Sample records for sixth grade children

  1. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically-Developing Sixth Grade Children (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Gray, Shelley


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how sixth grade children planned, translated, and revised written narrative stories using a task reflecting current instructional and assessment practices. A modified version of the Hayes and Flower (1980) writing process model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Two hundred one…

  2. Self-Concept and Sport Participation in Sixth Grade Basic School Students

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    Špela Virag


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.

  3. Newspapers in Science Education: A Study Involving Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San; Wang, Yun-Fei


    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning performance of sixth grade elementary school students using newspapers in science teaching. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Thirty-three sixth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The research instruments consisted of three…

  4. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan. (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Osborne, Richard H


    Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people's control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan's sixth grade school children. Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11-12 years old) school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83%, with 70% of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. The sample consisted of 48.9% girls, 3.8% were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93). About 6% of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32). The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2%. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4%) compared with the lowest quartile (17.4%). After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.94, p 1.10, p obese. This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after adjusting for key potential confounders, and provides new insights into potential intervention points in school education for obesity prevention. Systematic

  5. Sexuality education in fifth and sixth grades in U.S. public schools, 1999. (United States)

    Landry, D J; Singh, S; Darroch, J E


    While policymakers, educators and parents recognize the need for family life and sexuality education during children's formative years and before adolescence, there is little nationally representative information on the timing and content of such instruction in elementary schools. In 1999, data were gathered from 1, 789 fifth- and sixth-grade teachers as part of a nationally representative survey of 5,543 public school teachers in grades 5-12. Based on the responses of 617 fifth- and sixth-grade teachers who said they teach sexuality education, analyses were carried out on the topics and skills sexuality education teachers taught, the grades in which they taught them, their teaching approaches, the pressures they experienced, whether they received support from parents, the community and school administrators, and their needs. Seventy-two percent of fifth- and sixth-grade teachers report that sexuality education is taught in their schools at one or both grades. Fifty-six percent of teachers say that the subject is taught in grade five and 64% in grade six. More than 75% of teachers who teach sexuality education in these grades cover puberty, HIV and AIDS transmission and issues such as how alcohol and drugs affect behavior and how to stick with a decision. However, when schools that do not provide sexuality education are taken into account, even most of these topics are taught in only a little more than half of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. All other topics are much less likely to be covered. Teaching of all topics is less prevalent at these grades than teachers think it should be. Gaps between what teachers say they are teaching and teachers' recommendations for what should be taught and by what grade are especially large for such topics as sexual abuse, sexual orientation, abortion, birth control and condom use for STD prevention. A substantial proportion of teachers recommend that these topics be taught at grade six or earlier. More than half (57%) of fifth

  6. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade. (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R


    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  7. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan

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    Shu-Fang Shih


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people’s control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan’s sixth grade school children. Methods Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11–12 years old school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83 %, with 70 % of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. Results The sample consisted of 48.9 % girls, 3.8 % were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93. About 6 % of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32. The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2 %. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4 % compared with the lowest quartile (17.4 %. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR = 0.94, p  1.10, p < 0.0001 were more likely to report being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after

  8. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar


    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  9. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah


    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  10. The Effect of Smartphone-Delivered Emergency Preparedness Education on Coping Knowledge among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Elementary Schoolchildren in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Cho, Haeryun


    This study examined the effect of an intervention on coping knowledge among fifth- and sixth-grade elementary schoolchildren who received smartphone-delivered emergency preparedness education. This was a quasi-experimental study using a pre-/posttest design. Eighty-six children were recruited to participate. The children in the experimental group…

  11. Too Much Television? Prospective Associations Between Early Childhood Televiewing and Later Self-reports of Victimization by Sixth Grade Classmates. (United States)

    Watt, Emmalyne; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Pagani, Linda S


    Using a birth cohort, this study aimed to verify whether televiewing at 29 months, a common early childhood pastime, is prospectively associated with self-reported victimization at age 12. Participants are 991 girls and 1006 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. The main predictor comprised parent-reported daily televiewing by their children at 29 months. In the sixth grade, children reported how often they experienced victimization by classmates in the past year. The authors conducted multivariate linear regression, in which child self-reports of victimization were linearly regressed on early televiewing and potential confounders. Every SD unit increase (0.88 hours) in daily televiewing at 29 months predicted an 11% SD unit increase in self-reported peer victimization by sixth grade classmates (unstandardized B = .031, p characteristics (gender, preexisting externalizing behaviors, baseline cognitive abilities, and televiewing at age 12) and family characteristics (family configuration, income, and functioning, and maternal education). Daily televiewing time at 29 months was associated with a subsequent increased risk of victimization by classmates at the end of sixth grade, a period which represents a critical developmental transition to middle school. Youth who experience peer victimization are at an increased risk of long-term mental health issues, such as depression, underachievement, and low self-esteem. This prospective association, across a 10-year period, suggests the need for better parental awareness, acknowledgement, and compliance with existing recommendations put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Development of reading and phonological skills of children at family risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal analysis from kindergarten to sixth grade. (United States)

    Dandache, Sophie; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol


    The main focus of this article is to develop a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of literacy and phonological skills within Dutch-speaking children. Children at high and low risk for dyslexia were followed and compared at four different moments: kindergarten and first, third and sixth grades. Three groups were then compared: (1) dyslexic readers; (2) normal readers at high risk for dyslexia; and (3) normal readers at low risk for dyslexia. Children diagnosed with dyslexia scored lower than high-risk normal readers on phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory and literacy skills. Normal readers at high risk scored between both groups, confirming that dyslexia is to be considered as a continuum rather than an all-or-none condition. Growth analyses showed that the three groups evolved similarly on all measures except for phoneme deletion and literacy measures. Finally, solely PA and RAN explained a significant amount of variance in the evolution of reading skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Explorations in a Dynamic Geometry Environment on Sixth Grade Students' Achievements in Polygons (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) together with inquiry-based explorations on the sixth grade students' achievements in polygons and congruency and similarity of polygons. Two groups of sixth grade students were selected for this study: an experimental group composed of 66…

  14. Effect of Child Gender and Psychosocial Factors on Physical Activity From Fifth to Sixth Grade. (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Addy, Cheryl L; McDonald, Samantha; Reid, Lauren; Pate, Russell R


    Gender differences in physical activity (PA) trajectories during adolescence are well documented, yet little research has examined whether the determinants of these trajectories vary by child's gender. This study is one of few prospective examinations of gender differences in the influences of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors on changes in objectively measured PA. Students and parents from elementary and middle schools located in 2 school districts in South Carolina were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of changes in children's PA from elementary to middle school. Measures included children's and/or parents' ratings of various psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors as well as objectively measured PA, children's anthropometric characteristics, and neighborhood factors at fifth and sixth grades. Parents' reports of children's sport and class participation, parent-reported support for PA, and neighborhood resources for PA were protective against declines in PA for both boys and girls. The effects of 2 factors-children's self-efficacy and parents' leisure-time PA-on changes in PA over time were moderated by the child's gender. A better understanding of these dynamics may inform the development of interventions.

  15. School Contextual Features of Social Disorder and Mental Health Complaints—A Multilevel Analysis of Swedish Sixth-Grade Students

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    Bitte Modin


    Full Text Available This study addressed school-contextual features of social disorder in relation to sixth-grade students’ experiences of bullying victimization and mental health complaints. It investigated, firstly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems were associated with individual students’ likelihood of being bullied, and secondly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems and bullying victimization predicted students’ emotional and psychosomatic health complaints. The data were derived from the Swedish National Survey of Mental Health among Children and Young People, carried out among sixth-grade students (approximately 12–13 years old in Sweden in 2009. The analyses were based on information from 59,510 students distributed across 1999 schools. The statistical method used was multilevel modelling. While students’ own behavioural problems were associated with an elevated risk of being bullied, attending a school with a higher concentration of students with behavioural problems also increased the likelihood of being bullied. Attending a school with higher levels of bullying victimization and behavioural problems predicted more emotional and psychosomatic complaints, even when adjusting for their individual level analogues. The findings indicate that school-level features of social disorder influence bullying victimization and mental health complaints among students.

  16. Voces de Olympo (Echoes from Mount Olympus). A Humanistic Approach to Latin for Children in the Sixth Grade: Teachers' Guide. (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in a sixth-grade FLES (foreign language in elementary school) program, embraces a visual-audiolingual approach to the teaching of Latin while providing a source of materials for the teaching of the culture of ancient Rome. The course is organized around eight major units on: (1) Jupiter and His Siblings,…

  17. An Evaluation of the Cooperative Learning Process by Sixth-Grade Students (United States)

    Genç, Murat


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning on the science lessons achievement of primary school students and to designate their views on cooperative learning process. 135 sixth-grade students attending the same school took part in the study. The model of this study was the Solomon four-group model. In the…

  18. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students (United States)

    Berk, Rifat Ramazan; Ünal, Emre


    The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students' grade levels and genders are…

  19. Effects of formative assessments to develop self-regulation among sixth grade students: Results from a randomized controlled intervention

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    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Els


    This article presents the results of a formative assessment intervention in writing assignments in sixth grade. We examined whether formative assessments would improve self-regulation, motivation and self-efficacy among sixth graders, and whether differential effects exist between formative

  20. Chinese and Singaporean Sixth-Grade Students' Strategies for Solving Problems about Speed (United States)

    Jiang, Chunlian; Hwang, Stephen; Cai, Jinfa


    This study examined 361 Chinese and 345 Singaporean sixth-grade students' performance and problem-solving strategies for solving 14 problems about speed. By focusing on students from two distinct high-performing countries in East Asia, we provide a useful perspective on the differences that exist in the preparation and problem-solving strategies…

  1. The Effect of Departmentalization on the Reading Achievement of Sixth-Grade Students. (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.

    A study examined whether departmentalization affected the reading achievement of sixth-grade students attending a Chicago public school. A random sample of 30 students was chosen from a group of 53 who received instruction in a departmentalized program. A second random sample of 30 was selected from a total of 54 students who received instruction…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying in Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.


    In a pilot study, sixth grade students (N = 124) completed a questionnaire assessing students' experience with bullying and cyberbullying, demographic information, quality of parent-child relationship, and ways they have dealt with bullying/cyberbullying in the past. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted. The multiple regression analysis…

  3. An Investigation of Mathematics Anxiety among Sixth through Eighth Grade Students in Turkey (United States)

    Birgin, Osman; Baloglu, Mustafa; Catlioglu, Hakan; Gurbuz, Ramazan


    The purpose of the present study is to investigate mathematics anxiety among 220 sixth through eighth grade Turkish students in terms of mathematics achievement levels, perceived enjoyment of the mathematics teaching method, perceived enjoyment of mathematics, and perceived help with mathematics from parents. The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for…

  4. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim


    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  5. The Dilemma of Inclusion: Is Full Inclusion Ethical? An Examination of the Culture of Special Education within a Semi-Rural Pre-K to Sixth Grade Elementary School District (United States)

    Press, Kandie A.


    At its core the political push for full inclusion models of special education delivery derives from the belief that inclusion provides equal access, equitable distribution of resources and increased social opportunity to children. This study focused upon the evolution of special education programming within a pre-K to sixth grade elementary school…

  6. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks. (United States)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  7. For Better or Worse? System-Justifying Beliefs in Sixth-Grade Predict Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Behavior Across Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Godfrey, Erin B; Santos, Carlos E; Burson, Esther


    Scholars call for more attention to how marginalization influences the development of low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth and emphasize the importance of youth's subjective perceptions of contexts. This study examines how beliefs about the fairness of the American system (system justification) in sixth grade influence trajectories of self-esteem and behavior among 257 early adolescents (average age 11.4) from a diverse, low-income, middle school in an urban southwestern city. System justification was associated with higher self-esteem, less delinquent behavior, and better classroom behavior in sixth grade but worse trajectories of these outcomes from sixth to eighth grade. These findings provide novel evidence that system-justifying beliefs undermine the well-being of marginalized youth and that early adolescence is a critical developmental period for this process. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Strengthening Academic Vocabulary with Word Generation® Helps Sixth-Grade Students Improve Reading Comprehension (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Velten, Justin


    In this quasi-experimental study, we assessed the promise of Word Generation, a research-based academic vocabulary program, on improving the reading achievement outcomes of struggling sixth-grade readers in an after-school small group instructional setting. After 34 hours of academic vocabulary instruction, we compared the performance of a…

  9. The Effectiveness of Using Brainstorming Strategy in the Development of Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Students in English Grammar at Public Schools in Jordan (United States)

    Malkawi, Nibal Abdelkarim Mousa; Smadi, Mona


    The study aims to identify the effect of using brainstorming method in the teaching of English grammar; to improve the level of sixth grade students in English grammar at public schools in Jordan. The study population consisted of all sixth grade students of both sexes. The sample of the study was chosen in the random stratified manner,…

  10. Exploring the Use of Technology to Support Literacy of Sixth Grade Students with Reading Disabilities (United States)

    Ball-Inman, Jaime Renee


    The degree to which the utilization of technology supports the academic achievement of sixth grade students with reading disabilities was examined using a quantitative research design. The data analysis involved the results from the Educational Technology Assessment Program to measure achievement. The Standardized Test for the Assessment of…

  11. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley


    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  12. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit


    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  13. Construct validity of selected measures of physical activity beliefs and motives in fifth and sixth grade boys and girls. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Saunders, Ruth P; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R


    Scales used to measure selected social-cognitive beliefs and motives for physical activity were tested among boys and girls. Covariance modeling was applied to responses obtained from large multi-ethnic samples of students in the fifth and sixth grades. Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed, supporting the factorial validity of the scales in all groups. Multi-group longitudinal invariance was confirmed between boys and girls, overweight and normal weight students, and non-Hispanic black and white children. The construct validity of the scales was supported by hypothesized convergent and discriminant relationships within a measurement model that included correlations with physical activity (MET • min/day) measured by an accelerometer. Scores from the scales provide valid assessments of selected beliefs and motives that are putative mediators of change in physical activity among boys and girls, as they begin the understudied transition from the fifth grade into middle school, when physical activity naturally declines.

  14. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey


    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  15. Development of Selective Attention in Reflective and Impulsive Children. (United States)

    Weiner, Alan S.; Berzonsky, Michael D.

    Selective attention was assessed in second, fourth, and sixth grade reflective and impulsive children with an incidental learning task using pictures (animal-household object pairs) or shapes (colored forms) as stimuli. By the sixth grade, reflective children displayed less incidental learning and greater central learning than impulsive children…

  16. Cognitive Processing and Mathematical Achievement: A Study with Schoolchildren between Fourth and Sixth Grade of Primary Education (United States)

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentin; Deano, Manuel


    This investigation analyzed the relation between cognitive functioning and mathematical achievement in 114 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Differences in cognitive performance were studied concurrently in three selected achievement groups: mathematical learning disability group (MLD), low achieving group (LA), and typically achieving…

  17. Social anxiety and attitude towards conspicuous consumption in sixth and seventh grade primary school students

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    Vukičević Leposava


    Full Text Available Our previous research was aimed at psychological underpinnings of the attitude towards conspicuous consumption (displayed through use of designer clothes in high school and university students, aged 17 to 25. This study examined the relationship between the attitude towards designer clothes and social anxiety in 205 sixth and seventh grade primary school children, aged 12 to 13. Their attitude towards designer clothes was assessed by an abridged version of our standard questionnaire (CC - 28. Social anxiety was evaluated by a psychometric scale SA - 34 that was modeled after the social anxiety scale SA - 32 (Tovilović, 2004 in order to comply with our respondents' age and vocabulary. The data indicated that social anxiety at age 12 -13 is primarily manifested as shyness and the importance placed on the impression that one makes on his/her social environment. Both factors were positively correlated with the positive attitude towards designer clothes indicating that among 12 to 13 year old Serbian children wearing designer clothes enhances personal esteem and attractiveness in the eyes of other group members. At this age, the attitude towards designer clothes can be, at least partially, explained by a belief that conspicuous consumption contributes to increased social acceptance and the feelings of personal respect and safety.

  18. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna


    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  19. Gender and Racial Differences: Development of Sixth Grade Students' Geometric Spatial Visualization within an Earth/Space Unit (United States)

    Jackson, Christa; Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne; Lamar, Mary; Cole, Merryn


    This study investigated sixth-grade middle-level students' geometric spatial development by gender and race within and between control and experimental groups at two middle schools as they participated in an Earth/Space unit. The control group utilized a regular Earth/Space curriculum and the experimental group used a National Aeronautics and…

  20. Cigarette Smoking Trajectories From Sixth to Twelfth Grade: Associated Substance Use and High School Dropout. (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao


    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. "Learn Young, Learn Fair", a Stress Management Program for Fifth and Sixth Graders: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study (United States)

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens


    Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…

  2. Children's Perceptions of Moral Themes in Television Drama. (United States)

    Christenson, Peter G.

    To determine children's perceptions of underlying morals or messages in television drama, a study was conducted in which four early prime time situation comedies were selected for viewing by 15 children per program in kindergarten/first grade, 15 children per program in third/fourth grade, and 8 children per program at the sixth grade level. The…

  3. The role of executive function in children's competent adjustment to middle school. (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Williford, Amanda P; Pianta, Robert C


    Executive function (EF) skills play an important role in children's cognitive and social functioning. These skills develop throughout childhood, concurrently with a number of developmental transitions and challenges. One of these challenges is the transition from elementary into middle-level schools, which has the potential to significantly disrupt children's academic and social trajectories. However, little is known about the role of EF in children's adjustment during this transition. This study investigated the relation between children's EF skills, assessed both before and during elementary school, and sixth grade academic and social competence. In addition, the influences of the type of school setting attended in sixth grade on children's academic and behavioral outcomes were examined. EF assessed prior to and during elementary school significantly predicted sixth grade competence, as rated by teachers and parents, in both academic and social domains, after controlling for background characteristics. The interactions between type of school setting and EF skills were significant: Parents tended to report more behavioral problems and less regulatory control in children with weaker EF skills who were attending middle school. In contrast, teachers reported greater academic and behavioral difficulty in students with poorer EF attending elementary school settings. In conclusion, children's performance-based EF skills significantly affect adjustment to the academic and behavioral demands of sixth grade, with parent report suggesting greater difficulty for children with poorer EF in settings where children are provided with less external supports (e.g., middle school).

  4. Analysis of Problems Posed by Sixth-Grade Middle School Students for the Addition of Fractions in Terms of Semantic Structures (United States)

    Kar, Tugrul


    This study aimed to investigate how the semantic structures of problems posed by sixth-grade middle school students for the addition of fractions affect their problem-posing performance. The students were presented with symbolic operations involving the addition of fractions and asked to pose two different problems related to daily-life situations…

  5. Effectiveness of Acoustic and Conceptual Retrieval Cues in Memory for Words at Two Grade Levels. Technical Report No. 220. (United States)

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Hurlbut, Nancy L.

    The effectiveness of two types of retrieval cues was assessed with second- and sixth-grade children. After a single presentation of a list of words, the children first recalled as many of the words as they could. Following free recall, children in each grade were given either conceptual (category names for words on the input lists) or acoustic…

  6. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ramazan Berk


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students’ writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictor of writing anxiety and dispositions or not. The research was designed according to survey model. The study group, selected through simple sampling method, is made up of 860 students studying at 6th, 7th and 8th grades in elementary schools of Şarkışla District, Sivas. While “Writing Anxiety Scale”, adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Zorbay (2011, was administered to determine the study group’s writing anxiety level, “Writing Disposition Scale”, adapted into Turkish by İşeri and Ünal (2010, was used to determine the writing disposition level. At the end of the study, it was found that writing disposition is a significant predictor of writing anxiety and students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictors of writing anxiety and dispositions. An education environment to create a strong writing disposition for students is recommended. Also, similar studies on different dimensions of the issue can be conducted.

  7. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas


    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  8. [Does self-worth mediate the effects of socio-environmental experiences on depression among fifth and sixth grade students?]. (United States)

    Nishino, Yasuyo; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Tomoko


    This study investigated self-worth as a mediator between socio-environmental experiences and depression. A sample of 255 fifth and sixth grade students completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-worth, depression, and socio-environmental experiences of social support and stressors. Data for both males and females showed a direct effect of "friend support" on depression. However, for males, but not females, self-worth also mediated the influence of "friend support" on depression.

  9. Understanding of Ratioproportionality and Equality Vs. Equity in Children's Sharing. (United States)

    Peterson, Lizette

    In this study preschool, first grade, and sixth grade children played games which assessed ratio-proportionality ability, thought to be a precursor to proportionality ability, thought to be a precursor to equity allocations. The 48 children (eight boys and eight girls from each grade) played a game with one train which had six cars and one train…

  10. The Implementation and Effects of the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC): Early Findings in Sixth-Grade Advanced Reading Courses. CRESST Report 846 (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Epstein, Scott; Leon, Seth; Dai, Yunyun; La Torre Matrundola, Deborah; Reber, Sarah; Choi, Kilchan


    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation invested in the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) as one strategy to support teachers' and students' transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts. This report provides an early look at the implementation of LDC in sixth-grade Advanced Reading classes in a large Florida…

  11. Supporting students' strategic competence: a case of a sixth-grade mathematics classroom (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.


    Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in a professional development program focussed on NCTM standards and SRL in the mathematics classroom for extensive classroom observation. The purpose was to explore how and to what extend she structured classroom practices to support strategic competence in her students. Four features of classroom practices were found as evidence for how strategic competence was potentially supported in this classroom: (a) allowing autonomy and shared responsibility during the early stages of learning, (b) focusing on student understanding, (c) creating contexts for students to learn about strategic learning and to exercise strategic behaviour, and (d) helping students to personalise strategies by recognising their ideas and strategic behaviours.

  12. [Poetry: Literature Curriculum, Grades Five and Six; Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce fifth and sixth grade children to the study of poetry. Separate units include discussion of, suggested activities for, and questions about (1) metrics and scansion; (2) rhyme scheme and stanza; (3) diction, denotation and connotation, and onomatopoeia; (4) rhyme (end rhyme, masculine and feminine…

  13. Children's Self-Esteem, Level of Esteem Certainty, and Responsibility for Success and Failure (United States)

    Piers, Ellen V.


    Relationships between children's self esteem, certainty of self esteem appraisal, and intellectual achievement responsibility were examined in boys and girls at the sixth grade and tenth grade levels with use of the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. (MS)

  14. Achievement Effects of Homework in Sixth Grade Classrooms. (United States)

    Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert

    This study examines the relationship between the amount of time sixth graders reported spending on homework and their achievement gains on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) between the spring of 1988 and the spring of 1989. Selected for participation were one or two classes in each of 30 public elementary schools in Chicago. Of the 30 schools,…

  15. The Value of Supplementing Science Education with Outdoor Instruction for Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Jackson, Devin Joseph Guilford

    Science education is moving away from memorization of facts to inquiry based learning. Adding outdoor instruction can be an effective way to promote this exploratory method of learning. The limited number of empirical studies available have shown significant increase in attitudes and learning with outdoor science instruction. An eight-week quasi-experimental teacher research study was conducted to further this research and assess the value of schoolyard science instruction on student engagement and learning. Participants were 60 students in two sixth grade middle school Earth Science classes. A crossover study design was used with two classes alternating as experimental and control groups. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission curriculum was used (NASA/GPM, 2011). While the results did not show a clear increase in student engagement and content knowledge, the study adds to the body of knowledge on outdoor instruction and identifies limitations to consider in future studies.

  16. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program. (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.


    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  17. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance (United States)

    Shirvani, Hosin


    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  18. Social Constructivism: Botanical Classification Schemes of Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Tull, Delena

    The assertion that there is a social component to children's construction of knowledge about natural phenomena is supported by evidence from an examination of children's classification schemes for plants. An ethnographic study was conducted with nine sixth grade children in central Texas. The children classified plants in the outdoors, in a…

  19. Nutrition Education Materials: Grades Preschool through 6. 1979-March 1987. Quick Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Irving, Holly Berry

    The citations in this annotated bibliography are of audiovisuals and books focusing on basic nutrition education for children in preschool through the sixth grade. There are 306 citations derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA database. Information is provided on obtaining the materials. (JD)

  20. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun


    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  1. Children's Perceptions of the Qualities of Sibling Relationships. (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Buhrmester, Duane


    Developed a framework for describing and assessing the qualities of sibling relationships by interviewing upper elementary school children and administering a self-report questionnaire to fifth- and sixth-grade children. Component analysis yielded four underlying factors: warmth/closeness, relative status/power, conflict, and rivalry. Relative…

  2. A Study of the Development in Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grade Children of an Understanding of a Particulate Model of Matter. (United States)

    Ward, Roger Woodmansee

    The study was designed to determine if chronological age is the main factor in a child's ability to develop a particulate concept of matter. Four demonstrations were organized which consisted of a graded series of particle mixing, gas diffusion, dissolving and smoke investigations. The individualized interviews with children were tape recorded. On…

  3. Discrimination Learning in Children (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others


    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  4. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  5. Children's Accounts of Sibling Jealousy and Their Implicit Theories about Relationships (United States)

    Thompson, Julie A.; Halberstadt, Amy G.


    In two studies, fifth- and sixth-grade children's descriptive accounts of sibling jealousy were related to their implicit theories about relationships. Children's jealousy accounts were collected via structured interviews; their implicit theories were assessed by questionnaire. In both studies, children reported experiencing mild to moderate…

  6. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi


    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  7. The Impact of Educational Games-Based iPad Applications on the Development of Social Studies Achievement and Learning Retention among Sixth Grade Students in Jeddah (United States)

    Najmuldeen, Hanan A.


