermotoga maritima encapsulin EncTm to yield a designed compartment for the size-constrained synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). These Ag NPs exhibit uniform shape and size distributions as well as long-term stability. Ambient aqueous conditions can be used for Ag NP synthesis, while no reducing agents or solvents need to be added. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized protein-coated or shell-free Ag NPs is superior to that of silver nitrate and citrate-capped Ag NPs. This study establishes encapsulins as an engineerable platform for the synthesis of biogenic functional nanomaterials.

  19. Controlled synthesis and characterization of hollow flower-like silver nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid KAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kamel AM Eid, Hassan ME AzzazyNovel Diagnostics and Therapeutics Group, Yousef Jameel Science and Technology Research Center, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, EgyptBackground: The synthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles is a time-consuming process and involves the use of expensive toxic chemicals and specialized laboratory equipment. The presence of toxic chemicals in the prepared anisotropic silver nanostructures hindered their medical application. The authors have developed a fast and inexpensive method for the synthesis of three-dimensional hollow flower-like silver nanostructures without the use of toxic chemicals.Methods: In this method, silver nitrate was reduced using dextrose in presence of trisodium citrate as a capping agent. Sodium hydroxide was added to enhance reduction efficacy of dextrose and reduce time of synthesis. The effects of all four agents on the shape and size of silver nanostructures were investigated.Results: Robust hollow flower-like silver nanostructures were successfully synthesized and ranged in size from 0.2 µm to 5.0 µm with surface area between 25–240 m2/g. Changing the concentration of silver nitrate, dextrose, sodium hydroxide, and trisodium citrate affected the size and shape of the synthesized structures, while changing temperature had no effect.Conclusion: The proposed method is simple, safe, and allows controlled synthesis of anisotropic silver nanostructures, which may represent promising tools as effective antimicrobial agents and for in vitro diagnostics. The synthesized hollow nanostructures may be used for enhanced drug encapsulation and sustained release.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, 3D hollow, flower-like, green synthesis

  20. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  1. Synthesis of nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders through solution combustion route under different reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samir Kumar; Roy, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAp) was synthesized by combustion in the aqueous system containing calcium nitrate-diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate with urea and glycine as fuels. These ceramics are important materials for biomedical applications. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis were employed to understand the nature of synthesis process during combustion. Effects of different process parameters namely, nature of fuel (urea and glycine), fuel to oxidizer ratio (0.6-4.0) and initial furnace temperature (300-700 o C) on the combustion behavior as well as physical properties of as-formed powders were investigated. A series of combustion reactions were carried out to optimize the reaction parameters for synthesis of nano-sized HAp powders. The combustion temperature (T f ) for the oxidant and fuels were calculated to be 896 deg. C and 1035 deg. C for the stoichiometric system of urea and glycine respectively. The stoichiometric glycine-calcium nitrate produced higher flame temperature (both calculated and measured) and powder with lower specific surface area (8.75 m 2 /g) compared to the stoichiometric urea-calcium nitrate system (10.50 m 2 /g). Fuel excess combustion in both glycine and urea produced powders with higher surface area. Nanocrystalline HAp powder could be synthesized in situ with a large span of fuel to oxidizer ratio (φ) in case of urea system (0.8 < φ < 4) and (0.6 < φ < 1.5) for the glycine system. Calcium hydroxyapatite particles having diameters ranging between 20 nm and 120 nm could be successfully synthesized through optimized process variable.

  2. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles: the Influence of synthesis method and size on composition and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.D.; Henriques, F.; Ferreira, L.P.; Godinho, M.; Cruz, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles with mean diameter ranging from 7 to 20 nm were synthesized using two routes: the precipitation method in controlled atmosphere and a reduction–precipitation method under air, in some cases followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by the reduction–precipitation method. In order to establish the composition of the iron oxide nanoparticles and its relation with size, the morphological, structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. The results allow to conclude that the nanoparticles can be essentially described as Fe 3−x O 4 , x decreasing with the particle size increase. The composition and magnetic behavior of the synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles are directly related with their size. The overall results are compatible with a core@shell structure model, where a magnetite core is surrounded by an oxidized magnetite layer (labeled as maghemite), the magnetite core dimension depending on the average particle size. - Graphical abstract: TEM images and Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra of Fe 3−x O 4 samples with different sizes. Highlights: ► Fe 3−x O 4 nanoparticles with a mean size between 7 and 20 nm were synthesized. ► The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by a reduction precipitation method, under air. ► The increase of particles size was succeeded using a hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. ► The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are directly related with their size

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPb m SbTe m+2 ), LASTT-m-x (AgPb m-x Sn x SbTe m+2 ), LABST-m-x (AgPb m Sb 1-x Bi x Te m+2 ), doped LAST-m and (PbTe) m (M 15 2 Te 3 ) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic

  6. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-07

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale. In this work we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size using in situ liquid-stage scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and demonstrate a match between the reaction kinetics and products of the radiolytic and chemical syntheses of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles. We quantify the effect of electron dose on the nucleation kinetics, and compare these results with in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments investigating the effect of temperature during chemical synthesis. This work introduces methods for precise control of nanoparticle synthesis in the STEM and provides a means to uncover the fundamental processes behind the size and shape stabilization of nanoparticles.

  7. Controller synthesis for negative imaginary systems: a data driven approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    The negative imaginary (NI) property occurs in many important applications. For instance, flexible structure systems with collocated force actuators and position sensors can be modelled as negative imaginary systems. In this study, a data-driven controller synthesis methodology for NI systems is presented. In this approach, measured frequency response data of the plant is used to construct the controller frequency response at every frequency by minimising a cost function. Then, this controller response is used to identify the controller transfer function using system identification methods. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.

  8. Synthesis of observer furnace temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Жученко, А. І.; Цапар, В. С.

    2015-01-01

    В даній роботі проведено синтез спостерігачів стану температурного режиму скловарної печі на базі різних модифікацій фільтра Калмана. Проведено імітаційне моделювання роботи скловарної печі із синтезованими спостерігачами. Досліджено результати моделювання та зроблено висновки щодо доцільності використання даних спостерігачів при різних видах збурень. Показано, що найкраще працює модифікований фільтр Калмана з фільтрами шумів, що діють на стан об’єкту. The synthesis of observer status furn...

  9. Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, S; Zeng, X H; Plain, J; Royer, P; Bachelot, R; Akil, S [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, ICD CNRS FRE 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Balan, L; Lougnot, D J; Soppera, O; Vidal, L, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Science des Materiaux de Mulhouse CNRS LRC 7228, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2010-03-05

    The present paper reports on the spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver nanowires by photosensitized reduction. In a first approach, direct photogeneration of silver NPs at the end of an optical fiber was carried out. Control of both size and density of silver NPs was possible by changing the photonic conditions. In a further development, a photochemically assisted procedure allowing silver to be deposited at the surface of a polymer microtip was implemented. Finally, polymer tips terminated by silver nanowires were fabricated by simultaneous photopolymerization and silver photoreduction. The silver NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Automatic synthesis of sequential control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.

    1993-01-01

    Of all hard- and software developed for industrial control purposes, the majority is devoted to sequential, or binary valued, control and only a minor part to classical linear control. Typically, the sequential parts of the controller are invoked during startup and shut-down to bring the system into its normal operating region and into some safe standby region, respectively. Despite its importance, fairly little theoretical research has been devoted to this area, and sequential control programs are therefore still created manually without much theoretical support to obtain a systematic approach. We propose a method to create sequential control programs automatically. The main ideas is to spend some effort off-line modelling the plant, and from this model generate the control strategy, that is the plan. The plant is modelled using action structures, thereby concentrating on the actions instead of the states of the plant. In general the planning problem shows exponential complexity in the number of state variables. However, by focusing on the actions, we can identify problem classes as well as algorithms such that the planning complexity is reduced to polynomial complexity. We prove that these algorithms are sound, i.e., the generated solution will solve the stated problem, and complete, i.e., if the algorithms fail, then no solution exists. The algorithms generate a plan as a set of actions and a partial order on this set specifying the execution order. The generated plant is proven to be minimal and maximally parallel. For a larger class of problems we propose a method to split the original problem into a number of simple problems that can each be solved using one of the presented algorithms. It is also shown how a plan can be translated into a GRAFCET chart, and to illustrate these ideas we have implemented a planing tool, i.e., a system that is able to automatically create control schemes. Such a tool can of course also be used on-line if it is fast enough. This

  11. Shape-and size-controlled Ag nanoparticles stabilized by in situ generated secondary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Meneses, E., E-mail: esther.ramirez@ibero.mx [Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Distrito Federal C.P. 01219 (Mexico); Montiel-Palma, V. [Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001 Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62209 (Mexico); Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Izaguirre-López, M.G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada-IPN, Unidad Altamira. Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Palacios-Gonzalez, E. [Laboratorio de Microscopia de Ultra alta Resolución, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas No. 152, C.P. 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Dorantes-Rosales, H. [Departamento de Metalurgia, E.S.I.Q.I.E.-I.P.N., Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, Delegación. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were generated from Ag amido complexes AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. • Ag nanoparticles were stabilized by in situ generated HN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} or HN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. • 1 or 5 equiv. of ethylenediamine as additional capping agent decreases the average size of the particles. • Ethylenediamine favor the formation of spherical particles. - Abstract: Silver amides such as AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2} have been employed successfully as precursors for the yield synthesis of silver nanoparticles under mild conditions of dihydrogen gas reduction (2 atm) in organic media. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with FCC structure, variously sized from 26 to 35 nm for AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and from 14 to 86 nm for AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, the synthesis could take place in absence of added stabilizers due to the in situ formation of secondary amines from the reaction of dihydrogen gas with the amide ligands of the silver precursor. Indeed, the presence of HNR{sub 2} (R = iPr{sub 2}, N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}) on the surface of the nanoparticle was confirmed by spectroscopic means. Finally, the addition of ethylenediamine as additional capping agent allowed not only the control of the structural characteristics of the resulting Ag nanoparticles (well-dispersed with spherical shape), but that regarding the nanoparticle size as it inhibited overgrowth, limiting it to ca. 25 nm.

  12. Controlled synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vanadium oxides (V3O7·H2O and VO2) with different morphologies have been selectively synthesized ... appeared at around 68 ◦C. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of V3O7·H2O nanobelts, VO2(B) .... morphologies of shape-controlled orthorhombic V3O7·H2O ..... condition, as shown in figures S14i and j.

  13. Electrospray synthesis and properties of hierarchically structured PLGA TIPS microspheres for use as controlled release technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Salman A; Ng, Wing H; Bowen, James; Tang, Justin; Gomez, Alessandro; Kenyon, Anthony J; Day, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    Microsphere-based controlled release technologies have been utilized for the long-term delivery of proteins, peptides and antibiotics, although their synthesis poses substantial challenges owing to formulation complexities, lack of scalability, and cost. To address these shortcomings, we used the electrospray process as a reproducible, synthesis technique to manufacture highly porous (>94%) microspheres while maintaining control over particle structure and size. Here we report a successful formulation recipe used to generate spherical poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres using the electrospray (ES) coupled with a novel thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) process with a tailored Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) collection scheme. We show how size, shape and porosity of resulting microspheres can be controlled by judiciously varying electrospray processing parameters and we demonstrate examples in which the particle size (and porosity) affect release kinetics. The effect of electrospray treatment on the particles and their physicochemical properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The microspheres manufactured here have successfully demonstrated long-term delivery (i.e. 1week) of an active agent, enabling sustained release of a dye with minimal physical degradation and have verified the potential of scalable electrospray technologies for an innovative TIPS-based microsphere production protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surfactant effects in magnetite nanoparticles of controlled size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia, P.; Batlle-Brugal, B.; Roca, A.G.; Iglesias, O.; Morales, M.P.; Serna, C.J.; Labarta, A.; Batlle, X.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles of controlled size within 6 and 20 nm in diameter were synthesised by thermal decomposition of an iron organic precursor in an organic medium. Particles were coated with oleic acid. For all samples studied, saturation magnetisation M s is size-independent, and reaches a value close to that expected for bulk magnetite, in contrast to results in small particle systems for which M s is usually much smaller due to surface spin disorder. The coercive field for the 6 nm particles is in agreement with coherent rotation, taking the bulk magnetocrystalline anisotropy into account. Both results suggest that the oleic acid molecules covalently bonded to the nanoparticle surface yield a strong reduction in the surface spin disorder. However, although the saturated state may be similar, the approach to saturation is different and, in particular, the high-field differential susceptibility is one order of magnitude larger than in bulk materials. The relevance of these results in biomedical applications is discussed

  15. Phase and Frequency Control of Laser Arrays for Pulse Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    SUBTITLE Phase and Frequency Control of Laser Arrays for Pulse Synthesis 875 North Randolph Street Arlington VA 22203-1768 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Hachtel, M. Gillette, J. Barkeloo, E. Clements, S. Bali , B. Unks, N. Proite, D. Yavuz, P. Martin, J. Thorn, and D. Steck, Am. J. Phys., 82, 805 (2014...Opt. 37, 4871-4875 (1998). 17. J. Kangara, A. Hachtel, M. Gillette, J. Barkeloo, E. Clements, S. Bali , B. Unks, N. Proite, D. Yavuz, P. Martin, J

  16. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha, E-mail: manjupattabi@yahoo.com; M, Krishnaprabha [Department of Materials Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl{sub 4}). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  17. Synthesis of relay control systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The problem on stabilizing an oscillatory-unstable reactor by a single-link relay system, the characteristics whereof have a dead zone and hysteresis loop, is considered. The methodology of synthesis of feedback law, providing for stochastic steady-state mode of reactor operation with the minimum frequency of control impact introduction is proposed. This methodology is applicable to general-type relay systems with arbitrary oscillatory-unstable objects. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Magnetophoresis behaviour at low gradient magnetic field and size control of nickel single core nanobeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelmekki, M., E-mail: benelmekki@fisica.uminho.p [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Montras, A. [Sepmag Tecnologies, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, A.J.; Coutinho, P.J.G. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Martinez, Ll.M. [Sepmag Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Magnetic separation of organic compounds, proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules, and cells from complex reaction mixtures is becoming the most suitable solution for large production in bioindustrial purification and extraction processes. Optimal magnetic properties can be achieved by the use of metals. However, they are extremely sensitive to oxidation and degradation under atmospheric conditions. In this work Ni nanoparticles are synthesised by conventional solution reduction process with the addition of a non-ionic surfactant as a surface agent. The nanoparticles were surfacted in citric acid and then coated with silica to form single core Ni nanobeads. A magnetophoresis study at different magnetic field gradients and at the different steps of synthesis route was performed using Horizontal Low Gradient Magnetic Field (HLGMF) systems. The reversible aggregation times are reduced to a few seconds, allowing a very fast separation process. - Research highlights: Monodispersed single core Ni-silica core-shell structures were prepared. Control of Ni nanoparticles size was achieved using a non-ionic surfactant. Magnetophoresis at different magnetic field gradients was monitored. Magnetophoresis at different steps of synthesis route was performed. Attractive magnetic interactions overcome electrostatic repulsions.

  19. Spectra study and size control of cobalt nanoparticles passivated with oleic acid and triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yikun; Ouyang Xing; Tang Jiaoning

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of two surfactants-triphenylphosphine (TPP) and oleic acid (OA) as a pair of capping agents in the synthesis of magnetic Co nanoparticles (NPs). Magnetic colloids of cobalt NPs are prepared by reducing solute cobalt chloride in the presence of stabilizing agents at a high temperature and characterized by TEM. Infrared spectra reveal that a chemical bond can be formed between O of C=O band and Co atoms while a coordinate bond forms between P and Co atoms around the NPs on the surface. OA binds strongly to the particle surface during synthesis that hinders the particle from growing; the TPP reversibly coordinates neutral metal surface sites that favor rapid growth. We studied the influence of changing the TPP/OA concentration ratio on the particle size distribution and crystallinity of Co NPs. Our results indicate the presence of TPP/OA is able to control particle growth, stabilize the colloidal suspension and prevent the final product from oxidation by air.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH VARIABLE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Change. Also the object as a result of an adverse effect is considered. The formal problem definition of synthesis of hardy management system is considered. Model choice criteria ensemble is set. The rule of choice algorithm implementation on the basis of different reference functions is provided. The conclusion is drawn that in case of preliminary processing of the available prior data it is possible to select reference functions correctly which reflect physical processes more precisely. The mathematical description of a dynamic object on the basis of a differential equation, or its decision is provided. Defini- tion of function of a trend is given. Criteria for selection of model of damage are given. The recommendation of modifica- tion of Demark trends algorithm by means of the sliding Yazvinsky's window and a method of self-organization for in- crease of accuracy of creation of a predictive model of damage is made. It is offered to realize a model choice by means of more complex logical analysis of an observed vector in the appropriate situation. Logic-functional control task definition is given and approach to its decision is formulated. The conclusion about what the task of synthesis management system con- sists of is given. This article describes the method of synthesis of control system with variable structure provides increasing survivability control system in a significant change of the external environment, as well as the object itself from the adverse impacts.

  1. Combustion synthesis of micron-sized Sm2Co17 particles via mechanochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; McCormick, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The spontaneous formation of Sm 2 Co 17 micron-sized particles via a mechanically induced combustion reaction has been investigated. Sm 2 Co 17 alloy particles of 0.1--2 μm in size embedded in a CaO matrix formed directly via a combustion reaction induced by milling the powder mixture of Sm 2 O 3 , CoO, CaO and Ca over a critical time. The micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles were found to have the TbCu 7 -type structure and characterized by a coercivity value of 7.8 kOe while embedded in the CaO matrix. The effect of subsequent heat treatment on the structure and magnetic properties of as-milled samples was also investigated. Removal of the CaO by a carefully controlled washing process yielded micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles without significant oxidation of the particles. These fine Sm 2 Co 17 particles can be used to produce anisotropic bulk or bonded magnets

  2. Synthesis of optimal digital controller of flocculant dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pismenskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of automatic process control of the slime water thickening and flotation tailings clarification is the stabilization of thicken product density within the given range and keeping up the solids content in the overflow not above the permissible level with minimum use of the flocculants. In existing systems for automatic control the flocculant dosing is carried out according to the solids content in the device input (the principle of open-loop control. This leads to the excess consumption of the flocculants and increase the dispersion density of the overflow. To perform the synthesis of the optimal digital controller in order to minimize the deviations from the master control and ensure the specified quality of the transition process. Over controlling value should not exceed 5 %. To perform the system operation modeling in order to determine the quality of transient processes. Methodology. Synthesis of the optimal digital controller is based on the method of dynamic programming. Findings. A mathematical model of the object control is represented in the normal form of Cauchy and further in the form of differential equations. The optimum period of quantization as the function from specified error of control and the output coordinate change is calculated. The differential equation of Bellman is obtained and the condition for minimization of the quality functional. Bellman function is represented as a quadratic form from the variables of the system condition. In order to limit possible control, the weight coefficients of the functional are calculated based on maximum permitted values of the system condition variables and the control actions during the transient process. Practical value. Using the modeling of ACS of the flocculant dosing it was established that the over controlling amount is 3.5%, the transient process life 5.6 sec, the transient process is aperiodical, non-static control, which meets the requirements imposed on the

  3. Synthesis of a Controller for Swarming Robots Performing Underwater Mine Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    This Trident Scholar project involved the synthesis of a swarm controller that is suitable for controlling movements of a group of autonomous robots performing underwater mine countermeasures (UMCM...

  4. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R; Al Hasan, Naila; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2016-02-16

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale, such as catalytic activity. In this work, we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size in the sub-3 nm range using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with an in situ liquid stage. We use an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) as a solvent that is very resistant to high-energy electron irradiation, which creates a net reducing environment without the need for additives to scavenge oxidizing radicals. The primary reducing species is molecular hydrogen, which is a widely used reductant in the synthesis of supported metal catalysts. We propose a mechanism of particle formation based on the effect of tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) on size stabilization, relatively low production of radicals, and autocatalytic reduction of Pd(II) compounds. We combine in situ STEM results with insights from in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from alcohol-based synthesis, having similar reduction potential, in a customized microfluidic device as well as ex situ bulk experiments. This has allowed us to develop a fundamental growth model for the synthesis of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles and demonstrate the utility of correlating different in situ and ex situ characterization techniques to understand, and ultimately control, metal nanostructure synthesis.

  5. Colloidal nanoparticle size control: experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of the ligand-metal binding role in controlling the nucleation and growth kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Li, Wenhui; Thompson, Coogan; Ivanov, Sergei; Seifert, Soenke; Lee, Byeongdu; Kovarik, Libor; Karim, Ayman M

    2017-09-21

    Despite the major advancements in colloidal metal nanoparticles synthesis, a quantitative mechanistic treatment of the ligand's role in controlling their size remains elusive. We report a methodology that combines in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and kinetic modeling to quantitatively capture the role of ligand-metal binding (with the metal precursor and the nanoparticle surface) in controlling the synthesis kinetics. We demonstrate that accurate extraction of the kinetic rate constants requires using both, the size and number of particles obtained from in situ SAXS to decouple the contributions of particle nucleation and growth to the total metal reduction. Using Pd acetate and trioctylphosphine in different solvents, our results reveal that the binding of ligands with both the metal precursor and nanoparticle surface play a key role in controlling the rates of nucleation and growth and consequently the final size. We show that the solvent can affect the metal-ligand binding and consequently ligand coverage on the nanoparticles surface which has a strong effect on the growth rate and final size (1.4 nm in toluene and 4.3 nm in pyridine). The proposed kinetic model quantitatively predicts the effects of varying the metal concentration and ligand/metal ratio on nanoparticle size for our work and literature reports. More importantly, we demonstrate that the final size is exclusively determined by the nucleation and growth kinetics at early times and not how they change with time. Specifically, the nanoparticle size in this work and many literature reports can be predicted using a single, model independent kinetic descriptor, (growth-to-nucleation rate ratio) 1/3 , despite the different metals and synthetic conditions. The proposed model and kinetic descriptor could serve as powerful tools for the design of colloidal nanoparticles with specific sizes.

  6. Control of melanin synthesis during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidson, S H

    1985-01-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms that control the synthesis of pigment during Xenopus laevis oogenesis. In this study, in vitro and in vivo assays indicate that the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, the only enzyme necessary for the synthesis of pigment also reaches a peak during mid-oogenesis. The isotopes carbon 14, tritium, phosphorus 32 and sulfur 35 are used in this experiments. Furthermore, in vitro tyrosinase assays of polysomes isolated from different stage oocytes show that the rise in tyrosinase activity during mid-oogenesis is accompanied by a rise in polysomes synthesizing tyrosinase. This suggests that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis. It was also established that oocyte tyrosinase is synthesized as a 32 kd polypeptide and is processed intra-melanosomally into a 120-130 kd tetramer. It is this form that is catalytically active in vivo. Oocyte tyrosinase does not require post-translational protease activation. To investigate the hypothesis that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis, the accumulation of messenger RNA coding for tyrosinase was measured at different stages of oogenesis using a tyrosinase cDNA probe. The preparation of the tyrosinase cDNA probe required the purification of tyrosinase mRNA. This was achieved by a technique based on affinity chromatography of polysomes. This enriched 'tyrosinase mRNA' translated in vitro into two major proteins of 32 kd and 20 kd. The mRNA microinjected into Xenopus oocytes is translated into active tyrosinase. Hybridization of the tyrosinase cDNA probe to dot blots of oocyte mRNA suggested that tyrosinase mRNA accumulation reaches a peak just before maximal tyrosinase synthesis. The absence of tyrosinase mRNA late in oogenesis suggests that this message is not synthesized at this stage. These results are interpreted in terms of the functional significance of lampbrush chromosomes.

  7. The CANopen Controller IP Core: Implementation, Synthesis and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, Maurizio; Bolognino, Luca; Montagna, Mario; Tosi, Pietro; Errico, Walter; Bigongiari, Franco; Furano, Gianluca

    2011-08-01

    This paper will describe the implementation and test results of the CANopen Controller IP Core (CCIPC) implemented by Thales Alenia Space and SITAEL Aerospace with the support of ESA in the frame of the EXOMARS Project. The CCIPC is a configurable VHDL implementation of the CANOPEN protocol [1]; it is foreseen to be used as CAN bus slave controller within the EXOMARS Entry Descending and Landing Demonstrato Module (EDM) and Rover Module. The CCIPC features, configuration capability, synthesis and test results will be described and the evidence of the state of maturity of this innovative IP core will be demonstrated.

  8. The size control of silver nanocrystals with different polyols and its application to low-reflection coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keum Hwan; Park, O Ok [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sang Hyuk, E-mail: imromy@krict.re.kr, E-mail: ookpark@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 19 Singsungno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-28

    The size of silver nanocrystals in polyol synthesis can be simply controlled by tuning the viscosity of the reaction medium such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol. We found that a higher viscose medium (1,5-pentanediol) led to monodispersed smaller particles thanks to the slow addition of silver atoms into the nuclei. Size-controlled silver nanocrystals of 30 nm were obtained in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol to synthesize a low refractive index filler by coating with silica and subsequent etching of the silver core. The coated low-reflection layer from the hollow silica nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film can greatly reduce the reflection of the PET film from 10% to 2% over the entire visible region.

  9. A micro-controller based palm-size radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2001-01-01

    A micro-controller based, palm-size radiation monitor, PALMRAD, using a silicon P-N junction diode as a detector has been developed. It is useful for radiation protection monitoring during radiation emergency as well as radioactive source loading operations. Some of the features of PALMRAD developed are the use of a semiconductor diode as the detector, simultaneous display of integrated dose and dose rate on a 16-digit alpha numeric LCD display, measurable integrated dose range from 1 μSv to 5000 μSv and dose rate range from 1 mSv/h to 1,000 mSv/h, RS 232C serial interface for connection to a Personal Computer,-storage of integrated dose and dose rate readings, recall of stored readings on LCD display, presentable integrated dose alarm from 1 μSv to 5000 μSv and dose rate from 1 mSv/h to 1,000 mSv/h, battery status and memory status check during measurement, LCD display with LED back-lighting, etc. (author)

  10. Tidal controls on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, S.; Yabe, S.; Tanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes is a long-standing issue in seismology. Except in some special cases, a causal relationship between seismicity and the phase of tidal stress has been rejected on the basis of studies using many small events. However, recently discovered deep tectonic tremors are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with the relationship being governed by a nonlinear law according to which the tremor rate increases exponentially with increasing stress; thus, slow deformation (and the probability of earthquakes) may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here, we show the influence of tidal stress on seismicity by calculating histories of tidal shear stress during the 2-week period before earthquakes. Very large earthquakes tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress, but this tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. Rather, we found that tidal stress controls the earthquake size-frequency statistics; i.e., the fraction of large events increases (i.e. the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the tidal shear stress increases. This correlation is apparent in data from the global catalog and in relatively homogeneous regional catalogues of earthquakes in Japan. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. Our findings indicate that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. This finding has clear implications for probabilistic earthquake forecasting.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of surface-modified nano-sized core/shell tin particles for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Meyer, Hinrich-Wilhelm; Placke, Tobias; Winter, Martin; Oehl, Nikolas; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Tin is able to lithiate and delithiate reversibly with a high theoretical specific capacity, which makes it a promising candidate to supersede graphite as the state-of-the-art negative electrode material in lithium ion battery technology. Nevertheless, it still suffers from poor cycling stability and high irreversible capacities. In this contribution, we show the synthesis of three different nano-sized core/shell-type particles with crystalline tin cores and different amorphous surface shells consisting of SnO x and organic polymers. The spherical size and the surface shell can be tailored by adjusting the synthesis temperature and the polymer reagents in the synthesis, respectively. We determine the influence of the surface modifications with respect to the electrochemical performance and characterize the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nano-sized tin particles by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical performance is investigated by constant current charge/discharge cycling as well as cyclic voltammetry. (paper)

  12. What factors control the size of an eruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    For human society, eruption sizes (eruptive volumes or masses) are of the greatest concern. In particular, the largest eruptions, producing volumes of the order of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometres, provide, together with meteoritic impacts, the greatest natural threats to mankind. Eruptive volumes tend to follow power laws so that most eruptions are comparatively small whereas a few are very large. It follows that a while during most ruptures of the source chambers a small fraction of the magma leaves the chamber, in some ruptures a very large fraction of the magma leaves the chamber. Most explosive eruptions larger than about 25 km3 are associated with caldera collapse. In the standard 'underpressure' ('lack of magmatic support') model, however, the collapse is the consequence, not the cause, of the large eruption. For poroelastic models, typically less than 4% of the magma in a felsic chamber and less than 0.1% of the magma in a mafic chamber leaves the chamber during rupture (and eventual eruption). In some caldera models, however, 20-70% of the magma is supposed to leave the chamber before the ring-fault forms and the caldera block begins to subside. In these models any amount of magma can flow out of the chamber following its rupture and there is apparently no way to forecast either the volume of magma injected from the chamber (hence the potential size of an eventual eruption) or the conditions for caldera collapse. An alternative model is proposed here. In this model normal (small) eruptions are controlled by standard poroelastity behaviour of the chamber, whereas large eruptions are controlled by chamber-volume reduction or shrinkage primarily through caldera/graben block subsidence into the chamber. Volcanotectonic stresses are then a major cause of ring-fault/graben boundary-fault formation. When large slips occur on these faults, the subsiding crustal block reduces the volume of the underlying chamber/reservoir, thereby maintaining its excess

  13. Highly uniform up-converting nanoparticles: Why you should control your synthesis even more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, Emilia; Tuomisto, Minnea; Hyppänen, Iko; Swart, Hendrik C.; Hölsä, Jorma; Soukka, Tero; Lastusaari, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent β-NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ (x Yb : 0.17, x Er : 0.03) nanomaterials were synthesized for use as labels for biomedical applications with high temperature co-precipitation synthesis in 1-octadecene and oleic acid. The effect of the synthesis conditions (e.g. argon flow, cooling and stirring rates) on the products’ up-conversion luminescence intensity, particle size and morphology were studied. The factors contributing to these properties were analysed. It was observed that an efficient inert gas flow is essential to the formation of the preferred highly-luminescent hexagonal structure. Furthermore, the flow rate, together with the stirring rate, crucially affect the Er:Yb molar ratio of the products. The optimization of this ratio is essential when strong up-conversion emission is required from small particles, whereas the morphology and uniformity of the nanoparticles can be controlled with the cooling rate. These results emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis conditions, especially when nanoparticles need to have a specific morphology because of their use e.g. as luminescent labels in medical diagnostics.

  14. Highly uniform up-converting nanoparticles: Why you should control your synthesis even more

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palo, Emilia, E-mail: ekharj@utu.fi [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); University of Turku Graduate School (UTUGS), Doctoral Programme in Physical and Chemical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Tuomisto, Minnea [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); University of Turku Graduate School (UTUGS), Doctoral Programme in Physical and Chemical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Hyppänen, Iko [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Swart, Hendrik C.; Hölsä, Jorma [University of the Free State, Department of Physics, Bloemfontein ZA-9300 (South Africa); Soukka, Tero [University of Turku, Department of Biochemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Lastusaari, Mika [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland)

    2017-05-15

    Luminescent β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} (x{sub Yb}: 0.17, x{sub Er}: 0.03) nanomaterials were synthesized for use as labels for biomedical applications with high temperature co-precipitation synthesis in 1-octadecene and oleic acid. The effect of the synthesis conditions (e.g. argon flow, cooling and stirring rates) on the products’ up-conversion luminescence intensity, particle size and morphology were studied. The factors contributing to these properties were analysed. It was observed that an efficient inert gas flow is essential to the formation of the preferred highly-luminescent hexagonal structure. Furthermore, the flow rate, together with the stirring rate, crucially affect the Er:Yb molar ratio of the products. The optimization of this ratio is essential when strong up-conversion emission is required from small particles, whereas the morphology and uniformity of the nanoparticles can be controlled with the cooling rate. These results emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis conditions, especially when nanoparticles need to have a specific morphology because of their use e.g. as luminescent labels in medical diagnostics.

  15. Synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals via controlled overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungkwon; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yu, Taekyung; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia, Younan

    2010-03-03

    This paper describes the synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals with controlled morphologies via a one-step seeded-growth method. Two different reducing agents, namely, L-ascorbic acid and citric acid, were utilized for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in an aqueous solution to control the overgrowth of Au on cubic Pd seeds. When L-ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent, conformal overgrowth of Au on the Pd nanocubes led to the formation of Pd-Au nanocrystals with a core-shell structure. On the contrary, localized overgrowth of Au was observed when citric acid was used as the reducing agent, producing Pd-Au bimetallic dimers. Through this morphological control, we were able to tune the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks of Pd-Au bimetallic nanostructures in the visible region.

  16. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Study their Particle Size at Different Current Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzan A. Omar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by electrochemical reduction method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as structure directing agent in an organic medium viz. tetrahydrofuran (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density and molar concentration of the ligand. The reduction process takes place under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles are prepared by using a simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode as a commercially available in tin metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet act as a cathode. The parameters such as current density, solvent polarity, distance between electrodes and concentration of stabilizers are used to control the size of nanoparticles. The synthesized tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by using UV–Visible, FT-IR and SEM–EDS analysis techniques. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed the optical band gap to be 4.13, 4.16 and 4.24 ev for (8, 10 and 12 mA/cm2 and the effect of current density on theirs particle size, respectively.

  17. Au@Ag Core-Shell Nanocubes with Finely Tuned and Well-Controlled Sizes, Shell Thicknesses, and Optical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yanyun; Li, Weiyang; Cho, Eun Chul; Li, Zhiyuan; Yu, Taekyung; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Xia, Younan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a facile method for generating Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with edge lengths controllable in the range of 13.4 to 50 nm. The synthesis involved the use of single-crystal, spherical Au nanocrystals of 11 nm in size as the seeds in an aqueous system, with ascorbic acid serving as the reductant and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the capping agent. The thickness of the Ag shells could be finely tuned from 1.2 to 20 nm by varying the ratio of AgNO3 precursor to Au se...

  18. Sample size optimization in nuclear material control. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladitz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Equations have been derived and exemplified which allow the determination of the minimum variables sample size for given false alarm and detection probabilities of nuclear material losses and diversions, respectively. (author)

  19. Aerobic method for the synthesis of nearly size-monodisperse bismuth nanoparticles from a redox non-innocent precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Christopher-Allison, E.; Brown, A. L.; Goforth, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we report an aerobic synthesis method to produce bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) with average diameters in the range 40-80 nm using commercially available bismuth triiodide (BiI3) as the starting material; the method uses only readily available chemicals and conventional laboratory equipment. Furthermore, size data from replicates of the synthesis under standard reaction conditions indicate that this method is highly reproducible in achieving Bi NP populations with low standard deviations in the mean diameters. We also investigated the mechanism of the reaction, which we determined results from the reduction of a soluble alkylammonium iodobismuthate precursor species formed in situ. Under appropriate concentration conditions of iodobismuthate anion, we demonstrate that burst nucleation of Bi NPs results from reduction of Bi3+ by the coordinated, redox non-innocent iodide ligands when a threshold temperature is exceeded. Finally, we demonstrate phase transfer and silica coating of the Bi NPs, which results in stable aqueous colloids with retention of size, morphology, and colloidal stability. The resultant, high atomic number, hydrophilic Bi NPs prepared using this synthesis method have potential for application in emerging x-ray contrast and x-ray therapeutic applications.

  20. Size-controlled magnetic nanoparticles with lecithin for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, C. G.; Kim, C. O.

    2007-05-01

    Lecithin-adsorbed magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by three-step process that the thermal decomposition was combined with ultrasonication. Experimental parameters were three items—molar ratio between Fe(CO) 5 and oleic acid, keeping time at decomposition temperature and lecithin concentration. As the molar ratio between Fe(CO) 5 and oleic acid, and keeping time at decomposition temperature increased, the particle size increased. However, the change of lecithin concentration did not show the remarkable particle size variation.

  1. Size-controlled magnetic nanoparticles with lecithin for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Lecithin-adsorbed magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by three-step process that the thermal decomposition was combined with ultrasonication. Experimental parameters were three items-molar ratio between Fe(CO) 5 and oleic acid, keeping time at decomposition temperature and lecithin concentration. As the molar ratio between Fe(CO) 5 and oleic acid, and keeping time at decomposition temperature increased, the particle size increased. However, the change of lecithin concentration did not show the remarkable particle size variation

  2. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  3. Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis in the Ni-Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.F.; Wang, H.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Jiang, Q.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the effect of C particle size on the self-propagating high temperature reaction mechanism. → Coarse C particle size (>38 μm) resulted in the formation of prior TiC x layer between Ti and C. → Prior TiC x layer control the whole reaction of Ni-Ti-C and domain the reaction kinetics. → The selection of C particle size is the most important factor to fabricate TiC/Ni composite using Ti, C and Ni mixtures. - Abstract: Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the Ni-Ti-C system was investigated. Fine C particle resulted in a traditional mechanism of dissolution-precipitation while coarse C particle made the reaction be controlled by a mechanism of the diffusion of C through the TiC x layer. The whole process can be described: C atoms diffusing through the TiC x layer dissolved into the Ni-Ti liquid and TiC were formed once the liquid became supersaturated. Simultaneously, the heat generated from the TiC formation made the unstable TiC x layer break up. However, with the spread of Ti-Ni liquid, a new TiC x layer was formed again at the interface between spreading liquid and C particle. This process cannot stop until all the C particles are consumed completely.

  4. The role of supervisory controller synthesis in automatic control software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Markovski, J.

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of a model-driven systems engineering approach for high-tech systems that relies on supervisory controller synthesis. The proposed framework has a process-theoretic foundation and supports extensions with quantitative features. We briefly discuss several industrial case studies

  5. Advanced Control Synthesis for Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Duc Hong; You, Sam-Sang; Choi, Hyeung-Six; Jeong, Seok-Kwon

    2017-11-01

      In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters. The control system is decoupled using a feed forward decoupling method to reduce the interactions between control channels. Both nominal and perturbed reverse osmosis systems have been analyzed using structured singular values for their stabilities and performances. Simulation results show that the system responses meet all the control requirements against various uncertainties. Finally the reduced order controller provides excellent robust performance, with achieving decoupling, disturbance attenuation, and noise rejection. It can help to reduce the membrane cleanings, increase the robustness against uncertainties, and lower the energy consumption for process monitoring.

  6. Controllable synthesis and characterization of highly fluorescent silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Junlin [Nanjing Normal University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); An Xueqing, E-mail: anxueqin@ecust.edu.cn [East China University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China); Zhu Yinyan [Nanjing Normal University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highly fluorescent silver nanoparticles (AgFNPs) have been prepared by microemulsion method and the sizes of AgFNPs were controlled by altering the molar ratio ({omega}) of water-to-surfactant in the water-in-oil microemulsion. The results were shown that the AgFNPs sizes increased with incremental molar ratio ({omega}) of water-to-surfactant. The AgFNPs have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence lifetime study. Study of the spectral characteristics was shown that the absorbance of AgFNPs increased significantly with the {omega}, and linear relationship between absorbance and the size of AgFNPs was observed. The increase of AgFNPs size caused a red shift of maximum absorption wavelength in the UV-Vis spectra, and the relationship between maximum absorption wavelength and AgFNPs size appeared linear dependence. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength did not shift with the change of particles size, but the emission intensity increases with the {omega}. The results were shown that the other factors to affect the fluorescence properties of AgFNPs were the surface properties and microstructure, except the AgFNPs size. These surface properties depend upon the stabilizing agent, reactant concentration, and solvents and so on.

  7. Control of cluster ion sizes for efficient injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enjoji, Hiroshi; Be, S.H.; Yano, Katsuki; Okamoto, Kosuke

    1976-01-01

    For heating of plasmas by injection of hydrogen cluster ions, the specific size (N/Z) approximately 10 2 molecules/charge is believed to be most desirable. A fundamental research to develop a practical method for tailoring large cluster ions into small suitable sizes has been carried out by using nitrogen cluster ions of the initial mean specific size (N/Z) 0 approximately 10 5 . The beam of neutral large clusters of total intensity 20 mAsub(eq) was led to an ionizer and then the large cluster ions are accelerated to 8.9 keV before entering the divider which disintegrates them into small fragments by multiple ionization. The mean specific size of disintegrated cluster ions (N/Z)' becomes smaller with increase in ionizing electron current of the divider. (N/Z)' becomes 10 3 approximately 10 4 at an electron current of 140 mA and an accelerating voltage of 680 V of the divider with its efficiency of 20 approximately 60%. Thus, the original large cluster ions are divided into small fragments of which the mean specific size is 1/20 approximately 1/100 of the initial value without much decrease in total intensity of the cluster ion beam

  8. What Controls the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Newman, Paul A.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Nash, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million square kilometers. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million square kilometers. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million square kilometers over brief periods. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre- 1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  9. Synthesis and quality control of [{sup 18}F] fluorothymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas C.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Faria, Tiago, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that allows early diagnosis of various diseases by detecting metabolic changes of cells, in addition to being a noninvasive technique. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging is [{sup 18}F] Fludesoxiglucose ({sup 18}FDG), which is a marker of glucose metabolism and has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and staging of various cancers. However, some carcinomas do not have high glucose consumption, besides {sup 18}FDG possess high urinary excretion rate interfering with the detection of tumors in pelvis and high uptake in brain and in inflammation, reducing the contrast tumor / background. The radiotracer 3'-fluoro-L-3'-deoxythymidine ({sup 18}FLT) is an analogue of thymidine used as an alternative to {sup 18}FDG for detecting tumors with high proliferation rate. The aim of this work was to develop [{sup 18}F] Fluorothymidine synthesis and quality control at the Radiopharmaceuticals Research and Production Facility of CDTN/CNEN. The synthesis was adapted from that used to {sup 18}FDG, based on the methodologies described in related papers. Radiochemical purity and impurities levels were determined by HPLC, RTLC and GC techniques. Total synthesis time was 35 minutes and the radiochemical yield in the end of bombardment (EOB) was 7%, with a radiochemical purity of about 93%. Radionuclidic identity and purity, pH, residual solvents, radiochemical and chemical purity were evaluated according to analytical methods described on the literature and on the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32). Residual levels of Stavudine, Thymine and Thymidine were found and are under toxicological investigation in order to establish a maximum amount allowed in the final product. (author)

  10. Synthesis and quality control of [18F] fluorothymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas C.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Faria, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that allows early diagnosis of various diseases by detecting metabolic changes of cells, in addition to being a noninvasive technique. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging is [ 18 F] Fludesoxiglucose ( 18 FDG), which is a marker of glucose metabolism and has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and staging of various cancers. However, some carcinomas do not have high glucose consumption, besides 18 FDG possess high urinary excretion rate interfering with the detection of tumors in pelvis and high uptake in brain and in inflammation, reducing the contrast tumor / background. The radiotracer 3'-fluoro-L-3'-deoxythymidine ( 18 FLT) is an analogue of thymidine used as an alternative to 18 FDG for detecting tumors with high proliferation rate. The aim of this work was to develop [ 18 F] Fluorothymidine synthesis and quality control at the Radiopharmaceuticals Research and Production Facility of CDTN/CNEN. The synthesis was adapted from that used to 18 FDG, based on the methodologies described in related papers. Radiochemical purity and impurities levels were determined by HPLC, RTLC and GC techniques. Total synthesis time was 35 minutes and the radiochemical yield in the end of bombardment (EOB) was 7%, with a radiochemical purity of about 93%. Radionuclidic identity and purity, pH, residual solvents, radiochemical and chemical purity were evaluated according to analytical methods described on the literature and on the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32). Residual levels of Stavudine, Thymine and Thymidine were found and are under toxicological investigation in order to establish a maximum amount allowed in the final product. (author)

  11. Synthesis of gold nano particles with enlargement size by gamma Co-60 irradiation and investigation of anti oxidation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size in the range of 10-53 nm were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using water-soluble chitosan (WSC) as stabilizer and size enlargement by seed approach. Absorption wavelength (λ max ) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and particle size was determined from TEM images. Results showed that value of λ max increased from 523 nm (seed particles) to 525, 537 and 549 nm and the size of AuNPs increased from 10 nm (seed particles) to 20, 38 and 53 nm, respectively, for concentration ratio of Au 3+ /Au 0 (seed) of 2.5, 5 and 10. Antioxidant effect of AuNPs with size of 10, 20, 38 and 53 nm was investigated using free radical 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS .+ ). Results indicated that the smaller the particle size was (10 nm) the stronger the antioxidant effect attained. Thus, AuNPs/WSC synthesis by gamma Co-60 irradiation are promising for applications as antioxidants in cosmetics and in other fields as well. (author)

  12. Size distributions of aerosols in an indoor environment with engineered nanoparticle synthesis reactors operating under different scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    Size distributions of nanoparticles in the vicinity of synthesis reactors will provide guidelines for safe operation and protection of workers. Nanoparticle concentrations and size distributions were measured in a research academic laboratory environment with two different types of gas-phase synthesis reactors under a variety of operating conditions. The variation of total particle number concentration and size distribution at different distances from the reactor, off-design state of the fume hood, powder handling during recovery, and maintenance of reactors are established. Significant increases in number concentration were observed at all the locations during off-design conditions (i.e., failure of the exhaust system). Clearance of nanoparticles from the work environment was longer under off-design conditions (20 min) compared to that under normal hood operating conditions (4-6 min). While lower particle number concentrations are observed during operation of furnace aerosol reactors in comparison to flame aerosol reactors, the handling, processing, and maintenance operations result in elevated concentrations in the work area.

  13. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  14. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  15. Preparation of leucite powders with controlled particle size distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Martina; Kloužková, A.; Maixner, J.; Šatava, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2005), s. 252-258 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : leucite * preparation * particle size distribution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2005

  16. Reversible Size Control of Silver Nanoclusters via Ligand-exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2015-05-21

    The properties of atomically monodisperse noble metal nanoclusters (NCs) are intricately intertwined with their precise molecular formula. The vast majority of size-specific NC syntheses start from the reduction of the metal salt and thiol ligand mixture. Only in gold was it recently shown that ligand-exchange could induce the growth of NCs from one atomically precise species to another; a process of yet unknown reversibility. Here, we present a process for the ligand-exchange-induced growth of atomically precise silver NCs, in a biphasic liquid-liquid system, which is particularly of interest because of its complete reversibility and ability to occur at room temperature. We explore this phenomenon in-depth using Ag35(SG)18 [SG= glutathionate] and Ag44(4-FTP)30 [4-FTP= 4-fluorothiophenol] as model systems. We show that the ligand-exchange conversion of Ag35(SG)18 into Ag44(4-FTP)30 is rapid (< 5 min) and direct, while the reverse process proceeds slowly through intermediate cluster sizes. We adapt a recently developed theory of reverse Ostwald ripening to model the NCs’ interconvertibility. The model’s predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations, and they highlight the importance of small changes in the ligand-metal binding energy in determining the final equilibrium NC size. Based on the insight provided by this model, we demonstrated experimentally that by varying the choice of ligands, ligand-exchange can be used to obtain different sized NCs. The findings in this work establish ligand-exchange as a versatile tool for tuning cluster sizes.