    The present study aims to evaluate the impact of educational games-based iPad applications on the development of social studies achievement and learning retention. Sample consisted of (48) sixth grade primary students in Jeddah. The author adopted Quasi-experimental design of the experimental and control groups. She also provided the teacher a…

  8. Gifted Sixth-Graders and Primary Source Philosophy. (United States)

    White, David A.; Schlaggar, Sheila


    A sixth-grade gifted class studied the history of philosophy, including selections from such philosophers as Plato, Confucius, Buddha, Marcus Aurelius, and Moses Maimonides. Readings drew on fundamental features of child experience, such as their sense of justice, concern for moral values, and questions about reality. The paper describes classroom…

  9. An Analysis of Active Rehearsal in Children's Memory. (United States)

    Stone, Barbara Prince; And Others

    This paper presents a developmental study of the effects of item rehearsal on children's short term memory. Two experiments are discussed. The first, involving second and sixth grade children, concerned the relationship between item retrieval ability and rehearsal strategies in item recall. The design of the experiment involved varying the visual…

  10. Cognitive Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Lower-Class Children. (United States)

    Myers, Barbara; Goldstein, David


    The cognitive development of lower-class English-speaking monolingual and English-Spanish speaking bilingual children in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades was compared by means of standard verbal and nonverbal measures. The verbal ability of bilingual children was assessed in both English and Spanish. Their scores in both languages were low.…

  11. Preparing for national implementation of an evidence-based, effective HIV prevention program among bahamian sixth-grade students. (United States)

    Knowles, Valerie; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Jones, Giavana; Harris, Carole; Kaljee, Linda; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Chen, Xinguang; Marshall, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita


    Using data from the preparatory phase prior to national implementation of an effective HIV prevention program (Focus on Youth in the Caribbean; FOYC) in all Bahamian government sixth-grade classes, we describe (1) actual FOYC implementation, (2) factors that influenced implementation, and (3) the relationship of implementation with intervention outcome. Six elementary schools (with 17 grade six classrooms) were selected to participate in the preparatory phase. The 17 teachers were invited to attend a training workshop, coordinate administration of questionnaires to the students, teach the 10 sessions of FOYC and complete self-assessment checklists. A total of 395 students submitted baseline and 311 students submitted year-end questionnaires. Thirteen teachers initiated FOYC; five completed all 10 sessions. Implementation of FOYC was not related to teacher FOYC workshop experience but did cluster by school. There were significant positive correlations between improved student knowledge of HIV/AIDS, protective health skills, perceived parental monitoring and reduced risk behaviours with the number of FOYC sessions delivered. Implementation was impeded by logistics issues, structural issues with the measures, and comfort-level issues, most of which can be addressed for national implementation. Degree of FOYC implementation is correlated with positive student outcomes.

  12. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo


    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  13. Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children. (United States)

    Roff, Merrill; And Others

    This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…

  14. Political Awareness of Sixth Graders in a Rural Kentucky County. (United States)

    Singleton, J. Allen; Conner, Mary Lou


    Presents charts depicting responses of rural sixth grade students to factual and opinion questions about political awareness. Concludes that students have limited knowledge and awareness of the various levels of government and of matters related to government. (Author/KC)

  15. Testing Confounds to a Developmental Theory of Children's Learning from Television. (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.

    Children's learning from television was studied in 343 fourth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who viewed an edited version of a television program and took a posttest. It was hypothesized that children would learn more plot-relevant information (central learning material) as they moved from concrete operational to formal operational…




  17. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula


    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  18. Teacher's Resource Book for Balloons and Gases. Grade 6. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program. (United States)

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the physical and chemical properties of gases. The unit begins with an investigation of acids and bases. Students then generate carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrogen, and investigate the properties of each. The unit culminates with an activity involving an unknown gas. Students conduct tests to…

  19. The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Attraction in Children (United States)

    Cook, Timothy P.; And Others


    Sixth grade children who scored in the top or bottom thirds of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale were asked to rate strangers with ostensibly similar or dissimilar responses on an attitude survey. Comparison of responses indicated more extreme responses by high self-esteem subjects as compared to those of subjects with low…

  20. Effects of Peer Presence on Helping in Introverted and Extroverted Children. (United States)

    Suda, William; Fouts, Gregory


    In a simulated emergency situation, 38 introverted and 38 extroverted sixth-grade children were tested in the presence or absence of same-sex confederate peer. In the presence of a peer, more extroverts actively helped than introverts, with no difference occurring for children tested alone. Introverts and extroverts preferred passive and active…

  1. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty (United States)

    Tine, Michele


    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  2. Home-based alcohol prevention program for parents and children: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods: In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M = 12.15, SD = 0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in

  3. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  4. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata


    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abduh


    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine (1 the development of values from the second principle of Pancasila for sixth graders; (2 what are the constraints of sixth grade teachers in developing the values of the second principle of Pancasila; (3 the solution from teachers to overcome the obstacles in developing the values to the learners. Data were collected using an open questionnaire. Informants were the teachers of sixth graders. Data were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion/ verification. To develop the values of the second principle of Pancasila: (a students needed the examples from various stakeholders such as teachers, parents and community leaders; (b the problem is the selfish attitude of learners who did not cooperate with their  friends; (c the solution suggested were having patience and diligence.

  6. Peer Group Affiliation of Children: The Role of Perceived Popularity, Likeability, and Behavioral Similarity in Bullying (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Olthof, Tjeert; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Goossens, Frits A.; Smits, Marieke S. I.; Koot, Hans M.


    To understand children's peer group affiliation, this study examined to what extent children in naturally occurring groups resemble each other on bullying, likeability, and perceived popularity. Participants were fourth- to sixth-grade pupils (N = 461). Peer groups were identified using the social cognitive map procedure. Resemblance on bullying,…

  7. Association Between Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Performance on Standardized Language and Mathematics Tests in School-aged Children. (United States)

    Elkjær, Lars Skou; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Sun, Yuelian; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Christensen, Jakob


    children completing the sixth-grade Danish test was 12.9 (0.39) years; 122 774 (50.3%; 95% CI, 50.1% to 50.5%) were boys and 121 321 (49.7%; 95% CI, 49.5% to 49.9%) were girls. Valproate-exposed children scored worse on the sixth-grade Danish tests (adjusted difference, -0.27 SD; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.12) and sixth-grade mathematics tests (adjusted difference, -0.33 SD; (95% CI, -0.47 to -0.19) compared with unexposed children and children exposed to lamotrigine (adjusted difference, -0.33 SD; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.06). Also, children exposed to clonazepam scored worse in the sixth-grade Danish tests (adjusted difference, -0.07 SD; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.02). Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, and oxcarbazepine were not linked to poor school performance compared with unexposed children. Maternal use of valproate was associated with a significant decrease in school performance in offspring compared with children unexposed to AEDs and children exposed to lamotrigine. Findings of this study further caution against the use of valproate among women of childbearing potential.

  8. Development of overweight and obesity among primary school children-a longitudinal cohort study. (United States)

    Häkkänen, Paula; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina


    School health care is crucial for obesity prevention. Data on constancy of childhood obesity are still scarce, but highly necessary for risk evaluation. We examined from electronic health records (EHRs) the continuity of obesity during primary school and searched for social and behavioural characteristics associated with childhood obesity. From randomly selected 2000 Finnish sixth graders (aged 12-14), we identified 402 'ever overweight' and 172 'ever obese' children who were overweight or obese at least once since their first grade. These cohort data of growth measurements and the content of all pre-seventh grade health checks were retrospectively analysed from EHRs. Of the ever obese and ever overweight children, 69.3% (95% CI: 65.2-73.4%) continued to be overweight or obese in sixth grade. Of the ever obese children, nearly 40% were obese in first grade and 56% were obese or overweight in all six grades. Furthermore, 80% were obese or overweight already before school age. Obese children had experienced more bullying than overweight children (43.6% versus 30.8%, P = 0.003), had more frequently special needs for studying (25.6% versus 14.7%, P = 0.002) or had undergone a serious family crisis (20.3% versus 11.4%, P = 0.005). Electronic data on children's growth and psychosocial characteristics are potentially useful when aiming for early action to counter obesity. Such routinely collected data appear to be underutilized and should be further exploited both in individual and population level to develop screening and treatment processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Cognitive and Affective Orientations of Elementary School Children Toward Air, Water, and Soil Pollution. (United States)

    Holloway, Mildred Azelle Evans

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about children's knowledge of and attitudes toward problems of environmental pollution. It sought to determine whether or not fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in selected elementary schools, one in the United States and one in Mexico, differed in their knowledge of and their attitudes…

  10. Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-I; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni

    This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual-motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet. The children's VMI, VP, and EHC were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Results indicated that predictive factors of handwriting legibility varied in different age groups. VMI predicted handwriting legibility for first-grade students, and EHC and stroke force predicted handwriting legibility for second-grade students. Kinematic factors such as stroke velocity were the only predictor for children in fifth and sixth grades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia


    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  12. A Summary of an Assessment of Fourth and Sixth Grade Basic Skills. (United States)

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    A comprehensive assessment was made of the status of elementary education in Missouri in reading, mathematics, language, and study skills. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and the Short Form Test of Academic Aptitude (SFTAA) were administered to a sample of Missouri fourth and sixth graders. For each curricular area, Missouri…

  13. Teacher-Child Interactions: Relations with Children's Self-Concept in Second Grade (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    This study examined whether teacher-child interactions characterized by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support at the beginning of second grade predicted children's global, academic, social, and behavioural self-concept at the end of second grade. The study was conducted in 30 second grade classrooms with 570 children and their…

  14. The Development of Attitudes Toward Work Among Upper Elementary School Age Children (United States)

    Kuldau, Janice E.; Hollis, Joseph W.


    Fourth, fifth and sixth grade students were sampled using the Kuldau Occupational Development Inventory to discover their attitudes toward the world of work. The conclusion drawn was that children had developed attitudes towards five factors: money, status, working conditions, independence and self expression. (Author/CG)

  15. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children (United States)

    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn


    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control…

  16. The Development of the Norm of the Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure and Its Function in Children's Attraction to Peers. (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Mann, Luanne


    Groups of 30 children (kindergarten, second, fourth, and sixth grades) were shown videotapes of four types of conversations between two stimulus children. In each videotape, one child began conversation, and other child responded, each of them making either a high- or low-intimate self-disclosure. Findings indicated that norm of reciprocity…

  17. Feedback on composition: a case study of a remedial sixth-grader Feedback on composition: a case study of a remedial sixth-grader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda C. Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study conducted in Brazil, aimed at investigating the relationship between what a Portuguese native-language teacher provided as feedback on compositions in a remedial sixth-grade class and what the students thought about and did with that feedback. The study called for the teacher to fill out a questionnaire and to provide verbal report protocol data while making comments on the composition of a selected student. The student also provided a verbal report protocol concerning his reactions to the feedback, and all the students in the class filled out a questionnaire about their handling of the feedback. This paper reports on a case study conducted in Brazil, aimed at investigating the relationship between what a Portuguese native-language teacher provided as feedback on compositions in a remedial sixth-grade class and what the students thought about and did with that feedback. The study called for the teacher to fill out a questionnaire and to provide verbal report protocol data while making comments on the composition of a selected student. The student also provided a verbal report protocol concerning his reactions to the feedback, and all the students in the class filled out a questionnaire about their handling of the feedback.

  18. The impact of technology on the enactment of inquiry in a technology enthusiast's sixth grade science classroom (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad


    This study investigated the impact of the use of computer technology on the enactment of inquiry in a sixth grade science classroom. Participants were 42 students (38% female) enrolled in two sections of the classroom and taught by a technology-enthusiast instructor. Data were collected over the course of 4 months during which several inquiry activities were completed, some of which were supported with the use of technology. Non-participant observation, classroom videotaping, and semi-structured and critical-incident interviews were used to collect data. The results indicated that the technology in use worked to restrict rather than promote inquiry in the participant classroom. In the presence of computers, group activities became more structured with a focus on sharing tasks and accounting for individual responsibility, and less time was dedicated to group discourse with a marked decrease in critical, meaning-making discourse. The views and beliefs of teachers and students in relation to their specific contexts moderate the potential of technology in supporting inquiry teaching and learning and should be factored both in teacher training and attempts to integrate technology in science teaching.

  19. Test-Enhanced Learning in Third-Grade Children (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Eisenkraemer, Raquel Eloísa; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky


    Several recent studies have shown that retrieval is more efficient than restudy in enhancing the long-term retention of memories. However, studies investigating this effect in children are still rare. Here, we report an experiment in which third-grade children initially read a brief encyclopaedic text twice and then either performed a cued recall…

  20. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom. (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R


    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an "authoritative parenting" score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms.

  1. Associations between home environment and after-school physical activity and sedentary time among 6th grade children (United States)

    Lau, Erica Y; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Dowda, Marsha; Forthofer, Melinda; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R


    This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associations between each element of the home environment and children’s after-school physical activity and sedentary time. Availability of home physical activity resources was associated positively with after-school TPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in boys. Parental support was associated positively with after-school TPA and MVPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in girls. The home physical environment was associated with boys’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time, whereas the home social environment was associated with girls’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time. PMID:25386734

  2. An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects. (United States)

    Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N


    This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.




  4. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.


    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  5. Impact of Hidden Curriculum on Ethical and Aesthetic Values of Sixth Graders in Tafila Directorate of Education (United States)

    Al.qomoul, Mohammad; Al.roud, Atallah


    The present research attempts to investigate the impact of the hidden curriculum on ethical and aesthetic values of sixth graders in Tafila Directorate of education. It also, aims at counting the means and differences between the grades of the positive effects and the grades of the negative effects of both ethical and aesthetic values of the…

  6. The academic, personality, and physical outcomes of only children in China. (United States)

    Falbo, T; Poston, D L


    Representative samples of 1,000 schoolchildren from 4 Chinese provinces were surveyed to compare the outcomes of only children to those of firstborn and later-born children. The children's ages ranged from 8 to 17 years, with half of the sample in the third grade and the other half in the sixth grade. 3 types of outcomes were considered. In terms of academics, differences between only children and others were found in 3 of the 4 provincial samples, with onlies being most likely to outscore others in verbal tests. In terms of personality evaluations, very few only-child effects were found. In 2 of the 4 provincial samples, only children were found to be taller or to weigh more than others. Taken together, these results suggest that the one-child policy in China is not producing a generation of "little emperors."

  7. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children


    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn


    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Students in the intervention received 16 hours of instruction. Analyses of pre- and posttest data and growth measures suggest that short-term sup...

  8. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi


    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  9. Evaluation of Antistigma Interventions With Sixth-Grade Students: A School-Based Field Experiment. (United States)

    Painter, Kirstin; Phelan, Jo C; DuPont-Reyes, Melissa J; Barkin, Kay F; Villatoro, Alice P; Link, Bruce G


    School-based interventions for preadolescents provide the opportunity, in a ubiquitous institutional setting, to attack stigmatizing attitudes before they are firmly entrenched, and thus they may reduce mental illness stigma in the overall population. This study evaluated the effectiveness of classroom-based interventions in reducing stigma and increasing understanding of mental illness and positive attitudes toward treatment seeking among sixth-grade students. In an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N=721), 40% of participants were Latino, 26% were white, and 24% were African American; the mean age was 11.5. In a fully crossed design, classrooms from a school district in Texas were randomly assigned to receive all three, two, one, or none of the following interventions: a PowerPoint- and discussion-based curriculum, contact with two college students who described their experiences with mental illness, and exposure to antistigma printed materials. Standard and vignette-based quantitative measures of mental health knowledge and attitudes, social distance, and help-seeking attitudes were assessed pre- and postintervention. Printed materials had no significant effects on outcomes and were grouped with the control condition for analysis. For eight of 13 outcomes, the curriculum-only group reported significantly more positive outcomes than the control group; the largest between-group differences were for stigma awareness and action, recognition of mental illness in the vignettes, and positive orientation to treatment. The contact-alone group reported significantly more positive outcomes on three vignette-based measures. Results were most promising for a classroom-based curriculum that can be relatively easily disseminated to and delivered by teachers, offering the potential for broad application in the population.

  10. Chinese handwriting performance in preterm children in grade 2 (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Hong, Rong-Bin


    Background First graders born prematurely perform poorly on handwriting speed and legibility. However, whether there are specific legibility factors in which preterm children demonstrate difficulty remains unknown. In addition, handwriting performance beyond the first grade and the influence of sex on handwriting performance in preterm children are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of prematurity and sex on multiple dimensions of handwriting in grade two and to identify the contributors to performance. Methods Sixty-three preterm (34 boys and 29 girls) and 67 full-term (27 boys and 40 girls) peers in grade two were included. Class teachers were asked to complete the Chinese Handwriting Evaluation Form. A subgroup of 39 preterm children received assessments on intelligence, visual perception, tactile and kinesthetic sensation, and fine motor skills. Their inattention behavior was rated using a maternal self-report with a behavioral scale. Results Boys born prematurely exhibited poorer performance in the speed dimension than full-term boys (p = 0.008), whereas there was comparable performance in the two groups of girls (p = 0.221). In the dimensions related to legibility, preterm boys (32.4%) had a higher percentage of children with difficulty in the construction dimension than the other groups (preterm girls: 6.9%, full-term boys: 7.4%, full-term girls: 5.0%). However, no group difference was found in the dimensions of accuracy and directionality. Of the sensory-perceptual-motor factors, attention was the most significant predictor of accuracy in performance (p = 0.046) and speed dimensions (p = 0.001) in preterm children. Conclusions Boys appear to be vulnerable to the adverse impacts of preterm birth in terms of performance in the dimensions of speed and construction in grade two. Based on the significant contribution of attention to handwriting performance in preterm children, assessment and intervention in the area of attention is strongly

  11. A Survey of English Sixth Formers' Knowledge of Early Brain Development. (United States)

    Nolan, Mary


    Objectives To ascertain the knowledge of young people aged 16 to 19 of early brain development and their attitudes towards the care of babies and preschool children. Design Cross-sectional, school- and college-based survey including all sixth form students present on the days of data collection. The survey instrument comprised forced-choice questions in four sections: Demographics, Perceptions and Understanding of Early Childhood Development, Parental Behaviors to Support Early Brain development, and Resource Needs and Usage. Setting Two sixth form schools and one sixth form college in three towns of varying affluence in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom. Method The survey was mounted online and completed by 905 students who returned it directly to the researcher. Results Most students knew that tobacco, alcohol, and drugs are hazardous in pregnancy, and many recognized the impact of maternal stress on fetal brain development. Many believed that babies can be "spoiled" and did not appreciate the importance of reading to babies and of the relationship between play and early brain development. A significant minority thought that physical activity and a healthy diet have little impact on young children's development. Respondents said they would turn firstly to their parents for advice on baby care rather than professionals. Conclusion Young people need educating about parenting activities that support the all-round healthy development of infants. The importance of a healthy diet, physical activity, reading, and play should be included in sixth form curricula and antenatal classes. Consideration should be given to educating grandparents because of their influence on new parents.

  12. Associations between Whole-Grain Intake, Psychosocial Variables, and Home Availability among Elementary School Children (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.


    Objective: Develop, refine, and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole-grain intake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school with children in fourth through sixth grades (n = 98) and their parents (n = 76). Variables of interest were child whole-grain intake, self-efficacy,…

  13. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo


    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  14. The Effects of Gender and Type of Inquiry Curriculum on Sixth Grade Students' Science Process Skills and Epistemological Beliefs in Science (United States)

    Zaleta, Kristy L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender and type of inquiry curriculum (open or structured) on science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science of sixth grade students. The current study took place in an urban northeastern middle school. The researcher utilized a sample of convenience comprised of 303 sixth grade students taught by four science teachers on separate teams. The study employed mixed methods with a quasi-experimental design, pretest-posttest comparison group with 17 intact classrooms of students. Students' science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science (source, certainty, development, and justification) were measured before and after the intervention, which exposed different groups of students to different types of inquiry (structured or open). Differences between comparison and treatment groups and between male and female students were analyzed after the intervention, on science process skills, using a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and, on epistemological beliefs in science, using a two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Responses from two focus groups of open inquiry students were cycle coded and examined for themes and patterns. Quantitative measurements indicated that girls scored significantly higher on science process skills than boys, regardless of type of inquiry instruction. Neither gender nor type of inquiry instruction predicted students' epistemological beliefs in science after accounting for students' pretest scores. The dimension Development accounted for 10.6% of the variance in students' science process skills. Qualitative results indicated that students with sophisticated epistemological beliefs expressed engagement with the open-inquiry curriculum. Students in both the sophisticated and naive beliefs groups identified challenges with the curriculum and improvement in learning as major themes. The types of challenges identified differed between the groups

  15. International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world? (United States)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.


    This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

  16. The possibilities of application of programmed instruction in the sixth grade of the second cycle of education in accordance with standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dragana


    Full Text Available The subject of the work is to determine the possibilities of application of programmed instruction in the teaching of geography in the case of the sixth grade students of the second cycle of education. On the basis of an experimental research the rationale for the use of this form of acquiring knowledge during the classes of processing new material is presented. The primary task of the research functioning is to determine the degree of benefits of programmed instruction when adopting new geographical teaching contents and what is the extent of applicability of this method of learning with the aim of improving teaching. The second task of the work is the application of the experiment in two classes, the control (C and experimental (E, based on which it is established which vision of learning, programmed or conventional, achieves the best results in processing geographical contents in primary school.

  17. Grade-related differences in strategy use in multidigit division in two instructional settings. (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven


    We aimed to investigate upper elementary children's strategy use in the domain of multidigit division in two instructional settings: the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). A cross-sectional sample of 119 Dutch and 122 Flemish fourth to sixth graders solved a varied set of multidigit division problems. With latent class analysis, three distinct strategy profiles were identified: children consistently using number-based strategies, children combining the use of column-based and number-based strategies, and children combining the use of digit-based and number-based strategies. The relation between children's strategy profiles and their instructional setting (country) and grade were generally in line with instructional differences, but large individual differences remained. Furthermore, Dutch children more frequently made adaptive strategy choices and realistic solutions than their Flemish peers. These results complement and refine previous findings on children's strategy use in relation to mathematics instruction. Statement of contribution What is already known? Mathematics education reform emphasizes variety, adaptivity, and insight in arithmetic strategies. Countries have different instructional trajectories for multidigit division. Mixed results on the impact of instruction on children's strategy use in multidigit division. What does this study add? Latent class analysis identified three meaningful strategy profiles in children from grades 4-6. These strategy profiles substantially differed between children. Dutch and Flemish children's strategy use is related to their instructional trajectory. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  18. Young Children's Computer Skills Development from Kindergarten to Third Grade (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.


    This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…

  19. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Middle School Children


    Grills, Amie E.


    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...

  20. Children's Prosocial Conduct in Structured Situations and as Viewed by Others: Consistency, Convergence, and Relationships with Person Variables. (United States)

    Payne, Frank D.


    A sample of 41 fourth- through sixth-grade children participated in structured situations and were rated by themselves and their teachers on the same four facets of prosocial conduct (donating, helping, sharing, and cooperating). Among the results, the relationship between need for approval and prosocial conduct varied inversely with the…

  1. Comparison of Sociometrically High Visibility Rejected and Low Visibility Rejected Children on Teacher, Parent, and Self-Rating Measures. (United States)

    Neighbor, Jonelle C.

    The study looked at differences between groups of children identified as high visibility rejected (HVR) and low visibility rejected (LVR) on a sociometric measure with 952 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Questionnaires were analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative nominations from peers received by each child. HVR…

  2. Eating Behavior and Attitude toward School Lunches in Elementary School Children


    嶋田, さおり; 若林, 良和; 西村, 栄恵; 逸見, 幾代


    We conducted a survey of the eating habits of children in elementary schools that work actively in food education and take advantage of local products, and analyzed the trends in eating behavior and the attitude toward school lunches in each grade. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. 88.1% of children eat breakfast every day: second graders represent the highest percentage at 97.1% and sixth graders the lowest at 83.7%. The most common reason for not eating breakfast was "...

  3. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49. (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  4. Children's Dreams Viewed through the Prism of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (United States)

    Medcalf, Neva Ann; Hoffman, Thomas J.; Boatwright, Cassie


    During a regular free writing time in class, children in Kindergarten through sixth grade in various areas of the city were given the writing prompt,"My dreams for the world". Writing samples were collected from an elementary school in an affluent area of the city, an elementary and a middle school in a low socio-economic area, and an…

  5. Broad Ability Factors in 12- to 13-Year-Old Children, the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence, and the Differentiation Hypothesis (United States)

    Undheim, Johan Olav


    A simple-structure factor analysis of test data from 149 sixth-grade children in Norway was conducted. Broad factors were interpreted to represent Visualization, Speediness, and Fluency, as well as Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. The results are discussed in relation to the Cattell-Horn theory of intelligence. (Author/JAC)

  6. Study on global self-esteem predictors in elementary school children. Differences according to sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundi, María Julia


    Full Text Available The perception of the value of themselves as individuals is a very important outcome in childhood. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of specific domain self-perception on the self-esteem of school age children from Buenos Aires City/AR (CABA. The Self-Perception Profile for Children was administered to 219 children of both genders (mean age = 10.34; SD = 1.77 from a private school from CABA. Multiple lineal regression analysis were performed. School grade and sex differences were taken into account. The main predictor of self-esteem for the boys is the self-perception of physical appearance and for the girls the self-perception of social acceptance. Considering grade differences, the main predictor of self-esteem for children from third to fifth grade is the self-perception of physical appearance and for sixth and seventh graders the self-perception of social acceptance and behavior.