  17. Reversible Size Control of Silver Nanoclusters via Ligand-exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Burlakov, Victor M.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Joshi, Chakra Prasad; AbdulHalim, L; Black, David; Whetten, Robert; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The properties of atomically monodisperse noble metal nanoclusters (NCs) are intricately intertwined with their precise molecular formula. The vast majority of size-specific NC syntheses start from the reduction of the metal salt and thiol ligand mixture. Only in gold was it recently shown that ligand-exchange could induce the growth of NCs from one atomically precise species to another; a process of yet unknown reversibility. Here, we present a process for the ligand-exchange-induced growth of atomically precise silver NCs, in a biphasic liquid-liquid system, which is particularly of interest because of its complete reversibility and ability to occur at room temperature. We explore this phenomenon in-depth using Ag35(SG)18 [SG= glutathionate] and Ag44(4-FTP)30 [4-FTP= 4-fluorothiophenol] as model systems. We show that the ligand-exchange conversion of Ag35(SG)18 into Ag44(4-FTP)30 is rapid (< 5 min) and direct, while the reverse process proceeds slowly through intermediate cluster sizes. We adapt a recently developed theory of reverse Ostwald ripening to model the NCs’ interconvertibility. The model’s predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations, and they highlight the importance of small changes in the ligand-metal binding energy in determining the final equilibrium NC size. Based on the insight provided by this model, we demonstrated experimentally that by varying the choice of ligands, ligand-exchange can be used to obtain different sized NCs. The findings in this work establish ligand-exchange as a versatile tool for tuning cluster sizes.

  18. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents of Pt nanoflowers with enhanced activity for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lu; Fan Youjun; Wang Honghui; Tian Na; Zhou Zhiyou; Sun Shigang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been applied to produce the uniform Pt nanoflowers with sharp single crystal petals and high density of atomic steps. ► The as-prepared Pt nanoflowers exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercial Pt black catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation. ► The growth of Pt nanoflowers in DESs by the simple electrochemical route is straightforward and controllable in terms of nanoflowers’ shape and size. - Abstract: The electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been applied to produce the electrocatalyst of Pt nanoflowers. The uniform Pt nanoflowers with sharp single crystal petals and high density of atomic steps were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS and electrochemical tests. The results illustrated that the as-prepared Pt nanoflowers exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercial Pt black catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation. The growth of Pt nanoflowers in DESs by the simple electrochemical route is straightforward and controllable in terms of nanoflowers’ shape and size, which can be applied in shape-controlled synthesis of other noble metal nanoparticles with high catalytic activity.

  19. Controllable synthesis and sintering of silver nanoparticles for inkjet-printed flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Weiyue

    2015-01-01

    An effective and facile strategy was developed to successfully synthesize nearly uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with particle size of <10 nm, and demonstrated to achieve the sintering of AgNPs at room temperature for inkjet-printed flexible electronics. In such system, a series of different chain-length alkylamines were exploited as capped molecules to controllable synthesis of uniform AgNPs with the mean nanoparticle size in rang of 8.6 ± 0.9, 8.9 ± 1.2 and 9.2 ± 1.6 nm, and these ultra-small nanoparticles were very favorable to attain an excellent printing fluency. Based on the as-synthesized AgNPs, a sequence of flexible electrocircuits was successfully fabricated by ink-jet printing technique. After the dipped treatment, the printed AgNPs were achieved to spontaneous coalescence and aggregation at room temperature induced by preferential dissolution of capped molecules on AgNPs surfaces into methanol solution. These aggregated AgNPs demonstrated superior controllability, excellent stability and low resistivity in the range of 31.6–26.5 μΩ cm, and would have enormous potential in the application to be tailored for assembly of optoelectronics devices. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles with particle size of <10 nm was controllably synthesized. • The sintering of silver nanoparticles was conducted at room temperature. • The resistivity was reached as low as 26.5 μΩ cm for flexible electronics

  20. Size-controllable polypyrrole nanospheres synthesized in the presence of phosphorylated chitosan and their size effect in different applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Cao, Yi; Lu, Yun, E-mail: yunlu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-05-15

    The size-controllable polypyrrole (PPy) nanospheres are successfully synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using N-methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC) as a structure-directing agent. By simply changing the amount of NMPC, the size of the PPy nanospheres can be adjusted from 190 to 50 nm in diameter. The spectrometric results suggest that the electrostatic interactions of phosphate groups in NMPC molecule with pyrrole ring might be a driving force for formation of the uniform and size-controllable PPy nanospheres. The PPy nanospheres with the diameter of 100 nm exhibit the largest capacity and a good cycling stability as electrode materials of supercapacitors. The as-prepared PPy nanospheres also can be combined with carbon dots to form composite nanospheres presenting enhanced fluorescence intensity, which show potential application in fluorescence detection.

  1. The Regulatory Networks That Control Clostridium difficile Toxin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Peltier, Johann; Dupuy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic clostridia cause many human and animal diseases, which typically arise as a consequence of the production of potent exotoxins. Among the enterotoxic clostridia, Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of nosocomial intestinal infections in adults with a compromised gut microbiota caused by antibiotic treatment. The symptoms of C. difficile infection are essentially caused by the production of two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Moreover, for severe forms of disease, the spectrum of diseases caused by C. difficile has also been correlated to the levels of toxins that are produced during host infection. This observation strengthened the idea that the regulation of toxin synthesis is an important part of C. difficile pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the regulators and sigma factors that have been reported to control toxin gene expression in response to several environmental signals and stresses, including the availability of certain carbon sources and amino acids, or to signaling molecules, such as the autoinducing peptides of quorum sensing systems. The overlapping regulation of key metabolic pathways and toxin synthesis strongly suggests that toxin production is a complex response that is triggered by bacteria in response to particular states of nutrient availability during infection. PMID:27187475

  2. Structural control in the synthesis of inorganic porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brian Thomas

    Mesoporous (2.0--50.0 nm pore diameter) and macroporous (50.0 nm on up) materials have been the basis of my studies. These materials, for many years, possessed large pore size distributions. Recently, however, it has been possible to synthesize both mesoporous and macroporous materials that possess highly ordered uniform pores throughout the material. Workers at Mobil Corporation in 1992 discovered a hexagonally arrayed mesoporous material, designated MCM-41, which exhibited uniform pores ranging from 2.0--10.0 nm in diameter. In my work MCM-41 was used as a host for the incorporation of meso-tetrakis(5-trimethylammoniumpentyl)porphyrin (TMAP-Cl) and as a model for the synthesis of mesoporous alumino- and galloaluminophosphates which were created using cluster precursors of the type MO4Al 12(OH)24(H2O)12 7+, M = Al or Ga. Macroporous materials with uniform pore sizes have been synthesized by our group with frameworks consisting of a variety of metal oxides, metals, organosilanes, aluminophosphates and bimodal pores. These materials are synthesized from the addition of metal precursors to preordered polystyrene spheres. Removal of the spheres results in the formation of macropores with highly uniform pores extending microns in length. Porous materials with uniform and adjustable pore sizes in the mesoporous and macroporous size regimes offer distinct advantages over non-ordered materials for numerous reasons. First, catalysis reactions that are based on the ability of the porous materials to impose size and shape restrictions on the substrate are of considerable interest in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As pore diameters increase larger molecules can be incorporated into the pores, i.e., biological molecules, dyes, etc. For the macroporous materials synthesized by our group it has been envisioned that these structures may not only be used for catalysis because of increased efficiencies of flow but for more advanced applications, e.g., photonic crystals

  3. Synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles through the controlled precipitation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarguen, C. Ararat; Mosquera, A.; Parra, R.; Castro, M.S.; Rodriguez-Paez, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The controlled precipitation method allowed to the synthesis of SnO 2 with advantageous specific properties, such as size and shape employing an aqueous SnCl 2 .2H 2 O solution as precursor. Through XRD analyses, the optimum pH value of the solution that yielded the desired product was found to be 6.25. After a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C, the final powder presented an average particle size below 50 nm with a surface area of 19 m 2 g -1 and a large reactivity. The evolution of the most important functional groups during the steps involved in this synthesis route is explained in view of the results obtained with FTIR and XRD. A thorough discussion on the different intermediates involved in the whole process is presented on the basis of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The conclusions are supported with a complete characterization through differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) and surface area determinations (BET)

  4. Personal computer control system for small size tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hiroshi; Kawano, Kazuhiro; Shinozaki, Masataka [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    As the analysis apparatus using tandem accelerator has a lot of control parameter, numbers of control parts set on control panel are so many to make the panel more complex and its operativity worse. In order to improve these faults, development and design of a control system using personal computer for the control panel mainly constituted by conventional hardware parts were tried. Their predominant characteristics are shown as follows: (1) To make the control panel construction simpler and more compact, because the hardware device on the panel surface becomes the smallest limit as required by using a personal computer for man-machine interface. (2) To make control speed more rapid, because sequence control is closed within each block by driving accelerator system to each block and installing local station of the sequencer network at each block. (3) To make expandability larger, because of few improvement of the present hardware by interrupting the sequencer local station into the net and correcting image of the computer when increasing a new beamline. And, (4) to make control system cheaper, because of cheaper investment and easier programming by using the personal computer. (G.K.)

  5. Big or fast: two strategies in the developmental control of body size

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhout, H. Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Adult body size is controlled by the mechanisms that stop growth when a species-characteristic size has been reached. The mechanisms by which size is sensed and by which this information is transduced to the growth regulating system are beginning to be understood in a few species of insects. Two rather different strategies for control have been discovered; one favors large body size and the other favors rapid development.

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of different sizes of the CuO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Dongen; Ni Xiaomin; Song Jimei; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    Well-dispersed cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with the size from 10 to 100 nm were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of CuC 2 O 4 precursor at 400 deg. C. The prepared CuO nanoparticles of different sizes used as anode materials for Li ion battery all exhibit high electrochemical capacity at the first discharge. However, with the particles size changing, an interesting phenomenon appears. That is, the larger size of the particles is, the discharge capacity of the first time smaller is, while that of the second time is larger. At the same time, the mechanism of the above phenomenon is discussed in this paper. Surprisingly, we have synthesized the copper nanoparticles with different sizes by the CuO of different sizes as the electrodes

  7. Memory-Optimized Software Synthesis from Dataflow Program Graphs with Large Size Data Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Oh

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In multimedia and graphics applications, data samples of nonprimitive type require significant amount of buffer memory. This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the buffer memory requirement for such applications in embedded software synthesis from graphical dataflow programs based on the synchronous dataflow (SDF model with the given execution order of nodes. We propose a memory minimization technique that separates global memory buffers from local pointer buffers: the global buffers store live data samples and the local buffers store the pointers to the global buffer entries. The proposed algorithm reduces 67% memory for a JPEG encoder, 40% for an H.263 encoder compared with unshared versions, and 22% compared with the previous sharing algorithm for the H.263 encoder. Through extensive buffer sharing optimization, we believe that automatic software synthesis from dataflow program graphs achieves the comparable code quality with the manually optimized code in terms of memory requirement.

  8. Controlled synthesis and characterization of covellite (CuS) nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.T. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wu, G. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chen, X.H. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: chenxh@ustc.edu.cn

    2006-08-01

    Trigonal and hexagonal CuS (covellite) nanoflakes with controlled size (10-200 nm, and thickness of 3.6-5 nm) were synthesized through the reaction between copper acetylacetonate and sulfur in oleylamine. Size and shape of the products could be tuned by reaction parameters and reactant concentration. The as-prepared flakes have smooth surfaces and self-assemble face-to-face each other. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction show that the nanoscale flakes were single-crystal hexagonal covellite. Formation mechanism of the nanoflakes is discussed. UV-vis spectra reveal that the samples have blue-shift absorbance onsets owning to the quantum size effects.

  9. Controlled synthesis and characterization of covellite (CuS) nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.T.; Wu, G.; Chen, X.H.

    2006-01-01

    Trigonal and hexagonal CuS (covellite) nanoflakes with controlled size (10-200 nm, and thickness of 3.6-5 nm) were synthesized through the reaction between copper acetylacetonate and sulfur in oleylamine. Size and shape of the products could be tuned by reaction parameters and reactant concentration. The as-prepared flakes have smooth surfaces and self-assemble face-to-face each other. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction show that the nanoscale flakes were single-crystal hexagonal covellite. Formation mechanism of the nanoflakes is discussed. UV-vis spectra reveal that the samples have blue-shift absorbance onsets owning to the quantum size effects

  10. Real-time laser cladding control with variable spot size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J. L.; Montealegre, M. A.; Vidal, F.; Rodríguez, J.; Mann, S.; Abels, P.; Motmans, F.

    2014-03-01

    Laser cladding processing has been used in different industries to improve the surface properties or to reconstruct damaged pieces. In order to cover areas considerably larger than the diameter of the laser beam, successive partially overlapping tracks are deposited. With no control over the process variables this conduces to an increase of the temperature, which could decrease mechanical properties of the laser cladded material. Commonly, the process is monitored and controlled by a PC using cameras, but this control suffers from a lack of speed caused by the image processing step. The aim of this work is to design and develop a FPGA-based laser cladding control system. This system is intended to modify the laser beam power according to the melt pool width, which is measured using a CMOS camera. All the control and monitoring tasks are carried out by a FPGA, taking advantage of its abundance of resources and speed of operation. The robustness of the image processing algorithm is assessed, as well as the control system performance. Laser power is decreased as substrate temperature increases, thus maintaining a constant clad width. This FPGA-based control system is integrated in an adaptive laser cladding system, which also includes an adaptive optical system that will control the laser focus distance on the fly. The whole system will constitute an efficient instrument for part repair with complex geometries and coating selective surfaces. This will be a significant step forward into the total industrial implementation of an automated industrial laser cladding process.

  11. Control rod studies in small and medium sized fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.M.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Mahalakshmi, B.; Singh, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Control rods are the primary safety mechanism in the operation of fast reactors. Neutronic parameters associated with the control rods have to be evaluated precisely for studying the behaviour of the reactor under various operating conditions. Control rods are strong neutron absorbers discretely distributed in the reactor core. Accurate estimation of control rod parameters demand, in principle transport theory solutions in exact geometry. But computer codes for such evaluations usually consume exorbitantly large computer time and memory for even a single parameter evaluation. During the design of reactors, evaluation of these parameters will be required for many configurations of control rods. In this paper, the method used at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for estimating the parameters associated with control rods is presented. Diffusion theory solutions were used for computations. A scheme using three dimensional geometry represented by triangular meshes and diffusion theory solutions in few energy groups for control rod parameter evaluation is presented. This scheme was employed in estimating the control rod parameters in a 500 Mw(e) fast reactor. Error due to group collapsing is estimated by comparing with 25 group calculations in three dimensions for typical cases. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Controlled synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Seyler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for organic semiconducting materials with the emergence of organic electronic devices. In particular, large-area devices such as organic thin-film photovoltaics will require significant quantities of materials for device optimization, lifetime testing and commercialization. Sourcing large quantities of materials required for the optimization of large area devices is costly and often impossible to achieve. Continuous-flow synthesis enables straight-forward scale-up of materials compared to conventional batch reactions. In this study, poly(3-hexylthiophene, P3HT, was synthesized in a bench-top continuous-flow reactor. Precise control of the molecular weight was demonstrated for the first time in flow for conjugated polymers by accurate addition of catalyst to the monomer solution. The P3HT samples synthesized in flow showed comparable performance to commercial P3HT samples in bulk heterojunction solar cell devices.

  13. Controlled synthesis of novel octapod platinum nanocrystals under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Lei; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Liu, Hanfan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Under microwave irradiation, novel octapod Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by reducing H 2 PtCl 6 in TEG with PVP as a stabilizer. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center. The use of KI was crucial to the formation of novel Pt octapods. Novel Octapod Platinum Nanocrystals. - Highlights: • A novel octapod Pt nanocrystals different from the common octapod were obtained. • The use of KI was crucial to the formation of the novel Pt octapods. • Microwave was readily employed in controlled synthesis of the novel Pt octapods. - Abstract: Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. Novel octapod Pt nanocrystals enclosed with (1 1 1) facets were readily synthesized with H 2 PtCl 6 as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer in the presence of an appropriate amount of KI under microwave irradiation for 140 s. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than commercial Pt black in the electro-oxidations of methanol and formic acid. The results demonstrated that the use of KI was crucial to the formation of Pt octapods. KI determined the formation of the novel octapod Pt nanocrystals by tuning up the reduction kinetics and adsorbing on the surfaces of growing Pt nanoparticles. The optimum molar ratio of H 2 PtCl 6 /KI/PVP was 1/30/45

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hexagonal nano-sized nickel selenide by simple hydrothermal method assisted by CTAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davar, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Nano-sized nickel selenide powders have been successfully synthesized via an improved hydrothermal route based on the reaction between NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, SeCl{sub 4} and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) in water, in present of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, at various conditions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Effects of temperature, reaction time and reductant agent on the morphology, the particle sizes and the phase of the final products have been investigated. It was found that the phase and morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by these parameters. The synthesis procedure is simple and uses less toxic reagents than the previously reported methods. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  15. A Total Quality-Control Plan with Right-Sized Statistical Quality-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O

    2017-03-01

    A new Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments option for risk-based quality-control (QC) plans became effective in January, 2016. Called an Individualized QC Plan, this option requires the laboratory to perform a risk assessment, develop a QC plan, and implement a QC program to monitor ongoing performance of the QC plan. Difficulties in performing a risk assessment may limit validity of an Individualized QC Plan. A better alternative is to develop a Total QC Plan including a right-sized statistical QC procedure to detect medically important errors. Westgard Sigma Rules provides a simple way to select the right control rules and the right number of control measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Cells Can Control Their Size by Pumping Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Kay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960. Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na+ and K+ staving off water inundation. In this paper, which is in part a tutorial, I show how to model quantitatively the ion and water fluxes in a cell that determine the cell volume and membrane potential. The movement of water and ions is constrained by both osmotic and charge balance, and is driven by ion and voltage gradients and active ion transport. Transforming these constraints and forces into a set of coupled differential equations allows us to model how the ion distributions, volume and voltage change with time. I introduce an analytical solution to these equations that clarifies the influence of ion conductances, pump rates and water permeability in this multidimensional system. I show that the number of impermeant ions (x and their average charge have a powerful influence on the distribution of ions and voltage in a cell. Moreover, I demonstrate that in a cell where the operation of active ion transport eliminates an osmotic gradient, the size of the cell is directly proportional to x. In addition, I use graphics to reveal how the physico-chemical constraints and chemical forces interact with one another in apportioning ions inside the cell. The form of model used here is applicable to all membrane systems, including mitochondria and bacteria, and I show how pumps other than the sodium pump can be used to stabilize cells. Cell biologists may think of electrophysiology as the exclusive domain of neuroscience, however the electrical

  17. Control size of silver nanoparticles in sol-gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Victor M.; Celis, Antonio C.; Garcia-Macedo, Jorge A.

    2000-10-01

    By the sol-gel processing, silver ions in presence of stabilizing function (3-thiocyanatopropyl)triethoxysilane are reduced by heating gels at 180 C for several times in air atmosphere. The spectroscopic Uv-Vis observations, confirm silver nanoparticles presence with peak maximum around 350 nm. The optical properties of the metallic particles are observed at room temperature as function of time, and the absorption spectra practically do not change, which indicated they are trapped and stabilized within the fine porous silica cage. Mie theory calculations, considering the mean free path effect of the conduction electrons, are compatible with experimental spectra, indicating homogeneity in size and form of the metallic nanoparticles. Smithard correlation curve, between half width height (W1/2) of the optical absorption and the particle diameter 2r, predict silver particles size between 4 and 10 nm, during composite heating. Activation energy was measured and compared with previous data on similar systems and the probable reduction process are discussed.

  18. The Nano-Sized In2O3 Powder Synthesis by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘庆谊; 程知萱; 等

    2002-01-01

    Wiwh InCl3·4H2O being used as raw materials,the precursor of nano-sized In2O3 powder was prepared by hydrolysis,peptization and gelation of InCl3·4H2O.After calcination,nano-sized In2O3 powder was obtained.The powder was characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA).X-ray diffractometry(XRD)and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively,Calculation revealed that the mean crystablline size increased with increasing the calcination temperature,but crystal lattice distortion rate decreased with the increasing in the average crystalline size.This indicated that the smaller the particle size,the bigger the crystal lattice distortion,the worse the crystal growing.The activation energies for growth of nano-sized In2O3 were calculated to be 4.75kJ·mol-1 at the calcination temperature up tp 500℃ and 66.40kJ· mol-1 at the calcination temperature over 600℃.TEM photos revealed that the addition of the chemical additive(OP-10)greatly influenced the morphology and size of In2O3 particles.

  19. Electronic structure and size of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soriano, L; Sanchez-Agudo, M; Sanz, J M; Ahonen, P P; Kauppinen, E I; Palomares, F J; Bressler, P R

    2002-01-01

    A complete characterization of nanostructures has to deal both with electronic structure and dimensions. Here we present the characterization of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods. The electronic structure of these nanoparticles was probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the particle size by atomic force microscopy (AFM). XAS spectra show that the particles crystallize in the anatase phase upon heating at 500 sup o C, whereas further annealing at 700 sup o C give crystallites of 70 % anatase and 30 % rutile phases. Raising the temperature to 900 sup o C results in a complete transformation of the particles to rutile. AFM images reveal that the mean size of the anatase particles formed upon heating at 500 sup o C is 30 nm, whereas for the rutile particles formed upon annealing at 900 sup o C 90 nm were found. The results obtained by these techniques agree with XRD data. (author)

  20. Improved size-tunable synthesis and SERS properties of Au nanostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebtsov, Boris; Panfilova, Elizaveta; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2014-10-01

    Multibranched Au nanoparticles with sharp tips (commonly called nanostars, NSTs) have attracted significant attention as bright scattering labels, photothermal transducers, nanocarriers, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags. However, for surfactant-free synthesized NSTs, the existing data on the size tuning and the relation between the size of NSTs and their SERS efficiency still remain limited. Here, we address these questions by synthesizing and comparing SERS for surfactant-free NSTs of different sizes and plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. The NSTs were fabricated by seeded growth through a two-step surfactant-free approach in which quasispherical seeds were overgrown via reduction of added Au by ascorbic acid in the presence of Ag ions. By varying the seed size from 3 to 35 nm, we tuned the final NST size from 45 to 150 nm while retaining the star-like morphology with sharp tips and ensuring PR tunability from 630 to 900 nm. The NST size and PR limits can be expanded from 40 to 200 nm and from 600 to 930 nm, respectively, by simultaneous variation in the seed size and concentration. The SERS efficiency of the fabricated NSTs was examined by Raman measurements of 1,4-aminothiophenol (ATP) adsorbed on the surface of colloidal NST particles. Although the homogenous analytical enhancement factor (AEF) did not depend essentially on the NST size and varied from 4 × 106 to 107, the enhancing properties of single-particle NST tags were strongly size-dependent. Specifically, the AEF for 150-nm NST35-ATP complexes was 30 and 100 times greater than that for 70-nm NST15-ATP and 45-nm NST3-ATP complexes, respectively. These properties make the NST-ATP complex a prospective platform for SERS imaging.