  7. On the Association Between Self-Reported Own- and Other-Gender Similarity and the Use of Physical and Relational Aggression in Sixth Grade Children. (United States)

    Andrews, Naomi C Z; Martin, Carol Lynn; Gallagher, Annabella M


    The goal was to assess the association between felt similarity to each gender (an aspect of gender identity) and girls' and boys' differential use of relational versus physical aggression. We extend past research on gender differences in the use of aggression by expanding the gender dichotomy and allowing for more variations in an individual's gender identity. Students (N = 414, 47 % female, 6th grade) reported how similar they felt to both their own- and other-gender peers, from which cluster analyses derived four typologies of perceived gender similarity (those who feel similar to their own-gender group; those who feel similar to the other-gender group; those who feel similar to both gender groups; those who feel similar to neither gender group). Peers reported which classmates were relationally and physically aggressive. Analyses compared how girls and boys in each typology of gender similarity differed in their use of relational and physical aggression. Results indicated that most children were engaged in gender normative aggression more than gender non-normative aggression (with the notable exception of low-gender similar girls). Findings were discussed in terms of their importance both for examining a broad spectrum of gender similarity and for understanding the use of aggressive behavior among children.

  8. The Authoritative Parenting Index: predicting health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. (United States)

    Jackson, C; Henriksen, L; Foshee, V A


    Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample of 1,236 fourth- and sixth-grade students; (2) weapon carrying and interpersonal violence in a sample of 1,490 ninth- and tenth-grade students, and (3) anger, alienation, and conflict resolution in a sample of 224 seventh- and eighth-grade students were analyzed. The Authoritative Parenting Index had a factor structure consistent with a theoretical model of the construct; had acceptable reliability; showed grade, sex, and ethnic differences consistent with other studies; and identified parenting types that varied as hypothesized with multiple indicators of social competence and health risk behaviors among children and adolescents.

  9. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung


    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  10. Sixth-grade students' reasoning on the order relation of integers as influenced by prior experience: an inferentialist analysis (United States)

    Schindler, Maike; Hußmann, Stephan; Nilsson, Per; Bakker, Arthur


    Negative numbers are among the first formalizations students encounter in their mathematics learning that clearly differ from out-of-school experiences. What has not sufficiently been addressed in previous research is the question of how students draw on their prior experiences when reasoning on negative numbers and how they infer from these experiences. This article presents results from an empirical study investigating sixth-grade students' reasoning and inferring from school-based and out-of-school experiences. In particular, it addresses the order relation, which deals with students' very first encounters with negative numbers. Here, students can reason in different ways, depending on the experiences they draw on. We study how students reason before a lesson series and how their reasoning is influenced through this lesson series where the number line and the context debts-and-assets are predominant. For grasping the reasoning's inferential and social nature and conducting in-depth analyses of two students' reasoning, we use an epistemological framework that is based on the philosophical theory of inferentialism. The results illustrate how the students infer their reasoning from out-of-school and from school-based experiences both before and after the lesson series. They reveal interesting phenomena not previously analyzed in the research on the order relation for integers.

  11. School outcomes of children with special health care needs. (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A


    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  12. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  13. Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders' academic performance on achievement of mathematics and english education standards. (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S


    Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.

  14. Children's mathematical performance: five cognitive tasks across five grades. (United States)

    Moore, Alex M; Ashcraft, Mark H


    Children in elementary school, along with college adults, were tested on a battery of basic mathematical tasks, including digit naming, number comparison, dot enumeration, and simple addition or subtraction. Beyond cataloguing performance to these standard tasks in Grades 1 to 5, we also examined relationships among the tasks, including previously reported results on a number line estimation task. Accuracy and latency improved across grades for all tasks, and classic interaction patterns were found, for example, a speed-up of subitizing and counting, increasingly shallow slopes in number comparison, and progressive speeding of responses especially to larger addition and subtraction problems. Surprisingly, digit naming was faster than subitizing at all ages, arguing against a pre-attentive processing explanation for subitizing. Estimation accuracy and speed were strong predictors of children's addition and subtraction performance. Children who gave exponential responses on the number line estimation task were slower at counting in the dot enumeration task and had longer latencies on addition and subtraction problems. The results provided further support for the importance of estimation as an indicator of children's current and future mathematical expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Multicultural Children's Math Books into Kindergarten through Sixth-Grade Classrooms: Preservice Teachers' Reflections (United States)

    Harding, Jenni; Hbaci, Ilham; Loyd, Stacy; Hamilton, Boni


    This case study of mathematics instruction using children's literature reports on the experiences 47 elementary preservice teachers had in their mathematics methods course while completing a microteaching assignment. As part of the microteaching assignment, preservice teachers were required to plan and teach mathematics lessons based on children's…

  16. The Effects of Sex, Race, IQ and SES on the Reading Scores of Sixth Graders for Both Levels and Gains in Performance (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.


    This study examines the effects of sex, race, socioeconomic status, and intelligence upon the reading achievement test scores of sixth-grade pupils in one school district. Differential effects were found. (Author)

  17. An Investigation on the impact of using problem-based trainings in the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the elementary sixth grade mathematics book (case study: the city of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Cheraq


    Full Text Available Changes in the administrative structure of the education system and the need to coordinate with the world of science and technology and hence, the need to update the general and technical information and knowledge, have doubled the importance and necessity of holding the new and efficient in-service trainings for the teachers. In this study, the attempt was taken to examine and analyze the impact of using problem-based trainings during the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the mathematics book of the sixth grade elementary level (case study: the city of Ahvaz. To do so, using a quasi-experimental study, 37 teachers of the sixth grade were selected from the elementary schools of Ahvaz city. For the in-service training courses on the teaching of mathematics, the problem-based learning method was used. After conducting the problem-based teaching method and the traditional method of teaching, through using the test and the standard questionnaire, the data about the teaching practice and the capabilities of the teachers were collected. Using t-test for the paired and independent samples, it was demonstrated that the problem-based in-service trainings, enhance the teachers' capabilities and performance regarding the problem-solving skills.

  18. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  19. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD (United States)

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony


    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  20. Adolescent Immunization Coverage and Implementation of New School Requirements in Michigan, 2010 (United States)

    DeVita, Stefanie F.; Vranesich, Patricia A.; Boulton, Matthew L.


    Objectives. We examined the effect of Michigan’s new school rules and vaccine coadministration on time to completion of all the school-required vaccine series, the individual adolescent vaccines newly required for sixth grade in 2010, and initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, which was recommended but not required for girls. Methods. Data were derived from the Michigan Care Improvement Registry, a statewide Immunization Information System. We assessed the immunization status of Michigan children enrolled in sixth grade in 2009 or 2010. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to identify significant associations between each factor and school completeness. Results. Enrollment in sixth grade in 2010 and coadministration of adolescent vaccines at the first adolescent visit were significantly associated with completion of the vaccines required for Michigan’s sixth graders. Children enrolled in sixth grade in 2010 had higher coverage with the newly required adolescent vaccines by age 13 years than did sixth graders in 2009, but there was little difference in the rate of HPV vaccine initiation among girls. Conclusions. Education and outreach efforts, particularly regarding the importance and benefits of coadministration of all recommended vaccines in adolescents, should be directed toward health care providers, parents, and adolescents. PMID:24922144

  1. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability (United States)

    Delgado, Christine E. F.


    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  2. Literacy Skill Development of Children with Familial Risk for Dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8 (United States)

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki


    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography in children through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared 2 groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia--1 group with dyslexia (Dys _FR, n = 35) and 1 group without (NoDys_FR, n = 66) in Grade 2--with a group of children without…

  3. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.


    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  4. Development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure. (United States)

    Rotenberg, K J; Chase, N


    This study was designed to assess whether children demonstrate covariant and equivalent forms of the reciprocity of self-disclosure, and if so, at what age. Twenty-one kindergarten, 23 second-grade, 24 fourth-grade, and 24 sixth-grade children were shown videotapes of three children (partners) who provided pre-established low-, medium-, and high-intimate disclosures. The subjects were required to send a message to the partners on topics varying in personal content. Fourth-grade children showed evidence of covariant reciprocity of self-disclosure by disclosing higher intimacy to high-intimate partners than to low-intimate partners. Sixth-grade children showed equivalent reciprocity of self-disclosure by providing a greater number of high- and medium-intimate disclosures to high- and medium-intimate partners, respectively, than to low-intimate partners. By contrast, neither form of reciprocity of self-disclosure was shown by kindergarten and second-grade children. Consistent with our expectations, girls provided a greater number of high-intimate disclosures than did boys in three of the four grades. The findings are discussed in terms of interplay between the development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure and the norm of the reciprocity of self-disclosure.

  5. Grade repetition and parents' perception of hearing loss: An analysis of data from children in the United States. (United States)

    Gilani, Sapideh; Roditi, Rachel; Bhattacharyya, Neil


    To determine whether parent-perceived hearing problems are associated with grade repetition among children in the United States. Retrospective cohort analysis of a contemporary national database. The National Survey of Children's Health 2011 to 2012 was analyzed. Hearing loss, as perceived and reported by parents, was categorized as: no hearing problem, history of a hearing problem, or current hearing problem. Children never repeating a grade versus repeating one or more grades (kindergarten-high school) were identified. Univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyzed the association of hearing problems with grade repetition. Patients with mental retardation, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were excluded from the analysis. After adjusting for race, sex, and poverty level, odds ratios for grade repetition were computed. Among 66.1 million (average age, 8.3 years, 49.0% male) children, 97.3% never had a hearing problem, 1.7% had a history of a hearing problem, and 1.0% had a current hearing problem. Overall, 7.1% repeated a grade. Grade repetition was reported in 6.9% of children without a hearing problem versus 9.4% with a history of a hearing problem and 19.3% with a current hearing problem (P hearing problem demonstrated an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval 0.82-4.13) for grade repetition, whereas a current hearing problem demonstrated an odds ratio of 3.0 (1.90-4.80). Parents' perception of children's hearing problems is strongly associated with grade repetition. This trend is noticed in elementary school more than in high school. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:741-745, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Does Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effect of Primary School Teachers' Emotional Support on Learning Behavior and Academic Skills? (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Mägi, Katrin


    This study examined the effects of first-grade teachers' emotional support on task persistence and academic skills in the sixth grade and the mediational role of children's academic self-concept in these effects. Participants were 524 children (263 boys, X-bar age in the first grade = 7.47 years), their first-grade homeroom teachers (n = 53), and…

  7. Teaching the Classics in the Middle Grades: Connecting with the Roots of Western Civilization. (United States)

    Wood, Robin H.


    At a New Jersey school, students spend one year studying each of three time periods: ancient Egypt in fourth grade; Greece in fifth grade; and Rome and the Middle Ages in sixth grade. The history curriculum becomes the focal point for other areas (art, music, drama, language arts, science, geography, and math). Teachers use primary sources and…

  8. UCSF partnership to enrich science teaching for sixth graders in San Francisco's schools. (United States)

    Doyle, H J


    Increasing the diversity of students entering the health professions is a challenging goal for medical schools. One approach to this goal is to share the enthusiasm and energy of medical students with younger students, who may pursue medical education in the future. The MedTeach program, established in 1989 and coordinated by the Science & Health Education Partnership of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), does so by partnering volunteer medical students from UCSF with sixth-grade classes studying the human body. In 1997-98, around 350 sixth-graders in the San Francisco Schools benefitted from the program. Each team of medical student's visits its class ten to 12 times a year to present engaging, hands-on lessons on body systems and health. The medical students are also role models for the middle-school students. In addition, the diverse student population of San Francisco public schools provides a rich environment for the medical students to improve their communication and teaching skills.

  9. Involving Parents in a Summer Book Reading Program to Promote Reading Comprehension, Fluency, and Vocabulary in Grade 3 and Grade 5 Children (United States)

    Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique


    In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Classroom-Based Mindfulness Meditation Compared to an Active Control Condition in 6th Grade Children (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Lepp, Nathaniel E.; Niles, Halsey F.; Rocha, Tomas; Fisher, Nathan; Gold, Jonathan


    Children in the United States are at risk for numerous psychological problems, such as anxiety, attention problems, and mood disorders, and are underserved by current mental health provisions. The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys and 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported data was collected by administering the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measure -Revised before and after 6 weeks of meditation or active control condition. Both meditators and active controls decreased significantly on the YSR Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Attention Problems subscales but did not differ in the extent of their improvements. Both groups also showed comparable improvements on measures in affect. Meditators were significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm than controls. Improvements in affect were correlated with increases in mindfulness in meditators but not controls. These results suggest that mindfulness training may yield both unique and nonspecific benefits that are shared by other novel activities. PMID:24930819

  11. Grade-School Children's Social Collaborative Skills: Links with Partner Preference and Achievement (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Ettekal, Idean; Sechler, Casey M.; Cortes, Khaerannisa I.


    Little is known about the skills children need to successfully collaborate with classmates on academic assignments. The purposes of this study were to identify grade-schoolers' collaborative skills, evaluate the importance of identified skills for collaborative work, and determine whether differences in skill use were related to children's social…

  12. Sixth form pure mathematics

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    Plumpton, C


    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  13. Experiences of Parents of Pre-K to Grade Four Children with Food Allergies (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia; Vandergriff, Alison


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of parents of pre-K to grade four children who had food allergies. Also examined were the management strategies put in place by the participants to assist the children deal with their unique situations. An in-depth interview was conducted with ten parents whose children had food…

  14. Children's agency in Grade R: A case for a child participation focus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen children between the ages of five and six at three Grade R sites in urban Western Cape participated in the study. The findings suggest that the children function as agents in social processes, where teaching offers many possibilities for engagement with them. This often eludes teachers, who are pressurised to focus ...

  15. Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klasson-Heggebø, L.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wennlöf, A.H.


    Objective: To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study. Methods: The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from...

  16. Infant-Mother Attachment Security and Children's Anxiety and Aggression at First Grade (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Weinraub, Marsha


    With a large and diverse sample of children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the role of infant-mother attachment security as a protective factor against the development of children's anxious and aggressive behaviors at first grade was examined. When child's sex,…

  17. Decreasing Off-Task Behavior through a Dot/Point Reward System and Portfolio Reflection with Second, Fifth, and Sixth Graders (United States)

    Butera, Lisa M.; Giacone, Maria V.; Wagner, Kelly A.


    The purpose of this action research project report was to decrease off-task behavior through a dot/point reward system and portfolio reflections. Students involved in this research were in second, fifth, and sixth grade. There were a total of 85 student participants and 35 teacher participants. The dates of this research began on September 4, 2007…

  18. Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunny, Roxana S.; Saunders, Dawn E.; Hayward, Richard D.; Phipps, Kim P.; Harding, Brian N.


    Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. To undertake a retrospective study of our children with CLGA to determine the optimum schedule for surveillance imaging following initial surgery. In this report we describe the phenomenon of spontaneous regression of residual tumour and discuss its prognostic significance regarding future imaging. A retrospective review was conducted of children treated for histologically proven CLGA at Great Ormond Street Hospital from 1988 to 1998. Of 83 children with CLGA identified, 13 (15.7%) had incomplete resections. Two children with large residual tumours associated with persistent symptoms underwent additional treatment. Eleven children were followed by surveillance imaging alone for a mean of 6.83 years (range 2-13.25 years). Spontaneous tumour regression was seen in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 children. There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression. There was a non-significant trend that larger volume residual tumours progressed. Residual tumour followed by surveillance imaging may either regress or progress. For children with residual disease we recommend surveillance imaging every 6 months for the first 2 years, every year for years 3, 4 and 5, then every second year if residual tumour is still present 5 years after initial surgery. This would detect not only progressive or recurrent disease, but also spontaneous regression which can occur later than disease progression. (orig.)

  19. Children's food store, restaurant, and home food environments and their relationship with body mass index: a pilot study. (United States)

    Holsten, Joanna E; Compher, Charlene W


    This pilot research assessed the feasibility and utility of a study designed to examine the relationship between children's BMI and food store, restaurant, and home food environments. Home visits were conducted with sixth-grade children (N = 12). BMI z-scores were calculated with weight and height measurements. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys evaluated children's food environments. The study protocol involved a feasible time duration, minimal missing data for primary variables, and participant satisfaction. Potential design problems included the homogeneous store environments and low restaurant exposure of the sample recruited from one school, and the adequacy of a single cross-sectional measure of the home environment.

  20. Cross-language Transfer of Metalinguistic Skills: Evidence from Spelling English Words by Korean Students in Grades 4, 5 and 6. (United States)

    Yeon, Sookkyung; Bae, Han Suk; Joshi, R Malatesha


    The present study examined unique and shared contributions of Korean (first language) phonological, orthographic and morphological awareness (PA, OA and MA, respectively) to English (second/foreign language) spelling among 287 fourth-grade, fifth-grade and sixth-grade Korean children. Korean measures of PA, OA and MA were administered, in addition to English vocabulary and spelling measures. Results from structural equation modelling showed that PA, OA and MA were caused by one common construct, metalinguistic awareness (META), and the contribution of Korean META to English spelling was statistically significant, controlling for English vocabulary. In particular, Korean MA and PA played unique roles in explaining English spelling; whereas Korean OA did not significantly contribute to English spelling. Findings from the present study provided empirical evidence of first language META transfer effect on second/foreign language spelling development. Educational implications and future research ideas are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills (United States)

    Kim, Meesook


    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  2. Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families. (United States)

    Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J


    Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive

  3. Reactivity to Stress and the Cognitive Components of Math Disability in Grade 1 Children (United States)

    MacKinnon McQuarrie, Maureen A.; Siegel, Linda S.; Perry, Nancy E.; Weinberg, Joanne


    This study investigated the relationship among working memory, processing speed, math performance, and reactivity to stress in 83 Grade 1 children. Specifically, 39 children with math disability (MD) were compared to 44 children who are typically achieving (TA) in mathematics. It is the first study to use a physiological index of stress (salivary…

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome among grade-one children in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Design. A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: ...

  5. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.


    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  6. An Examination of Children's Oral Storytelling in a First Grade Storytelling Circle (United States)

    West, Jean Ann


    The purposes of this naturalistic, descriptive study were to examine the stories that children in one first grade classroom told in a storytelling circle, how the children's knowledge, in-school experiences, and out-of-school experiences were reflected in their stories, and how the children used their knowledge and experiences as tools to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the incidence of hyperglycemia in grade III AND IV malnutrition with no signs and some signs of dehydration. SETTING: Tertiary care center located in north Karnataka. DESIGN: Prospective observational study involving 21 children. METHODS: All the children with grade III and grade IV malnutrition presenting with diarrhea of less than 14 days duration, having no signs to some signs of dehydration. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia was observed in three of 21 children hypoglycemia was observed in six children. CONCLUSION: Although hypoglycemia is common finding in moderate and severely malnourished children with dehydrating gastroenteritis, hyperglycemia should also be suspected and treated. Long term follow up of these children is needed involving larger number of people in multicenter studies.

  8. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children. (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara


    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  9. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  10. Predicting the potential for risky behavior among those "too young" to drink as the result of appealing advertising. (United States)

    Austin, E W; Knaus, C


    A survey of 273 children in Washington state used a predrinking behavior index as a behavioral outcome to assess media effects on precursors to drinking among children for whom alcohol consumption is not yet occurring. It also examined age trends in relevant beliefs and behaviors. Perceptions of advertising desirability, the extent to which it seemed appealing, increased steadily from third to ninth grade, whereas identification with portrayals, the degree to which individuals wanted to emulate portrayals, leveled off after sixth grade. Expectancies, positive social benefits perceived to be associated with drinking alcohol, also increased with age, particularly between sixth and ninth grade. When demographics and grade level were controlled, desirability predicted identification, and both predicted expectancies, which is consistent with media decision-making theory. Expectancies correlated with alcohol predrinking behavior, and expectancies predicted risky behavior, with demographics and grade level controlled. Predrinking behavior and reported risky behavior were correlated. The results provide cross-sectional support for the view that beliefs and desires developing by third grade prime children for future decisions regarding substance use.

  11. Iconic and Immediate Memory in Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Ewert, G. D.; Janzen, H. L.


    As age and grade increased, recall on all tasks increased; subjects in grades three to six were also seen to have a fully developed Iconic Memory, while only sixth graders had a functionally developed Immediate Memory. (KR)

  12. The Role of Executive Function in Children’s Competent Adjustment to Middle School (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Williford, Amanda P.; Pianta, Robert C.


    Executive function (EF) skills play an important role in children’s cognitive and social functioning. These skills develop throughout childhood, concurrently with a number of developmental transitions and challenges. One of these challenges is the transition from elementary into middle-level schools, which has the potential to significantly disrupt children’s academic and social trajectories. However, little is known about the role of EF in children’s adjustment during this transition. This study investigated the relation between children’s EF skills, assessed both before and during elementary school, and sixth grade academic and social competence. In addition, the influences of the type of school setting attended in sixth grade on children’s academic and behavioral outcomes were examined. EF assessed prior to and during elementary school significantly predicted sixth grade competence, as rated by teachers and parents, in both academic and social domains, after controlling for background characteristics. The interactions between type of school setting and EF skills were significant: parents tended to report more behavioral problems and less regulatory control in children with weaker EF skills who were attending middle school. In contrast, teachers reported greater academic and behavioral difficulty in students with poorer EF attending elementary school settings. In conclusion, children’s performance-based EF skills significantly affect adjustment to the academic and behavioral demands of sixth grade, with parent report suggesting greater difficulty for children with poorer EF in settings where children are provided with less external supports (e.g., middle school). PMID:21246422

  13. Children's agency in Grade R: A case for a child participation focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: agency; children; Grade R; participation; South Africa; teachers ... Bearing this in mind, Valentine (2011), in her efforts to account for agency in Childhood Studies, calls for critical social .... Poststructural theories extend the idea of.

  14. Step-count guidelines referenced on 60-minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Fontana


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish step-count guidelines for sixth-grade students and assess the ability of step-counts to discriminate between students achieving and not achieving 60-minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. 201 sixth-grade students completed the study. They wore a pedometer and an accelerometer at the waist level for one full day. ROC curves were used to establish step-count guidelines and determine the diagnostic accuracy of step-counts. Sixth grade students need 12,118 steps/day to reach adequate daily levels of physical activity. The AUC indicated good diagnostic accuracy of step-counts. Suggested step-count guidelines can be a useful tool for identifying children who need to increase their daily levels of physical activity. The step-count cutoff proposed in this study is adequate for discriminating between sixth grade students reaching and not reaching recommended levels of physical activity.

  15. Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.


    Purpose: Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014) writing process framework. Method: Sixty-four…

  16. Text comprehension in Czech fourth-grade children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špačková Klára


    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the concept of dyslexia is used as a global term for various developmental deficiencies relating to reading skills. The criteria used for dyslexia are not clear and intervention is solely focused on word reading training. Not much is known about the pattern and level of reading comprehension abilities among Czech readers. The study examines reading comprehension and its component skills (decoding and listening comprehension abilities in 32 Czech fourth-grade children with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia and their classmates (N=126. In decoding tests, the children with dyslexia surprisingly lagged behind most significantly in a task concerning speed and accuracy in context reading. Contrary to expectations, the children with dyslexia also showed inferiority in a listening comprehension task. In reading comprehension measures, in comparison to the typically developing readers, the children with dyslexia achieved the best results in a oral reading comprehension task. The results are discussed with respect to Czech counselling and educational practice and the need for changes in the current support system and terminology is stressed.

  17. Effects of Rote Versus Note Presentations on Rhythm Learning and Retention. (United States)

    Shehan, Patricia K.


    Reports a study which examined the effects of audio and visual approaches to rhythm reading and short-term retention in second and sixth grade students. Sixth graders learned the patterns twice as fast as younger children. Simultaneous use of both auditory and visual channels facilitates learning. (Author/AEM)

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

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    Xihe Zhu


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  19. Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning. (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael

    The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

  20. The effect of a self-constructed material on children's physical activity during recess. (United States)

    Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier


    To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13). An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth) and flying rings (fifth and sixth), a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p estrategia a gestores y profesores para incrementar la actividad física de los niños durante el recreo.