  1. Size Control of Alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kempken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform, alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S nanoflowers with sizes of 11.5±2.1 nm and 31±5 nm composed of aggregated 4.1 nm and 5.6 nm primary crystallites, respectively, were obtained in a one-pot, heat-up reaction between copper, indium, and zinc acetate with tert-dodecanethiol in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide. Larger aggregates were obtained by diluting tert-dodecanethiol with oleylamine, which lowered the reactivity of the indium and zinc precursors and led to the formation of copper rich particles. The thermal decomposition of tert-dodecanethiol stabilizing the primary crystallites induced their agglomeration, while the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide on the surface of the nanoflowers provided them with colloidal stability and prevented them from further aggregation.

  2. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo

    2017-07-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  3. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Bertani, Serena Maria; Chirico, Giuseppe; D'Alfonso, Laura; Falqui, Andrea; Marchesi, Nicoletta; Pascale, Alessia; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo; Zuddas, Efisio

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  4. Size-controlled and redox-responsive supramolecular nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart-Mejia, R.; Kronig, G.A.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    Control over the assembly and disassembly of nanoparticles is pivotal for their use as drug delivery vehicles. Here, we aim to form supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) by combining advantages of the reversible assembly properties of SNPs using host–guest interactions and of a stimulus-responsive

  5. Chemical synthesis and characterization of nano-sized rare-earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2

    pyrochlore samples indicated a single phase crystalline material with a cubic ... vary with the size and the surface area of the particles.6 Thus, a method to ..... From qualitative band-model consideration of the type discussed by Goodenough.

  6. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  7. Particle size, morphology and color tunable ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors via plant latex mediated green combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, M. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Department of Physics, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 107 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sudheer kumar, K.H. [Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, Shimoga 577 451 (India); Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Dhananjaya, N. [Department of Physics, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sunitha, D.V. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Shivakumara, C. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nagabhushana, B.M. [Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 054 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared by green synthesis route. • Morphology and particle size was tuned by varying the concentration of plant latex. • The phosphor show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region. -- Abstract: Efficient ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%) nanophosphors were prepared for the first time by green synthesis route using Euphorbia tirucalli plant latex. The final products were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. The average particle size of ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%) was found to be in the range 27–47 nm. With increase of plant latex, the particle size was reduced and porous structure was converted to spherical shaped particles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the peaks situated at ∼590, 615, 648 and 702 nm were attributed to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub j(j=1,2,3,4)} transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The highest PL intensity was recorded for 7 mol% with Eu{sup 3+} ions and 26 ml plant latex concentration. The PL intensity increases with increase of plant latex concentration up to 30 ml and there after it decreases. The phosphor prepared by this method show spherical shaped particles, excellent chromaticity co-ordinates in the white light region which was highly useful for WLED’s. Further, present method was reliable, environmentally friendly and alternative to economical routes.

  8. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO 3 ), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO 3 ), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO 3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli . Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  9. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3. PMID:28458539

  10. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L.; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer; Lončar, Marko; Bakr, Osman

    2013-01-01

    findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color

  11. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of Hematite Nanocrystals and Their Optical, Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangquan; Sun, Qian; Fan, Hongsheng; Cheng, Ming; Shan, Aixian; Cui, Yimin; Wang, Rongming

    2018-01-01

    A series of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (NCs) with fascinating morphologies, such as hollow nanoolives, nanotubes, nanospindles, and nanoplates, were prepared through a simple template-free hydrothermal synthesis process. The results showed that the morphologies could be easily controlled by SO42− and H2PO4−. Physical property analysis showed that the α-Fe2O3 NCs exhibited shape- and size-dependent ferromagnetic and optical behaviors. The absorption band peak of the α-Fe2O3 NCs could be tuned from 320 to 610 nm. Furthermore, when applied as electrode material for supercapacitor, the hollow olive-structure exhibited the highest capacitance (285.9 F·g−1) and an excellent long-term cycling stability (93% after 3000 cycles), indicating that it could serve as a candidate electrode material for a supercapacitor. PMID:29342929

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  13. A facile and scalable strategy for synthesis of size-tunable NiCo2O4 with nanocoral-like architecture for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Yinjun, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We reported a facile and scalable strategy for synthesis of size-tunable NiCo 2 O 4 with nanocoral-like architecture. The unique structure will improve faradaic redox reaction and mass transfer, NiCo 2 O 4 offers excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • We reported a facile and scalable strategy for synthesis of size-tunable NiCo 2 O 4 withnanocoral-lide architecture. • Combination of microwave and tertbutanol as medium creates ultrathin nickel/cobalt double hydroxide with flowerclusters. • The method is very simple, rapid and efficient, it can be used for large scale productionof nanomaterials. • The size of NiCo 2 O 4 nanocorals is easy to be can be controlled by adjusting calcination temperature. • Unique structure enhances rates of electron transfer and mass transport, NiCo 2 O 4 shows high electrochemical performance. - Abstract: There is a great need to develop high-performance electroactive materials for supercapacitors. The study reported a facile and scalable strategy for synthesis of size-tunable NiCo 2 O 4 with nanocoral-like architecture. Cobalt nitrate and nickel nitrate were dissolved in a tertbutanol solution and heated to reflux state under microwave radiation. The amounts of ammonia was dropped into the mixed solution to form nickel/cobalt double hydroxides. The reaction can complete within 15 min with the productivity of 99.9%. The obtained double hydroxides display flowercluster-like ultrathin nanostructure. The double hydroxide was calcined into different NiCo 2 O 4 products using different calcination temperature, including 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. The resulting NiCo 2 O 4 is of nanocoral-like architecture. Interestingly, the size of coral can be easily controlled by adjusting the temperature. The NiCo 2 O 4 prepared at 400°C gives a minimum building block size (10.2 nm) and maximum specific surface area (108.8 m 2 ·g −1 ). The unique structure will greatly

  14. Synthesis of uniform-sized bimetallic iron-nickel phosphide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Youl; Jang, Youngjin; Park, Jongnam; Hwang, Yosun; Koo, Bonil; Park, Je-Geun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from the thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. Uniform-sized (Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 P nanorods (0≤x≤1) of various compositions were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Ni-trioctylphosphine (TOP) complex and Fe-TOP complex. By measuring magnetic properties, we found that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods. Both parameters were more sensitive to doping compared with bulk samples. - Graphical abstract: We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. The magnetic studies showed that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods

  15. Controlled synthesis of high-quality crystals of monolayer MoS2 for nanoelectronic device application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaonian; Li, Qiang; Hu, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    . Monolayer MoS2 so far can be obtained by mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, controllable synthesis of large area monolayer MoS2 with high quality needs to be improved and their growth mechanism requires more studies. Here we report a systematical study on controlled...... synthesis of high-quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals using low pressure CVD. Large-size monolayer MoS2 triangles with an edge length up to 405 mu m were successfully synthesized. The Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies indicate high homogenous optical characteristic of the synthesized...... monolayer MoS2 triangles. The transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that monolayer MoS2 triangles are single crystals. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the as-grown monolayer MoS2 show typical n-type semiconductor behaviors with carrier mobility up to 21.8 cm(2...

  16. Block-copolymer-assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with high surface area and uniform size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Huang, Masataka Imura, Yoshihiro Nemoto, Chao-Hung Cheng and Yusuke Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs by the coprecipitation method using calcium D-gluconate and potassium hydrogen phosphate as the sources of calcium and phosphate ions, respectively, and the triblock copolymer F127 as a stabilizer. The HANPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Removal of F127 by solvent extraction or calcination alters the structure of HANPs. The solvent-extracted HANPs were single crystals with their lang001rang axis oriented along the rod axis of the HANP, whereas the calcined HANPs contained two crystal phases that resulted in a spherical morphology. The calcined HANPs had much higher surface area (127 m2 g−1 than the solvent-extracted HANPs (44 m2 g−1.

  17. Ultrasound Assisted Particle Size Control by Continuous Seed Generation and Batch Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jordens, Jeroen; Canini, Enio; Gielen, Bjorn; Van Gerven, Tom; Braeken, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Controlling particle size is essential for crystal quality in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Several articles illustrate the potential of ultrasound to tune this particle size during the crystallization process. This paper investigates how ultrasound can control the particle size distribution (PSD) of acetaminophen crystals by continuous seed generation in a tubular crystallizer followed by batch growth. It is demonstrated that the supersaturation ratio at which ultrasound starts s...

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  19. Size does matter - span of control in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Petersen, Christina; Østergaard, Sussanne; Andersen, Per Bo Noergaard

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Centralization, mergers and cost reductions have generally led to increasing levels of span of control (SOC), and thus potentially to lower leadership capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explore how a large SOC impacts hospital staff and their leaders. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a qualitative explorative case study of three large inpatient wards. Findings The study finds that the nursing staff and their frontline leaders experience challenges in regard to visibility and role of the leader, e.g., in creating overview, coordination, setting-up clear goals, following up and being in touch. However, large wards also provide flexibility and development possibilities. Practical implications The authors discuss the implications of these findings for decision makers in deciding future SOC and for future SOC research. Originality/value Only few studies have qualitatively explored the consequences of large SOC in hospitals.

  20. Influence of hydroxyapatite granule size, porosity, and crystallinity on tissue reaction in vivo. Part A: synthesis, characterization of the materials, and SEM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté Sánchez de Val, José E; Calvo-Guirado, José L; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos; Mazón, Patricia; De Aza, Piedad N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was the synthesis and analysis of the tissue reaction to three different Hydroxyapatite (HA)-based bone substitute materials differing only in granule size, porosity, and crystallinity through an animal experimental model at 60 days. Three different HA-based biomaterials were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and EDS analysis, the resultant product was ground in three particle sizes: Group I (2000-4000 μm), Group II (1000-2000 μm), and Group III (600-1000 μm). Critical size defects were created in both tibias of 15 rabbits. Four defects per rabbit for a total of 60 defects were grafted with the synthesized materials as follows: Group I (15 defects), Group II (15 defects), Group III (15 defects), and empty (15 defects control). After animals sacrifice at 60 days samples were obtained and processed for SEM and EDS evaluation of Ca/P ratios, elemental mapping was performed to determine the chemical degradation process and changes to medullary composition in all the four study groups. The tendency for the density was to increase with the increasing annealing temperature; in this way it was possible to observe that the sample that shows highest crystallinity and crystal size corresponding to that of group I. The SEM morphological examination showed that group III implant showed numerous resorption regions, group II implant presented an average resorption rate of all the implants. The group I displayed smoother surface features, in comparison with the other two implants. The data from this study show that changing the size, porosity, and crystallinity of one HA-based bone substitute material can influence the integration of the biomaterials within the implantation site and the new bone formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  2. Chemical synthesis and characterization of nano-sized rare-earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-06

    Dec 6, 2017 ... exhibited the average particle size in the range of 36.4–73.8nm. The data on the ... For example, some of the rare-earth ruthenates Ln2Ru2O7 ..... From qualitative band-model consideration of the type discussed by ...

  3. A global synthesis of seasonal temperature-size responses in copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    is that calanoid copepods, which utilize feeding currents to capture prey, exhibit a four-fold greater reduction in adult body mass per degrees C (-3.66%) compared with cyclopoid copepods (-0.91%), which are ambush feeders. By contrast, species body size or reproductive strategy did not explain variation...

  4. A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michelle; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Hollywood, Lynsey E; Gibney, Eileen R; O'Brien, Sinéad A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Dean, Moira

    2013-08-01

    Given the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity, there is a clear need for meaningful practical healthy eating advice - not only in relation to food choice, but also on appropriate food portion sizes. As the majority of portion size research to date has been overwhelmingly quantitative in design, there is a clear need to qualitatively explore consumers' views in order to fully understand how food portion size decisions are made. Using qualitative methodology this present study aimed to explore consumers' views about factors influencing their portion size selection and consumption and to identify barriers to appropriate portion size control. Ten focus groups with four to nine participants in each were formed with a total of 66 persons (aged 19-64 years) living on the island of Ireland. The semi-structured discussions elicited participants' perceptions of suggested serving size guidance and explored the influence of personal, social and environmental factors on their food portion size consumption. Audiotapes of the discussions were professionally transcribed verbatim, loaded into NVivo 9, and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis procedure. The rich descriptive data derived from participants highlight that unhealthy portion size behaviors emanate from various psychological, social and behavioral factors. These bypass reflective and deliberative control, and converge to constitute significant barriers to healthy portion size control. Seven significant barriers to healthy portion size control were apparent: (1) lack of clarity and irrelevance of suggested serving size guidance; (2) guiltless eating; (3) lack of self-control over food cues; (4) distracted eating; (5) social pressures; (6) emotional eating rewards; and (7) quantification habits ingrained from childhood. Portion size control strategies should empower consumers to overcome these effects so that the consumption of appropriate food portion sizes becomes automatic and habitual.

  5. Control of nanoparticle agglomeration through variation of the time-temperature profile in chemical vapor synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djenadic, Ruzica; Winterer, Markus, E-mail: markus.winterer@uni-due.de [Universität Duisburg-Essen, Nanoparticle Process Technology, Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the time-temperature history on the characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, degree of agglomeration, or crystallinity is investigated for chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). A simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model is used to describe the CVS process, and the results of the model are compared to experimental data. Nanocrystalline titania is used as model material. Titania nanoparticles are generated from titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a hot-wall reactor. Pure anatase particles and mixtures of anatase, rutile (up to 11 vol.%), and brookite (up to 29 vol.%) with primary particle sizes from 1.7 nm to 10.5 nm and agglomerate particle sizes from 24.3 nm to 55.6 nm are formed depending on the particle time-temperature history. An inductively heated furnace with variable inductor geometry is used as a novel system to control the time-temperature profile in the reactor externally covering a large wall temperature range from 873 K to 2023 K. An appropriate choice of inductor geometry, i.e. time-temperature profile, can significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration. Other particle characteristics such as crystallinity are also substantially influenced by the time-temperature profile.

  6. Laser-induced particle size tuning and structural transformations in germanium nanoparticles prepared by stain etching and colloidal synthesis route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatutlu, Ali, E-mail: a.karatutlu@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: ali.karatutlu@bou.edu.tr [Centre for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bursa Orhangazi University, 16310 Yıldırım/Bursa (Turkey); Little, William; Ersoy, Osman; Zhang, Yuanpeng; Sapelkin, Andrei [Centre for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Seker, Isa [Bio-Nanotechnology Research and Development Centre, Fatih University, 34500 Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-12-28

    In this study, with the aid of Raman measurements, we have observed transformations in small (∼3 nm and ∼10 nm) free-standing Ge nanoparticles under laser light exposure. The nanoparticles were obtained by the chemical stain etching of a monocrystalline Ge wafer and of Ge powder and by colloidal synthesis route. We found that the transformation path depends on laser power and exposure time. At relatively low values of the laser power (2 mW) over a period of 100 min, the Raman signal indicates transformation of the sample from a nanocrystaline to bulk-like state, followed by partial oxidation and finally a conversion of the entire sample into alpha-quartz type GeO{sub 2}. However, when the laser power is set at 60 mW, we observed a heat release during an explosive crystallization of the nanocrystalline material into bulk Ge without noticeable signs of oxidation. Together with the transmission electron microscopy measurements, these results suggest that the chemical stain etching method for the preparation of porous Ge may not be a top-down process as has been widely considered, but a bottom up one. Systematic studies of the laser exposure on Ge nanoparticles prepared by colloidal synthesis results in the fact that the explosive crystallisation is common for H-terminated and partially disordered Ge nanoparticles regardless of its particle size. We suggest possible bio-medical applications for the observed phenomena.

  7. Bottom-up synthesis of up-converting submicron-sized Er3+-doped LiNbO3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardiel, T.; Caballero, A.C.; Marín-Dobrincic, M.; Cantelar, E.; Cussó, F.

    2012-01-01

    A new and simple wet chemical synthesis method is proposed to prepare submicron-sized Erbium-doped LiNbO 3 powders. The synthesis procedure comprises the co-precipitation of lithium and erbium ions from common precursors and their subsequent reaction with niobium ethoxide. A systematic characterization by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES), Atomic Absorption (AAS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), as well as by the examination of the luminescence properties, evidence that with this method a congruent Er 3+ -doped LiNbO 3 single phase material can be obtained without using complex and time-consuming processing steps. The synthesized powders exhibit efficient IR to VIS up-conversion emissions under 974 nm pumping. -- Highlights: ► A novel chemical route to the preparation of LiNbO 3 powders has been developed. ► This process avoids complex and time-consuming processing steps. ► A congruent Er 3+ -doped LiNbO 3 single phase material can be obtained by this way. ► The luminescence properties are the expected for this composition.

  8. 28. Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theses of reports, presented at the 28th Conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 19-23 February 2001) are published. 246 reports were heard at the following sections: magnetic confinement, theory and experiments; inertial thermonuclear synthesis; plasma processes and physics of gas-discharge plasma; physical bases of plasma technologies. 17 reports had the summarizing character [ru

  9. Recent advances in controlled synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via vapour deposition techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng; Li, Henan; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been many breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract significant attention owing to their unusual properties associated with their strictly defined dimensionalities. TMD materials with a generalized formula of MX2, where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen, represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. Semiconducting TMD monolayers such as MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 have been demonstrated to be feasible for future electronics and optoelectronics. The exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas of 2D TMDs offer unlimited potential in various fields including sensing, catalysis, and energy storage applications. Very recently, the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMD layers with a scalable size, controllable thickness and excellent electronic properties. Wafer-scale deposition of mono to few layer TMD films has been obtained. Despite the initial success in the CVD synthesis of TMDs, substantial research studies on extending the methodology open up a new way for substitution doping, formation of monolayer alloys and producing TMD stacking structures or superlattices. In this tutorial review, we will introduce the latest development of the synthesis of monolayer TMDs by CVD approaches.

  10. Recent advances in controlled synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via vapour deposition techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng

    2014-10-20

    In recent years there have been many breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract significant attention owing to their unusual properties associated with their strictly defined dimensionalities. TMD materials with a generalized formula of MX2, where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen, represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. Semiconducting TMD monolayers such as MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 have been demonstrated to be feasible for future electronics and optoelectronics. The exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas of 2D TMDs offer unlimited potential in various fields including sensing, catalysis, and energy storage applications. Very recently, the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMD layers with a scalable size, controllable thickness and excellent electronic properties. Wafer-scale deposition of mono to few layer TMD films has been obtained. Despite the initial success in the CVD synthesis of TMDs, substantial research studies on extending the methodology open up a new way for substitution doping, formation of monolayer alloys and producing TMD stacking structures or superlattices. In this tutorial review, we will introduce the latest development of the synthesis of monolayer TMDs by CVD approaches.

  11. Sample size reassessment for a two-stage design controlling the false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmayer, Sonja; Graf, Alexandra C; Posch, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Sample size calculations for gene expression microarray and NGS-RNA-Seq experiments are challenging because the overall power depends on unknown quantities as the proportion of true null hypotheses and the distribution of the effect sizes under the alternative. We propose a two-stage design with an adaptive interim analysis where these quantities are estimated from the interim data. The second stage sample size is chosen based on these estimates to achieve a specific overall power. The proposed procedure controls the power in all considered scenarios except for very low first stage sample sizes. The false discovery rate (FDR) is controlled despite of the data dependent choice of sample size. The two-stage design can be a useful tool to determine the sample size of high-dimensional studies if in the planning phase there is high uncertainty regarding the expected effect sizes and variability.

  12. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} anatase for large-area photon conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Div. of Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO{sub 2} with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  13. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nano-sized Ag_4Sn particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Oehl, Nikolas; Fromm, Olga; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, sub 10 nm sized intermetallic Ag_4Sn particles are prepared via an aqueous synthesis route in order to improve the electrochemical performance of pure Sn nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis are used to investigate the morphology, crystal structure and particle surface of the as prepared Ag_4Sn nanoparticles. In addition, galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements are carried out to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the particles. Upon lithiation and de-lithiation a phase transformation from Ag_4Sn to Ag_3Sn is observed, which has not been reported so far. The intermetallic nanoparticle-based anode delivers a specific de-lithiation capacity of 460 mAhg"−"1 for more than 150 cycles.

  15. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  16. Recent Developments in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Moran, Christine H; Xia, Younan

    2012-01-01

    This feature article introduces our recent work on understanding the roles played by citrate and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as capping agents in seed-mediated syntheses of Ag nanocrystals with controlled shapes. We have demonstrated that citrate and PVP selectively bind to Ag(111) and Ag(100) surfaces, respectively, and thus favor the formation of Ag nanocrystals enclosed preferentially by {111} or {100} facets. In addition, we have quantified the coverage density of PVP adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanocubes. Based on the mechanistic understanding, a series of Ag nanocrystals with controlled shapes and sizes have been successfully synthesized by using different combinations of seeds and capping agents: single-crystal spherical/cubic seeds with citrate for cuboctahedrons and octahedrons or with PVP for cubes and bars; and plate-like seeds with citrate for enlarged thin plates or with PVP for thickened plates.

  17. Nano-sized graphene flakes: insights from experimental synthesis and first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Chun; Chen, Yi-Rui; Hsu, Kuei-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Neng; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Shen, Ji-Lin; Liu, Wei-Ren

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we proposed a cost-effective method for preparing graphene nano-flakes (GNFs) derived from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via three steps (pressing, homogenization and sonication exfoliation processes). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), laser scattering, as well as ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out. The results indicated that the size of as-synthesized GNFs was approximately 40-50 nm. Furthermore, we also used first principles calculations to understand the transformation from CNTs to GNFs from the viewpoints of the edge formation energies of GNFs in different shapes and sizes. The corresponding photoluminescence measurements of GNFs were carried out in this work.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of graphene quantum dots and their size reduction using swift heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Praveen; Bhat, Badekai Ramchandra

    2018-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are nanosized fragments of graphene displaying quantum confinement effect. They have shown to be prepared from various methods which include ion beam etching of graphene. However, recently the modification of the GQDs has garnered tremendous attention owing to its suitability for various applications. Here, we have studied the effect of swift ion beam irradiation on the properties of GQDs. The ion beam treatment on the GQDs exhibited the change in observed photoluminescence of GQDs as they exhibited a blue luminescence on excitation with longwave UV (≈365 nm) due to the reduction in size and removal of the ethoxy (-C-O-C-) groups present on the quantum dots. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Controllable synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yan; Jin, Yan-Yan; Si, Jian-Chao; Peng, Ming-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanoparticles (GoldMag NPs) have received considerable attention because of their advantageous properties arisen from both individual Au and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Many efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of these composite nanoparticles. Herein, GoldMag NPs were reported to be synthesized by two-step method. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and modified by the citric acid, and then citric acid-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were used as seeds in sodium citrate solution to reduce the HAuCl 4 . The size of obtained nanoparticles was geared from 25 to 300 nm by controlling the concentration of reactants. The GoldMag NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The GoldMag NPs showed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and were well dispersed in water with surface plasmon resonance absorption peak varied from 538 nm to 570 nm. - Highlights: • A low cost, simple manipulation and nontoxic approach was designed for preparation of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /Au (GoldMag NPs) nanocomposites. • The size of GoldMag NPs could be controlled from 25 to 300 nm by varying the concentration of reactants. • GoldMag NPs possessed good magnetic response, high dispersion, and good stability

  20. Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH: Synthesis and thermal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Axel Norlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Bahl, Christian R.H.; DiMasi, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH crystallised from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Moessbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co Kα radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was α-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of α-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of α-FeOOH transformed to α-Fe 2 O 3 in the temperature range 444-584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from α-Fe 2 O 3 to follow the decrease of intensity from α-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition. - Graphical abstract: Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH formed from amorphous iron(III) hydroxide after 23 years, and transforms faster to α-Fe 2 O 3 upon heating

  1. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Navasery

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium borate nanoparticles have been synthesized by a thermal treatment method via facile co-precipitation. Differences of annealing temperature and annealing time and their effects on crystal structure, particle size, size distribution and thermal stability of nanoparticles were investigated. The formation of calcium borate compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Thermogravimetry (TGA. The XRD patterns revealed that the co-precipitated samples annealed at 700 °C for 3 h annealing time formed an amorphous structure and the transformation into a crystalline structure only occurred after 5 h annealing time. It was found that the samples annealed at 900 °C are mostly metaborate (CaB2O4 nanoparticles and tetraborate (CaB4O7 nanoparticles only observed at 970 °C, which was confirmed by FTIR. The TEM images indicated that with increasing the annealing time and temperature, the average particle size increases. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the annealed samples at higher temperatures.

  2. A new route for the synthesis of submicron-sized LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihong, Bao; Wurentuya,; Wei, Wei; Tegus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Submicron crystalline LaB 6 has been successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction of La 2 O 3 with NaBH 4 at 1200 °C. The effects of reaction temperature on the crystal structure, grain size and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It is found that when the reaction temperature is in the range of 1000–1100 °C, there are ultrafine nanoparticles and nanocrystals that coexist. When the reaction temperature elevated to 1200 °C, the grain morphology transformed from ultrafine nanoparticle to submicron crystals completely. High resolution transmission electron microscope images fully confirm the formation of LaB 6 cubic structure. - Highlights: • Single-phased LaB 6 have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction in a continuous evacuating process. • The reaction temperature has a important effect on the phase composition. • The grain size increase from nano-size to submicron with increasing reaction temperature

  3. Some regularity of the grain size distribution in nuclear fuel with controllable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loktev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    It is known, the fission gas release from ceramic nuclear fuel depends from average size of grains. To increase grain size they use additives which activate sintering of pellets. However, grain size distribution influences on fission gas release also. Fuel with different structures, but with the same average size of grains has different fission gas release. Other structure elements, which influence operational behavior of fuel, are pores and inclusions. Earlier, in Kyoto, questions of distribution of grain size for fuel with 'natural' structure were discussed. Some regularity of grain size distribution of fuel with controllable structure and high average size of grains are considered in the report. Influence of inclusions and pores on an error of the automated definition of parameters of structure is shown. The criterion, which describe of behavior of fuel with specific grain size distribution, is offered

  4. Synthesis of thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier for controlled sorafenib delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinasab, Amir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad Panahi, Homayon [Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramarzi, Mehdi, E-mail: faramarzi.iaug@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadian, Fatemeh [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Allyl glycidyl ether/N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a substrate for radical copolymerization of allyl glycidyl ether and N-isopropylacrylamide. Chitosan was coupled with the prepared nanoparticles by opening the epoxy ring of the allyl glycidyl ether. The thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier (TSMNC) obtained can be applied as a potent drug carrier. The TSMNC structure was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, and elemental analysis. Its morphology and size were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of employing the TSMNC for adsorption and in vitro controlled release of the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib was tested. The effect of the adsorption parameters of pH, temperature, and loading time of sorafenib onto TSMNC was evaluated. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the relevant parameters derived. The drug release profile indicated that 88% of the adsorbed drug was released within 35 h at 45 °C and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. The results confirmed that the TSMNC has a high adsorption capacity at low temperature and good controlled release in a slow rate at a high temperature and could be developed for further application as a drug nanocarrier. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide. It was evaluated for sorafenib (SFB) adsorption and tested as a controlled-release system in response to changes in temperature. The TSMNC showed superparamagnetic properties with a high adsorption capacity and desirable controlled release at below and above LCST. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A TSMNC was synthesized for controlled

  5. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy Design for Heavy Hybrid Electric Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the hybrid powertrain, the control is highly involved to improve the collaborations of the different components. For the specific powertrain, the components' sizing just gives the possibility to propel the vehicle and the control will realize the function of the propulsion. Definitely the components' sizing also gives the constraints to the control design, which cause a close coupling between the sizing and control strategy design. This paper presents a parametric study focused on sizing of the powertrain components and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor for minimizing the fuel consumption. A framework is put forward to accomplish the optimal sizing and control design for a heavy parallel pre-AMT hybrid truck under the natural driving schedule. The iterative plant-controller combined optimization methodology is adopted to optimize the key parameters of the plant and control strategy simultaneously. A scalable powertrain model based on a bilevel optimization framework is built. Dynamic programming is applied to find the optimal control in the inner loop with a prescribed cycle. The parameters are optimized in the outer loop. The results are analysed and the optimal sizing and control strategy are achieved simultaneously.

  6. Controlled synthesis of titania using water-soluble titanium complexes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Dien, Luong Xuan; Vo, Dai-Viet N.; Le, Thanh Son

    2017-07-01

    The development of human society has led to the increase in energy and resources consumption as well as the arising problems of environmental damage and the toxicity to the human health. The development of novel synthesis method which tolerates utilization of toxic solvents and chemicals would fulfill the demand of the society for safer, softer, and environmental friendly technologies. For the past decades, a remarkable progress has been attained in the development of new water-soluble titanium complexes (WSTC) and their use for the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials by aqueous solution-based approaches. The progress of synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide using such WSTCs is reviewed in this work. The key structural features responsible for the successfully controlled synthesis of TiO2 are discussed to provide guidelines for the morphology-controlled synthesis. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges as well as new directions in this fascinating research.

  7. Control of Pre-treatment for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Proton Ion Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. J.

    2008-04-01

    The carbon nanotubes are the next generation material in fuel storage system, the gas sensor, the life science sensor or the nano-size transistor, the stiffener and the heat dissipation field. For use at appropriate position in various field, it must be developed that control technique makes carbon nanotubes with high performance synthesized at appropriate location. The density of the carbon nanotube is 1 - 2g/cm3 with aluminum (2 - 3g/cm3) to be light, the elastic modulus is the level where as many of as 30 - 50 times of iron's elastic modulus and thermal conductivity is similar to the diamond, electric conductivity is high as well above the metal. Generally, many researchers have tried to synthesize the carbon nanotubes of mm length unit using the hydrogen and porous substrate, which play a role of more activating the catalyst. The proton beam which consist of H+ was able to directly inject the hydrogen into target materials such as Ni, Co, Fe as well as transfer high activation energy to them. so we were able to carry out feasibility of controlling the porosity of thin film and substrate to synthesize carbon nanotubes. The pre-treatment method of existing which is used generally heat treatment and the ammonia controls has generated island of catalyst which has increased the surface to react the hydrocarbon. However, pre-treatment method of existing caused the random nuclear creation so it was hard to control the island size of catalyst. It was not enough to understand the porous effect against synthesis of carbon nanotubes deduced from altering various substrates. In this report, it is possible investigate how hydrogen and the porous effect influence on growth of carbon nanotubes through controlling the nuclear creation of catalysts directly and the porosity of them using proton beam

  8. Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH: Synthesis and thermal transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; DiMasi, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH crystallised from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Mössbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co K α radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was α-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of α-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of α-FeOOH transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 in the temperature range 444-584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from α-Fe 2O 3 to follow the decrease of intensity from α-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition.

  9. Nano Size Crystals of Geothite, alpha-FeOOH: Synthesis and Thermal Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen,A.; Jensen, T.; Bahl, C.; DiMasi, E.

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, {alpha}-FeOOH crystallized from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Moessbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co K{alpha} radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was {alpha}-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of {alpha}-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of {alpha}-FeOOH transformed to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the temperature range 444--584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to follow the decrease of intensity from {alpha}-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition.

  10. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.

    2018-04-01

    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  11. Size control of giant unilamellar vesicles prepared from inverted emulsion droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toyota, Taro; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2012-06-15

    The production of giant lipid vesicles with controlled size and structure will be an important technology in the design of quantitative biological assays in cell-mimetic microcompartments. For establishing size control of giant vesicles, we investigated the vesicle formation process, in which inverted emulsion droplets are transformed into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) when they pass through an oil/water interface. The relationship between the size of the template emulsion and the converted GUVs was studied using inverted emulsion droplets with a narrow size distribution, which were prepared by microfluidics. We successfully found an appropriate centrifugal acceleration condition to obtain GUVs that had a desired size and narrow-enough size distribution with an improved yield so that emulsion droplets can become the template for GUVs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controllable ALD synthesis of platinum nanoparticles by tuning different synthesis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuandao; Lin, Yuyuan; Marks, Laurence; Hu, Linhua; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth; Stair, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles were successfully deposited using three different atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods, e.g. AB-type, ABC-type and static ABC-type ALD, on two different types of strontium titanate nanocuboids (STO-NCs) samples in a reaction temperature window of 125 °C–300 °C. The influence of reaction temperature, number of ALD cycles, type of substrate, 2nd reagent and type of ALD method on Pt nanoparticle deposition are comprehensively studied and discussed in this work. Varying the reaction temperature and number of cycles across the three different ALD methods affects Pt particle size, density, and loading. Surface termination of STO-NCs substrate will change deposited Pt nanoparticle growth orientation and thermodynamic shape. The B reagent besides platinum precursor can lead to different ligand decomposition mechanism when Pt precursors are exposed: oxygen allows more effective ligand combustion compared to water, however, the Pt particles are more oxidized according to XPS studies. We expect this work provides a way for tailoring nanoparticles with desired size, dispersion, exposed surfaces and chemical state etc, which helps controlling and optimizing their performance when applied as catalysts or nanosensors. (paper)

  13. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegâ n; Cheng, Jim C.; Doyle, Fiona M.; Pisano, Albert P.

    2013-01-01

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating

  14. Colloidal templating : a route towards controlled synthesis of functional polymeric nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Template-directed synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles offers better control over particle morphology, shape, structure, composition and properties compare to the conventional emulsion polymerization routes. For the production of anisotropic polymer-clay composite latex particles and polymeric

  15. Kinetically controlled synthesis of AuPt bi-metallic aerogels and their enhanced electrocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology; Bi, Cuixia [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Xia, Haibing [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Feng, Shuo [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Richland; USA; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA

    2017-01-01

    Kinetically controlled synthesis of AuPtxbi-metallic hydrogels/aerogels was efficiently achieved for the first timeviatuning the reaction temperature or adding a surfactant.

  16. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    compared to lean control. The ATP synthesis rate without ATP consumption was not different between groups and there were no significant gender differences. The mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes in vivo is partly based on a primarily impaired ATP synthesis....... or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...

  17. Facile synthesis of size-tunable gold nanoparticles by pomegranate (Punica granatum) leaf extract: Applications in arsenate sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Ashit; Mahajan, Ketakee; Bankar, Ashok [Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Srikanth, Rapole [Proteomics Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune 411007 (India); Kumar, Ameeta Ravi [Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gosavi, Suresh, E-mail: swg@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Centre for Sensor Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Zinjarde, Smita, E-mail: smita@unipune.ac.in [Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Centre for Sensor Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Pomegranate leaf extracts mediated rapid gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. ► The phyto-inspired AuNPs were size-tuned and characterized. ► The reducing and capping agents in the extract were identified. ► The nanoparticles reacted specifically with arsenate (V) ions. - Abstract: When pomegranate leaf extracts were incubated with chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized. These were characterized by a variety of techniques. With an increasing content of the leaf extract, a gradual decrease in size and an increase in monodispersity were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the phyto-fabricated AuNPs were surrounded by an amorphous layer. Gallic acid in the extract mediated the reduction and a natural decapeptide capped the nanostructures. Blocking of thiol groups in the decapeptide cysteine residues caused the nanoparticles to aggregate. On interaction with arsenate (V) ions, the UV–vis spectra of the nanoparticles showed a decrease in intensity and a red-shift. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the presence of arsenate associated with the AuNPs. Thus, by using these AuNPs, a method for sensing the toxic arsenate ions could be developed.

  18. Facile synthesis of size-tunable gold nanoparticles by pomegranate (Punica granatum) leaf extract: Applications in arsenate sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ashit; Mahajan, Ketakee; Bankar, Ashok; Srikanth, Rapole; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Gosavi, Suresh; Zinjarde, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pomegranate leaf extracts mediated rapid gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. ► The phyto-inspired AuNPs were size-tuned and characterized. ► The reducing and capping agents in the extract were identified. ► The nanoparticles reacted specifically with arsenate (V) ions. - Abstract: When pomegranate leaf extracts were incubated with chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 ), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized. These were characterized by a variety of techniques. With an increasing content of the leaf extract, a gradual decrease in size and an increase in monodispersity were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the phyto-fabricated AuNPs were surrounded by an amorphous layer. Gallic acid in the extract mediated the reduction and a natural decapeptide capped the nanostructures. Blocking of thiol groups in the decapeptide cysteine residues caused the nanoparticles to aggregate. On interaction with arsenate (V) ions, the UV–vis spectra of the nanoparticles showed a decrease in intensity and a red-shift. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the presence of arsenate associated with the AuNPs. Thus, by using these AuNPs, a method for sensing the toxic arsenate ions could be developed

  19. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology (China)

    2017-02-15

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H{sub 2} system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  20. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing

    2017-01-01

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H_2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  1. Synthesis of nano-sized PbSe from octeno-1,2,3-selenadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Singh, Narendra; Charan, Shobhit; Viswanath, A.K.; Patil, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction between trioctylphosphine selenide (TOPSe), generated from an organo-selenium compound, i.e. octeno-1,2,3-selenadiazole in tri-octylphosphine (TOP), and lead acetate has resulted formation of PbSe nano-crystals (cubes). TOPSe generated from the current method is first of its kind approach and is a novel concept. Characteristic absorption bands between 1.8-2.1 μm in near infra-red spectrum (NIR) are observed from sonicated PbSe crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed rock-salt crystal structure of PbSe with crystallite size of less than 10 nm. Observations made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed well-defined particles of the cubical crystals. XPS analysis showed that nano-crystals of PbSe were prone to air-oxidation due to 'not-so-efficient' capping

  2. Hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted titanium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, derivatization, characterization, size separation, and toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongmei; Maruyama, Kyouhei; Amano, Tsukuru; Murakami, Takashi; Komatsu, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    We have been developing surface functionalization of various nanoparticles including nanodiamond and iron oxide nanoparticles in view of biomedical applications. In this context, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are functionalized with polyglycerol (PG) to provide water-dispersible TiO2-PG, which is further derivatized through multi-step organic transformations. The resulting TiO2-PG and its derivatives are fully characterized by various analyses including solution-phase 1H and 13C NMR. TiO2-PG was size-tuned with centrifugation by changing the acceleration and duration. At last, no cytotoxicity of TiO2 NP, TiO2-PG, and TiO2-PG functionalized with RGD peptide was observed under dark conditions.

  3. Polymeric micelle assembly for the smart synthesis of mesoporous platinum nanospheres with tunable pore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Malgras, Victor; Li, Cuiling; Tang, Jing; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-14

    A facile method for the fabrication of well-dispersed mesoporous Pt nanospheres involves the use of a polymeric micelle assembly. A core-shell-corona type triblock copolymer [poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide), PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO] is employed as the pore-directing agent. Negatively charged PtCl4 (2-) ions preferably interact with the protonated P2VP(+) blocks while the free PEO chains prevent the aggregation of the Pt nanospheres. The size of the mesopores can be finely tuned by varying the length of the PS chain. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the metallic mesoporous nanospheres thus obtained are promising candidates for applications in electrochemistry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A General Strategy for Nanohybrids Synthesis via Coupled Competitive Reactions Controlled in a Hybrid Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesi...

  5. Low temperature synthesis of silicon quantum dots with plasma chemistry control in dual frequency non-thermal plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon Geon; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-06-21

    The advanced materials process by non-thermal plasmas with a high plasma density allows the synthesis of small-to-big sized Si quantum dots by combining low-temperature deposition with superior crystalline quality in the background of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride matrix. Here, we make quantum dot thin films in a reactive mixture of ammonia/silane/hydrogen utilizing dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas with high atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radical densities. Systematic data analysis using different film and plasma characterization tools reveals that the quantum dots with different sizes exhibit size dependent film properties, which are sensitively dependent on plasma characteristics. These films exhibit intense photoluminescence in the visible range with violet to orange colors and with narrow to broad widths (∼0.3-0.9 eV). The observed luminescence behavior can come from the quantum confinement effect, quasi-direct band-to-band recombination, and variation of atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radicals in the film growth network. The high luminescence yields in the visible range of the spectrum and size-tunable low-temperature synthesis with plasma and radical control make these quantum dot films good candidates for light emitting applications.

  6. Controlled fabrication of the strong emission YVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave assisted chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Tran Thu; Vinh, Le Thi; Phuong, Ha Thi; Khuyen, Hoang Thi; Anh, Tran Kim; Tu, Vu Duc; Minh, Le Quoc

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we are presenting the controlled fabrication results of the strong emission YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave which is assisted chemical synthesis. The effects of incorporated synthesis conditions such as microwave irradiated powers, pH values and concentration of chemical composition on properties of nanomaterials are also investigated to obtain the controllable size and homogenous morphology. Morphological and optical properties of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ prepared products which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission micrcroscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. As based from result of synthesized samples, we found that the changing of pH values, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition rise to change reform the size and shape of materials from nanoparticles (diameter about 20 nm) to wires shape (with about 500÷800 nm length and 10÷20 nm width). The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanostructure materials under UV excitation showed that: the strong luminescence in red region with narrow lines corresponding to the intra-4f transitions of 5 D 0 – 7 F j (j=1, 2, 3, and 4) of Eu 3+ ions with the highest luminescence intensity of 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. - Highlights: • The strong emission YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted chemical synthesis. • The size, morphology and luminescence of the YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials can be controlled by the solution pH, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition. • These YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials above can potentially applied in various fields of application, especially in luminescent labeling and visualization in biomedical application.

  7. Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H 2 and H ∞ controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Jr. Emmanuel G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H 2 or H ∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H 2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H ∞ performance. Both robust H 2 and H ∞ , controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H ∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H 2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis

  8. Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H2 and H∞ controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Collins

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H2 or H∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H∞ performance. Both robust H2 and H∞, controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis.

  9. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of highly water-dispersible size-tunable functionalized magnetite nanocrystal clusters for lipase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Hou, Chen; Li, Yijing; Zhao, Guanghui; Liu, Xiao; Hou, Ke; Li, Yanfeng

    2013-07-01

    A facile one-pot synthesis of highly water-dispersible size-tunable magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystal clusters (MNCs) end-functionalized with amino or carboxyl groups by a modified solvothermal reduction reaction has been developed. Dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyhydroxycinnamic acid were used for the first time as both a surfactant and interparticle linker in a polylol process for economical and environment-friendly purposes. Morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of the prepared particles were investigated by several methods, including FESEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, Raman, FTIR, TGA, zeta potential, and VSM. The sizes of the particles could be easily tuned over a wide range from 175 to 500 nm by varying the surfactant concentration. Moreover, ethylene glycol/diethylene glycol (EG/DEG) solvent mixtures with different ratios could be used as reductants to obtain the particles with smaller sizes. The XRD data demonstrated that the surfactants restrained the crystal growth of the grains. The nanoparticles showed superior magnetic properties and high colloidal stability in water. The cytotoxicity results indicated the feasibility of using the synthesized nanocrystals in biology-related fields. To estimate the applicability of the obtained MNCs in biotechnology, Candida rugosa lipase was selected for the enzyme immobilization process. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with the free enzyme. This novel strategy would simplify the reaction protocol and improve the efficiency of materials functionalization, thus offering new potential applications in biotechnology and organocatalysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparison of bi-level optimization frameworks for sizing and control of a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Bergshoeff, N.D.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the integrated design problem related to determining the power specifications of the main subsystems (sizing) and the supervisory control (energy management). Different bi-level optimization methods, with the outer loop using algorithms as Genetic Algorithms, Sequential

  11. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, X.; Chen, K.; Xing, H.; Yang, Q.; Krishna, R.; Bao, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Dong, Xinglong; Han, Y.; Li, B.; Ren, Q.; Zaworotko, M. J.; Chen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination

  12. Controllable synthesis of porous LiFePO4 for tunable electrochemical Li-insertion performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yingke; Wu, Guan; Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A templated freeze-drying method is developed to prepare the porous LiFePO 4 . • The pore size and porosity can be controlled by adjusting the conditions. • The effects of the porous properties on the Li-insertion performances are studied. • The optimized composite presents excellent specific capacity and rate capability. - Abstract: A templated freeze-drying method is developed to prepare the porous LiFePO 4 materials with the controlled pore size and porosity, by conveniently adjusting the size and content of the template in the precursor solution. The morphology and structure of the porous LiFePO 4 materials are characterized and the relavant electrochemical lithium-insertion performances are systematically studied. It’s found that the porous characteristics play a critical role in the lithium-ion intercalation processes and significantly affect the power capability of LiFePO 4 . The optimized porous LiFePO 4 material presents remarkable specific capacity (167 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C), rate capability (151 mAh g −1 at 1 C and 110 mAh g −1 at 10 C) and cycling stability (99.3% retention after 300 cycles at 1 C). These findings demonstrate that the electrochemical performance of the electrode material can be purposely tuned and remarkably improved by the rational design and introduction of the suitable pores, which open up new strategies for the synthesis of advanced porous materials for the lithium-ion power battery applications.

  13. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  14. Synthesis of on-chip control circuits for mVLSI biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potluri, Seetal; Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Hørslev-Petersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    them to laboratory environments. To address this issue, researchers have proposed methods to reduce the number of offchip pressure sources, through integration of on-chip pneumatic control logic circuits fabricated using three-layer monolithic membrane valve technology. Traditionally, mVLSI biochip......-chip control circuit design and (iii) the integration of on-chip control in the placement and routing design tasks. In this paper we present a design methodology for logic synthesis and physical synthesis of mVLSI biochips that use on-chip control. We show how the proposed methodology can be successfully...... applied to generate biochip layouts with integrated on-chip pneumatic control....