  1. Mothers' early depressive symptoms and children's first-grade adjustment: a transactional analysis of child withdrawal as a mediator. (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore


    The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal in early development. Based on 1,364 dyads, four waves of data spanning from 24 months to first grade (7 years) were used to examine paths by which children's withdrawal mediates relations between mothers' early depressive symptoms and three first-grade outcomes: social competence, academic performance, and externalizing behavior problems. Structural equation modeling revealed three principal paths. First, direct relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted early child withdrawal and increases in child withdrawal over time, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. Second, reciprocal relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted child withdrawal, which predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Third, relations via mother-child mutual responsiveness were observed: Depression-related increases in child withdrawal predicted declines in mutual responsiveness, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. The findings suggest that, due to its interdependence with maternal depression and low mother-child mutual responsiveness over time, child withdrawal may play an important role in the poor first-grade adjustment of children whose mothers are high in depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Grade retention risk among children with asthma and other chronic health conditions in a large urban school district. (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Gupta, Tina


    Asthma accounts for 12.8 million missed school days for children nationwide. Whether this excess absenteeism contributes to poor outcomes such as grade retention is of interest. The Clark County School District in Las Vegas, NV has incorporated the Federal "No Child Left Behind Act," which states that absences per individual in excess of 10 per school year are considered unapproved and may put a child at risk for repeating a grade. The purpose of this study was to determine if children with asthma are at increased risk for absenteeism associated with grade retention. Secondary data were obtained for students in attendance for the 2006-2007 school year. Days absent were weighted for enrollment time. Frequencies were obtained using descriptive statistics, and multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of absenteeism > 10 days per year. Of 300 881 students, 27 299 (9.1%) reported having asthma, as determined by school health records. The population was 52% male, 37% white, and 39% Hispanic. Significant predictors of missing > 10 days per school year included ethnicity, gender, grade, and health status (P 10 school days per year compared with healthy students or those with a medical condition other than asthma (P grade point average by race, gender, and asthma status. Children with asthma have a greater risk of absenteeism associated with grade retention. Therefore, improved asthma management and tailored education is necessary to identify and eliminate asthma triggers in the home and school setting for school-aged children.

  3. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3 (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.


    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  4. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes


    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.


    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  5. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms. (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias


    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  6. Mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy and children's adjustment in grade school: The role of children's sustained attention and executive function. (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore


    On the basis of longitudinal data across 9 years, this study examined the contribution of sustained attention and executive function to the poor cognitive and socioemotional adjustment of school-age children whose mothers had depressive symptoms during the child's infancy. Mothers (N = 1,364) reported depressive symptoms across their child's infancy and early childhood. Maternal sensitivity was observed during laboratory interactions at 36 months. At school entry children's sustained attention and executive function were measured with computer-generated tasks. In third grade, cognitive and socioemotional adjustment was assessed with standardized tests and the reports of fathers and teachers. Using structural equation modeling, findings showed that (a) exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms during the child's infancy, independent of later exposure, uniquely predicted children's poor sustained attention and executive function at school entry; (b) deficits in children's sustained attention and executive function occurred because of depressed mothers' tendencies to display insensitive parenting behavior; and (c) these deficits explained in part relations between exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy and children's poor cognitive and socioemotional adjustment in third grade. Findings highlight the potential importance of children's exposure to mothers' depressive symptoms specifically during the child's infancy for disrupting the development of fundamental cognitive processes that may underlie the adjustment problems children of depressed mothers display in middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert


    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  8. The sixth generation of Chinese cinema : marginalized urban young in contemporary China


    Linder, Christian


    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the Sixth Generation of Chinese cinema. Specifically what constitutes the Sixth generation, and what the generational designation implies for the Sixth Generation. Central issues are whether there is a Sixth Generation, and how it differs from the preceding generations. In order to understand the debate about the Sixth Generation it is necessary to first look at the discourse on the Generation, and to illuminate what constitutes a generation in Chinese...

  9. A Bibliography of Books Dealing With the Problems of Older Children (Grades 3-12). (United States)

    Sacco, Margaret

    Books for children that deal with the real problems of children in grades 3 to 12 are listed in this bibliography. The books are concerned with many social problems such as racial inequality, poverty, adult hypocrisy, desertion, broken homes, drugs, alcohol, sex, mental illness, and death. The entries are listed alphabetically by author. Each…

  10. The Presence and Duration of Overweight Are Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation in Prepubertal Chilean Children. (United States)

    Costa, Magel; Garmendia, María Luisa; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela


    Overweight is associated with low-grade inflammation, but it is under debate whether the effect of fat mass accumulation is acute or chronic. We aimed to study the association of overweight duration with low-grade inflammation in children in whom overweight initiation can be established. Observational longitudinal study, including a subsample of 250 Chilean children from the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study followed-up yearly since preschool age (n = 1195). At 4 years, 324 children provided blood. From those, 272 participants were evaluated at 7 years. The current analysis includes 250 children with a blood sample at 4 and 7 years of age and C-reactive protein (CRP) overweight (BAZ ≥ 1) participants at 7 years, the duration of overweight (time since diagnosis) was computed and categorized according to tertiles: overweight (diagnosis and duration) and low-grade inflammation (CRP ≥ 1 mg/L) was studied (logistic regression models). Overweight was associated with CRP ≥ 1 mg/L at 7 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93 confidence interval (95% CI = 1.60-5.38)], but not at 4 years [OR = 1.26 (95% CI = 0.71-2.26)]. An overweight duration overweight durations (36-Overweight at 7 years of age was associated with low-grade inflammation only in the case of recent onset. Inflammatory disturbances may be associated with the early phases of excess weight.

  11. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

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    Aliakbar Dashtelei


    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  12. Shallow and deep orthographies in Hebrew: the role of vowelization in reading development for unvowelized scripts. (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel


    The present study explored the speed, accuracy, and reading comprehension of vowelized versus unvowelized scripts among 126 native Hebrew speaking children in second, fourth, and sixth grades. Findings indicated that second graders read and comprehended vowelized scripts significantly more accurately and more quickly than unvowelized scripts, whereas among fourth and sixth graders reading of unvowelized scripts developed to a greater degree than the reading of vowelized scripts. An analysis of the mediation effect for children's mastery of vowelized reading speed and accuracy on their mastery of unvowelized reading speed and comprehension revealed that in second grade, reading accuracy of vowelized words mediated the reading speed and comprehension of unvowelized scripts. In the fourth grade, accuracy in reading both vowelized and unvowelized words mediated the reading speed and comprehension of unvowelized scripts. By sixth grade, accuracy in reading vowelized words offered no mediating effect, either on reading speed or comprehension of unvowelized scripts. The current outcomes thus suggest that young Hebrew readers undergo a scaffolding process, where vowelization serves as the foundation for building initial reading abilities and is essential for successful and meaningful decoding of unvowelized scripts.

  13. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms Predict Children's Low Social Competence in First Grade: Mediation by Children's Social Cognition (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore


    Background: This study examined whether social-cognitive processes in children mediate relations between mothers' depressive symptoms across the first 3 years and children's first-grade social competence. Three maladaptive cognitions were examined: self-perceived social inadequacy, hostile attribution, and aggressive response generation.…

  14. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

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    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)


    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  15. Musical Style Preferences and Aural Discrimination Skills of Primary Grade School Children. (United States)

    May, William V.


    Most primary-grade children were found to prefer current popular musical styles--rock, country and western, and easy listening pop. Music preferences of males and females generally were the same. There were no differences in racial group preferences for musical excerpts without racially identifying elements. (RM)

  16. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris


    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  17. The relationship between nature of science understandings and science self-efficacy beliefs of sixth grade students (United States)

    Parker, Elisabeth Allyn

    Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy beliefs help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have and are critical determinants of how well skill and knowledge are acquired. Research has correlated self-efficacy beliefs with academic success and subject interest (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Similar studies report a decreasing interest by students in school science beginning in middle school claiming that they don't enjoy science because the classes are boring and irrelevant to their lives (Basu & Barton, 2007). The hypothesis put forth by researchers is that students need to observe models of how science is done, the nature of science (NOS), so that they connect with the human enterprise of science and thereby raise their self-efficacy (Britner, 2008). This study examined NOS understandings and science self-efficacy of students enrolled in a sixth grade earth science class taught with explicit NOS instruction. The research questions that guided this study were (a) how do students' self-efficacy beliefs change as compared with changes in their nature of science understandings?; and (b) how do changes in students' science self-efficacy beliefs vary with gender and ethnicity segregation? A mixed method design was employed following an embedded experimental model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). As the treatment, five NOS aspects were first taught by the teachers using nonintegrated activities followed by integrated instructional approach (Khishfe, 2008). Students' views of NOS using the Views on Nature of Science (VNOS) (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, & Schwartz, 2002) along with their self-efficacy beliefs using three Likert-type science self-efficacy scales (Britner, 2002) were gathered. Changes in NOS understandings were determined by categorizing student responses and then comparing pre- and post-instructional understandings. To determine changes in participants' self-efficacy beliefs as measured by the three subscales, a multivariate

  18. The Dynamics of Narrative Writing in Primary Grade Children: Writing Process Factors Predict Story Quality (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid


    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local…

  19. Sixth-Grade Aeronauts. (United States)

    Flick, Larry; Dejmal, Ked


    An activity which combines problem solving with the history and science of hot air balloons is presented. Instructions for making and launching tissue-paper balloons are provided. The advantage of using manipulative materials with middle school students is discussed. (CW)

  20. School grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary behaviors among Japanese elementary school children: a cross-sectional study

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    Kaori Ishii


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is vital to reduce the proportion of sedentary behavior in children. Understanding the duration and behavioral context is needed. The present study examined school-grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary times and concurrence with screen-time guidelines among Japanese elementary school children. Methods A total of 625 children (330 boys were surveyed in 2010 and 2014. Using a questionnaire, data regarding participants’ grade (first through third grades: lower grades; fourth through six grades: higher grades, sex, weight, and height were collected in addition to the time spent per day engaging in each specific sedentary behavior separately: (1 reading or listening to music, (2 TV or video viewing, (3 TV game use, (4 internet use excluding class, (5 homework, and (6 car travel. Two-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for BMI and moderate to vigorous physical activity, were used to examine school-grade and sex differences in sedentary behaviors and the independent risk of exceeding recommended total daily screen time (< 2 h. Results On 625 children, mean minutes (SD of sedentary behavior per week in (1 – (6 were 90.3 (123.4, 535.0 (356.6, 167.3 (222.1, 23.9 (70.9, 264.9 (185.3, and 33.4 (61.2 in weekdays and 42.1 (70.0, 323.9 (232.0, 123.0 (96.4, 15.8 (49.9, 74.4 (96.4, and 71.3 (84.9 in weekends, respectively. There were differences in the minutes of sedentary behavior between participants of 2010 and 2014; e.g., TV game use and homework in weekdays and weekdays and car travel in weekends. Boys spent more time in TV game use, and girls spent more time reading, listening to music, doing homework, and car travel. Higher-grade students spent more time reading or listening to music, using a computer, and doing homework. Higher-grade students were 2.09 times (95% CI: 1.32 − 3.30 in whole week, 2.08 times (95% CI: 1.45 − 3.00 in weekday, and 1.88 times (95% CI: 1.29

  1. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

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    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  2. Technological literacy of fifth and sixth grade pupils of primary school


    Keše, Jaka


    The first part of this thesis contains a theoretical description of the importance of technology and technological literacy. It introduces the dimensions and standards of technological literacy for pupils aged 9 to 12, followed by a comparative analysis of the Slovenian curriculums of technical subjects (natural science, technical studies, engineering and technology). The thesis has two goals. The first is to evaluate the technological literacy rates among students in the 5th and 6th grade of...

  3. Parents' Reports of Sexual Communication with Children in Kindergarten to Grade 8 (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Weaver, Angela D.


    We examined factors associated with parents' reports of three aspects of parent-child sexual communication, quality, frequency with which parents encouraged questions, and extent of communication, on each of 10 sexual health topics. Participants were 3,413 mothers and 426 fathers with children in kindergarten to grade 8. Parents' demographic…

  4. Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages. (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Enros, Paul; Paquin, Soukaina; Kestler, Myra; Gillies-Poitras, Elizabeth


    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency with the grades obtained by healthy typically developing children in math, language, science, and art while controlling for the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. We studied healthy typically developing children between 7 and 11 years of age. Sleep was assessed for five week nights using actigraphy, and parents provided their child's most recent report card. Higher sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) was associated with better grades in math, English language, and French as a second language, above and beyond the contributions of age, gender, and SES. Sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, is associated with academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children. The integration of strategies to improve sleep efficiency might represent a successful approach for improving children's readiness and/or performance in math and languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Changes in Memory: The Effects of Processing Time and Rehearsal Instructions (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others


    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to investigate the relationship between children's rehearsal strategies and free recall performance. Subjects were 72 third- and 72 sixth-grade children. Investigated were the effects of increased processing time and rehearsal training upon recall. (MS)

  6. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

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    Hoelscher Deanna M


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods. We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using

  7. Stepping It Up: Walking Behaviors in Children Transitioning from 5th to 7th Grade

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    Sharon E. Taverno Ross


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 describe children’s walking behaviors in 5th to 7th grade and change over time and (2 examine associations between walking behaviors and Walk Score®. Participants consisted of n = 586 students from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK Study. Children reported any walking behavior (e.g., exercise and transportation over the past five days. Walk Score was calculated based on children’s home address. Descriptive statistics summarized walking behaviors by gender and time, and repeated measure mixed models examined the relationship between walking behaviors and Walk Score. Approximately 46.8% and 19.2% of 5th grade children reported walking for exercise and transportation, respectively, and these percentages declined through 7th grade. Girls reported higher levels of total walking behavior and walking for exercise than boys (p < 0.001. Girls with a higher Walk Score had 63% higher odds of reporting walking for transportation than girls with a lower Walk Score (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.62. Walking behaviors among children were infrequent with significant declines over time, and of the nine associations examined with Walk Score, only one was significant. Efforts should prioritize frequent walking behavior and community design to increase children’s physical activity.

  8. The Effects of Self-Monitoring with a MotivAider[R] on the On-Task Behavior of Fifth and Sixth Graders with Autism and Other Disabilities (United States)

    Legge, Dina Boccuzzi; DeBar, Ruth M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.


    This study examined the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior of three fifth and sixth grade boys with autism and other disabilities. While completing math assignments independently, the students wore an electronic device called a MotivAider[R] that vibrated at pre-set time schedules prompting the students to self-record whether or…

  9. Differentiating mass from density: The effect of modeling and student dialogue in a sixth-grade classroom (United States)

    Deich, Martha L.

    The concept of density can be difficult to learn. In the middle grades, students characteristically conflate mass and density, and even after instruction many students do not distinguish them consistently (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997). Few develop a conceptualization of density that accounts for the implications of changing mass, volume, temperature, and/or state. My work looks specifically at how students make sense of the relationship between mass and volume as they refine their understanding of density. The concept of density is challenging to teach. Traditional methods of teaching density in middle-school classrooms typically involve either the measurement of an object's mass and volume and the subsequent calculation of the ratio of the two quantities, or the observation of different materials in water to learn about their buoyancy. Unfortunately, as Carol Smith and her colleagues have documented (1985, 1992, 1997), these approaches leave many students stuck in their "commonsense frameworks" that merge mass and density into one concept. Teachers need better ways to teach density. Hence I designed an intervention to study the effects of some possibly more effective ways to teach density. I developed and taught a complex intervention (Brown, 1992) featuring student modeling, extensive student dialogue on data and data analyses, formative assessments, the substitution of hands-on inquiry for mathematical problem sets, and multiple thought experiments. The hallmarks of the intervention were modeling and student dialogue, and the research question I posed was: Does classroom practice that encourages modeling with open-ended discourse help students differentiate between the concepts of mass and density? I patterned my research on a Smith study of density instruction in eighth grade (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997), which had a quasiexperimental research design that compared the results of teaching density differently in two classrooms. I

  10. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean


    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  11. Hearing loss in urban South African school children (grade 1 to 3). (United States)

    Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H


    This study aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of hearing loss in school-aged children in an urban South African population. Children from grade one to three from five schools in the Gauteng Province of South Africa formed a representative sample for this study. All children underwent otoscopic examinations, tympanometry and pure tone screening (25dB HL at 1, 2 and 4kHz). Children who failed the screening test and 5% of those who passed the screening test underwent diagnostic audiometry. A total of 1070 children were screened. Otoscopic examinations revealed that a total of 6.6% ears had cerumen and 7.5% of ears presented with a type-B tympanogram. 24 children (12 male, 12 female) were diagnosed with hearing loss. The overall prevalence of hearing loss was 2.2% with Caucasian children being 2.9 times more (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.9) likely to have a hearing loss than African children. Hearing loss prevalence in urban South African school-aged children suggest that many children (2.2%) are in need of some form of follow-up services, most for medical intervention (1.2%) with a smaller population requiring audiological intervention (0.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reaching with the sixth sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bulthoff, Heinrich H.


    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support volunt...

  13. The Contributions of Teachers' Emotional Support to Children's Social Behaviors and Self-Regulatory Skills in First Grade (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Cameron, Claire; Peugh, James L.


    The present observational study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of children's social and self-regulatory outcomes in first-grade classrooms. Specifically, goals were the following: (1) to explore relations between emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and children's social behaviors (aggression with peers,…

  14. Emotional attribution of 6th grade students in Physical Education and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nicolás Mujica Johnson


    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the causal attribution of emotions in sixth grade primary school children in a process of development of physical condition in the classes of Physical Education and Health. The study is qualitative, descriptive and with a design of action research. The participants are thirty students in the age range between eleven to thirteen years old. The results indicate that students attribute their positive emotions to the fatigue overcoming, to the achievement of goals, to body benefits and to the entertainment with session activities. As for the negative emotions, these are attributed to expectations, pessimistic thinking, ridicule, envy, and health problems, physical inactivity, the academic consequences and lack of achievement of goals in the overcoming of the physical condition. In conclusion, the identified emotional attributions must be understood from the teaching work, to encourage the creation of learning strategies that promote subjective well-being and development of active lifestyle habits from a psychosocial perspective.

  15. [Relationship between first molar caries and eating and tooth brushing habits in elementary school children]. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Aiko; Takeda, Fumi


    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between eating and tooth brushing habits in the second grade of elementary school with first molar caries in the third to sixth grades. Subjects were 130 students at one elementary school in the Tokai region who were in the second grade in 2002, for which eating and tooth-brushing habits were ascertained by a self-administered questionnaire survey. A follow-up survey was conducted based on the 2002 to 2006 school dental examination record and analyses were performed on data from 104 students without first molar dental caries in the second grade. The incidences of first molar caries in the third grade were higher among students who ate cookies at least once daily or every 2 to 3 days, compared with those who ate cookies once a week or not at all in the second grade. Incidences were also higher among those whose daily frequency of tooth brushing was once or sometimes compared with twice or three times or more. Furthermore, the incidences of first molar caries in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades were higher among students who ate candy at least once daily or every 2 to 3 days, compared with those who ate candy once a week or not at all in the second grade. The intake frequency of cookies was related to the first molar caries in the third grade, and of candy for that in the fourth to sixth grades. Moreover, first molar caries in the third grade were also related to the daily frequency of second-grade tooth brushing. These findings suggest the importance of measures encouraging lower-grade elementary students to establish and maintain habits of tooth brushing and of limiting consumption of sweets, such as cookies and candy, in order to prevent caries in their permanent teeth during elementary school.

  16. Spectral Electroencephalogram Analysis for the Evaluation of Encephalopathy Grade in Children With Acute Liver Failure. (United States)

    Press, Craig A; Morgan, Lindsey; Mills, Michele; Stack, Cynthia V; Goldstein, Joshua L; Alonso, Estella M; Wainwright, Mark S


    Spectral electroencephalogram analysis is a method for automated analysis of electroencephalogram patterns, which can be performed at the bedside. We sought to determine the utility of spectral electroencephalogram for grading hepatic encephalopathy in children with acute liver failure. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients between 0 and 18 years old who presented with acute liver failure and were admitted to the PICU. None. Electroencephalograms were analyzed by spectral analysis including total power, relative δ, relative θ, relative α, relative β, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio. Normal values and ranges were first derived using normal electroencephalograms from 70 children of 0-18 years old. Age had a significant effect on each variable measured (p liver failure were available for spectral analysis. The median age was 4.3 years, 14 of 33 were male, and the majority had an indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure. Neuroimaging was performed in 26 cases and was normal in 20 cases (77%). The majority (64%) survived, and 82% had a good outcome with a score of 1-3 on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended at the time of discharge. Hepatic encephalopathy grade correlated with the qualitative visual electroencephalogram scores assigned by blinded neurophysiologists (rs = 0.493; p encephalopathy was correlated with a total power of less than or equal to 50% of normal for children 0-3 years old, and with a relative θ of less than or equal to 50% normal for children more than 3 years old (p > 0.05). Spectral electroencephalogram classification correlated with outcome (p encephalopathy and correlates with outcome. Spectral electroencephalogram may allow improved quantitative and reproducible assessment of hepatic encephalopathy grade in children with acute liver failure.

  17. An Analysis of the Development of Spelling and Punctuation in Selected Third and Fourth Grade Children. (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra

    Assuming that learning to spell and punctuate involves making and testing hypotheses about how the orthographic style of English works, a study explored six children's classroom spelling during their third and fourth grade years. The subjects were American children of the Tonono O'odham (Papago) tribe of southwestern Arizona who were part of a…

  18. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke


    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  19. Beyond adoption status: Post-adoptive parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica


    In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes? (United States)

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha


    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

  1. Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Sixth-Grade Students' Socio-Economic Status and School Factors on Mathematics Achievement: Case Studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe (United States)

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Ayieko, Rachel


    This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic status, school-level variables and mathematics achievement of sixth graders in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The study is based on secondary data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ III). SACMEQ employed cluster-sampling procedures…

  2. Story Telling: Research and Action to Improve 6th Grade Students' Views about Certain Aspects of Nature of Science (United States)

    Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür


    This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…

  3. Younger Children's Changing Self-Concepts: Boys and Girls from Preschool through Second Grade (United States)

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota


    The author investigated age- and gender-related changes in self-evaluative judgments of 87 children followed from preschool through 2nd grade. Focusing on cognitive, physical, and peer competence assessed by the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA; S. Harter & R. Pike, 1984), the author tested PSPCSA subscale…

  4. Breakfast habit and quality in students from two public primary schools in the city of Santa Fe. (United States)

    Fugas, Valeria; Berta, Eugenia; Walz, Florencia; Fortino, Ma Alejandra; Martinelli, Marcela J


    Breakfast provides the necessary energy and nutrients to achieve an optimal physical and mental performance. OBJECTIVE. To find out breakfast frequency, factors that influence breakfast habit and skipping, breakfast quality and snack intake in children from public schools in the city of Santa Fe. POPULATION AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 637 students were assessed using a closed-ended question survey. RESULTS. Seventy five percent of children had breakfast on a daily basis; only 1.6% had a good quality breakfast. Eating breakfast every day or some days did not depend on having the company of a family member. In the case of first to fifth grade children, the weekly frequency depended on having a family member who made it (p= 0.04). The main cause for skipping breakfast was lack of time. Twenty-three percent of children in sixth and seventh grade indicated feeling unwell when having breakfast. More than 50% of children watched television while having breakfast. Most students in first to third grade had breakfast that could be improved (41%) and which was insufficient (41%). An insufficient quality breakfast was more common among fourth and fifth grade students (50%). A remarkable piece of information is the number of sixth and seventh grade children who had a poor quality breakfast (16%). Very few children had a snack that was appropriate to supplement the final quality of breakfast. CONCLUSIONS. Although a high percentage of school-aged children are used to having breakfast, most have an incomplete breakfast. Very few manage to supplement their breakfast with snacks at mid-morning.

  5. First-grade retention in the Flemish educational context: Effects on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and school career throughout primary education. (United States)

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja; de Bilde, Jerissa


    This study examined the effects of first-grade retention on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and future school career by following a cohort of first graders until the start of secondary school. The study took place in the Flemish educational context where primary school students are taught in uniform curricular year groups; the same curricular goals are set for all students, irrespective of ability; and grade retention is used as the main way to cater for students not reaching these goals. Propensity score stratification was used to deal with selection bias. Three-level curvilinear growth curve models, encompassing both grade and age comparisons, were used to model children's growth in math skills, reading fluency skills, and psychosocial skills. Two-level logistic regression models were used to model children's likelihood of repeating any grade between Grades 2 and 6, transitioning to a special education primary school, moving to another primary school, and transitioning to the A (versus B) track in secondary education. Overall, results showed that first-grade retention was less helpful for struggling students than generally thought by parents and educators. Limitations of the study and further research suggestions are provided, and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability. (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia


    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effect of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming on Cardiometabolic Health Markers in Children From Low-Income Schools. (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 36-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on cardiometabolic health markers in children from low-income schools. Participants were 217 school-aged children (mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 114 girls, 103 boys) recruited from 5 low-income elementary schools. Cardiometabolic health markers were collected in a fasted state at 2 time-points, before commencement of the CSPAP for classroom and school level clustering and the modifying effects of grade level and sex, there were statistically significant improvements in HDL cholesterol (Δ = 3.6 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.4 mg/dL to 5.8 mg/dL, P = .039), triglycerides (Δ = -14.1 mg/dL, 95% CI: -21.4 mg/dL to -6.8 mg/dL, P = .022), and mean arterial pressure (Δ = -4.3 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.5 mmHg to -0.1 mmHg, P = .041) following the 36-week CSPAP intervention. Sixth-grade children showed decreases in LDL cholesterol (Δ = -15.3 mg/dL, 95% CI: -30.5 mg/dL to -0.1 mg/dL, P = .033). Improvements in specific cardiometabolic health markers were found following a 36-week CSPAP in children from low-income schools.

  8. Project-Based Social Justice Mathematics: A Case Study of Five 6th Grade Students (United States)

    McHugh, Maighread L.