  15. Sterol synthesis and cell size distribution under oscillatory growth conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae scale-down cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbà-Ardébol, Anna-Maria; Bockisch, Anika; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Physiological responses of yeast to oscillatory environments as they appear in the liquid phase in large-scale bioreactors have been the subject of past studies. So far, however, the impact on the sterol content and intracellular regulation remains to be investigated. Since oxygen is a cofactor in several reaction steps within sterol metabolism, changes in oxygen availability, as occurs in production-scale aerated bioreactors, might have an influence on the regulation and incorporation of free sterols into the cell lipid layer. Therefore, sterol and fatty acid synthesis in two- and three-compartment scale-down Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivation were studied and compared with typical values obtained in homogeneous lab-scale cultivations. While cells were exposed to oscillating substrate and oxygen availability in the scale-down cultivations, growth was reduced and accumulation of carboxylic acids was increased. Sterol synthesis was elevated to ergosterol at the same time. The higher fluxes led to increased concentrations of esterified sterols. The cells thus seem to utilize the increased availability of precursors to fill their sterol reservoirs; however, this seems to be limited in the three-compartment reactor cultivation due to a prolonged exposure to oxygen limitation. Besides, a larger heterogeneity within the single-cell size distribution was observed under oscillatory growth conditions with three-dimensional holographic microscopy. Hence the impact of gradients is also observable at the morphological level. The consideration of such a single-cell-based analysis provides useful information about the homogeneity of responses among the population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Silver nanostructures with well-controlled shapes: synthesis, characterization and growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Caixia; Zhu Jiejun; Zhu Xiaoguang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a poly(vinylpyrollidone)-directed polyol synthesis method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanostructures with well-controlled shapes (such as nanorods and nanocubes) by adjusting the synthesizing parameters. The structure characterizations suggest that the Ag nanorods grow from the five-fold twinned decahedral crystal nuclei. The nature of the {1 1 1} planes of Ag crystal and the highly selective poly(vinylpyrollidone) adsorption on the {100} planes of Ag crystal nuclei are favourable for the formation of Ag nanorods and Ag nanowires. The single crystalline Ag nanocubes obtained at optimum conditions are perfect in shape and are enclosed by the {1 0 0} facets. The optical properties of the Ag nanostructures show an attractive plasma resonance, displaying a considerable dependence on the shape and size. The formation of the Ag nanostructures with well-defined shapes is probably due to the fact that the nanostructures are controlled thermodynamically and kinetically. The ability to generate shape-controlled Ag nanostructures also provides an opportunity to experimentally and systematically study the relationship between their properties and geometric shapes

  17. Silver nanostructures with well-controlled shapes: synthesis, characterization and growth mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Cai-Xia; Zhu, Jie-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Guang

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a poly(vinylpyrollidone)-directed polyol synthesis method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanostructures with well-controlled shapes (such as nanorods and nanocubes) by adjusting the synthesizing parameters. The structure characterizations suggest that the Ag nanorods grow from the five-fold twinned decahedral crystal nuclei. The nature of the {1 1 1} planes of Ag crystal and the highly selective poly(vinylpyrollidone) adsorption on the {100} planes of Ag crystal nuclei are favourable for the formation of Ag nanorods and Ag nanowires. The single crystalline Ag nanocubes obtained at optimum conditions are perfect in shape and are enclosed by the {1 0 0} facets. The optical properties of the Ag nanostructures show an attractive plasma resonance, displaying a considerable dependence on the shape and size. The formation of the Ag nanostructures with well-defined shapes is probably due to the fact that the nanostructures are controlled thermodynamically and kinetically. The ability to generate shape-controlled Ag nanostructures also provides an opportunity to experimentally and systematically study the relationship between their properties and geometric shapes.

  18. Silver nanostructures with well-controlled shapes: synthesis, characterization and growth mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Caixia [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Zhu Jiejun [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu Xiaoguang [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: cxkan@nuaa.edu.cn

    2008-08-07

    This paper describes a poly(vinylpyrollidone)-directed polyol synthesis method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanostructures with well-controlled shapes (such as nanorods and nanocubes) by adjusting the synthesizing parameters. The structure characterizations suggest that the Ag nanorods grow from the five-fold twinned decahedral crystal nuclei. The nature of the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes of Ag crystal and the highly selective poly(vinylpyrollidone) adsorption on the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes of Ag crystal nuclei are favourable for the formation of Ag nanorods and Ag nanowires. The single crystalline Ag nanocubes obtained at optimum conditions are perfect in shape and are enclosed by the {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} facets. The optical properties of the Ag nanostructures show an attractive plasma resonance, displaying a considerable dependence on the shape and size. The formation of the Ag nanostructures with well-defined shapes is probably due to the fact that the nanostructures are controlled thermodynamically and kinetically. The ability to generate shape-controlled Ag nanostructures also provides an opportunity to experimentally and systematically study the relationship between their properties and geometric shapes.

  19. Controllable synthesis of molybdenum tungsten disulfide alloy for vertically composition-controlled multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Su Jeong; Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Chang Wan; Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Zonghoon; Myoung, Jae-Min; Dussarrat, Christian; Lansalot-Matras, Clement; Park, Jusang; Choi, Hyunyong; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-01-01

    The effective synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides alloy is essential for successful application in electronic and optical devices based on a tunable band gap. Here we show a synthesis process for Mo1−xWxS2 alloy using sulfurization of super-cycle atomic layer deposition Mo1−xWxOy. Various spectroscopic and microscopic results indicate that the synthesized Mo1−xWxS2 alloys have complete mixing of Mo and W atoms and tunable band gap by systematically controlled composition and layer number. Based on this, we synthesize a vertically composition-controlled (VCC) Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer using five continuous super-cycles with different cycle ratios for each super-cycle. Angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer results reveal that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer has different vertical composition and broadband light absorption with strong interlayer coupling within a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer. Further, we demonstrate that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer photodetector generates three to four times greater photocurrent than MoS2- and WS2-based devices, owing to the broadband light absorption. PMID:26204328

  20. Shape and phase control of CdS nanocrystals using cationic surfactant in noninjection synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monodispersed CdS nanocrystals with controllable shape and phase have been successfully synthesized in this study by adding cationic surfactant in noninjection synthesis system. With the increase of the amount of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC added, the shape of the CdS nanocrystals changed from spherical to multi-armed, and the phase changed from zinc-blende to wurtzite. It was found that halide ion Cl- plays a key role in the transformation, and other halide ions such as Br- can also induce similar transformation. We proposed that the strong binding between Cd2+ and halide ions reduced the reactivity of the precursors, decreased the nuclei formed in the nucleation stage, and led to the high concentration of precursor in the growth stage, resulting in the increase of size and phase transformation of CdS nanocrystals. In addition, it was found that the multi-armed CdS nanocrystals lost quantum confinement effect because of the increase of the size with the increase of the concentration of CTAC.

  1. Solution Synthesis Approach to Colloidal Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets with Monolayer-Level Thickness Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report a colloidal synthesis approach to CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets (NPLs). The nucleation and growth of the platelets, which takes place at room temperature, is triggered by the injection of acetone in a mixture of precursors that would remain unreactive otherwise. The low growth temperature enables the control of the plate thickness, which can be precisely tuned from 3 to 5 monolayers. The strong two-dimensional confinement of the carriers at such small vertical sizes is responsible for a narrow PL, strong excitonic absorption, and a blue shift of the optical band gap by more than 0.47 eV compared to that of bulk CsPbBr3. We also show that the composition of the NPLs can be varied all the way to CsPbBr3 or CsPbI3 by anion exchange, with preservation of the size and shape of the starting particles. The blue fluorescent CsPbCl3 NPLs represent a new member of the scarcely populated group of blue-emitting colloidal nanocrystals. The exciton dynamics were found to be independent of the extent of 2D confinement in these platelets, and this was supported by band structure calculations. PMID:26726764

  2. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-09-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ˜0.5-26.7 μm, inner diameter of ˜13-201 nm, and outer diameter of ˜28-250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts.

  3. Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with tunable sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xian; Zha, Chenyang; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Liming; Wang, Yifeng; Bao, Ningzhong; Gupta, Arunava; Yoriya, Sorachon

    2014-01-01

    Vertically-oriented one-dimensional TiO 2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have been fabricated by anodic oxidation using different electrolyte solvents, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F). The influence of synthetic conditions, including the nature of the electrolyte and anodization voltage, on nanotube microstructure has been systematically investigated. Highly-ordered TNTs with tube length of ∼0.5–26.7 μm, inner diameter of ∼13–201 nm, and outer diameter of ∼28–250 nm have been obtained. The conversion of as-prepared TNT arrays from amorphous phase to crystalline structure has been achieved by a post-synthetic annealing at 500 °C for 3 h in oxygen ambient. The TNT arrays with tunable sizes and structures are attractive for use as electrode materials in fabrication of thin film solar cells and highly active photocatalysts. (paper)

  4. An unusual correlation between ppGpp pool size and rate of ribosome synthesis during partial pyrimidine starvation of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Pedersen, Steen; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli was exposed to partial pyrimidine starvation by feeding a pyrBI strain orotate as the only pyrimidine source. Subsequently, differential rates of synthesis of rRNA and of a few ribosome-associated proteins as well as the pool sizes of nucleoside triphosphates and ppGpp were measu...

  5. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  6. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  7. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  8. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  9. Synthesis of Highly Reactive Subnano-sized Zero-valent Iron using Smectite Clay Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Jia, Hanzhang; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J.; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method was developed for synthesizing subnano-sized zero-valent iron (ZVI) using smectite clay layers as templates. Exchangeable Fe(III) cations compensating the structural negative charges of smectites were reduced with NaBH4, resulting in the formation of ZVI. The unique structure of smectite clay, in which isolated exchangeable Fe(III) cations reside near the sites of structural negative charges, inhibited the agglomeration of ZVI resulting in the formation of discrete regions of subnanoscale ZVI particles in the smectite interlayer regions. X-ray diffraction revealed an interlayer spacing of ~ 5 Å. The non-structural iron content of this clay yields a calculated ratio of two atoms of ZVI per three cation exchange sites, in full agreement with the XRD results since the diameter of elemental Fe is 2.5 Å. The clay-templated ZVI showed superior reactivity and efficiency compared to other previously reported forms of ZVI as indicated by the reduction of nitrobenzene; structural Fe within the aluminosilicate layers was nonreactive. At a 1:3 molar ratio of nitrobenzene:non-structural Fe, a reaction efficiency of 83% was achieved, and over 80% of the nitrobenzene was reduced within one minute. These results confirm that non-structural Fe from Fe(III)-smectite was reduced predominantly to ZVI which was responsible for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. This new form of subnano-scale ZVI may find utility in the development of remediation technologies for persistent environmental contaminants, e.g. as components of constructed reactive domains such as reactive caps for contaminated sediments. PMID:20446730

  10. Synthesis of highly reactive subnano-sized zero-valent iron using smectite clay templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    A novel method was developed for synthesizing subnano-sized zero-valent iron (ZVI) using smectite clay layers as templates. Exchangeable Fe(III) cations compensating the structural negative charges of smectites were reduced with NaBH(4), resulting in the formation of ZVI. The unique structure of smectite clay, in which isolated exchangeable Fe(III) cations reside near the sites of structural negative charges, inhibited the agglomeration of ZVI resulting in the formation of subnanoscale ZVI particles in the smectite interlayer regions. X-ray diffraction revealed an interlayer spacing of approximately 5 A. The non-structural iron content of this clay yields a calculated ratio of two atoms of ZVI per three cation exchange sites, in full agreement with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results since the diameter of elemental Fe is 2.5 A. The clay-templated ZVI showed superior reactivity and efficiency compared to other previously reported forms of ZVI as indicated by the reduction of nitrobenzene; structural Fe within the aluminosilicate layers was nonreactive. At a 1:3 molar ratio of nitrobenzene/non-structural Fe, a reaction efficiency of 83% was achieved, and over 80% of the nitrobenzene was reduced within one minute. These results confirm that non-structural Fe from Fe(III)-smectite was reduced predominantly to ZVI which was responsible for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. This new form of subnanoscale ZVI may find utility in the development of remediation technologies for persistent environmental contaminants, for example, as components of constructed reactive domains such as reactive caps for contaminated sediments.

  11. Effects of tissue-preparation-induced callose synthesis on estimates of plasmodesma size exclusion limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, J E; White, R G

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodesmata are often characterised by their size exclusion limit (SEL), which is the molecular weight of the largest dye, introduced by microinjection, that will move from cell to cell. In this study, we investigated whether commonly used techniques for isolation and manipulation of tissues, and microinjection of fluorescent dyes, affected the SEL, and whether any such effects could be ameliorated by inhibiting callose deposition. We examined young root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and staminal hair cells of Tradescantia virginiana, two tissues often used in experiments on symplastic transport. Transport in root tips dissected from the main plant body and in stamen hairs removed from the base of the stamen filament was compared with transport in undissected roots and stamen hairs attached to the base of the filament, respectively. Tissues were microinjected with fluorescent dyes (457 Da to > 3 kDa) with or without prior incubation in the callose deposition inhibitors 2-deoxy-D-glucose or aniline blue fluorochrome. In both tissues, dissection reduced the SEL, which was largely prevented by prior incubation in 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by incubation in aniline blue fluorochrome. Thus, standard methods for tissue preparation can cause sufficient callose deposition to reduce cell-to-cell transport, and this needs to be considered in studies employing microinjection. Introduction of the dyes by pressure injection rather than iontophoresis decreased the SEL in A. thaliana but increased it in T. virginiana, showing that these two injection techniques do not necessarily give identical results and that plasmodesmata in different tissues may respond differently to similar experimental procedures.

  12. The Organization of Nanoporous Structure Using Controlled Micelle Size from MPEG-b-PDLLA Block Copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Ja; Shin, Young Kook

    2004-01-01

    Selected MPEG-b-PDLLA block copolymers have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization with systematic variation of the chain lengths of the resident hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks. The size and shape of the micelles that spontaneously form in solution are then controlled by the characteristics of the block copolymer template. All the materials prepared in this study showed the tunable pore size of 20-80 A with the increase of hydrophobic chain lengths and up to 660 m 2 /g of specific surface area. The formation mechanism of these nanoporous structures obtained by controlling the micelle size has been confirmed using both liquid and solid state 13 C and 29 Si NMR techniques. This work verifies the formation mechanism of nanoporous structures in which the pore size and wall thickness are closely dependent on the size of hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells of the block copolymer templates

  13. ZnO Coatings with Controlled Pore Size, Crystallinity and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SCHMACK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with unique optical, electrical and catalytic properties. Many of its practical applications rely on the materials pore structure, crystallinity and electrical conductivity. We report a synthesis method for ZnO films with ordered mesopore structure and tuneable crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The synthesis relies on dip-coating of solutions containing micelles of an amphiphilic block copolymer and complexes of Zn2+ ions with aliphatic ligands. A subsequent calcination at 400°C removes the template and induces crystallization of the pore walls. The pore structure is controlled by the template polymer, whereas the aliphatic ligands control the crystallinity of the pore walls. Complexes with a higher thermal stability result in ZnO films with a higher content of residual carbon, smaller ZnO crystals and therefore lower electrical conductivity. The paper discusses the ability of different types of ligands to assist in the synthesis of mesoporous ZnO and relates the structure and thermal stability of the precursor complexes to the crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.8634

  14. Optimal sizing and control strategy of isolated grid with wind power and energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yi; Shi, Lin; Tu, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy storage sizing scheme for wind powered isolated grid is developed. • A bi-level control strategy for wind-battery isolated grid is proposed. • The energy storage type selection method for Nan’ao island grid is presented. • The sizing method and the control strategy are verified based on the Nan’ao island. • The wind-battery demonstration system has great benefit for remote areas. - Abstract: Integrating renewable energy and energy storage system provides a prospective way for power supply of remote areas. Focused on the isolated grids comprising renewable energy generation and energy storage, an energy storage sizing method for taking account of the reliability requirement and a bi-level control strategy of the isolated grids are presented in this paper. Based on comparative analysis of current energy storage characteristics and practicability, Sodium–sulfur battery is recommended for power balance control in the isolated grids. The optimal size of the energy storage system is determined by genetic algorithm and sequential simulation. The annualized cost considering the compensation cost of curtailed wind power and load is minimized when the reliability requirement can be satisfied. The sizing method emphasizes the tradeoff between energy storage size and reliability of power supply. The bi-level control strategy is designed as upper level wide area power balance control in dispatch timescale and lower level battery energy storage system V/f control in real-time range for isolated operation. The mixed timescale simulation results of Nan’ao Island grid verify the effectiveness of the proposed sizing method and control strategy

  15. Towards Cluster-Assembled Materials of True Monodispersity in Size and Chemical Environment: Synthesis, Dynamics and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    thermodynamic and kinetic cluster size control on periodically wet - table surfaces, new questions came up concerning the link between diffusivity and...from ring-hollow (H,F) to ring-bridge (B). Left: STM annealing series (50×50 nm2), Moiré cell scheme and cluster position evaluation. Pd clus- ters...growth at T>700 K. Below: Measured and theoretically simulated (insets) STM images of various stages in the dehydrogenation process upon annealing

  16. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

  17. Research in Korea on Gas Phase Synthesis and Control of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mansoo

    2001-01-01

    Research activity into the gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles has witnessed rapid growth on a worldwide basis, which is also reflected by Korean research efforts. Nanoparticle research is inherently a multi-disciplinary activity involving both science and engineering. In this paper, the recent studies undertaken in Korea on the gas phase synthesis and control of nanoparticles are reviewed. Studies on the synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles are first discussed with a focus on the different types of reactors used. Recent experimental and theoretical studies and newly developed methods of measuring and modeling nanoparticle growth are also reviewed

  18. Confinement of surface waves at the air-water interface to control aerosol size and dispersity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarzadeh, Elijah; Wilson, Rab; King, Xi; Reboud, Julien; Tassieri, Manlio; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2017-11-01

    The precise control over the size and dispersity of droplets, produced within aerosols, is of great interest across many manufacturing, food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Amongst these applications, the delivery of new classes of high value drugs to the lungs has recently attracted significant attention from pharmaceutical companies. This is commonly achieved through the mechanical excitation of surface waves at the air liquid interface of a parent liquid volume. Previous studies have established a correlation between the wavelength on the surface of liquid and the final aerosol size. In this work, we show that the droplet size distribution of aerosols can be controlled by constraining the liquid inside micron-sized cavities and coupling surface acoustic waves into different volumes of liquid inside micro-grids. In particular, we show that by reducing the characteristic physical confinement size (i.e., either the initial liquid volume or the cavities' diameters), higher harmonics of capillary waves are revealed with a consequent reduction of both aerosol mean size and dispersity. In doing so, we provide a new method for the generation and fine control of aerosols' sizes distribution.

  19. Nonlinear control synthesis for electrical power systems using controllable series capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarekar, N.S.; Banavar, Ravi N. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Systems and Control Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector g(x) in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stabilizing controllers for power systems, where the CSC dynamics are included as a first order system. Next, we consider a different control methodology, immersion and invariance (I and I), to synthesize an asymptotically stabilizing control law for the SMIB system with a CSC. The CSC is described by a first order system. As a generalization of I and I, we incorporate the power balance algebraic constraints in the load bus to the SMIB swing equation, and extend the design philosophy to a class of differential algebraic systems. The proposed result is then demonstrated on another example: a two-machine system with two load buses and a CSC. The controller performances are validated through simulations for all cases.

  20. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  1. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis and self-assembly of well-defined block copolypeptides via controlled NCA polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes advances in the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides and block copolypeptides. Traditional methods used to polymerize α-amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) are described, and limitations in the utility of these systems for the preparation of polypeptides are discussed. Improved initiators and methods that allow polypeptide synthesis with good control over chain length, chain length distribution, and chain-end functionality are also discussed. Using these methods, b...

  3. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  4. Nonlinear Control Synthesis for Electrical Power Systems Using Controllable Series Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarekar, N S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector $g(x)$ in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stab...

  5. Controlling the size and morphology of Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals by manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yiqun; Zeng, Jie; Xia, Younan

    2012-06-25

    This article reports a systematic study of the seed-mediated growth of Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a variety of controlled sizes and morphologies. The key to the success of this synthesis is to manipulate the reaction kinetics by tuning a set of reaction parameters, including the type and concentration of capping agent, the amount of ascorbic acid used as the reducing agent, and the injection rate used for the precursor solution. Starting from Au nanospheres of 11 nm in diameter as the seeds, Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a number of morphologies, including octahedra, concave octahedra, rectangular bars, cubes, concave cubes, and dendrites, could all be obtained by simply altering the reaction rate. For the first time, it was possible to generate Au@Pd nanocrystals with concave structures on the surfaces while their sizes were kept below 20 nm. In addition, the as-prepared Au@Pd nanocubes can be used as seeds to generate Au@Pd@Au and Au@Pd@Au@Pd nanocrystals with multishelled structures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research...... in fault tolerant satellite formation control, but can be used to synthesise controllers for a wide range of systems where external events can alter the system dynamics. The synthesis method relies on abstracting the hybrid system into a discrete game, finding a winning strategy for the game meeting...... game and linear optimisation solvers for controller refinement. To illustrate the efficacy of the method a reoccurring satellite formation example including actuator faults has been used. The end result is the application of PAHSCTRL on the example showing synthesis and simulation of a fault tolerant...

  7. Distributed active traction control system applied to the RoboCup middle size league

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, José; Dias, André; Sequeira, João; Martins, Alfredo; Silva, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL). The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies in local slip detection and con...

  8. Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were employed to evaluate several mixer geometries for a novel two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor. The addition of a second stage holds the promise of allowing the synthesis of functionalized nano-materials as for example core-shell...... or decorated particles. Based on the simulation results, a reactor system employing a confined jet mixer in the first and a counter-flow mixer in the second stage was designed and built. The two-stage functionality and synthesis capacity is shown on the example of single- and two-stage syntheses of pure...... and mixed-phase NiO and YSZ particles....

  9. Neurotransmitter synthesis from CNS glutamine for central control of breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoop, B.; Systrom, D.; Chiang, C.H.; Shih, V.E.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum rate at which CNS glutamine (GLN) derived from glutamate (GLU) can be sequestered for synthesis of neurotransmitter GLU and/or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been determined in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. A total of 57 animals were studied under normal, hypoxic (Pa/sub O2/ greater than or equal to 20 mmHg), or hypercapnic (Pa/sub CO2/ less than or equal to 71 mm Hg) conditions. Thirteen of these were bilaterally vagotomized and carotid body denervated and studied only under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In 5 animals cerebrospinal fluid GLN transfer rate constant k was measured using 13 N-ammonia tracer. Measured cerebral cortical (CC) and medullary (MED) GLN concentrations c are found to vary with GLU metabolic rate r according to c-C/sub m/r/(r+R), where r, the product of k and corresponding tissue GLU concentration, is assumed equal to the maximum GLN metabolic rate via pathways other than for neurotransmitter synthesis. The constants C/sub m/ and R are the predicted maximum GLN concentration and its maximum rate of sequestration for neurotransmitter synthesis, respectively. For both CNS tissue types in all animals, C/sub m/ = 20.9 +- 7.4 (SD) mmoles/kg wet wt(mM) and R = 6.2 +- 2.3 mM/min. These values are consistent with results obtained in anesthetized rats

  10. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Xu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. PMID:27457126

  12. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rossini, Laura; von Korff, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling the spotlight of attention: visual span size and flexibility in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Ava; Christensen, Bruce K; Reingold, Eyal M

    2011-10-01

    The current study investigated the size and flexible control of visual span among patients with schizophrenia during visual search performance. Visual span is the region of the visual field from which one extracts information during a single eye fixation, and a larger visual span size is linked to more efficient search performance. Therefore, a reduced visual span may explain patients' impaired performance on search tasks. The gaze-contingent moving window paradigm was used to estimate the visual span size of patients and healthy participants while they performed two different search tasks. In addition, changes in visual span size were measured as a function of two manipulations of task difficulty: target-distractor similarity and stimulus familiarity. Patients with schizophrenia searched more slowly across both tasks and conditions. Patients also demonstrated smaller visual span sizes on the easier search condition in each task. Moreover, healthy controls' visual span size increased as target discriminability or distractor familiarity increased. This modulation of visual span size, however, was reduced or not observed among patients. The implications of the present findings, with regard to previously reported visual search deficits, and other functional and structural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi

    2013-01-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. The importance of control considerations for heat exchanger network synthesis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost optimization in the synthesis decision tree often leads to a reduced degree of freedom which degrades the process’s ability to reject disturbances as a consequence of low controllability. In fact, Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs obtained by traditional synthesis procedures that ignore controllability aspects must be evaluated in this context a posteriori. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure that includes RGA and SVD measures of controllability, which are solely based on steady state information, thereby freeing the synthesis procedure of the cumbersome dynamic analysis. When a structure is defined during a traditional HEN synthesis procedure, a degree of freedom analysis is approached as a simulation problem. Next, an optimization is performed, since new variables are usually added to increase the degree of freedom of the HEN in order to render it controllable. A key point in the proposed procedure is the inference of controllability based on the proposed controllability measures, which also provide a control scheme by pairing controlled and manipulated variables during the process design. A HEN reported in the literature is used to illustrate the proposed procedure. The steady state simulator Aspen Plus and the dynamic simulator Aspen Dynamics (Aspentech, Inc. were employed.

  16. Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduit, Paul T; Brunk, Kathrin; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Dix, Carly I; Lucas, Eliana P; Raff, Jordan W

    2010-12-21

    centrosomes are major microtubule organizing centers in animal cells, and they comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM). Centrosome size is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and it has recently been shown that the two centrosomes in certain stem cells are often asymmetric in size. There is compelling evidence that centrioles influence centrosome size, but how centrosome size is set remains mysterious. we show that the conserved Drosophila PCM protein Cnn exhibits an unusual dynamic behavior, because Cnn molecules only incorporate into the PCM closest to the centrioles and then spread outward through the rest of the PCM. Cnn incorporation into the PCM is driven by an interaction with the conserved centriolar proteins Asl (Cep152 in humans) and DSpd-2 (Cep192 in humans). The rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and this rate influences the amount of Cnn in the PCM, which in turn is an important determinant of overall centrosome size. Intriguingly, daughter centrioles in syncytial embryos only start to incorporate Cnn as they disengage from their mothers; this generates a centrosome size asymmetry, with mother centrioles always initially organizing more Cnn than their daughters. centrioles can control the amount of PCM they organize by regulating the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. This mechanism can explain how centrosome size is regulated during the cell cycle and also allows mother and daughter centrioles to set centrosome size independently of one another.

  17. U-Mo Alloy Powder Obtained Through Selective Hydriding. Particle Size Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, S.N.; Bruzzoni, P.; Granovsky, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Hydride-dehydride methods to obtain U-Mo alloy powder for high-density fuel elements have been successfully tested by different authors. One of these methods is the selective hydriding of the α phase (HSα). In the HSα method, a key step is the partial decomposition of the γ phase (retained by quenching) to α phase and an enriched γ phase or U 2 Mo. This transformation starts mainly at grain boundaries. Subsequent hydrogenation of this material leads to selective hydriding of the α phase, embrittlement and intergranular fracture. According to this picture, the particle size of the final product should be related to the γ grain size of the starting alloy. The feasibility of controlling the particle size of the product by changing the γ grain size of the starting alloy is currently investigated. In this work an U-7 wt% Mo alloy was subjected to various heat treatments in order to obtain different grain sizes. The results on the powder particle size distribution after applying the HSα method to these samples show that there is a strong correlation between the original γ grain size and the particle size distribution of the powder. (author)

  18. Synthesis of high efficient Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts by grinding and their size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Dawei; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu nanodots were decorated on TiO 2 surface through ball milling method. • Its size distribution was investigated in water and ethanolic medium. • Photocurrent response and hydrogen evolution was improved. • Performance was found to be dependent on size of Cu nanodots. - Abstract: Recently, copper species have been extensively investigated to replace Pt as efficient co-catalysts for the evolution of H 2 due to their low cost and relatively high activity. Cu nanoparticles less than 5 nm are successfully decorated on TiO 2 surface in this work by an easy and mild milling process. These Cu nanoparticles are highly dispersed on TiO 2 when the loading amount of Cu is no more than 10 wt%. The sizes of Cu nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the milling environment and decrease in the order of Cu-ethanol > Cu-water > Cu nanoparticles obtained through drying milling. The highest and stable hydrogen generation can be realized on Cu/TiO 2 with 2.0 wt% Cu and sizes of Cu nanoparticles ranging from 2 to 4 nm, in which high and stable photocurrent confirms promoted photogenerated charge separation. Smaller Cu clusters are demonstrated to be detrimental to hydrogen evolution at same Cu content. High loading of Cu nanoparticles of 2–4 nm will benefit photogenerated electron-hole recombination and thus decrease the activity of Cu/TiO 2 . The results here demonstrate the key roles of Cu cluster size in addition to Cu coverage on photocatalytic activity of Cu/TiO 2 composite photocatalysts.

  19. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of monodispersed ceria nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, monodispersed CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs of size 8.5 ± 1.0, 11.4 ± 1.0 and 15.4 ± 1.0 nm were synthesized using the sol-gel method. Size-dependent structural, optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, ultra-violet visible (UV-VIS spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurements. The value of optical band gap is calculated for each particle size. The decrease in the value of optical band gap with increase of particle size may be attributed to the quantum confinement, which causes to produce localized states created by the oxygen vacancies due to the conversion of Ce4+ into Ce3+ at higher calcination temperature. The Raman spectra showed a peak at ∼461 cm-1 for the particle size 8.5 nm, which is attributed to the 1LO phonon mode. The shift in the Raman peak could be due to lattice strain developed due to variation in particle size. Weak ferromagnetism at room temperature is observed for each particle size. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms, coercivity (Hc and retentivity (Mr are increased with increase of particle size. The increase of Ms and Mr for larger particle size may be explained by increase of density of oxygen vacancies at higher calcination temperature. The latter causes high concentrations of Ce3+ ions activate more coupling between the individual magnetic moments of the Ce ions, leading to an increase of Ms value with the particle size. Moreover, the oxygen vacancies may also produce magnetic moment by polarizing spins of f electrons of cerium (Ce ions located around oxygen vacancies, which causes ferromagnetism in pure CeO2 samples.

  20. Parametric synthesis of a robust controller on a base of mathematical programming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.; Ezangina, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    Considered paper is dedicated to deriving sufficient conditions, linking root indices of robust control quality with coefficients of interval characteristic polynomial, on the base of mathematical programming method. On the base of these conditions, a method of PI- and PID-controllers, providing aperiodic transient process with acceptable stability degree and, subsequently, acceptable setting time, synthesis was developed. The method was applied to a problem of synthesizing a controller for a depth control system of an unmanned underwater vehicle.

  1. Nanoparticle size and morphology control using ultrafast laser induced forward transfer of Ni thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Abere, Michael J.; Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-26

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) printing technique using Ni thin film lift-off from glass substrates after ultrafast irradiation in air. Unique interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with thin films allow for control over NP faceting and size distributions. Control is achieved by changing the laser fluence, film thickness, and film-substrate distance. We demonstrate 20 nm Ni film removal from substrates and rapid NP printing, with size distributions centered at a 6 nm diameter. When the Ni film thickness is lowered to 10 nm, NPs are printed with distributions peaked at a 2 nm diameter.

  2. Template-free synthesis of sub-micrometric cobalt fibers with controlled shape and structure. Characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhdar, Allagui [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Borges, Joao P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslam [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Dakhlaoui-Omrani, Amel, E-mail: dakhlaoui_amel@yahoo.fr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts-Khulais, University of Jeddah, Khulais, P. O. Box 355, Postal Code 21921 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopôle de Bordj Cedria, BP 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia)

    2017-03-01

    Sub-micrometric Co fibers were prepared via a modified polyol process at 90 °C under an external magnetic field of about 550 Oe, using ethelyne glycol as solvent and hydrazine as reducing agent. The structure, the size and the morphology of the as-elaborated products were highly controlled through properly monitoring the synthesis parameters (amount of NaOH added, the amount of the reducing agent, precursor’ concentration and precursors mixing protocol). The XRD characterization confirmed the formation of pure cobalt powders with either hexagonal compact (hcp) or face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure depending on the concentration of the metal precursor and sodium hydroxide. The scanning electron microscopy observations of the powders shows sub-micrometric fibers with about 0.4–0.6 µm in diameter and a length that could reach 15 µm. Fibers prepared at high reducing ratio were constituted of flower-like spheres that coalesce in the direction of the applied magnetic field. For their high contact surface, these fibers offer new opportunities for catalysis applications. The hysteresis loop measurements show an enhancement of the Hc of the as-obtained fibers compared to their bulk counterparts and permit to confirm the relationship between the structure and the magnetic properties of the materials. - Highlights: • Template free synthesis of cobalt sub-micrometric fibers. • High control of the structure the structure, the size and the morphology of the products through properly monitoring the synthesis parameters. • cobalt sub-micrometric fibers with enhanced magnetic properties compared to bulk cobalt.

  3. Generating size-controlled embryoid bodies using laser direct-write

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A D; Corr, D T; Unser, A M; Xie, Y; Chrisey, D B

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type. One common method to differentiate ESCs in vitro is through embryoid bodies (EBs), three-dimensional cellular aggregates that spontaneously self-assemble and generally express markers for the three germ layers, endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. It has been previously shown that both EB size and 2D colony size each influence differentiation. We hypothesized that we could control the size of the EB formed by mouse ESCs (mESCs) by using a cell printing method, laser direct-write (LDW), to control both the size of the initial printed colony and the local cell density in printed colonies. After printing mESCs at various printed colony sizes and printing densities, two-way ANOVAs indicated that the EB diameter was influenced by printing density after three days (p = 0.0002), while there was no effect of the printed colony diameter on the EB diameter at the same timepoint (p = 0.74). There was no significant interaction between these two factors. Tukey's honestly significant difference test showed that high-density colonies formed significantly larger EBs, suggesting that printed mESCs quickly aggregate with nearby cells. Thus, EBs can be engineered to a desired size by controlling printing density, which will influence the design of future differentiation studies. Herein, we highlight the capacity of LDW to control the local cell density and colony size independently, at prescribed spatial locations, potentially leading to better stem cell maintenance and directed differentiation. (paper)

  4. Flow chemistry to control the synthesis of nano and microparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe; Lara, Pablo; Guerrero, Simón; Cabuil, Valérie; Abou-Hassan, Ali; Kogan, Marcelo J

    2014-03-01

    In this article we review the flow chemistry methodologies for the controlled synthesis of different kind of nano and microparticles for biomedical applications. Injection mechanism has emerged as new alternative for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to this strategy allows achieving superior levels of control of self-assemblies, leading to higher-ordered structures and rapid chemical reactions. Self-assembly events are strongly dependent on factors such as the local concentration of reagents, the mixing rates, and the shear forces, which can be finely tuned, as an example, in a microfluidic device. Injection methods have also proved to be optimal to elaborate microsystems comprising polymer solutions. Concretely, extrusion based methods can provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. We provide an update of synthesis of nano and microparticles such as core/shell, Janus, nanocrystals, liposomes, and biopolymeric microgels through flow chemistry, its potential bioapplications and future challenges in this field are discussed.

  5. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  6. Poly(2-aminothiazole)-silica nanocomposite particles: Synthesis and morphology control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua; Wu, Di; Sun, Hao; Chen, Suwu; Wang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of conducting polymer-silica colloidal nanocomposites has been recognized as an effective method to overcome the poor processability of heterocyclic conducting polymers prepared by chemical oxidative method. However, the morphology control of such conducting polymer-silica nanocomposites was seldomly reported in the literature. Novel poly(2-aminothiazole)(PAT)-silica nanocomposite particles can be conveniently prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of 2-aminothiazole using CuCl2 oxidant in the presence of ∼20 nm silica nanoparticles. The effects of varying the oxidant/monomer ratio and silica sol concentration on the morphology and size of the resulting PAT-silica nanocmposites have been studied. Optimization of the oxidant/monomer molar ratio and initial silica sol concentration allows relatively round spherical particles of 150-350 nm in diameter to be achieved. The nanocomposite particles have a well-defined raspberry-like morphology with a silica-rich surface, but a significant fraction of PAT component still exists on the surface and, which is beneficial for its applications. Furthermore, the surface compositions of the colloidal nanocomposites could be regulated to some extent. Based on the above results, a possible formation mechanism of the spherical nanocomposite particles is proposed.

  7. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone ( M w ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  8. Coordination of size-control, reproduction and generational memory in freshwater planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbo; Kaj, Kelson J.; Schwab, David J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2017-06-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms that control size, growth, and division rates of organisms reproducing through binary division means understanding basic principles of their life cycle. Recent work has focused on how division rates are regulated in bacteria and yeast, but this question has not yet been addressed in more complex, multicellular organisms. We have, over the course of several years, assembled a unique large-scale data set on the growth and asexual reproduction of two freshwater planarian species, Dugesia japonica and Girardia tigrina, which reproduce by transverse fission and succeeding regeneration of head and tail pieces into new planarians. We show that generation-dependent memory effects in planarian reproduction need to be taken into account to accurately capture the experimental data. To achieve this, we developed a new additive model that mixes multiple size control strategies based on planarian size, growth, and time between divisions. Our model quantifies the proportions of each strategy in the mixed dynamics, revealing the ability of the two planarian species to utilize different strategies in a coordinated manner for size control. Additionally, we found that head and tail offspring of both species employ different mechanisms to monitor and trigger their reproduction cycles. Thus, we find a diversity of strategies not only between species but between heads and tails within species. Our additive model provides two advantages over existing 2D models that fit a multivariable splitting rate function to the data for size control: firstly, it can be fit to relatively small data sets and can thus be applied to systems where available data is limited. Secondly, it enables new biological insights because it explicitly shows the contributions of different size control strategies for each offspring type.

  9. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nano composites-A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.R.; Vejayakumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nano composite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nano composites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nano composites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nano silica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  10. On Model Based Synthesis of Embedded Control Software

    OpenAIRE

    Alimguzhin, Vadim; Mari, Federico; Melatti, Igor; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for control software. Given the formal model of a plant as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System and the implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the Analog-to-Digital (AD) conversion) correct-by-construction control software can be...

  11. Synthesis of high efficient Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts by grinding and their size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dawei; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-07-01

    Recently, copper species have been extensively investigated to replace Pt as efficient co-catalysts for the evolution of H2 due to their low cost and relatively high activity. Cu nanoparticles less than 5 nm are successfully decorated on TiO2 surface in this work by an easy and mild milling process. These Cu nanoparticles are highly dispersed on TiO2 when the loading amount of Cu is no more than 10 wt%. The sizes of Cu nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the milling environment and decrease in the order of Cu-ethanol > Cu-water > Cu nanoparticles obtained through drying milling. The highest and stable hydrogen generation can be realized on Cu/TiO2 with 2.0 wt% Cu and sizes of Cu nanoparticles ranging from 2 to 4 nm, in which high and stable photocurrent confirms promoted photogenerated charge separation. Smaller Cu clusters are demonstrated to be detrimental to hydrogen evolution at same Cu content. High loading of Cu nanoparticles of 2-4 nm will benefit photogenerated electron-hole recombination and thus decrease the activity of Cu/TiO2. The results here demonstrate the key roles of Cu cluster size in addition to Cu coverage on photocatalytic activity of Cu/TiO2 composite photocatalysts.

  12. Surface modification and particles size distribution control in nano-CdS/polystyrene composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Zhirong; Ming Qiuzhang; Hai Chunliang; Han Minzeng

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of nano-CdS particles with surface thiol modification by microemulsion method and their influences on the particle size distribution in highly filled polystyrene-based composites were studied. The modified nano-CdS was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), light absorption and emission measurements to reveal the morphologies of the surface modifier, which are consistent with the surface molecules packing calculation. The morphologies of the surface modifier exerted a great influence not only on the optical performance of the particles themselves, but also on the size distribution of the particle in polystyrene matrix. A monolayer coverage with tightly packed thiol molecules was believed to be most effective in promoting a uniform particle size distribution and eliminating the surface defects that cause radiationless recombination. Control of the particles size distribution in polystyrene can be attained by adjusting surface coverage status of the thiol molecules based on the strong interaction between the surface modifier and the matrix

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of both (-)-(R)-and (+)-(S)-angustureine controlled by enzymatic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Gaspar, E-mail: gaspardm@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Qumica; Diaz, Marisa A.N. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Reis, Marco A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The present study describes a new synthesis of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-angustureine enantiomers, as well as of racemate ({+-})-angustureine, from a racemic {beta}-amino ester controlled by kinetic enzymatic resolution. This strategy allowed to incorporate the basic skeleton, as well as to control the single stereocenter at carbon 2 in both enantiomers. The sequence of five steps starting from the chiral {beta}-amino ester and sodium carboxylate for the synthesis of both alkaloids achieved overall yields of 80 and 44%, respectively, and produced excellent enantiomeric excesses (95 and 96%, respectively) with no protection of functional groups in any of the steps. (author)

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of both (-)-(R)-and (+)-(S)-angustureine controlled by enzymatic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa A.N.; Reis, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes a new synthesis of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-angustureine enantiomers, as well as of racemate (±)-angustureine, from a racemic β-amino ester controlled by kinetic enzymatic resolution. This strategy allowed to incorporate the basic skeleton, as well as to control the single stereocenter at carbon 2 in both enantiomers. The sequence of five steps starting from the chiral β-amino ester and sodium carboxylate for the synthesis of both alkaloids achieved overall yields of 80 and 44%, respectively, and produced excellent enantiomeric excesses (95 and 96%, respectively) with no protection of functional groups in any of the steps. (author)

  15. Control of heme synthesis during Friend cell differentiation: role of iron and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, J.D.; Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    In many types of cells the synthesis of σ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) limits the rate of heme formation. However, results from this laboratory with reticulocytes suggest that the rate of iron uptake from 125 I-transferrin (Tf), rather than ALA synthase activity, limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. To determine whether changes occur in iron metabolism and the control of heme synthesis during erythroid cell development Friend erythroleukemia cells induced to erythroid differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were studied. While added ALA stimulated heme synthesis in uninduced Friend cells (suggesting ALA synthase is limiting) it did not do so in induced cells. Therefore the possibility was investigated that, in induced cells, iron uptake from Tf limits and controls heme synthesis. Several aspects of iron metabolism were investigated using the synthetic iron chelator salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH). Both induced and uninduced Friend cells take up and utilize Fe for heme synthesis directly from Fe-SIH without the involvement of transferrin and transferrin receptors and to a much greater extent than from saturating levels or 59 Fe-Tf (20 μM). Furthermore, in induced Friend cells 100 μM Fe-SIH stimulated 2- 14 C-glycine incorporation into heme up to 3.6-fold as compared to the incorporation observed with saturating concentrations of Fe-Tf. These results indicate that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular Tf to protoporphyrin, rather than the activity of ALA synthase, limits and controls the overall rate of heme and possibly hemoglobin synthesis in differentiating Friend erythroleukemia cells

  16. Covariate adjustments in randomized controlled trials increased study power and reduced biasedness of effect size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to show that under several assumptions, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), unadjusted, crude analysis will underestimate the Cohen's d effect size of the treatment, and an unbiased estimate of effect size can be obtained only by adjusting for all predictors of the outcome. Four simulations were performed to examine the effects of adjustment on the estimated effect size of the treatment and power of the analysis. In addition, we analyzed data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (older adults aged 65-94), an RCT with three treatment arms and one control arm. We showed that (1) the number of unadjusted covariates was associated with the effect size of the treatment; (2) the biasedness of effect size estimation was minimized if all covariates were adjusted for; (3) the power of the statistical analysis slightly decreased with the number of adjusted noise variables; and (4) exhaustively searching the covariates and noise variables adjusted for can lead to exaggeration of the true effect size. Analysis of the ACTIVE study data showed that the effect sizes adjusting for covariates of all three treatments were 7.39-24.70% larger than their unadjusted counterparts, whereas the effect size would be elevated by at most 57.92% by exhaustively searching the variables adjusted for. All covariates of the outcome in RCTs should be adjusted for, and if the effect of a particular variable on the outcome is unknown, adjustment will do more good than harm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Size effects in olivine control strength in low-temperature plasticity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K. M.; Thom, C.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Goldsby, D. L.; Warren, J. M.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the lithospheric mantle during deformation by low-temperature plasticity controls a range of geological phenomena, including lithospheric-scale strain localization, the evolution of friction on deep seismogenic faults, and the flexure of tectonic plates. However, constraints on the strength of olivine in this deformation regime are difficult to obtain from conventional rock-deformation experiments, and previous results vary considerably. We demonstrate via nanoindentation that the strength of olivine in the low-temperature plasticity regime is dependent on the length-scale of the test, with experiments on smaller volumes of material exhibiting larger yield stresses. This "size effect" has previously been explained in engineering materials as a result of the role of strain gradients and associated geometrically necessary dislocations in modifying plastic behavior. The Hall-Petch effect, in which a material with a small grain size exhibits a higher strength than one with a large grain size, is thought to arise from the same mechanism. The presence of a size effect resolves discrepancies among previous experimental measurements of olivine, which were either conducted using indentation methods or were conducted on polycrystalline samples with small grain sizes. An analysis of different low-temperature plasticity flow laws extrapolated to room temperature reveals a power-law relationship between length-scale (grain size for polycrystalline deformation and contact radius for indentation tests) and yield strength. This suggests that data from samples with large inherent length scales best represent the plastic strength of the coarse-grained lithospheric mantle. Additionally, the plastic deformation of nanometer- to micrometer-sized asperities on fault surfaces may control the evolution of fault roughness due to their size-dependent strength.

  18. Biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus, Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Huimin; Tan, Weihong

    2009-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles are significantly dependent on the particle size, shape and structure. In this paper, biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus Penicillium sp. is reported. Fungus Penicillium sp. could successfully bioreduce and nucleate AuCl4(-) ions, and lead to the assembly and formation of intracellular Au nanoparticles with spherical morphology and good monodispersity after exposure to HAuCl4 solution. Reaction temperature, as an important physiological parameter for fungus Penicillium sp. growth, could significantly control the size of the biosynthesized Au nanoparticles. The biological compositions and FTIR spectra analysis of fungus Penicillium sp. exposed to HAuCl4 solution indicated the intracellular reducing sugar played an important role in the occurrence of intracellular reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the growth of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, the intracellular gold nanoparticles could be easily separated from the fungal cell lysate by ultrasonication and centrifugation.