    The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore how five sixth grade female students navigated the process of project-based learning as they designed and implemented their own project centered on mathematics while using a social justice lens. The theoretical frameworks of Authentic Intellectual Work and Social Justice…

  9. Personality traits predicting children's social behaviour in the first grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Horvat


    Full Text Available The paper presents concurrent predictive relations of personality traits with social behaviour of children at the transition from early to middle childhood. Personality ratings of firstgraders (N = 316 were collected using the Inventory of Child and Adolescent Individual Differences (Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and the Social Competence and Behaviour Evaluation Scale (La Freniere et al., 2001 was employed to obtain assessments on the children's social competence, internalizing behaviour, and externalizing behaviour. To account for the same rater bias, the children's personality and social behaviour were rated by both teachers and assisstent teachers in the first grade of a nine-year compulsory school; the predictions were based on two sets of their cross-ratings. The firstgraders' social competentnce was consistently (over the cross-ratings predicted by high conscientiousness, mainly due to ratings of child compliance, whereas low conscientiousness was predictive of internalizing behaviour, especially due to low ratings of subjectively perceived child intelligence. Disagreeableness (both antagonism and strong will and low neuroticism contributed to assessments of the observed children's externalizing behaviour. In regard to neuroticism, ratings of child fear/insecurity were positively related to externalizing and ratings of child shyness were negatively associated with the observed incidence of externalizing behaviour.

  10. The Nervous System Game (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly


    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  11. New exact solutions of sixth-order thin-film equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa M. Taha


    Full Text Available TheG′G-expansion method is used for the first time to find traveling-wave solutions for the sixth-order thin-film equation, where related balance numbers are not the usual positive integers. New types of exact traveling-wave solutions, such as – solitary wave solutions, are obtained the sixth-order thin-film equation, when parameters are taken at special values.

  12. The effect of outdoor environmental education on in-class behaviors of sixth, seventh and eighth grade students (United States)

    Cumberbatch, Albert R.

    Does the natural environment enhance positive human behaviors, behaviors which meet societal expectations? If that is the case, at what level of our social development does exposure and involvement with nature become a prerequisite? This study sought to discover an answer to the first question through examination of a small public school sample. The second will have to await future study. Public schools, while making some token response to the rising environmental consciousness, have failed or completely ignored environmental education. This study focuses on using the natural environment as a classroom with an environmental education curriculum. The control was academic grades before the environmental education class. The independent variable was academic grades after environmental education. Comparisons of academic conduct grades between classes taken before and after environmental education were made. Three environmental education classes comprising ninety students were evaluated. The mean of all classes was calculated. Results indicate that there is a positive behavioral correlation between environment education and academic classes. However, there were many uncontrolled variables which necessitate further study. One example is the arbitrary standard among teachers for evaluating conduct grades. Conduct grades can also be subjective. In further studies, a standardized tool for evaluating conduct grades would be essential.

  13. Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies That Support Children's Literacy Development (United States)

    Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura


    Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…

  14. Developmental Growth Trajectories in Understanding of Fraction Magnitude from Fourth through Sixth Grade (United States)

    Resnick, Ilyse; Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Rajan, Vinaya; Rodrigues, Jessica; Siegler, Robert S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.


    Development of fraction number line estimation was assessed longitudinally over 5 time points between 4th and 6th grades. Although students showed positive linear growth overall, latent class growth analyses revealed 3 distinct growth trajectory classes: Students who were highly accurate from the start and became even more accurate (n = 154);…

  15. Elements of Warfare in the Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Physics Course (United States)

    Enokhovich, A. S.


    Mechanical movement, pressure, floating bodies, heat phenomena, electrical phenomena, when applied to military problems "for the patriotic edification and military instruction of the children" excite interest and place theory on concrete foundations. Examples of applied physical concepts follow in this article. (Author/JH)

  16. Latin, the Key to English Vocabulary. A Gamebook on English Derivatives and Cognates to Accompany "Voces de Olympo" (Echoes from Mt. Olympus). (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This gamebook is intended to assist the grade school (FLES) Latin teacher to introduce the reading and writing of English derivatives and cognates after these have been mastered audiolingually in Philadelphia's Latin course "Voces de Olympo (Echoes from Mt. Olympus): A Humanistic Approach to Latin for Children in the Sixth Grade." Games are…

  17. Parental Provision of Structure: Implementation and Correlates in Three Domains (United States)

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Marbell, Kristine N; Flamm, Elizabeth S.; Cardemil, Esteban V.


    This study examined parents' provision of "structure," defined as the organization of the environment to facilitate competence, and the degree to which it supports versus controls children's autonomy, in the domains of homework and studying, unsupervised time, and responsibilities in a diverse sample of sixth-grade children and their…

  18. Developmental Changes in Verbal and Behavioral Sensitivity to Cues of Social Norms of Altruism. (United States)

    Peterson, Lizette


    Kindergarten, third- and sixth-grade children indicated verbally that giving in response to dependency cues was more meritorious than giving in expectation of reciprocity. When provided an opportunity to choose between giving to dependents or those who could reciprocate, children chose to help others who could reciprocate. Further experimentation…

  19. Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Children's Cognitive and Social Agency: Predicting First-Grade Cognitive Functioning (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore


    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms…

  20. Dazzling Sixth Ethnic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    WITH its first round in Lhasa, Tibet, the Beijing leg of the Sixth National Games for Traditional Sports of Minority Nationalities was China's largest sports ceremony at the end of this century. The reason for holding the games in two places for the first time is that the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the 40th anniversary of democratic reform in the

  1. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension. (United States)

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando


    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  2. Prevalence of strabismus among preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade Tohono O'odham children. (United States)

    Garvey, Katherine A; Dobson, Velma; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M


    Although the prevalence of strabismus is 2% to 5% in European-based and African-American populations, little is known about the prevalence of strabismus in Native-American populations. We report the prevalence of strabismus in children who are members of a Native-American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Subjects were 594 children enrolled in Head Start and 315 children enrolled in kindergarten or first grade (K/1) in schools on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Distance and near cover tests were performed on each child by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, and cycloplegic refraction was obtained. Strabismus was detected in 9 Head Start children (1.5%) and 3 K/1 children (1.0%). Ratio of esotropia to exotropia was 1:3 in Head Start and 1:2 in K/1. Anisometropia >or=1.00 diopter (D) spherical equivalent was present in 2 children with strabismus, and anisometropia >or=1.00 D cylinder was present in 4 with strabismus. The prevalence of strabismus in Tohono O'odham children is at the low end of the prevalence range reported in studies of European-based and African-American populations. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E C


    BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children: Implications for health literacy. (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya


    To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for

  5. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade. (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken


    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.

  6. Health Care and a Child's Ability To Learn: A Survey of Elementary School Teachers. (United States)

    Porter/Novelli PR Agency, Chicago, IL.

    In an effort to inform the debate on the effect of health care on children's readiness to learn, a study was conducted of the perceptions of 250 kindergarten through grade 3 teachers and 250 teachers in fourth through sixth grades concerning the relationship between their students' health and academic performance. Interviews were conducted via…

  7. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children. (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M


    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  8. The Relationship of School Absenteeism with Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status among Fourth-Grade Children (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Devlin, Christina M.


    Background: Data from a school-based study concerning fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) through the South Carolina Budget and Control Board Office of Research and Statistics (ORS) to investigate the relationships of children's school absenteeism with body…

  9. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205 (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald


    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  10. Permanent I-125 interstitial implant in the management of high grade CNS malignancies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishampayan, N.; Zamorano, L.; Aronin, P.; Gaspar, L.; Canady, A.; Lattin, P.; Ezzell, G.; Yakar, D.; Chungbin, S.; Fontanesi, J.


    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications associated with the use of permanent I-125 interstitial implants in children with high grade CNS malignancies. Materials and Methods: Between May of 1990 and September of 1994, fourteen children received permanent I-125 interstitial implant brachytherapy as initial therapy (n=8) or at time of recurrence (n=6). Histologies included Glioblastoma Multiforme (n=2), Anaplastic Astrocytoma (n=9) and others (n=3). Pre-implant surgical procedures included: Gross Total Resection (n=2), Subtotal Resection (n=8) or Biopsy alone (n=4). Six patients received pre-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 3,500-6500 cGy) and three patients received post-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 5,040-5,060 cGy). Implant dose range was 8,294-10,368 cGy over the lifetime of the implant (median 10,368 cGy). Results: At last follow-up (median 17.5 months; range 4-56 months), eight children were alive. Six out of the eight had no evidence of disease progression while the remaining had radiologic evidence of progression. Implant complications (n=2) included skin necrosis and bone flap infection. Conclusions: Based on this initial review, we continue to investigate the use of permanent I-125 interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of high grade CNS malignancies in children and will discuss and compare these results with those of other 'Boost' series

  11. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children. (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D


    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  12. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children With Typical Development in Preschool Through Fifth Grade. (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Milburn, Trelani F


    Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth. A 2-factor model with separate, highly correlated vocabulary and syntax factors provided the best fit to the data, and this model of language dimensionality was consistent from preschool through 5th grade. This study found that there are fewer dimensions than are often suggested or represented by the myriad subtests in commonly used standardized tests of language. The identified 2-dimensional (vocabulary and syntax) model of language has significant implications for the conceptualization and measurement of the language skills of children in the age range from preschool to 5th grade, including the study of typical and atypical language development, the study of the developmental and educational influences of language, and classification and intervention in clinical practice.

  13. Children's Comprehension of Metaphor: A Piagetian Interpretation (United States)

    Smith, J. W. A.


    When the descriptive interpretations that sixth and eighth graders provided for metaphors selected from fifth-grade readers were examined in a Piagetian framework, the poorest interpretations showed characteristics of concrete and pre-operational thought, while the best interpretations showed characteristics of formal operational thought. (RL)

  14. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction (United States)

    Wagler, Ron


    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  15. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records. (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J


    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (Pschool year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of administrative daily records of children's school-meal participation is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  17. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls (United States)

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur


    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…

  18. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias


    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  19. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Children's behavioral regulation and literacy: The impact of the first grade classroom environment. (United States)

    Day, Stephanie L; Connor, Carol McDonald; McClelland, Megan M


    Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both of which require the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge


    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and positive…

  2. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children. (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  3. Preschool children and relative analgesia: satisfaction grading through a verbal questionnaire. (United States)

    Arcari, S; Ferro, R


    The aim of the study was to assess 100 preschool children's satisfaction grading of relative analgesia (RA) after completing dental treatment by collecting their opinion on this technique through a verbal questionnaire. After completing dental care a simple verbal questionnaire (3 questions) was administered by the operator. The questionnaire investigated: 1) patient's satisfaction about the sedation treatment; 2) patient's agreement to re-experiment the technique and 3) patient's emotions while sedated. Moreover, following treatment, each child was invited to make a drawing on the experience. Data obtained were classified in 3 groups: group 1 (87% of children) appreciated RA and would agree to repeat the experience; group 2 (4% of the sample) did not answer the verbal questionnaire and group 3 (9%) did not enjoy the sedation technique. Only 15 children completed a drawing; conducting a psychological analysis through C.R. Rogers' theory of Person Centred Approach coupled with the handwriting analysis methodology defined by Girolamo Moretti, positive features were found in the majority of the drawings (13 out of 15). The majority (87%) of the sample appreciated to experience nitrous oxide inhalation sedation and would undergo a further appointment under RA.

  4. Effects of Tempo and Performing Medium on Children's Music Preference. (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; Cote, Richard


    This study measured the effect of three levels of tempo and two levels of performing medium, vocal and instrumental, on the expressed preference of fifth- and sixth-grade students for traditional jazz music listening examples. (Author/SR)

  5. The acquired preparedness risk model applied to smoking in 5th grade children. (United States)

    Combs, Jessica L; Spillane, Nichea S; Caudill, Leann; Stark, Brittany; Smith, Gregory T


    The very early onset of smoking predicts numerous health problems. The authors conducted the first test of one risk model for elementary school age smoking, known as the acquired preparedness (AP) model of risk, in a cross-sectional sample of 309 5th grade children. The model posits that (a) impulsivity-related personality traits contribute to risk for a variety of risky, maladaptive behaviors; (b) smoking expectancies confer risk only for smoking; and (c) the personality traits contribute to the formation of high risk expectancies for reinforcement from smoking, which in turn increases the likelihood of early onset smoking. The model was supported: the high-risk personality traits distinguished children engaging in any risky, maladaptive behavior from other children, and the smoking expectancies differentiated smokers from all other children. The relationship between personality tendencies to act rashly when experiencing intense positive or negative emotions and smoker status was partially mediated by expectancies for reinforcement from smoking. This model should be investigated longitudinally. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Let's End the Grading Game. (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie


    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  7. Conflict in a Sixth-Grade Book Club: The Impact of a Rule-Driven Discourse (United States)

    Hill, K. Dara


    This study examines unintended consequences during a 6th-grade book club discussion of Bette Bao Lord's (1984) In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinson. The participants modeled a book club discussion, otherwise known as the fish bowl, for a newly enrolled student. Unintended consequences occurred within the realm of deviating from the rules of…

  8. Rehearsal Training and Developmental Differences in Memory (United States)

    Ornstein, Peter A.; And Others


    This experiment investigated age differences in memory performance and the extent to which rehearsal techniques contribute to these differences. Second and sixth grade children were trained in a variety of rehearsal techniques in an overt-rehearsal free recall task. (Author/SB)

  9. Trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and grades for children who have and have not experienced their parents' divorce or separation. (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Castellino, Domini R; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E


    This study examined whether the occurrence and timing of parental separation or divorce was related to trajectories of academic grades and mother- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The authors used hierarchical linear models to estimate trajectories for children who did and did not experience their parents' divorce or separation in kindergarten through 10th grade (N = 194). A novel approach to analyzing the timing of divorce/separation was adopted, and trajectories were estimated from 1 year prior to the divorce/separation to 3 years after the event. Results suggest that early parental divorce/separation is more negatively related to trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems than is later divorce/separation, whereas later divorce/separation is more negatively related to grades. One implication of these findings is that children may benefit most from interventions focused on preventing internalizing and externalizing problems, whereas adolescents may benefit most from interventions focused on promoting academic achievement. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Viet Nam. Grade Six, Unit One. 6.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City. (United States)

    Thompson, Fred

    This sixth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus On Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. The units are designed to help students investigate the conditions under which people in other…

  11. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Four: Revolutionary America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies. (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Revolution is the theme of this resource unit, which is the fourth in a social studies series designed for sixth grade students. In the first part of the unit, case studies are used to examine 18th century Boston, Williamsburg, and Philadelphia, contrasting them to 17th century Jamestown and Plymouth settlements. Emphasis is upon examining causes…

  12. Hybrid layer difference between sixth and seventh generation bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Syavira Suryabrata


    Full Text Available Since etching is completed at the same stage as priming and bonding, when applying the sixth and seventh generation bonding, the exposed smear layers are constantly surrounded by primer and bonding and cannot collapse. The smear layer and the depth of penetration of resin bonding in dentinal tubules are completely integrated into hybrid layer. The purpose of this laboratory research was to study the penetration depth of two self etching adhesive. Fourteen samples of human extracted teeth were divided into two groups. Each groups consisted of seven samples, each of them was treated with sixth generation bonding agent and the other was treated with seventh generation bonding agent. The results disclosed that the penetration into dentinal tubules of seventh generation bonding agent was deeper than sixth generation bonding agent. Conclusion: bond strength will improve due to the increasing of penetration depth of resin bonding in dentinal tubules.

  13. Receipt of special education services following elementary school grade retention. (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Guppy, Nicole; Young, Robin; Augustyn, Marilyn


    To estimate the proportion of children who receive an Individualized Education Program (IEP) following grade retention in elementary school. Longitudinal cohort study. Children retained in kindergarten or first (K/1) grade and third grade, presumably for academic reasons, were followed up through fifth grade. Presence or absence of an IEP. A total of 300 children retained in K/1 and 80 retained in third grade were included in the study. Of the K/1 retainees, 68.9% never received an IEP during the subsequent 4 to 5 years; of the third-grade retainees, 72.3% never received an IEP. Kindergarten/first-grade retainees in the highest quintile for socioeconomic status and those with suburban residence were less likely to receive an IEP than retained children in all other socioeconomic status quintiles (adjusted odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.62) and in rural communities (0.16; 0.06-0.44). Among K/1 retainees with persistently low academic achievement in math and reading, as assessed by standardized testing, 38.2% and 29.7%, respectively, never received an IEP. Most children retained in K/1 or third grade for academic reasons, including many of those who demonstrated sustained academic difficulties, never received an IEP during elementary school. Further studies are important to elucidate whether retained elementary schoolchildren are being denied their rights to special education services. In the meantime, early-grade retention may provide an opportunity for pediatricians to help families advocate for appropriate special education evaluations for children experiencing school difficulties.

  14. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Banaeipour


    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  15. Bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy in infectious mononucleosis. (United States)

    Neuberger, J.; Bone, I.


    A 15-year-old girl who presented with a bilateral sixth nerve palsy caused by infectious mononucleosis is described. The neurological presentation of infectious mononucleosis is discussed. PMID:225738

  16. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers. (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo


    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. School and Child Level Predictors of Academic Success for African American Children in Third Grade: Implications for No Child Left behind (United States)

    Graves, Scott


    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of being at expected grade level in reading in the third grade. Participants for this study were a nationally representative sample of African American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Multilevel modeling was conducted to determine significant predictors of academic…

  18. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair


    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  19. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.


    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:20084180

  20. Parental control of children using the internet and social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana


    Full Text Available The paper starts from the standpoint that the expansion of the Internet imposes a need for instructing the parents to adequately guide children to use safely this virtual space. That is why we present the results of an empirical research, aimed at establishing how parents control the behaviour of their children on the Internet and social networks. The research was conducted on a sample of 105 parents of the sixth grade elementary school pupils, and the applied questionnaire was construed for this occasion. The obtained results show that the majority of parents think that they know about their children's activities on the Internet, and that a significant number of parents recognize potentional dangers of using the Internet and social networks. When it comes to mediation, i.e. the ways of guiding/regulating the child's behaviour on the Internet, it turned out that the parents most commonly use mediation based on facts or restrictive mediation, while value-based, i.e. active mediation is used by a considerably smaller number of parents. Especially important finding is that the majority of parents show interest for organized instruction on protection of children on the Internet. This interest of parents should be a starting point for creating a systemic support of the society, and especially the support of educational institutions for strengthening parental competencies for providing a safe Internet space for their children.

  1. 3,000 Paper Cranes: Children's Literature for Remedial Readers. (United States)

    Shumaker, Marjorie P.; Shumaker, Ronald C.


    Describes how the educational experience of sixth grade remedial readers was revitalized and enriched through a project that grew out of reading "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." Suggests using "real" books (literature) to liberate remedial students from skill drills and reading games. (NH)

  2. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liang Boo


    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

  3. Endoscopic treatment of grades IV and V vesicoureteral reflux with two bulking substances: Dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer versus polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in children. (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Canan


    We aimed at evaluating the efficacy and complications of two bulking substances: dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer(Dx/Ha;Dexell®) versus polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer(PPC;Vantris®) in subureteric injection treatment of children with high grades (grades IV-V) vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Data of patients undergoing endoscopic treatment of high grade VUR (January 2009-August 2015) were retrospectively investigated. Patients with high grade VUR caused by posterior urethral valve, duplex system, paraureteral diverticula and neurogenic bladder were excluded. Classical subureteric injection method (STING) was used. Seventy-three children (45 girls and 28 boys) who had 88 refluxing renal units (RRUs) with grades IV-V VUR (n=64/n=24) underwent endoscopic treatment using Dx/Ha (n=63 RRUs) and PPC (n=25 RRUs). Mean age of patients in Dx/Ha and PPC groups were 6 (3) and 6 (3.75) year (p=0.81), and volumes of these substances given were 1.3 (1) and 1 (0.5) mL (p=0.003), respectively. Overall, for the first endoscopic injection, success rate of grades IV-V VUR per RRU was 53.9% with Dx/Ha, compared to 80% in PPC-injected group, (p=0.024). Late ureterovesical junction obstruction developed only in one patient in PPC-injected group. No ureteral obstruction was observed in Dx/Ha-injected group. Endoscopic injection of PPC resulted in significantly higher success rate, compared to Dx/Ha in subureteric injection treatment of children with high grade VUR. However, the development of late ureterovesical junction obstruction should also be taken into account in PPC injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment: A new visual perceptual motor skills evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Lee, Candy Chieh; Chen, Ying-Dar; Wang, Tien-Ni


    Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)≥0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Effect of Grade Configuration on the Academic Achievement of Special Needs Students: The Case of New Jersey (United States)

    Nelson, Derrick E.


    For over thirty years, research has been conducted on the relative benefits of integrating the sixth through eighth grades within the structure of the K-8 elementary school or of establishing a freestanding middle school structure. While the available research clearly supports the positive effects of the K-8 structure on academic achievement in…

  6. Does Learning the Alphabet in Kindergarten Give Children a Head Start in the First Year of School? A Comparison of Children's Reading Progress in Two First Grade Classes in State and Montessori Schools in Switzerland (United States)

    Elben, Judy; Nicholson, Tom


    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the age at which children start to learn to read affects their later progress. The study was conducted in Zürich, Switzerland, and compared a first grade class in a local school with two first grade classes in a Montessori school. It was found that although the Montessori children had an…

  7. The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Mitchell, J M; Rochat, T J; Houle, B; Stein, A; Newell, M L; Bland, R M


    Receiving an education is essential for children living in poverty to fulfil their potential. Success in the early years of schooling is important as children who repeat grade one are particularly at risk for future dropout. We examined early life factors associated with grade repetition through logistic regression and explored reasons for repeating a grade through parent report. In 2012-2014 we re-enrolled children aged 7-11 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal who had been part of an early life intervention. Of the 894 children included, 43.1% had repeated a grade, of which 62.9% were boys. Higher maternal education (aOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) and being further along in the birth order (aOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.3-0.9) reduced the odds of grade repetition. In addition, maternal HIV status had the strongest effect on grade repetition for girls (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.3-3.8), whereas for boys, it was a fridge in the household (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.4-1.0). Issues with school readiness was the most common reason for repeating a grade according to parental report (126/385, 32.7%), while school disruptions was an important reason among HIV-exposed boys. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathways through which HIV affects girls' educational outcomes and potentially impacts on disrupted schooling for boys. Our results also highlight the importance of preparation for schooling in the early years of life; future research could focus on gaining a better understanding of mechanisms by which to improve early school success, including increased quality of reception year and investigating the protective effect of older siblings.

  8. The Association of Latino Children's Kindergarten School Readiness Profiles with Grade 2-5 Literacy Achievement Trajectories (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Grimm, Ryan; Furlong, Michael J.; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Swami, Sruthi


    This study utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to identify 5 discernible profiles of Latino children's (N = 1,253) social-emotional, physical, and cognitive school readiness at the time of kindergarten entry. In addition, a growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach was used to identify 3 unique literacy achievement trajectories, across Grades 2-5,…

  9. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms and Children's First-Grade Adjustment: A Transactional Analysis of Child Withdrawal as a Mediator (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore


    Background: The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal…

  10. Influence of a 2- to 6-year physical education intervention on scholastic performance: The CHAMPS study-DK. (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Möller, Sören; Tarp, Jakob; Hillman, Charles H; Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Gejl, Anne Kaer; Klakk, Heidi; Wedderkopp, Niels


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a school-based intervention with a tripling of physical education (PE) lessons from two (90 minutes) to six lessons per week (270 minutes) on scholastic performance. This study is part of the CHAMPS study-DK, a quasi-experimental study that began in 2008. The intervention group consisted of six schools, and the control group consisted of four matched schools (mean age at baseline=8.4 years, kindergarten class fourth grade). Academic performance was extracted from the national test system from 2010 to 2014 (Math and Danish were measured at third and sixth, and second, fourth and sixth grades, respectively). Participants included 1888 students participating in at least one scholastic performance test. Linear mixed models were applied to test for differences between groups and adjusted for known confounders. No significant differences were observed between groups in the academic performance tests (control group reference); Danish second grade β=-1.34 (95% CI -9.90, 7.22), fourth grade β=0.22 (95% CI -6.12, 6.56), sixth grade β=1.03 (95% CI -5.02, 7.08), and all grades combined β=0.28 (95% CI -5.74, 6.31) and Math third grade β=-2.87 (95% CI -9.65, 3.90), sixth grade β=0.99 (95% CI -7.36, 9.34) and combined β=-1.20 (95% CI -8.10, 5.71). In conclusion, no significant differences were observed between intervention and control schools for scholastic performance. Importantly, there were no negative effects of additional PE on scholastic outcomes, despite more PE and longer school days for intervention children. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Creating a Classroom Where Readers Flourish (United States)

    Miller, Donalyn


    Numerous research studies prove that wide reading improves children's comprehension, background knowledge, vocabulary, fluency, and writing. The author, a sixth-grade language arts teacher, describes the classroom conditions and instructional practices that encourage wide reading and increase her students' reading motivation such as choice in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief


    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  13. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children. (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A


    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  14. Bullying and Social Anxiety in Chinese Children: Moderating Roles of Trait Resilience and Psychological Suzhi. (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang; Hu, Tianqiang


    Research examining the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety has mainly been conducted in Western countries, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study explores the correlation between bullying victimization and social anxiety in a Chinese context and determines the moderating roles of psychological suzhi (a mental quality characterized by being steady, essential and implicit that affects adaptive, developmental, and creative behavior) and trait resilience among victims of bullying. Data were obtained from a stratified sample of 1903 children in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. All participants completed measures of bullying victimization, social anxiety, trait resilience, and psychological suzhi. The results indicated that, after controlling for grade, residential area, and parental marital status, bullying victimization positively predicted children's social anxiety. In addition, multi-group analysis suggested that the association in girls was stronger relative to that observed in boys. Regarding underlying processes, trait resilience moderated the effect of bullying victimization on social anxiety only in girls. Further assessment of the latent interaction effects indicated that the protective effect of trait resilience was stronger for girls experiencing high, relative to low, levels of bullying victimization, and psychological suzhi buffered against the detrimental effects of bullying on children's social anxiety. Most notably, unlike the moderating effect of resilience, the buffering effect of psychological suzhi against social anxiety was most prominent when bullying victimization was low. Findings underscore the importance of enhancing trait resilience and psychological suzhi in interventions designed to reduce children's social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Science Textbooks' Use of Graphical Representation: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Sixth Grade Science Texts (United States)

    Slough, Scott W.; McTigue, Erin M.; Kim, Suyeon; Jennings, Susan K.


    Middle school teachers tend to rely heavily on texts that have become increasing more visual. There is little information available about the graphical demands of general middle grades' science texts. The purpose of this study was to quantify the type and quality of the graphical representations and how they interacted with the textual material in…

  16. Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition. (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

  17. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert


    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students’ writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

  18. Developmental Differences in Recall and Recognition: The Relationship between Rehearsal and Memory as Test Expectation Changes (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others


    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to study the relationship between 48 third- and 48 sixth-grade children's rehearsal strategies and their memory performance under difficult conditions of test expectation. This study addressed the question of why active rehearsal content results in superior recall performances. (MS)

  19. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.


    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  20. Prediction and Stability of Reading Problems in Middle Childhood (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Speece, Deborah L.


    The longitudinal prediction of reading problems from fourth grade to sixth grade was investigated with a sample of 173 students. Reading problems at the end of sixth grade were defined by significantly below average performance (= 15th percentile) on reading factors defining word reading, fluency, and reading comprehension. Sixth grade poor reader…

  1. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome. (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A


    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  2. Sixth-Form Projects in Biology: A Case History. (United States)

    Robinson, P. M.; Parker, R. E.


    Some of the problems encountered in devising sixth-form projects are discussed and a detailed account given of one project in which a study was made of the effect of onion bulb volatiles on the germination of lettuce seed. (Author)

  3. Prospective association of peer influence, school engagement, drinking expectancies, and parent expectations with drinking initiation among sixth graders. (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce


    Early initiation of drinking increases the lifetime risk for substance abuse and other serious health and social problems. An understanding of the predictors of early initiation is needed if successful preventive interventions are to be developed. Surveys were completed by 1009 sixth grade students at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the school year in four schools in one suburban school district. At Time 1, 55/1009 (5.5%) reported drinking in the past 30 days. From Time 1 to Time 2, the percentage of drinkers increase to 127/1009 (10.9%) of whom 101 were new drinkers. In multiple logistic regression analyses, school engagement was negatively associated and peer influence and drinking expectancies were positively associated with drinking initiation. A significant interaction was found between drinking expectancies and parental expectations. Among sixth graders with high drinking expectancies, those with low parental expectations for their behavior were 2.6 times more likely to start drinking than those with parents with high expectations for their behavior. Positive drinking expectancies were significantly associated with drinking initiation only among teens who believed their parents did not hold strong expectations for them not to drink. This finding held for boys and girls, Blacks and Whites and was particularly strong for Black youth. This finding provides new information about the moderating effect of parental expectations on drinking expectancies among early adolescents.

  4. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout. (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah


    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  6. Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade. (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Swanson, H Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate whether the 2 predictor working memory factors contributed unique variance beyond their shared covariance to each of 5 outcome factors: handwriting, spelling, composing, word reading, and reading comprehension. At each grade level, except for handwriting and composing in 6th grade, the word-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to each reading and writing outcome. The text-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to reading comprehension in 4th and 6th grade. The clinical significance of these findings for assessment and intervention is discussed.

  7. The relationship between self-complexity and depressive symptoms in third and seventh grade children: a short-term longitudinal study. (United States)

    Abela, John R Z; Véronneau-McArdle, Marie-Hélène


    The goal of this study was to test the diathesis-stress component of Linville's and Morgan and Janoff-Bulman's models of the relationship between self-complexity and depressive symptoms in a sample of third and seventh grade children (P. W. Linville, 1985, 1987; H. J. Morgan & Janoff-Bulman, 1994). The procedure involved an initial assessment of self-complexity and depressive symptoms. The procedure also involved a follow-up assessment, 10 weeks later, in which depressive symptoms and the occurrence of negative events were assessed. Contrary to hypotheses, neither high levels of total nor positive self-complexity served as a buffer against the onset of depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative events. In line with hypotheses, however, high levels of negative self-complexity interacted with the occurrence of negative events to predict increases in depressive symptoms in seventh but not third grade children.

  8. Relationship Between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievement Among Elementary Students Grade II and III


    Defia Rizki, Sari; Susilawati; Mariam, Iyam


    HUBUNGAN POLA ASUH ORANG TUA DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJARANAK USIA SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS II DAN IIIRelationship between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievementamong Elementary Students Grade II and IIISari Defia Rizki1, Susilawati2, Iyam Mariam3123Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan SukabumiJalan Karamat Nomor 36, Karamat, Kec. Sukabumi, Kota Sukabumi,Jawa Barat 431221e-mail: Pola asuh merupakan cara yang digunakan orang tua dalam mencoba berbagai strategi untukmendoron...

  9. Determinants of Physical Activity in Middle School Children. (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.


    Evaluated the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in sixth grade students. Student surveys on physical activity behavior and attitudes and measurement of MVPA indicated that the TRA and TPB accounted for only a small percentage of the variance in MVPA. (SM)

  10. Temperament in early childhood and peer interactions in third grade: the role of teacher-child relationships in early elementary grades. (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Niehaus, Kate; Buhs, Eric; White, Jamie M


    Children's interactions with peers in early childhood have been consistently linked to their academic and social outcomes. Although both child and classroom characteristics have been implicated as contributors to children's success, there has been scant research linking child temperament, teacher-child relationship quality, and peer interactions in the same study. The purpose of this study is to examine children's early temperament, rated at preschool age, as a predictor of interactions with peers (i.e., aggression, relational aggression, victimization, and prosociality) in third grade while considering teacher-child relationship quality in kindergarten through second grades as a moderator and mediator of this association. The sample (N=1364) was drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Results from structural equation models indicated that teacher-child conflict in early elementary grades mediated links between children's temperament and later peer interactions. Findings underscore the importance of considering children's temperament traits and teacher-child relationship quality when examining the mechanisms of the development of peer interactions. © 2013.

  11. The Receipt of Special Education Services Following Elementary School Grade Retention (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Guppy, Nicole; Young, Robin; Augustyn, Marilyn


    Objective To estimate the proportion of children who receive an Individualized Education Program (IEP) following grade retention in elementary school. Design/setting Descriptive analysis of a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort. Participants Children retained in K/1 and 3rd grade for presumed academic reasons, followed through fifth grade. Outcome measure Presence or absence of an IEP. Results 300 children retained for presumed academic reasons in K/1, and 80 in 3rd grade were included in the study. Of the K/1 retainees, 68% never received an IEP over the subsequent four to five years; of the 3rd grade retainees, 73% never received an IEP. K/1 retainees in the highest SES quintile and suburban K/1 retainees were less likely to receive an IEP than retained children in all other SES quintiles (aOR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.62) and in rural communities (aOR 0.16; 95% CI 0.06-0.44), respectively. Among K/1 retainees with persistent low academic achievement in reading and math (as assessed by standardized testing), 37% and 28%, respectively, never received an IEP. Conclusions The majority of children retained in K/1 or 3rd grade for academic reasons, including a many of those who demonstrate sustained academic difficulties, never receive an IEP during elementary school. Further studies are important to elucidate whether retained elementary school children are being denied their rights to special education services. In the meantime, early grade retention may provide an opportunity for pediatricians to help families advocate for appropriate special education evaluations for children experiencing school difficulties. PMID:19487611

  12. Classroom Quality and Student Engagement: Contributions to Third-Grade Reading Skills (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.


    This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272

  13. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI) gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study


    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Arcan, Chrisa; Smyth, Mary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Story, Mary


    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and wei...

  14. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K to 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.


    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across…

  15. Multi-skyrmion solutions of a sixth order Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, I.


    In this thesis, we study some of the classical properties of an extension of the Skyrme model defined by adding a sixth order derivative term to the Lagrangian. In chapter 1, we review the physical as well as the mathematical motivation behind the study of the Skyrme model and in chapter 2, we give a brief summary of various extended Skyrme models that have been proposed over the last few years. We then define a new sixth order Skyrme model by introducing a dimensionless parameter λ that denotes the mixing between the two higher order terms, the Skyrme term and the sixth order term. In chapter 3 we compute numerically the multi-skyrmion solutions of this extended model and show that they have the same symmetries with the usual skyrmion solutions. In addition, we analyse the dependence of the energy and radius of these classical solutions with respect to the coupling constant λ. We compare our results with experimental data and determine whether this modified model can provide us with better theoretical predictions than the original one. In chapter 4, we use the rational map ansatz, introduced by Houghton, Manton and Sutcliffe, to approximate minimum energy multi-skyrmion solutions with B ≤ 9 of the SU(2) model and with B ≤ 6 of the SU(3) model. We compare our results with the ones obtained numerically and show that the rational map ansatz works just as well for the generalised model as for the pure Skyrme model, at least for B ≤ 5. In chapter 5, we use a generalisation of the rational map ansatz, introduced by loannidou, Piette and Zakrzewski, to construct analytically some topologically non-trivial solutions of the extended model in SU(3). These solutions are spherically symmetric and some of them can be interpreted as bound states of skyrmions. Finally, we use the same ansatz to construct low energy configurations of the SU(N) sixth order Skyrme model. (author)

  16. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children. (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira


    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  18. Analysis of both perceptual and motor skills of children with dyslalia before their entering of the first grade of primary school


    Pešlová, Markéta


    The thesis deals with an analysis of both perceptual and motor skills of children with dyslalia before their entering of the first grade of primary school. The aim of this thesis is to determine the level of perceptual and motor skills of both preschool children with dyslalia and intact children. The preschool age of a child is described in the theoretical part of the thesis. The thesis also defines dyslalia. Further chapters deal with auditory and visual perception. The area of motor skills ...

  19. From Artifacts to Archives: Digging into a Community's Past. (United States)

    Morgan, Judy


    Presents a two-month historical research project for use in a sixth grade social studies class. Includes student use of artifacts, photographs, news clippings, maps, and oral histories obtained by interviews. Suggests that children compile a chronological history of their community to analyze, organize, and record what they have learned. (DK)

  20. Sixth annual report of RADMIL 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This sixth annual report of RADMIL draws together all parts of the programme of monitoring of radiation and radioactivity in Lancashire from April 1990 to March 1991, including work on radon and intertidal areas, which in previous years has been published separately, and measurements relating to internal exposure from airborne particulates and foodstuffs, i.e. milk, meat, aquatic foods, vegetables etc. (UK)

  1. Schematizing and Processing Informational Texts with Mind Maps in Fifth and Sixth Grade (United States)

    Merchie, Emmelien; Van Keer, Hilde


    From the age of 11-13, children start to spend increasingly more time on learning from texts. The need arises to support them in dealing with this text information and engaging them in self-regulated learning (SRL). This study is embedded within the cognitive component of SRL and focuses on mind mapping as a promising organizational learning…

  2. Cognitive Development of Chinese Urban Only Children and Children with Siblings. (United States)

    Jiao, Shulan; And Others


    First- and fifth-grade only-children and children with siblings completed 11 cognitive tasks to investigate differences in cognitive abilities that may exist due to the Chinese 1-child family planning program. Superiority of grade one only-children over children with siblings appeared for memory processes, language skills, and mathematics.…

  3. Central pontine myelinolysis presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy in third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Divakar Gosavi


    Full Text Available A 30-year-old primigravida presented with isolated left sixth nerve palsy at 38 weeks gestation. Her MRI showed a lesion consistent with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM. Extensive investigations did not reveal any secondary cause for the CPM. She recovered spontaneously in 2 weeks with complete resolution of her MRI changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CPM occurring in third trimester in the absence of identifiable secondary causes and of CPM presenting as an isolated sixth nerve palsy. We discuss the reported causes of CPM in pregnancy, possible pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and the anatomic basis of the unique clinical presentation of sixth nerve palsy in our case.




  5. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C


    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  6. Children's Recall of Television and Print News: A Media Comparison Study. (United States)

    van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma; van der Voort, Tom H. A.


    Results of a cued-recall test taken by 152 Dutch fourth and sixth graders indicate that children who watch a children's news show on television recall more than those who read the same news in print regardless of reading proficiency or expectation of a memory test. (SLD)

  7. The "Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" Improve Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children (United States)

    Keihner, Angie Jo; Meigs, Reba; Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Garbolino, Tanya; Mitchell, Patrick


    Objective: Examine the effect of the "California Children's Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" for fourth/fifth grades on the psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA). Methods: Randomized, controlled trial (n = 31 low-resource public schools; 1,154 children). Ten…

  8. Book Review: Game Ranch Management (Sixth Edition) | Peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Game Ranch Management (Sixth Edition). Book Authors: J du P Bothma & J.G. du Toit (Eds.) 2016, Van Schaik Publishers, PO Box 12681, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria, South Africa 1012 pages, hardcover, eBook and ePub. ISBN: 9780627033469, 9780627033476 (eBook), 9780627034909 (ePub). Price R949.00 ...

  9. The Playing Field. A Curriculum Guide to Pesticide Education for Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades. First Edition. (United States)

    Bellissemo, Diane; Garcia, Deliana

    A pesticide safety video for children 9-12 years old, "The Playing Field," draws children into the lives of a migrant farmworker family while teaching them about the dangers of pesticides. The video and the lessons are not limited to migrant education, but open a multicultural window for all children, migrant or nonmigrant. Teaching elements for…

  10. 新移民子女國小國語文學習成就大型評量調查研究 Large-Scale Survey of the Elementary School Mandarin Achievements of Children From New-Immigrant Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    謝佩蓉 Pei-Jung Hsieh


    Full Text Available 本研究旨在透過大規模抽樣和利用標準化工具施測,以比較新移民子女與非新移民子女國語文學習成就表現差異。研究對象為100 學年度在學之四、六年級新移民子女,並以非新移民子女為對照。經分層叢集抽樣,四年級新移民子女樣本數為4,001 人、非新移民樣本數7,835 人;六年級新移民子女樣本數為4,017 人、非新移民樣本數9,772 人。研究工具為國語文成就測驗與背景問卷,正式施測後,藉由樣本加權使其接近母群體,並以Jackknife 方法估計新移民子女與非新移民子女學習表現標準誤,再計算其信賴區間,檢視學習表現是否達統計上顯著差異。研究結果發現,就讀四、六年級新移民子女之國語文學習表現,顯著地低於非新移民子女學習表現。四年級差距為大效果量、六年級差異效果量較小。不同水平知覺學校環境和學習表現相關不顯著;不同水平知覺班級常規、同儕關係和學習表現有部分相關。家庭因素方面,母親教養風格傾向為低度獨裁、中度寬容、或者高度開明權威,子女學習表現可能較高。個體相關構念對於學習表現的影響方面,正向自我概念與成功期望對於學習表現可能有助益,然而興趣價值和國語文的學習表現之間,不論四、六年級都沒有關聯性。最後根據研究結果提出三項建議。 The present study explored differences in academic performance in Mandarin between children from new immigrant families and nonimmigrant families and identified the effect sizes of significant factors. The subjects were fourth- and sixth-grade new-immigrant students, with Taiwanese students from nonimmigrant families forming the control group. Stratified cluster sampling yielded a sample of 4,001 and 4,017 fourth- and sixth-grade new-immigrant students, respectively. The study included four native Taiwanese

  11. Numerical investigation of sixth order Boussinesq equation (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.; Vucheva, V.


    We propose a family of conservative finite difference schemes for the Boussinesq equation with sixth order dispersion terms. The schemes are of second order of approximation. The method is conditionally stable with a mild restriction τ = O(h) on the step sizes. Numerical tests are performed for quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The numerical experiments show second order of convergence of the discrete solution to the exact one.

  12. Creativity and Waldorf Education: A Study. (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This paper discusses the comparative philosophical tenets and practices of Germany's Waldorf and state schools with regard to the creativity thinking ability of students. Waldorf schools, developed some 70 years ago, are based on the philosophy of creative idealism known as anthroposophy. A study of 1165 third through sixth grade children from…

  13. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip


    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  14. English Language Arts Scores among Sixth Grade Students Enrolled on an Elementary versus Middle School Campus (United States)

    Johnson, La-Trice


    A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's hierarchy of…

  15. High-grade primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg


    Full Text Available Primary sarcomas of the lung are rare and account for 0.5% of all primary lung tumors. There were approximately 300 cases described in the literature as of 2006. All histologic types of sarcoma were described, and the most common intrathoracic types reported were angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The biological behavior of these tumors is not well-known due to their low frequency. Leiomyosarcomas represent one of the most common subtypes encountered in the lungs, and usually occur during the sixth decade, with male predominance. Although the frequency of metastatic disease is not related to tumor size, prognosis was reported to be poorer in high-grade tumors. In comparison with other sarcomas, survival after complete resection of pulmonary leiomyosarcoma was reported as longer. We report on a patient with primary leiomyosarcoma originating from the bronchus with complete resection and long-term follow-up.

  16. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment. (United States)

    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul


    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (κ) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (κ = 0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P = 0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helping Your Kid Make the Grade. (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sandy

    Research indicates that students' activities and relationships with their parents predict grades more surely than parental education, family income, ethnicity, sex, and family structure. Children with extremely permissive parents do not do well and children with extremely authoritarian parents do worse. Inconsistent parenting is even more strongly…

  18. La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219). (United States)

    Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

    In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

  19. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Sixth Edition (United States)

    Baker, Colin; Wright, Wayne E.


    The sixth edition of this bestselling textbook has been substantially revised and updated to provide a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education in the 21st century. Written in a compact and clear style, the book covers all the crucial issues in bilingualism at individual, group and societal levels. Updates to the new…

  20. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico (United States)

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  1. An Investigation of Gender Stereotypes as Revealed through Children's Creative Writing. (United States)

    Gray-Schlegel, Mary Ann; Gray-Schlegel, Thomas


    Examines the creative writing of third- and sixth-grade students for gender differences when provided with story starters that introduced either a male or a female character. Finds that identifiable difference and trends related to gender and age appeared in the stories, reflecting the pervasiveness and power of sex-role stereotypes. (RS)

  2. Peer and teacher ratings of third- and fourth-grade children's social behavior as a function of early maternal employment. (United States)

    Youngblade, Lise M


    One of the more controversial issues related to maternal employment in the United States concerns the timing of entry into the workforce and its effect on children, particularly during the first year of the child's life. Some studies show deleterious effects on children, such as increases in aggression and noncompliance, while others document few negative and even positive effects of early employment. This study examined the long-term effects of maternal employment during the child's first year of life on the social behavior of 171 third- and fourth-grade children in two-parent families. The moderating effects of child gender and social class were investigated. The extent to which stability in alternative care arrangements statistically explained links between early maternal employment and child outcomes was tested. After controlling for child gender, and maternal ethnicity, social class, and current employment status, third- and fourth-grade children whose mothers were employed during their first year of life evinced more acting out and less frustration tolerance and were nominated more often by peers for 'hitting' and 'being mean' than children whose mothers were not employed. There was some evidence that these associations were moderated by child gender and social class: boys, but not girls, whose mothers were employed during the first year were subsequently rated by teachers as acting out more than other children, and were also more likely to be nominated by peers for hitting. Higher nominations for hitting were only found in the working class. Finally, there was partial evidence that the number of alternative child-care arrangements during the first year accounted for the links between early maternal employment and subsequent child outcomes. These results are congruent with extant research that posits a risk of early employment on socioemotional development, but show that this risk is partially attributable to child-care instability.

  3. Teacher-child relationships as dynamic systems. (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin


    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with the quality of the teacher-child relationship from first through fifth grade using data from phases I, II and III of the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1364 children from birth through sixth grade. On average, children evidenced moderately high quality relationships with teachers in fifth grade. However, there was extensive variation in fifth grade relationship quality across children. Children who received more support and stimulation at home and whose parents had higher quality interactions with the school had higher quality relationships. Additionally, children in classrooms with more positive environments and better management had higher quality relationships. Lastly, females, European-American children, children with lower levels of behavior problems and children who had higher quality relationships with their teachers in kindergarten also had higher quality relationships with teachers. On average, children evidenced decreases in the quality of their relationships with teachers from first through fifth grade. Interestingly, children whose parents had more contact with their schools, who were in schools where teachers received higher salaries and in classrooms that had more positive emotional climates and that were better managed evidenced slower rates of decline in relationship quality. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid as First-Line Treatment in 851 Consecutive Children with High-Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux: Efficacy and Long-Term Results. (United States)

    Friedmacher, Florian; Colhoun, Eric; Puri, Prem


    Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic is widely acknowledged as first-line treatment of lower grade vesicoureteral reflux. Our objective was to demonstrate its long-term efficacy and safety in eradicating high-grade reflux. Eight-hundred-fifty-one children (518 girls, 333 boys), median age 2.3 years (2 months-13.7 years), underwent endoscopic correction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Reflux was unilateral in 415 cases and bilateral in 436, comprising 1,287 refluxing units: grade IV in 1,153 (89.6%) and grade V in 134 (10.4%). 99m technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging identified renal scarring in 317 (37.3%) patients. Follow-up ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months post intervention and renal ultrasound annually thereafter. Median follow-up was 8.5 years (6 months-16 years). Overall resolution rate after the first endoscopic injection was 895/1,287 (69.5%): 70.4% in grade IV and 61.9% in grade V, respectively. Reflux resolved after a second injection in 259 (20.1%) and after a third in 133 (10.4%). Persistent reflux after initial treatment was significantly more common in infants reflux resolution, 43 (5.1%) children developed febrile urinary tract infections: 24 (55.8%) in the first, 15 (34.9%) in the second and 4 (9.3%) after ≥3 years. Of these, 6 had reflux recurrence and 8 demonstrated neocontralateral grade III reflux, which was successfully treated with single endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an efficient and safe long-term treatment for grade IV and V vesicoureteral reflux, which can be easily repeated in cases of failure with a high subsequent resolution rate. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seeking Visual Clarity an Examination of Font Legibility and Visual Presentation for Elementary-Level Special Education Students (United States)

    Haugen, Theresa Tetrick


    This study examined font and layout alternatives for mild special education children in third through sixth grade. Of this group, twelve were boys and two were girls, seven were suburban students and seven were urban students. During the first phase, the students were observed reading four different fonts, then the participant named the easiest…

  6. Everyday Hassles and Related Information Behaviour among Youth: A Case Study in Taiwan (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Ling


    Introduction: This reported study is a part of a larger project. The research objective considered in the present paper is information behaviour and everyday hassles among youth in Taiwan. Method: The sample consisted of 133 children, including sixty-five girls and sixty eight boys, in fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms in a public elementary…

  7. Self-Esteem and Achievement Expectation for White and Negro Children. Curriculum Report. (United States)

    Guggenheim, Fred

    The relationship between self-esteem, academic expectations, and ethnic group membership was studied in a New York City elementary school which had an approximately equal enrollment of Negro, white, and Spanish-background pupils. Subjects were 162 sixth-grade students who were tested with two projective tests and one specifically designed…

  8. Sixth ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, G.; Baker, D.


    The article summarizes the topics of the Sixth Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment which was held to review the first draft of the Non-Site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2) and the draft of the ITER Final Design Report Safety Assessment (FDR-Safety) during October 27 - November 4, 1997 at the ITER San Diego Joint Work Site

  9. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan


    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  10. Children's Recall of the News: TV News Stories Compared with Three Print Versions. (United States)

    van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma; van der Voort, Tom H. A.


    A sample of 144 fourth and sixth graders was presented with five children's news stories, in television form or in one of three print versions. Results indicated that children who watched news on television remembered the stories better than children who read one of the three print versions, regardless of their level of reading proficiency.…

  11. Teaching the Six Essential Elements of Geography with Quality Children's Literature (United States)

    Holloway, Jennifer


    In this article the author describes how she teaches third and sixth grade classes about the six essential elements of geography at the beginning of each school year. The six elements organize the eighteen national standards and include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and…

  12. The Academic, Personality, and Physical Outcomes of Only Children in China. (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; Poston, Dudley L., Jr.