  19. Size matters: insights from an allometric approach to evaluate control methods for invasive Australian Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lynne E; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species are costly and difficult to control. In order to gain a mechanistic understanding of potential control measures, individual-based models uniquely parameterized to reflect the salient life-history characteristics of invasive species are useful. Using invasive Australian Rhinella marina as a case study, we constructed a cohort- and individual-based population simulation that incorporates growth and body size of terrestrial stages. We used this allometric approach to examine the efficacy of nontraditional control methods (i.e., tadpole alarm chemicals and native meat ants) that may have indirect effects on population dynamics mediated by effects on body size. We compared population estimates resulting from these control methods with traditional hand removal. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect that model parameters, specifically those associated with growth and body size, had on adult population estimates. Incremental increases in hand removal of adults and juveniles caused nonlinear decreases in adult population estimates, suggesting less return with increased investment in hand-removal efforts. Applying tadpole alarm chemicals or meat ants decreased adult population estimates on the same level as removing 15-25% of adults and juveniles by hand. The combined application of tadpole alarm chemicals and meat ants resulted in approximately 80% decrease in adult abundance, the largest of any applied control method. In further support of the nontraditional control methods, which greatly affected the metamorph stage, our model was most sensitive to changes in metamorph survival, juvenile survival, metamorph growth rate, and adult survival. Our results highlight the use and insights that can be gained from individual-based models that incorporate growth and body size and the potential success that nontraditional control methods could have in controlling established, invasive Rhinella marina populations.

  20. Controls on the size and occurrence of pools in coarse-grained forest rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Buffington; Thomas E. Lisle; Richard D. Woodsmith; Sue Hilton

    2002-01-01

    Controls on pool formation are examined in gravel- and cobble-bed rivers in forest mountain drainage basins of northern California, southern Oregon, and southeastern Alaska. We demonstrate that the majority of pools at our study sites are formed by flow obstructions and that pool geometry and frequency largely depend on obstruction characteristics (size, type, and...

  1. KIDNEY SIZE IN INFANTS OF TIGHTLY CONTROLLED INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETIC MOTHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, AF; AALDERS, AL; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; MARTIJN, A; OKKEN, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in pregnant women on the kidney size of their infants. We measured kidney length in the first week of life using ultrasonography in 20 infants of tightly controlled insulin-dependent diabetic mothers and 20

  2. Capabilities and Limitations of Tissue Size Control through Passive Mechanical Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kursawe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is an extraordinarily robust process, exhibiting the ability to control tissue size and repair patterning defects in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. The size and shape of a developing tissue is a function of the number and size of its constituent cells as well as their geometric packing. How these cellular properties are coordinated at the tissue level to ensure developmental robustness remains a mystery; understanding this process requires studying multiple concurrent processes that make up morphogenesis, including the spatial patterning of cell fates and apoptosis, as well as cell intercalations. In this work, we develop a computational model that aims to understand aspects of the robust pattern repair mechanisms of the Drosophila embryonic epidermal tissues. Size control in this system has previously been shown to rely on the regulation of apoptosis rather than proliferation; however, to date little work has been done to understand the role of cellular mechanics in this process. We employ a vertex model of an embryonic segment to test hypotheses about the emergence of this size control. Comparing the model to previously published data across wild type and genetic perturbations, we show that passive mechanical forces suffice to explain the observed size control in the posterior (P compartment of a segment. However, observed asymmetries in cell death frequencies across the segment are demonstrated to require patterning of cellular properties in the model. Finally, we show that distinct forms of mechanical regulation in the model may be distinguished by differences in cell shapes in the P compartment, as quantified through experimentally accessible summary statistics, as well as by the tissue recoil after laser ablation experiments.

  3. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.

    2014-03-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  4. Control of thickness uniformity and grain size in graphene films for transparent conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Yu Qingkai; Pei, Shin-Shem; Peng Peng; Bao Jiming; Liu Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale and transferable graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) still hold great promise for future nanotechnology. To realize the promise, one of the key issues is to further improve the quality of graphene, e.g., uniform thickness, large grain size, and low defects. Here we grow graphene films on Cu foils by CVD at ambient pressure, and study the graphene nucleation and growth processes under different concentrations of carbon precursor. On the basis of the results, we develop a two-step ambient pressure CVD process to synthesize continuous single-layer graphene films with large grain size (up to hundreds of square micrometers). Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy characterizations confirm the film thickness and uniformity. The transferred graphene films on cover glass slips show high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable as transparent conductive electrodes. The growth mechanism of CVD graphene on Cu is also discussed, and a growth model has been proposed. Our results provide important guidance toward the synthesis of high quality uniform graphene films, and could offer a great driving force for graphene based applications. (paper)

  5. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-02

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis.

  6. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  7. A multifunction editor for programming control sequences for a robot based radiopharmaceutical synthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, G.; Bohm, C.

    1990-01-01

    A Multifunction Editor is a development tool for building control sequences for a robotized production system for positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. This system consists of SCARA robot and a PC-AT personal computer as a controller together with general and synthesis specific chemistry equipment. The general equipment, which is common for many synthesis, is fixed to the wall of the hotcell, while the specific equipment, dedicated to the given synthesis, is located on a removable tray. The program recognizes commands to move the robot, to control valves and to control the computer screen. From within the editor it is possible to run the control sequence forward or backward to test it and to use the single step feature to debug. The editor commands include insert, replace and delete of commands in the sequence. When programming or editing robot movements the robot may be controlled by the mouse, from the keyboard or from a remote control box. The robot control sequence consists of a succession of stored robot positions. The screen control is used to display dynamic flowchart diagrams. This is achieved by displaying a modified picture on the screen whenever the system state has been changed significantly

  8. Linear dynamical quantum systems analysis, synthesis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Nurdin, Hendra I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an in-depth treatment of the class of linear-dynamical quantum systems. The monograph presents a detailed account of the mathematical modeling of these systems using linear algebra and quantum stochastic calculus as the main tools for a treatment that emphasizes a system-theoretic point of view and the control-theoretic formulations of quantum versions of familiar problems from the classical (non-quantum) setting, including estimation and filtering, realization theory, and feedback control. Both measurement-based feedback control (i.e., feedback control by a classical system involving a continuous-time measurement process) and coherent feedback control (i.e., feedback control by another quantum system without the intervention of any measurements in the feedback loop) are treated. Researchers and graduates studying systems and control theory, quantum probability and stochastics or stochastic control whether from backgrounds in mechanical or electrical engineering or applied mathematics ...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic and non-magnetic core-shell polyepoxide micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer-Mizrahi, Melany; Margel, Shlomo

    2009-01-15

    Core polystyrene microspheres of narrow size distribution were prepared by dispersion polymerization of styrene in a mixture of ethanol and 2-methoxy ethanol. Uniform polyglycidyl methacrylate/polystyrene core-shell micrometer-sized particles were prepared by emulsion polymerization at 73 degrees C of glycidyl methacrylate in the presence of the core polystyrene microspheres. Core-shell particles with different properties (size, surface morphology and composition) have been prepared by changing various parameters belonging to the above seeded emulsion polymerization process, e.g., volumes of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate and the crosslinker monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/polyglycidyl methacrylate/polystyrene micrometer-sized particles were prepared by coating the former core-shell particles with magnetite nanoparticles via a nucleation and growth mechanism. Characterization of the various particles has been accomplished by routine methods such as light microscopy, SEM, FTIR, BET and magnetic measurements.

  10. Microwave-controlled ultrafast synthesis of uniform silver nanocubes and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Fan, Jun-Bing; Cui, Jing; Liu, Jin-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of well-defined silver nanostructure in terms of size and shape has been strongly motivated by the requirements to their size- and shape-dependent optical properties which achieve their practical applications ranging from biosensing to catalysis and optics. In this Letter, an ultrafast synthetic process for the well-defined Ag nanocubes and nanowires have been developed, which simply involve the microwave-mediated polyol reduction of silver nitrate in ethylene glycol by adding different amount sodium sulfide (Na2S) into the solution. The possible growth and evolution process of the Ag nanocubes and nanowires involves the microwave ultrafast nucleation and growth followed by oxidative etching of Ag nanocrystals.

  11. Switching robust control synthesis for teleoperation via dwell time conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Martínez, C.A.; van de Molengraft, M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.; Auvray, M.; Duriez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Control design for bilateral teleoperation is still an open problem, given that it is desirable to meet a proper balance in the inherent trade-off between transparency and stability. We propose the use of switching robust control, in which smooth switching among controllers is achieved by the

  12. Application of Model-Checking Technology to Controller Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Jessen, Jan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present two frameworks that have been implemented to link traditional model-checking techniques to the domain of control. The techniques are based on solving a timed game and using the resulting solution (a strategy) as a controller. The obtained discrete controller must fit with...

  13. Elevator Sizing, Placement, and Control-Relevant Tradeoffs for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickeson, Jeffrey J.; Rodriguez, Armando A.; Sridharan, Srikanth; Korad, Akshay

    2010-01-01

    Within this paper, control-relevant vehicle design concepts are examined using a widely used 3 DOF (plus flexibility) nonlinear model for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic carrot-shaped scramjet powered hypersonic vehicle. The impact of elevator size and placement on control-relevant static properties (e.g. level-flight trimmable region, trim controls, Angle of Attack (AOA), thrust margin) and dynamic properties (e.g. instability and right half plane zero associated with flight path angle) are examined. Elevator usage has been examine for a class of typical hypersonic trajectories.

  14. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On-Chip Production of Size-Controllable Liquid Metal Microdroplets Using Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Ayan, Bugra; Nama, Nitesh; Bian, Yusheng; Lata, James P; Guo, Xiasheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-07-01

    Micro- to nanosized droplets of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, have been used for developing a variety of applications in flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Currently used methods for producing micro- to nanosized droplets of such liquid metals possess one or several drawbacks, including the lack in ability to control the size of the produced droplets, mass produce droplets, produce smaller droplet sizes, and miniaturize the system. Here, a novel method is introduced using acoustic wave-induced forces for on-chip production of EGaIn liquid-metal microdroplets with controllable size. The size distribution of liquid metal microdroplets is tuned by controlling the interfacial tension of the metal using either electrochemistry or electrocapillarity in the acoustic field. The developed platform is then used for heavy metal ion detection utilizing the produced liquid metal microdroplets as the working electrode. It is also demonstrated that a significant enhancement of the sensing performance is achieved by introducing acoustic streaming during the electrochemical experiments. The demonstrated technique can be used for developing liquid-metal-based systems for a wide range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Real-time control of a microfluidic channel for size-independent deformability cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Guofeng; Chen, Peter C Y; Ong, Chong Jin; Peng, Weng Kung; Bhagat, Ali Asgar; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of cells can be correlated with various cell states and are now considered as an important class of biophysical markers. Effectiveness of existing high-throughput microfluidic techniques for investigating cell mechanical properties is adversely affected by cell-size variation in a given cell population. In this work, we introduce a new microfluidic system with real-time feedback control to evaluate single-cell deformability while minimizing cell-size dependence of the measurement. Using breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we demonstrate the potential of this system for stiffness profiling of cells in complex, diverse cell populations. (paper)

  17. Feedforward/feedback control synthesis for performance and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang

    1990-01-01

    Both feedforward and feedback control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems are investigated. The control design objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant modeling uncertainty. Preshapong of an ideal, time-optimal control input using a 'tapped-delay' filter is shown to provide a rapid maneuver with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. The proposed feedforward/feedback control approach is robust for a certain class of uncertain dynamical systems, since the control input command computed for a given desired output does not depend on the plant parameters.

  18. Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Cyclization for Natural Product Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyun Jo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric synthesis of naturally occurring diverse ring systems is an ongoing and challenging research topic. A large variety of remarkable reactions utilizing chiral substrates, auxiliaries, reagents, and catalysts have been intensively investigated. This review specifically describes recent advances in successful asymmetric cyclization reactions to generate cyclic architectures of various natural products in a substrate-controlled manner.

  19. Synthesis of hydrogels of alginate for system controlled release of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marlon de F.; Rodriguez, Ruben J.S.; Silva, Ester C.C. da; Barreto, Gabriela N.S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modifications of natural polymers like alginate, has allowed the development of new formulations for controlled release systems. In this work we report the synthesis of a derivative of the amidic alginate with alkyl chain. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods and their size-dependent magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yichao; Wu, Songping, E-mail: chwsp@scut.edu.cn; Xu, Rui

    2017-03-01

    The HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process. The length of nanorods is readily controllable with basically constant diameter. HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods show recognizable divagation at T{sub N}(Ho) of 13 K between FC and ZFC curve due to the contribution of the magnetic ordering of holmium. Size-dependent magnetic properties (i.e. a critical length for magnetization) of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods can be ascribed to the competition between surface strain and uncompensated spin at the surface. - Highlights: • HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route. • HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods show recognizable divagation at T{sub N}(Ho) of 13 K between FC and ZFC. • Size-dependent magnetic properties of HoMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanorods can be observed.

  1. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and divided into three groups: BDD (n = 26); SPA (n = 31) and controls (n = 33). Main Outcome Measures The Index of Erectile Function (IEF), sexual identity and history; and interventions to alter the size of their penis. Results Men with BDD compared with controls had reduced erectile dysfunction, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction on the IEF. Men with SPA compared with controls had reduced intercourse satisfaction. There were no differences in sexual desire, the frequency of intercourse or masturbation across any of the three groups. Men with BDD and SPA were more likely than the controls to attempt to alter the shape or size of their penis (for example jelqing, vacuum pumps or stretching devices) with poor reported success. Conclusion Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. PMID:26468378

  2. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and divided into three groups: BDD (n = 26); SPA (n = 31) and controls (n = 33). The Index of Erectile Function (IEF), sexual identity and history; and interventions to alter the size of their penis. Men with BDD compared with controls had reduced erectile dysfunction, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction on the IEF. Men with SPA compared with controls had reduced intercourse satisfaction. There were no differences in sexual desire, the frequency of intercourse or masturbation across any of the three groups. Men with BDD and SPA were more likely than the controls to attempt to alter the shape or size of their penis (for example jelqing, vacuum pumps or stretching devices) with poor reported success. Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures.

  3. Fast electric control of the droplet size in a microfluidic T-junction droplet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeian, Mostafa; Hardt, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    The effect of DC electric fields on the generation of droplets of water and xanthan gum solutions in sunflower oil at a microfluidic T-junction is experimentally studied. The electric field leads to a significant reduction of the droplet diameter, by about a factor of 2 in the case of water droplets. The droplet size can be tuned by varying the electric field strength, an effect that can be employed to produce a stream of droplets with a tailor-made size sequence. Compared to the case of purely hydrodynamic droplet production without electric fields, the electric control has about the same effect on the droplet size if the electric stress at the liquid/liquid interface is the same as the hydrodynamic stress.

  4. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Ritu; Misra, Amit; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K S

    2008-01-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  5. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ritu; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K. S.; Misra, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  6. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  7. Shape-controlled solvothermal synthesis of bismuth subcarbonate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Gang; Yang Hanmin; Rong Kaifeng; Lu Zhong; Yu Xianglin; Chen Rong

    2010-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials because of their unique properties and potential applications. Bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) is one of commonly used antibacterial agents against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures such as cube-like nanoparticles, nanobars and nanoplates, were fabricated from bismuth nitrate via a simple solvothermal method. The nanostructures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures. The possible formation mechanism of different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures fabricated under different conditions was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Different bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures.

  8. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth

  9. Enzymatic Synthesis of Ampicillin: Nonlinear Modeling, Kinetics Estimation, and Adaptive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Roman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of advanced control strategies in biotechnology is quite low. A main reason is the lack of quality of the data, and the fact that more sophisticated control strategies must be based on a model of the dynamics of bioprocesses. The nonlinearity of the bioprocesses and the absence of cheap and reliable instrumentation require an enhanced modeling effort and identification strategies for the kinetics. The present work approaches modeling and control strategies for the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin that is carried out inside a fed-batch bioreactor. First, a nonlinear dynamical model of this bioprocess is obtained by using a novel modeling procedure for biotechnology: the bond graph methodology. Second, a high gain observer is designed for the estimation of the imprecisely known kinetics of the synthesis process. Third, by combining an exact linearizing control law with the on-line estimation kinetics algorithm, a nonlinear adaptive control law is designed. The case study discussed shows that a nonlinear feedback control strategy applied to the ampicillin synthesis bioprocess can cope with disturbances, noisy measurements, and parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations performed with MATLAB environment are included in order to test the behavior and the performances of the proposed estimation and control strategies.

  10. Distributed Active Traction Control System Applied to the RoboCup Middle Size League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.

  11. Stochastic Control Synthesis of Systems with Structured Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L. (Technical Monitor); Crespo, Luis G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the design of robust controllers by using random variables to model structured uncertainty for both SISO and MIMO feedback systems. Once the parameter uncertainty is prescribed with probability density functions, its effects are propagated through the analysis leading to stochastic metrics for the system's output. Control designs that aim for satisfactory performances while guaranteeing robust closed loop stability are attained by solving constrained non-linear optimization problems in the frequency domain. This approach permits not only to quantify the probability of having unstable and unfavorable responses for a particular control design but also to search for controls while favoring the values of the parameters with higher chance of occurrence. In this manner, robust optimality is achieved while the characteristic conservatism of conventional robust control methods is eliminated. Examples that admit closed form expressions for the probabilistic metrics of the output are used to elucidate the nature of the problem at hand and validate the proposed formulations.

  12. Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with finely tuned and well-controlled sizes, shell thicknesses, and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyun; Li, Weiyang; Cho, Eun Chul; Li, Zhiyuan; Yu, Taekyung; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Xia, Younan

    2010-11-23

    This paper describes a facile method for generating Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with edge lengths controllable in the range of 13.4-50 nm. The synthesis involved the use of single-crystal, spherical Au nanocrystals of 11 nm in size as the seeds in an aqueous system, with ascorbic acid serving as the reductant and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the capping agent. The thickness of the Ag shells could be finely tuned from 1.2 to 20 nm by varying the ratio of AgNO(3) precursor to Au seeds. We also investigated the growth mechanism by examining the effects of seeds (capped by CTAC or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB)) and capping agent (CTAC vs CTAB) on both size and shape of the resultant core-shell nanocrystals. Our results clearly indicate that CTAC worked much better than CTAB as a capping agent in both the syntheses of Au seeds and Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes. We further studied the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of the Au@Ag nanocubes as a function of the Ag shell thickness. By comparing with the extinction spectra obtained from theoretical calculations, we derived a critical value of ca. 3 nm for the shell thickness at which the plasmon excitation of the Au cores would be completely screened by the Ag shells. Moreover, these Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes could be converted into Au-based hollow nanostructures containing the original Au seeds in the interiors through a galvanic replacement reaction.

  13. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  14. Size control of Au NPs supported by pH operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, Masumi; Akiba, Hiroko; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2017-07-01

    Au NPs are expected to become useful functional particles, as particle gun used for plant gene transfer and also catalysts. We have studied PSD (particle size distribution) control of Au NPs by reduction crystallization. Previous study found out importance of seeds policy and also feeding profile. In this paper, effect of pH in the reduction crystallization was investigated to clarify the possibility of Au NPs PSD control by pH operation and also their growth process. Au NPs of size range 10-600 nm were obtained in single-jet system using ascorbic acid (AsA) as a reducing agent with adjusting pH of AsA. Au NPs are found to grow in the process of nucleation, agglomeration, agglomeration growth and surface growth. Au NPs tend to grow by agglomeration and become larger size in lower pH regions, and to grow only by surface growth and become smaller size in higher pH regions.

  15. Granule size control and targeting in pulsed spray fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-07-30

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.

  16. Release Properties and Cellular Uptake in Caco-2 Cells of Size-Controlled Chitosan Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2017-12-20

    The influences of particle size on the physicochemical, release, and cellular uptake properties of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were investigated. Ionotropic CSNPs of different sizes (200-1000 nm) loaded with two model core materials (resveratrol or coumarin-6) were prepared using tripolyphosphate and carrageenan as cross-linkers. With an increase of particle size, zeta potential (34.6 ± 0.5 to 51.1 ± 0.9) and entrapment efficiency (14.9 ± 1.4 to 40.9 ± 1.9) of the CSNPs were significantly (p cellular uptake of CSNPs were significantly increased from 3.70 ± 0.03 to 5.24 ± 0.20 with an increase of particle size from 200 to 600 nm, whereas those significantly decreased from 5.24 ± 0.20 to 4.55 ± 0.2 for particles larger than 600 nm in transwell assay. Moreover, much the same uptake patterns were also observed in confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Investigation of cellular uptake of CSNPs revealed positive correlations between ZP and EE and indicated the effects of complex factors of nanoparticles other than size. These results provide a better understanding of CSNPs absorption and raises the possibility of controlling alternative nanoparticle properties to enhance bioavailability.

  17. Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng

    2010-02-25

    Doping is a widely applied technological process in materials science that involves incorporating atoms or ions of appropriate elements into host lattices to yield hybrid materials with desirable properties and functions. For nanocrystalline materials, doping is of fundamental importance in stabilizing a specific crystallographic phase, modifying electronic properties, modulating magnetism as well as tuning emission properties. Here we describe a material system in which doping influences the growth process to give simultaneous control over the crystallographic phase, size and optical emission properties of the resulting nanocrystals. We show that NaYF 4 nanocrystals can be rationally tuned in size (down to ten nanometres), phase (cubic or hexagonal) and upconversion emission colour (green to blue) through use of trivalent lanthanide dopant ions introduced at precisely defined concentrations. We use first-principles calculations to confirm that the influence of lanthanide doping on crystal phase and size arises from a strong dependence on the size and dipole polarizability of the substitutional dopant ion. Our results suggest that the doping-induced structural and size transition, demonstrated here in NaYF 4 upconversion nanocrystals, could be extended to other lanthanide-doped nanocrystal systems for applications ranging from luminescent biological labels to volumetric three-dimensional displays. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. A Method of MPPT Control Based on Power Variable Step-size in Photovoltaic Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hui-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the disadvantage of traditional MPPT algorithms of variable step-size, proposed power tracking based on variable step-size with the advantage method of the constant-voltage and the perturb-observe (P&O[1-3]. The control strategy modify the problem of voltage fluctuation caused by perturb-observe method, at the same time, introducing the advantage of constant-voltage method and simplify the circuit topology. With the theoretical derivation, control the output power of photovoltaic modules to change the duty cycle of main switch. Achieve the maximum power stabilization output, reduce the volatility of energy loss effectively, and improve the inversion efficiency[3,4]. Given the result of experimental test based theoretical derivation and the curve of MPPT when the prototype work.

  19. The TOR Signaling Pathway in Spatial and Temporal Control of Cell Size and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suam Gonzalez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex. Here, we briefly review roles of the two complexes in cellular growth and cytoarchitecture in various experimental model systems.

  20. Particle size distribution control of Pt particles used for particle gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, M.; Akiba, H.; Nagao, H.; Hirasawa, I.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is particle size distribution (PSD) control of submicron sized Pt particles used for particle gun. In this report, simple reaction crystallization is conducted by mixing H2PtCl6 and ascorbic acid. Without the additive, obtained Pt particles have broad PSD and reproducibility of experiment is low. With seeding, Pt particles have narrow PSD and reproducibility improved. Additionally, mean particle diameter of 100-700 nm is controlled by changing seeding amount. Obtained particles are successfully characterized as Pt by XRD results. Moreover, XRD spectra indicate that obtained particles are polycrystals. These experimental results suggest that seeding consumed nucleation, as most nuclei attached on the seed surface. This mechanism virtually restricted nucleation to have narrow PSD can be obtained.