    Surveyed 4,000 third and sixth graders and their parents and teachers, from 4 Chinese provinces. Found that, although only children scored higher on tests of verbal ability, were taller, and weighed more than firstborn and later born children, other measures of academic and personality development were similar between the groups. (MDM)

  13. The search for the sixth quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauneau, M.


    The National Fermi Laboratory near Chicago has the world's most powerful accelerator, the Tevatron. With this instrument, researchers have found clues to the existence of the sixth quark; proof of its existence would confirm the theory of fundamental interactions which attempts to explain the origin of the universe. This theory recognizes three forces, weak, electromagnetic and strong, which are, or not, acting on the different particles. This paper retraces the history of the discovery of the elementary particles, an adventure in which the development of major research instruments has played an important part. (author)

  14. Five Years Old Preschool Children's Motor-Verbal Skills:A Follow-up into the First-grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Mirzaei


    Full Text Available "n Objective : "n "nThe major objective of this study was to determine the means and 95% confidence interval of normal 6 years old children's motor-verbal skills. Based on the results of this study we could develop a measure to diagnose abnormal motor skills. In addition, in this follow-up study, we compared the first-graders' motor-verbal skills to their own skills one year earlier. "nMethod: In this follow-up study, the development of motor-verbal skills was studied in 220 normal readers in the first-grade after 1 year. We administered naming speed test and word and phrase repetition to assess motor-verbal skills. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and paired t-test. "nResults: The mean of the 6 years old first-graders' speed naming was 87 words per 100 second. In addition, means and standard deviations of word and phrase repetition were 8.41(2.92 and 6.51(1.73 respectively. In addition,, paired t-test showed a significant difference between naming speed, word and phrase repetition first-grade and 5 years old children score(naming speed: t=10.95, p<0.001, word repetition: t= 14.23, p<0.001, phrase repetition: t=12.11, p<0.001 . Conclusion:In general, 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills significantly improved after one year. Furthermore, the results of this study provide the norm for speech and language pathologists and other professionals. It is important to note that if 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills are under this norm, it will be anticipated that they are at the risk of literacy problem and dyslexia.

  15. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Associated Risk Factors among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in Guangzhou, China. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming


    Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.

  16. Combined influence of media use on subjective health in elementary school children in Japan: a population-based study. (United States)

    Nakamura, Harunobu; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya


    In recent years in Japan, electronic games, home computers, and the internet have assumed an important place in people's lives, even for elementary school children. Subjective health complaints have also become a problem among children. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between media use and health status in elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional school-based population survey was conducted in 2009 with a sample of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children (age range: 10-12 years old) in elementary schools in Japan (n = 3,464). Self-reported health, lifestyle habits, and time spent using media were assessed. The use of games, television, and personal computers was significantly associated with lifestyle (p media used for more than 1 hour was, the higher the odds ratio of the association of media use with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints was. The plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Game, television, and personal-computer use were mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Excessive use of media might be a risk for unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints.

  17. Community-Level Measures of Stroke Knowledge among Children: Findings from Hip Hop Stroke. (United States)

    Simmons, Cailey; Noble, James M; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; Hecht, Mindy F; Williams, Olajide


    Community-level determinants of stroke knowledge among children are unknown but could meaningfully impact public stroke education campaigns. We explored for associations between community- and school-level quality measures relative to baseline stroke knowledge among children participating in the Hip Hop Stroke program. Baseline stroke knowledge assessments were performed in 2839 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (ages 9-11 years) from November 2005 to April 2014. Knowledge was assessed relative to school performance grade (SPG, graded A-F; a school-level measure determined by the New York City [NYC] Department of Education) and economic need index (ENI, range: 0-2; a community-level, within-school measure of subsidized housing and meals with higher scores indicating more socioeconomic distress). Schools studied included those with SPG = B (n = 196), SPG = C (n = 1590), and SPG = D (n = 1053) and mean ENI = .85 (standard deviation: .23). A composite assessment of knowledge, including 4 stroke symptoms (blurred vision, facial droop, sudden headache, and slurred speech), was conducted consistently since 2006. Overall, students correctly identified a mean of 1.74 stroke symptoms (95% confidence interval: 1.70-1.79; possible range: 0-4, expected value of chance response alone or no knowledge = 2). For quartiles of ENI, mean knowledge scores are as follows: ENI Q1  = 2.00, ENI Q2  = 2.09, ENI Q3  = 1.46, and ENI Q4  = 1.56 (ENI Q3 and ENI Q4 versus ENI Q1 , P < .001). For SPG, SPG = B schools: 2.09, SPG = C: 1.83, and SPG = D: 1.56 (SPG = C and SPG = D versus SPG = B schools, P ≤ .05). Children's stroke knowledge was lowest in NYC communities with greater economic need and lower school performance. These findings could guide stroke education campaign implementation strategies. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tiers of intervention in kindergarten through third grade. (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E; Harty, Kristin R; Fulmer, Deborah


    This study measured the effects of increasing levels of intervention in reading for a cohort of children in Grades K through 3 to determine whether the severity of reading disability (RD) could be significantly reduced in the catchment schools. Tier 1 consisted of professional development for teachers of reading. The focus of this study is on additional instruction that was provided as early as kindergarten for children whose achievement fell below average. Tier 2 intervention consisted of small-group reading instruction 3 times per week, and Tier 3 of daily instruction delivered individually or in groups of two. A comparison of the reading achievement of third-grade children who were at risk in kindergarten showed moderate to large differences favoring children in the tiered interventions in decoding, word identification, fluency, and reading comprehension.

  19. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz


    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  20. Nature Journaling: Enhancing Students' Connections to the Environment through Writing (United States)

    Cormell, Janita; Ivey, Toni


    Today's youth are increasingly spending more time indoors and less time outside. As a result, many children have a "nature deficit" (Louv 2005) and little awareness of their role in nature. In this article, the first author describes how she shared her passion for nature with her sixth-grade students through nature journaling and how her…

  1. Evaluating multiple polylogarithm values at sixth roots of unity up to weight six (United States)

    Henn, J. M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. A.


    We evaluate multiple polylogarithm values at sixth roots of unity up to weight six, i.e. of the form G (a1 , … ,aw ; 1) where the indices ai are equal to zero or a sixth root of unity, with a1 ≠ 1. For w ≤ 6, we construct bases of the linear spaces generated by the real and imaginary parts of G (a1 , … ,aw ; 1) and obtain a table for expressing them as linear combinations of the elements of the bases.

  2. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory, and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children. (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria C; Caviola, Sara; De Agostini, Ruggero; Perin, Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C


    Mathematics anxiety (MA) has been defined as "a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations." Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM) also plays an important part in such anxious feelings. The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA) and low math anxiety (LMA). Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information) than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  3. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara ePassolunghi


    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety (MA has been defined as a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations. Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM also plays an important part in such anxious feelings.The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA and low math anxiety (LMA. Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  4. Annotated Bibliography of Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Disaster since 1945: By Continents/Countries for Grades K-8 (United States)

    Gangi, Jane M.


    This article presents an annotated bibliography of children's literature resources on war, terrorism, and disaster since 1945. This annotated bibliography focuses on grades K-8 from different continents/countries, including (1) Africa; (2) Asia; (3) The Caribbean; (4) Central and South America; (5) Europe; and (6) The Middle East.

  5. The Influence of an Educational Computer Game on Children's Cultural Identities (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Ping; Lien, Chi-Jui; Annetta, Len; Lu, Yu-Ling


    This study develops an educational computer game, FORmosaHope (FH), to explore the influences that an educational computer game might have on children's cultural identities. FH is a role-playing game, in which children can actively explore a mini-world to learn about science, technology, and society. One hundred and thirty sixth-graders, about…

  6. Parents' job insecurity affects children's grade performance through the indirect effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. (United States)

    Barling, J; Mendelson, M B


    The authors postulated a model in which children's perceptions of their parents' job insecurity indirectly affect their grade performance through the effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. A total of 127 undergraduate students (55 male, 72 female) completed questionnaires on their perceptions of their parents' job insecurity and their own beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. The parents reported on their own job insecurity. In addition, students provided their course grades from the previous semester 3 months after completing the questionnaires. Support for the proposed model was provided using LISREL 8.

  7. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students (United States)

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.


    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  8. [A study of relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in school-aged children]. (United States)

    Sakurai, S


    This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.

  9. Cognitive self-regulation and social functioning among French children: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to first grade. (United States)

    Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès


    This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Knowledge Attıtudes and Behavıors About Organ Donatıon Among Fırst- and Sıxth-class Medıcal Students: A Study From Turkey. (United States)

    Naçar, M; Çetinkaya, F; Baykan, Z; Elmalı, F


    The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of Erciyes University School of Medicine students regarding organ donation. This descriptive study was conducted in 2014 on Erciyes University School of Medicine first- and sixth-grade students via questionnaire. It was to be conducted on all 490 students; in total, 464 students were enrolled-304 from first grade and 160 from sixth grade. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and binary logistic regression analysis. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.8 years and it was found that 48.9% were male, 65.5% were in first grade; 50.0% of the students who participated in the study were considering donating their organs and this rate is 45.4% in the first grade and 58.8% at sixth grade. Those who donated their organs were 3.4% in the entire group and were 1.6% and 6.9% consequently in first and sixth grades. Those who are; at the sixth grade, female gender, those who feel themselves responsible for the donation of society, who think organ donation is appropriate in terms of religion and conversations within family about organ donations significantly want organ donation more statistically. However, grade and gender had no effect on wishing donating organs according to binary logistic regression analysis. The rate of feeling themselves responsible from the donation in society was 73.9% and finding organ donation appropriate in terms of religion was 75.6% and there wasn't significant difference between first and sixth grades. Although there are increases in many variables about this issue at sixth grade, students are unable to gain sufficient attitude and behavior about organ donation. Training can be planned during medical educations in terms of gaining attitudes and behaviors about the issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sixth nerve palsy - Window to a dreaded brain tumor in children (pontine glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Das


    Full Text Available Pontine glioma is a rare tumor and exclusively occurs in children. It originates from the glial (connective/supporting cells of the brain. In children, they are the leading cause of deaths from brain tumors. The usual age of presentation is later half of first decade. Most of the children die within 18 months of diagnosis. It mostly affects 6th and 7th cranial nerves along with hearing defect.

  12. Parenting styles and overweight status in first grade. (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Lumeng, Julie C; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Bradley, Robert H


    The goal was to determine the relationship between the 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and overweight status in first grade. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Children with complete data for parenting parameters at 54 months and measured weight and height in first grade were included in the analysis. Overweight was defined as BMI of > or =95th percentile. The 4 parenting styles were constructed with 2 scales, namely, maternal sensitivity and maternal expectations for child self-control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between parenting style and overweight in first grade, controlling for gender, race, maternal education, income/needs ratio, marital status, and child behavior problems. A total of 872 children, 11.1% overweight and 82.8% white, were included in the analysis. Children of authoritarian mothers (n = 298) had an increased risk of being overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers (n = 179). Children of permissive (n = 132) and neglectful (n = 263) mothers were twice as likely to be overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers. Of the covariates, only income/needs ratio was significant and did not alter the relationship between parenting style and overweight risk. Among the 4 parenting styles, authoritarian parenting was associated with the highest risk of overweight among young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which parenting styles are associated with overweight risk may lead to the development of more-comprehensive and better-targeted interventions.

  13. Number Line Estimation Predicts Mathematical Skills: Difference in Grades 2 and 4. (United States)

    Zhu, Meixia; Cai, Dan; Leung, Ada W S


    Studies have shown that number line estimation is important for learning. However, it is yet unclear if number line estimation predicts different mathematical skills in different grades after controlling for age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of number line estimation on two mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving) in grade 2 and grade 4. One hundred and forty-eight children from Shanghai, China were assessed on measures of number line estimation, non-verbal cognitive ability (non-verbal matrices), working memory (N-back), attention (expressive attention), and mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving). The results showed that in grade 2, number line estimation correlated significantly with calculation fluency ( r = -0.27, p problem-solving ( r = -0.52, p problem-solving ( r = -0.38, p problem-solving (12.0%) and calculation fluency (4.0%) after controlling for the effects of age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. In grade 4, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (9.0%) but not in calculation fluency. These findings suggested that number line estimation had an important role in math problem-solving for both grades 2 and 4 children and in calculation fluency for grade 2 children. We concluded that number line estimation could be a useful indicator for teachers to identify and improve children's mathematical skills.

  14. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  15. Predicting Second Grade Listening Comprehension Using Prekindergarten Measures (United States)

    Alonzo, Crystle N.; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Bevens, Beau


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine prekindergarten predictors of listening comprehension in second grade. Methods: Within a large, 5-year longitudinal study, children progressing from prekindergarten to second grade were administered a comprehensive set of prekindergarten measures of foundational language skills (vocabulary and…

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.M.; Phillips, G.J.


    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  17. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?]. (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R


    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  18. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 4-6 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, cuatro-sexto grados. Field Test. (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking, fouth through sixth grade students in Chicago public schools employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  19. Hilbert's sixth problem: between the foundations of geometry and the axiomatization of physics (United States)

    Corry, Leo


    The sixth of Hilbert's famous 1900 list of 23 problems was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of the physical sciences. It was naturally and organically rooted at the core of Hilbert's conception of what axiomatization is all about. In fact, the axiomatic method which he applied at the turn of the twentieth century in his famous work on the foundations of geometry originated in a preoccupation with foundational questions related with empirical science in general. Indeed, far from a purely formal conception, Hilbert counted geometry among the sciences with strong empirical content, closely related to other branches of physics and deserving a treatment similar to that reserved for the latter. In this treatment, the axiomatization project was meant to play, in his view, a crucial role. Curiously, and contrary to a once-prevalent view, from all the problems in the list, the sixth is the only one that continually engaged Hilbet's efforts over a very long period of time, at least between 1894 and 1932. This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  20. Hilbert's sixth problem: between the foundations of geometry and the axiomatization of physics. (United States)

    Corry, Leo


    The sixth of Hilbert's famous 1900 list of 23 problems was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of the physical sciences. It was naturally and organically rooted at the core of Hilbert's conception of what axiomatization is all about. In fact, the axiomatic method which he applied at the turn of the twentieth century in his famous work on the foundations of geometry originated in a preoccupation with foundational questions related with empirical science in general. Indeed, far from a purely formal conception, Hilbert counted geometry among the sciences with strong empirical content, closely related to other branches of physics and deserving a treatment similar to that reserved for the latter. In this treatment, the axiomatization project was meant to play, in his view, a crucial role. Curiously, and contrary to a once-prevalent view, from all the problems in the list, the sixth is the only one that continually engaged Hilbet's efforts over a very long period of time, at least between 1894 and 1932.This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before attention is given to the sixth seal, some general remarks on form must be ..... the listeners had images from the seven letters fresh in memory. They ... coherence with the rest of the book, providing more information about what was said ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev


    Full Text Available The research has been conducted on 200 school boys. They had three motor tests to assess the movement frequency. Each measurement was carried out on the same entities in four successive years, starting when they were at their fifth grade, and then at their sixth, seventh, and eighth grade. The aim was to establish the process of changing the frequency of movement as motor ability. The obtained results suggest that the more advanced in age school children get, the better results they achieve.

  3. DNA Repair Alterations in Children With Pediatric Malignancies: Novel Opportunities to Identify Patients at Risk for High-Grade Toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Fricke, Andreas; Schneider, Ruth; Simon, Karin; Kuehne, Martin; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Graeber, Stefan; Graf, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian


    Purpose: To evaluate, in a pilot study, the phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci approach for identifying patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: The DSB repair capacity of children with solid cancers was analyzed compared with that of age-matched control children and correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses (n = 47). Double-strand break repair was investigated by counting γH2AX foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after irradiation of blood samples. Results: Whereas all healthy control children exhibited proficient DSB repair, 3 children with tumors revealed clearly impaired DSB repair capacities, and 2 of these repair-deficient children developed life-threatening or even lethal normal-tissue toxicities. The underlying mutations affecting regulatory factors involved in DNA repair pathways were identified. Moreover, significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity were observed between children with tumors and control children, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DSB repair function. Conclusions: Double-strand break repair alteration in children may predispose to cancer formation and may affect children's susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. Phosphorylated H2AX analysis of blood samples allows one to detect DSB repair deficiencies and thus enables identification of children at risk for high-grade toxicities.

  4. 8 CFR 212.9 - Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and... (United States)


    ... certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. 212.9 Section 212.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS... certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. A derivative beneficiary who...

  5. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children. (United States)

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker


    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  6. Age and Content Influences on Children's Perceptions of the Realism of Television Families. (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others


    Describes a study of 460 second, sixth, and tenth graders that was conducted to explore the effects of content and development on children's perceptions of the social reality of television series featuring families with children and teenagers. Hypotheses tested are explained, measures used are described, and future research is suggested. (42…

  7. christian prisoners: fifth and sixth century inscriptions from corinth1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instances, there is material from the fifth or sixth centuries. By this time, the majority of ... as Christian on the basis of crosses as well as specific Christian names ... Even when a petition to be rescued or ransomed is not expressed directly, it is ...

  8. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shumeng; Li Dongmei


    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Parenting influences on Latino children's social competence in the first grade: parental depression and parent involvement at home and school. (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Shewakramani, Vansa; Goldberg, Simon; Padilla, Brian


    Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children's socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children's adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children's social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.

  10. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  11. Proceedings of Sixth National Seminar of Waste Management Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Zainus Salimin; Lubis, Erwansyah; Herlan Martono; Aisyah; Syahrir; Erini Yuwatini; Thamzil Las; Kusnanto


    The sixth proceedings of the seminar on technology of waste management held by National Nuclear Energy Agency on June 24, 2007. The aim of seminar is to increase strengthening of radioactive waste management infrastructure to support a success in nuclear energy program in Indonesia. The proceedings consist of 32 articles from researcher of BATAN and outside BATAN. (PPIKSN)

  12. A Release from Proactive Interference Analysis of Gender Schema Encoding for Occupations in Adults and Children (United States)

    Kee, D.W.; Gregory-Domingue, A.; Rice, K.; Tone, K.


    The present study examined gender schema encoding (activation of gender stereotypes) in the absence deliberate purposes relating to people (stereotype application). A release from proactive interference short-term-memory task was used. College (Experiment 1) and sixth-grade (Experiment 2) participants were asked to retain item identity and…

  13. Children's Perceived Competence Scale: Reference values in Japan. (United States)

    Nagai, Yukiyo; Nomura, Kayo; Nagata, Masako; Ohgi, Shohei; Iwasa, Mitsuji


    To support children with chronic diseases, reference values to measure developmental changes in self-perception and self-esteem are considered a useful yardstick. To develop reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children, the Children's Perceived Competence Scale (CPCS) was administered to 768 children of elementary school grade 1 (6 years) to grade 6 (11 years) at four public schools in Japan, from November to December 2012. After excluding 74 with chronic diseases and/or incomplete responses, 694 children were included. CPCS measures children's self-perceived competence in cognitive, social, physical domains, and general self-worth, namely self-esteem. There was a tendency for scores of cognitive and general self-worth to decrease with increasing grade. Scores among grade 5 respondents were significantly lower than those among grade 4 respondents for both social and physical domains. Scores among boys and girls differed significantly, with boys scoring higher for physical domain in grades 3 and 6 and for general self-worth domain in grade 6. The CPCS reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children were developed in this study. These reference values are useful to inform practitioners supporting children with psychological or psychiatric problems or those with chronic diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obermann, Marie-Louise


    . Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person’s social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.......This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...

  15. An overview of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palsies of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves have ophthalmological consequences. W Marais, MB .... dorsal aspect of the brain (Fig. 4). • crossed ... right hypertropia in left gaze and left .... Clinical Science Course, section 5. American.

  16. The Use of Creative Drama with Acting-Out Sixth and Seventh Grade Boys and Girls (United States)

    Allan, John B.


    Describes development and use of creative drama with 30 children over a six month period. Over time, the dramas evolved through four stages: chaos, control and chaos; control; and flexibility. Certain developmental and psychological themes also emerged: narcissism, exhibitionism, activity, orality, dominance, morality, social themes, comedy and…

  17. Boys to Men: Conference Report. Media Messages about Masculinity: Annual Children & the Media Conference (Los Angeles, California, September 1999). (United States)

    Lapp, Joan

    The Sixth Annual Children and the Media Conference, hosted by Children Now, focused on the media's role and potential influence on boys. This report highlights the thinking of participating advocates, academics, entertainment industry leaders, and children. Following excerpts from a keynote address by William Pollack of Harvard Medical School, the…

  18. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease (United States)

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy


    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  19. Comparison of students from private and public schools on the spelling performance. (United States)

    Silva, Nathane Sanches Marques; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro


    To compare the spelling ability of schoolchildren from the fourth to sixth grades of the elementary schools in the private and public schools of Bauru, São Paulo, and to verify whether errors are overcome as studies progress and the hierarchy of errors as to how often they occur. A dictation was applied to 384 schoolchildren: 206 from the private schools: 74 were at the fourth grade, 65 at the fifth grade, and 67 at the sixth grade; and 178 from the public schools; 56 at the fourth grade, 63 at the fifth grade, and 59 at the sixth grade of elementary school. Student's t test was used. In comparison of total spelling errors score, difference was found among the fourth and sixth grades of the private and public schools. Spelling errors decreased as education progressed, and those related to language irregularities were more common. Spelling ability and performance of students from the private and public schools are not similar in the fourth and sixth grades, but it is in the fifth grade. Spelling errors are gradually overcome as education progresses; however, this overcome rate was considerable between the fourth and fifth grades in the public schools. Decrease in the types of spelling errors follows a hierarchy of categories: phoneme/grapheme conversion, simple contextual rules, complex contextual rules, and language irregularities. Finally, the most common type of spelling error found was that related to language irregularities.

  20. Changes in Second Grade Children's Preconceptions about the Earth as a Cosmic Body Resulting from a Short Series of Audio-Tutorial Lessons. (United States)

    Nussbaum, Joseph; Sharoni-Dagan, Niva


    Tested Ausubel/Novak hypothesis that primary grade students can learn meaningfully certain aspects of science concepts in the "reception learning" model. Revised audio-tutorial instruction unit on earth based on understanding children's misconceptions; assessed impact of revised units with second graders; and compared results to concept…

  1. The effect of font size on reading comprehension on second and fifth grade children: bigger is not always better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Katzir

    Full Text Available Research on reading development has focused on the linguistic, cognitive, and recently, metacognitive skills children must master in order to learn to read. Less focus has been devoted to how the text itself, namely the perceptual features of the words, affects children's learning and comprehension. In this study, we manipulated perceptual properties of text by presenting reading passages in different font sizes, line lengths, and line spacing to 100 children in the second and fifth grades. For second graders (Experiment 1, decreasing font size, as well as increasing line length, yielded significantly lower comprehension scores. Line spacing had no effect on performance. For fifth graders (Experiment 2, decreasing font size yielded higher comprehension scores, yet there were no effects for line length and line spacing. Results are discussed within a "desirable difficulty" approach to reading development.

  2. An Analysis of Differential Response Patterns on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB in Struggling Adult Readers and Third-Grade Children (United States)

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne; Williams, Rihana S.


    This study examines the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB (PPVT-IIIB) performance of 130 adults identified as struggling readers, in comparison to 175 third-grade children. Response patterns to the items on the PPVT-IIIB by these two groups were investigated, focusing on items, semantic categories, and lexical features, including word length,…

  3. Determinants of exercise among children. II. A longitudinal analysis. (United States)

    DiLorenzo, T M; Stucky-Ropp, R C; Vander Wal, J S; Gotham, H J


    Research has demonstrated that physical activity serves an important preventive function against the development of cardiovascular disease. The recognition that U.S. children are often sedentary, coupled with the observation that physical activity habits tend to persist into adulthood, has prompted the investigation of exercise determinants consistent with social learning theory. The purposes of the present study were to identify social learning variables relevant to children's exercise and to explore the longitudinal predictive value of the determinants. Data were collected from 111 families (N = 54 girls, N = 57 boys) who were interviewed in both Phase 1 (fifth and sixth grades) and Phase 2 (eight and ninth grades) of this study. Data from mothers (N = 111) were collected during both phases; data from 80 fathers were collected at Phase 2 only. The results of simultaneous stepwise regression analyses indicated that child's enjoyment of physical activity was the only consistent predictor of physical activity during Phase 1. At Phase 2, child's exercise knowledge, mother's physical activity, and child's and mother's friend modeling/support emerged as predictors for girls. For boys, child's self-efficacy for physical activity, exercise knowledge, parental modeling, and interest in sports media were important. Longitudinally, mother's self-efficacy, barriers to exercise, enjoyment of physical activity, and child's self-efficacy for physical activity were important for girls. Only child's exercise knowledge predicted boys' physical activity. The addition of information from fathers nearly doubled the explanatory power of the predictors for both genders. Socialization in the family unit exerts a tremendous influence on health-related behaviors such as exercise. The relative importance of determinants seems to differ for girls and boys and the pattern of these determinants appears to change over time.

  4. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari


    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  5. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression (United States)

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.


    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  6. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter? (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M


    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Linguistic Feature Development Across Grades and Genre in Elementary Writing. (United States)

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn


    As children develop skills in writing across academic contexts, clinicians and educators need to have a fundamental understanding of typical writing development as well as valid and reliable assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of linguistic elements in school-age children's narrative and expository writing development. Narrative and expository writing samples produced by 89 children in Grades 2 through 4 were analyzed at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Measures of receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and reading comprehension were obtained. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 4 microstructure factors (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical density) and 1 macrostructure factor (e.g., a combination of organization, text structure, and cohesion). Multivariate analyses of covariance with reading comprehension as a covariate showed that productivity and macrostructure were sensitive to grade-level and genre differences and that expository grammatical complexity was sensitive to grade-level differences. Findings are discussed in light of grade-level standards for narrative and expository writing and current practices in writing assessment. Multiple suggestions are offered for clinical and educational implications, and specific directions are provided for future research.

  8. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience (United States)

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  9. Complexity in Coalition Operations: The Campaign of the Sixth Coalition Against Napoleon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Kenneth


    The Campaign of the Sixth Coalition, from the Summer of 1813 until the abdication of Napoleon in April 1814, offers some important and valid insights into the successful execution of coalition warfare...

  10. Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems


    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore the common themes and applications of complex systems science. In June 2006, 500 participants convened in Boston for the sixth ICCS, exploring an array of topics, including networks, systems biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, and global systems. This volume selects 77 papers from over 300 presented at the conference. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex systems science.

  11. Waist-to-height ratio as a marker of low-grade inflammation in obese children and adolescents. (United States)

    Caminiti, Carolina; Armeno, Marisa; Mazza, Carmen S


    The epidemic of childhood obesity is associated with early atherosclerosis. Several reports have related this event to low-grade inflammation described in obesity. CRP and IL6 are markers that correlate with adiposity. The waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) is an anthropometric marker associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between WtHR, metabolic complications and pro-inflammatory factors in obese children and adolescents. Weight, height, waist circumference, glycemia, insulin, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in the baseline sample in 280 patients 6-19 years of age with overweight or obesity (OW/OB) and 112 normal-weight controls. Logistic regression was performed using WtHR as an independent variable. p>0.05 STATA11. Mean WtHR was 0.6±0.06 in OW/OB and 0.43±0.02 in controls (p0.5, insulin resistence and inflammatory markers were significantly increased (p<0.01) compared to the WtHR<0.5 (HOMA 3.4 vs. 1.4; CRP 2.3 vs. 0.6; Il-6 2.9 vs. 2.1; and TNF-α 6.4 vs. 5.55). In logistic regression, a significant independent association was found between WtHR with CRP (OR1.47), IL6 (OR1.60) and TNF-α (OR1.79). Obese children and adolescents have high inflammatory markers that may increase cardiovascular risk. WtHR is associated with low-grade inflammation and may be considered a relevant anthropometric marker in the clinical practice.

  12. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically Developing Sixth Grade Children (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.


    Educational reform initiatives of the last decade have focused on the three R's: reading, writing, and arithmetic, with writing receiving the least attention in the research literature (National Commission on Writing, 2003). Studies of writing performance in United States schoolchildren indicate that many are writing only at basic levels. The…

  13. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being. (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara


    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.


    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were found by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice. (orig.)

  15. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakawa, Junji [ed.


    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.).

  16. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji


    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.)

  17. Sixth- and eighth-order Hermite integrator for N-body simulations (United States)

    Nitadori, Keigo; Makino, Junichiro


    We present sixth- and eighth-order Hermite integrators for astrophysical N-body simulations, which use the derivatives of accelerations up to second-order ( snap) and third-order ( crackle). These schemes do not require previous values for the corrector, and require only one previous value to construct the predictor. Thus, they are fairly easy to implement. The additional cost of the calculation of the higher-order derivatives is not very high. Even for the eighth-order scheme, the number of floating-point operations for force calculation is only about two times larger than that for traditional fourth-order Hermite scheme. The sixth-order scheme is better than the traditional fourth-order scheme for most cases. When the required accuracy is very high, the eighth-order one is the best. These high-order schemes have several practical advantages. For example, they allow a larger number of particles to be integrated in parallel than the fourth-order scheme does, resulting in higher execution efficiency in both general-purpose parallel computers and GRAPE systems.

  18. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi


    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients 16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in patients >16 years old was 23 at baseline and had

  19. Number Line Estimation Predicts Mathematical Skills: Difference in Grades 2 and 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Zhu


    Full Text Available Studies have shown that number line estimation is important for learning. However, it is yet unclear if number line estimation predicts different mathematical skills in different grades after controlling for age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of number line estimation on two mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving in grade 2 and grade 4. One hundred and forty-eight children from Shanghai, China were assessed on measures of number line estimation, non-verbal cognitive ability (non-verbal matrices, working memory (N-back, attention (expressive attention, and mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving. The results showed that in grade 2, number line estimation correlated significantly with calculation fluency (r = -0.27, p < 0.05 and math problem-solving (r = -0.52, p < 0.01. In grade 4, number line estimation correlated significantly with math problem-solving (r = -0.38, p < 0.01, but not with calculation fluency. Regression analyses indicated that in grade 2, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (12.0% and calculation fluency (4.0% after controlling for the effects of age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. In grade 4, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (9.0% but not in calculation fluency. These findings suggested that number line estimation had an important role in math problem-solving for both grades 2 and 4 children and in calculation fluency for grade 2 children. We concluded that number line estimation could be a useful indicator for teachers to identify and improve children’s mathematical skills.

  20. Using Novel Technology within a School-Based Setting to Increase Physical Activity: A Pilot Study in School-Age Children from a Low-Income, Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Whitney Evans


    Full Text Available Background. Less than half of American children meet national physical activity (PA recommendations. This study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using wearable PA monitors to increase PA in school-age children. Methods. In Phase 1 of this study, conducted in 2014, 32 fifth-grade students enrolled in a low-resource middle school were given a waist-worn Fitbit Zip monitor for 4 weeks to test its feasibility (adherence and acceptability. Adherence, wear time of ≥8 hours per day, was examined. Feedback was solicited from parents through structured interviews. In Phase 2, conducted in 2015, 42 sixth-grade students were assigned, by classroom, to one of three conditions (Fitbit + goal and incentive-based intervention, Fitbit only, or control to test the feasibility of the wrist-worn Fitbit Charge and its preliminary effectiveness in increasing PA over 6 weeks. Results. In Phase 1, average adherence was 64.1%. In Phase 2, it was 73.4% and 80.2% for participants in the Fitbit + intervention and Fitbit only groups, respectively (p=.07. After controlling for baseline values, weight status, and sex, there were no significant group differences in changes in MVPA or steps from baseline to follow-up. Conclusions. While moderately acceptable, wearable PA monitors did not increase PA levels in this sample. They may be more effective within a coordinated school-based physical activity program.




  2. Epidemiological investigation of caries prevalence in first grade school children in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. (United States)

    Weusmann, Jens; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Azaripour, Adriano; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita


    The annual examination of first graders' oral health as stipulated by law aimed to reach every child in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in their first year of school. We intended to evaluate the first graders' oral health based on the examination data for 2013/2014. Instructed examiners measured the d3mft(deciduous)/D3MFT(permanent) index according to World Health Organization criteria in 25,020 predominantly 6-7 year-old first-grade school children. Only caries affecting dentin was diagnosed; no radiography or fiber-transillumination was used. Out of the d3mft value, the "Significant Caries Index" (SiC) was calculated. This index identifies the dmft score of the third of the population with the highest caries experience. Descriptive analysis was performed. Out of the the examined children, 60.9% were caries free. Mean d3mft score was 1.28 ± 2.27 while the mean SiC was 3.73 ± 2.51. A distinctly higher d3mft was found in the decidous molars compared to the front teeth. Boys were significantly more caries-experienced than girls (p < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the lasting trend towards decreasing caries prevalence in children starting school found in previous cross-sectional studies. This trend was observed in the high-risk group (obtained by SiC) as well as in the entire study population. Particular attention in caries prophylaxis should be paid to the primary molars.

  3. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China. (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  4. Introduction of a school fruit program is associated with reduced frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks. (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling


    A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks. The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status. Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program. From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P snack consumption in children of parents without higher education (from 7.8 to 4.0 times/wk; P = 0.004). The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 2001 to 2008 in schoolchildren in Norway. The decrease was most evident among children at schools participating in the national free school fruit program and in children with a low socioeconomic status.

  5. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  6. Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children. (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod


    Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8-9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures.

  7. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow


    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  8. Sixth international conference on electrical machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This volume contains 111 papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives. The topics covered include: miniature and micro motors; induction motors; DC machines; reluctance motors; condition monitoring; synchronous machines and drives; induction machines; induction generators; simulation; design; and operating experience; linear machines; noise and vibration; special machines. Separate abstracts have been prepared for a paper on linear step motors for control rod drives and for a paper on a motor drive for gas filtration in gas-cooled reactors. (UK)

  9. Recreation Sports to host Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition March 17


    Kropff, Catherine L.


    Music will blare, red and white lights will flash, and fans will cheer at the Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition to be held Saturday, March 17 at Virginia Tech. Participants will go to the bench to show their lifting skills beginning at 10 a.m. in War Memorial Gym.

  10. Effects of Black and White, Authentic and Contrived Color on Children's Perceptions of Dynamic Picture Content. (United States)

    Vollan, Clayton J.

    A study was devised to determine whether, if color is found superior to black-and-white for communicating dynamic picture content, that superiority can be attributed to the realism of authentic color, or whether that superiority is the effect of the simple presence of color. A sample of 90 sixth grade students were shown slides, half of which…

  11. Improving reading in the primary grades. (United States)

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K


    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  12. Promoting Changes in Children's Predictive Rules about Natural Phenomena: The Role of Computer-Based Modelling Strategies. Technical Report. (United States)

    Frenette, Micheline

    Trying to change the predictive rule for the sinking and floating phenomena, students have a great difficulty in understanding density and they are insensitive to empirical counter-examples designed to challenge their own rule. The purpose of this study is to examine the process whereby students from sixth and seventh grades relinquish their…

  13. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido


    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  14. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  15. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara


    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  16. Information processing speed as a predictor of IQ in children with and without specific language impairment in grades 3 and 8. (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Miller, Carol A


    This study investigated (1) whether nonlinguistic processing speed predicts nonverbal IQ in TD children and children with SLI and (2) if the proposed relationship is different at two time points. The participants consisted of a subset of a longitudinal dataset, 55 typically developing children and 55 children with SLI. Children completed four nonverbal speed tasks and four subtests of the WISC-III. The WISC-III subtests requiring timed and untimed responses were examined separately. Linear mixed model analyses indicated that in both groups, processing speed predicted nonverbal IQ subtests that reward speedy responses, but not IQ subtests that do not. The relationships between processing speed and IQ with speed bonuses did not differ at grades 3 and 8, and these relationships also were not significantly different in children with SLI and their TD peers. The results suggest that the presence of processing speed limitations in many children with SLI raises questions about the utility of timed nonverbal IQ measures as tools for diagnosis of SLI. Future studies should investigate other cognitive assessments that could be used as inclusionary criteria for SLI. The reader will be able to (1) describe the relationship between processing speed and nonverbal IQ in children with TD and SLI and (2) discuss problems using an IQ criterion to diagnose children as having SLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim. (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Harbeck, Michaela; Keller, Marcel; Spyrou, Maria A; Rott, Andreas; Trautmann, Bernd; Scholz, Holger C; Päffgen, Bernd; Peters, Joris; McCormick, Michael; Bos, Kirsten; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes


    The Justinianic Plague, which started in the sixth century and lasted to the mid eighth century, is thought to be the first of three historically documented plague pandemics causing massive casualties. Historical accounts and molecular data suggest the bacterium Yersinia pestis as its etiological agent. Here we present a new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site close to Munich. The reconstructed genome enabled the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described. We report indels affecting a lacl family transcription regulator gene as well as nonsynonymous substitutions in the nrdE, fadJ, and pcp genes, that have been suggested as plague virulence determinants or have been shown to be upregulated in different models of plague infection. In addition, we identify 19 false positive substitutions in a previously published lower-coverage Y. pestis genome from another archaeological site of the same time period and geographical region that is otherwise genetically identical to the high-coverage genome sequence reported here, suggesting low-genetic diversity of the plague during the sixth century in rural southern Germany. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc


    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  19. Research on Free Vibration Frequency Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Material Truncated Conical Shells with Eccentric Functionally Graded Material Stringer and Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Van Dung

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research work, an exact analytical solution for frequency characteristics of the free vibration of rotating functionally graded material (FGM truncated conical shells reinforced by eccentric FGM stringers and rings has been investigated by the displacement function method. Material properties of shell and stiffeners are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The change of spacing between stringers is considered. Using the Donnell shell theory, Leckhnisky smeared stiffeners technique and taking into account the influences of centrifugal force and Coriolis acceleration the governing equations are derived. For stiffened FGM conical shells, it is difficult that free vibration equations are a couple set of three variable coefficient partial differential equations. By suitable transformations and applying Galerkin method, this difficulty is overcome in the paper. The sixth order polynomial equation for w is obtained and it is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of rotating ES-FGM conical shells. Effects of stiffener, geometrics parameters, cone angle, vibration modes and rotating speed on frequency characteristics of the shell forward and backward wave are discussed in detail. The present approach proves to be reliable and accurate by comparing with published results available in the literature.

  20. Does the school performance variable used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study reflect students' school grades? (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang


    Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and grading systems, has contained an item assessing perceived school performance (PSP) since 1986. Whereas the test-retest reliability of this item has been reported previously, we determined its convergent and discriminant validity. This cross-sectional study used anonymous self-report data from Austrian (N = 266), Norwegian (N = 240), and Canadian (N = 9,717) samples. Students were between 10 and 17 years old. PSP responses were compared to the self-reported average school grades in 6 subjects (Austria) or 8 subjects (Norway), respectively, or to a general, 5-category-based appraisal of most recent school grades (Canada). Correlations between PSP and self-reported average school grade scores were between 0.51 and 0.65, representing large effect sizes. Differences between the median school grades in the 4 categories of the PSP item were statistically significant in all 3 samples. The PSP item showed predominantly small associations with some randomly selected HBSC items or scales designed to measure different concepts. The PSP item seems to be a valid and useful question that can distinguish groups of respondents that get good grades at school from those that do not. The meaning of PSP may be context-specific and may have different connotations across student populations from different countries with different school systems. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  1. School Performance and Disciplinary Problems among Abused and Neglected Children. (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; And Others


    Neglected, or physically or sexually abused, children performed poorer on standardized tests, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and had more discipline referrals than nonmaltreated children. Among maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance, and physically abused children had the most…

  2. Cusp-Gun Sixth-Harmonic Slotted Gyrotron (United States)

    Stutzman, R. C.; McDermott, D. B.; Hirata Luhmann, Y., Jr.; Gallagher, D. A.; Spencer, T. A.


    A high-harmonic slotted gyrotron has been constructed at UC Davis to be driven by a 70 kV, 3.5 A, axis-encircling electron beam from a Northrop Grumman Cusp gun. The 94 GHz, slotted sixth-harmonic gyrotron is predicted to generate 50 kW with an efficiency of 20%. Using the profile of the adiabatic field reversal from the UC Davis superconducting test-magnet, EGUN simulations predict that an axis-encircling electron beam will be generated with an axial velocity spread of Δ v_z/v_z=10% for the desired velocity ratio of α =v_z/v_z=1.5. The design will also be presented for an 8th-harmonic W-band gyrotron whose magnetic field can be supplied by a lightweight permanent magnet.

  3. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900


    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa


    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  4. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, O Y


    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u tt = u xx + 3(u 2 ) xx + u xxxx + αu xxxxxx , α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  5. Symmetries and conservation laws for a sixth-order Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recio, E.; Gandarias, M.L.; Bruzón, M.S.


    This paper considers a generalization depending on an arbitrary function f(u) of a sixth-order Boussinesq equation which arises in shallow water waves theory. Interestingly, this equation admits a Hamiltonian formulation when written as a system. A classification of point symmetries and conservation laws in terms of the function f(u) is presented for both, the generalized Boussinesq equation and the equivalent Hamiltonian system.

  6. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian


    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  7. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne


    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  8. Relationships between use of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns. (United States)

    Coon, K A; Goldberg, J; Rogers, B L; Tucker, K L


    We examined relationships between the presence of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns to test whether children's overall food consumption patterns, including foods not normally advertised, vary systematically with the extent to which television is part of normal mealtime routines. Ninety-one parent-child pairs from suburbs adjacent to Washington, DC, recruited via advertisements and word of mouth, participated. Children were in the fourth, fifth, or sixth grades. Socioeconomic data and information on television use were collected during survey interviews. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls, conducted with each child, were used to construct nutrient and food intake outcome variables. Independent sample t tests were used to compare mean food and nutrient intakes of children from families in which the television was usually on during 2 or more meals (n = 41) to those of children from families in which the television was either never on or only on during one meal (n = 50). Multiple linear regression models, controlling for socioeconomic factors and other covariates, were used to test strength of associations between television and children's consumption of food groups and nutrients. Children from families with high television use derived, on average, 6% more of their total daily energy intake from meats; 5% more from pizza, salty snacks, and soda; and nearly 5% less of their energy intake from fruits, vegetables, and juices than did children from families with low television use. Associations between television and children's consumption of food groups remained statistically significant in multiple linear regression models that controlled for socioeconomic factors and other covariates. Children from high television families derived less of their total energy from carbohydrate and consumed twice as much caffeine as children from low television families. There continued to be a significant association between television and children

  9. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece. (United States)

    Karabourniotis, Dimitrios; Evaggelinou, Christina; Tzetzis, George; Kourtessis, Thomas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-testing activities on the development of fundamental movement skills in first-grade children in Greece. Two groups of children were tested. The Control group (n = 23 children) received the regular 12-wk. physical education school program and the Experimental group (n = 22 children) received a 12-wk. skill-oriented program with an increasing allotment of self-testing activities. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess fundamental movement skills, while the content areas of physical education courses were estimated with an assessment protocol, based on the interval recording system called the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education. A 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of variance with group as the between factor and testing time (pretest vs posttest) as the repeated-measures factor was performed to assess differences between the two groups. A significant interaction of group with testing time was found for the Test of Gross Motor Development total score, with the Experimental group scoring higher then the Control group. A significant main effect was also found for test but not for group. This study provides evidence supporting the notion that a balanced allotment of the self-testing and game activities beyond the usual curriculum increases the fundamental motor-skill development of children. Also, it stresses the necessity for content and performance standards for the fundamental motor skills in educational programs. Finally, it seems that the Test of Gross Motor Development is a useful tool for the assessment of children's fundamental movement skills.

  10. Pathways family intervention for third-grade American Indian children1–3 (United States)

    Teufel, Nicolette I; Perry, Cheryl L; Story, Mary; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Levin, Sarah; Clay, Theresa E; Davis, Sally M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Altaha, Jackie; Pablo, Juanita L


    The goal of the feasibility phase of the Pathways family intervention was to work with families of third-grade American Indian children to reinforce health behaviors being promoted by the curriculum, food service, and physical activity components of this school-based obesity prevention intervention. Family behaviors regarding food choices and physical activity were identified and ranked according to priority by using formative assessment and a literature review of school-based programs that included a family component. The family intervention involved 3 primary strategies designed to create an informed home environment supportive of behavioral change: 1) giving the children “family packs” containing worksheets, interactive assignments, healthful snacks, and low-fat tips and recipes to take home to share with their families; 2) implementing family events at the school to provide a fun atmosphere in which health education concepts could be introduced and reinforced; and 3) forming school-based family advisory councils composed of family members and community volunteers who provided feedback on Pathways strategies, helped negotiate barriers, and explored ideas for continued family participation. For strategy 2, a kick-off Family Fun Night provided a series of learning booths that presented the healthful behaviors taught by Pathways. At an end-of-year Family Celebration, a healthy meal was served, students demonstrated newly learned Pathways activities, and certificates were presented in recognition of completion of the Pathways curriculum. Based on evaluation forms and attendance rosters, strategies 1 and 2 were more easily implemented and better received than strategy 3. Implications for developing family involvement strategies for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:10195606

  11. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia

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    Takashi Imamura


    Conclusion: Most children with grade 2 or 3 PVL had severe neurodevelopmental delays, but attention should also be paid to the 56% of children with grade 1 PVL who presented with normal psychomotor development. Further studies of larger populations, including long-term follow-up, are necessary to evaluate the outcomes of children with PVL.

  12. The Effects of Cassady and Justin's Functional Model for Emotional Information Processing on Improving Social Competence of First Grade Children with ADHD (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali


    This study explores whether or not Emotional Information Processing (EIP) model Intervention has positive effects on the Social Competency in first grade children with ADHD. 10 first graders primary who had been identified as having ADHD using Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test (ADHDT) (Jeong, 2005) and were experiencing social problems…

  13. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption. (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea


    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  14. Fifth-grade children's daily experiences of peer victimization and negative emotions: moderating effects of sex and peer rejection. (United States)

    Morrow, Michael T; Hubbard, Julie A; Barhight, Lydia J; Thomson, Amanda K


    This study examined the relations of fifth-grade children's (181 boys and girls) daily experiences of peer victimization with their daily negative emotions. Children completed daily reports of peer victimization and negative emotions (sadness, anger, embarrassment, and nervousness) on up to eight school days. The daily peer victimization checklist was best represented by five factors: physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, property attacks, and social rebuff. All five types were associated with increased negative daily emotions, and several types were independently linked to increased daily negative emotions, particularly physical victimization. Girls demonstrated greater emotional reactivity in sadness to social manipulation than did boys, and higher levels of peer rejection were linked to greater emotional reactivity to multiple types of victimization. Sex and peer rejection also interacted, such that greater rejection was a stronger indicator of emotional reactivity to victimization in boys than in girls.

  15. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children. (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin


    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  16. Single center experience with endoscopic subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection as first line treatment in 1,551 children with intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux. (United States)

    Puri, Prem; Kutasy, Balazs; Colhoun, Eric; Hunziker, Manuela


    In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo


    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  18. Sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book contains only the abstracts of seminars that were delivered on the sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins on 22-25 July 1985 in Pretoria under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Subject-coverage includes biosynthesis, metabolism, structure and chemical properties, analysis, biochemical mechanisms, toxicity, and pathology of mycotoxins and phycotoxins

  19. Propagation of perturbations for a sixth-order thin film equation

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    Zhenbang Li


    Full Text Available We consider an initial-boundary problem for a sixth-order thin film equation, which arises in the industrial application of the isolation oxidation of silicon. Relying on some necessary uniform estimates of the approximate solutions, we prove the existence of radial symmetric solutions to this problem in the two-dimensional space. The nonnegativity and the finite speed of propagation of perturbations of solutions are also discussed.

  20. The effect of two different visual presentation modalities on the narratives of mainstream grade 3 children

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    Daleen Klop


    Method: Twenty mainstream grade 3 children were randomly assigned to two groups and assessed with one of the visual presentation methods. Narrative performance was measured in terms of micro- and macrostructure variables. Microstructure variables included productivity (total number of words, total number of T-units, syntactic complexity (mean length of T-unit and lexical diversity measures (number of different words. Macrostructure variables included episodic structure in terms of goal-attempt-outcome (GAO sequences. Results: Both visual presentation modalities elicited narratives of similar quantity and quality in terms of the micro- and macrostructure variables that were investigated. Conclusion: Animation of picture stimuli did not elicit better narratives than static picture stimuli.

  1. The mediating effects of perceived parental teasing on relations of body mass index to depression and self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth in children. (United States)

    Bang, Kyung-Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Hye Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Park, Kwang-Hee


    To report a correlational study of the relation of body mass index to children's perceptions of physical appearance and global self-worth and depression, as mediated by their perceptions of parental teasing. The relation between depression and self-perception in children with obesity has been reported. Recently, parental factors were found to be related to childhood obesity. Little is known about the effects of perceived parental teasing on depression and self-perception in children. A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 455 children in the fifth and sixth grades in four provinces of South Korea using self-report questionnaires for measuring self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, depression and perceived parental teasing between October-December in 2009. The children's weight and height information from school health records was used. Multiple regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to identify the mediating effect of perceived parental teasing. Among the children, 20% were overweight or obese. Although children with obesity did not differ in the level of depression from their normal weight counterparts, they demonstrated lower perceived physical appearance and higher perceived parental teasing. The mediating effects of perceived parental teasing were found for the relations between body mass index and self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, and body mass index and depression, respectively. Obese children at risk of parental teasing should be identified to prevent their psychological problems. A well-designed intervention study is necessary to examine the effects of psycho-emotional interventions for obese children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Phase II Trial of Erlotinib during and after Radiotherapy in Children with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

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    Ibrahim eQaddoumi


    Full Text Available Background. Epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in most pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG. Since erlotinib had shown activity in adults with HGG, we conducted a phase II trial of erlotinib and local radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed HGG. Methods. Following maximum surgical resection, patients between 3 and 21 years with nonmetastatic HGG received local radiotherapy at 59.4 Gy (54 Gy for spinal tumors and those with ≥70% brain involvement. Erlotinib started on day 1 of radiotherapy (120 mg/m2 per day and continued for 2 years unless there was tumor progression or intolerable toxicities. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS was estimated for patients with intracranial anaplastic astrocytoma (AA and glioblastoma.Results. Median age at diagnosis for 41 patients with intracranial tumors (21 with glioblastoma and 20 with AA was 10.9 years (range, 3.3 to 19 years. The 2-year PFS for patients with AA and glioblastoma was 15% ± 7% and 19% ± 8%, respectively. Only five patients remained alive without tumor progression. Twenty-six patients had at least one grade 3 or 4 toxicity irrespective of association with erlotinib; only four required dose modifications. The main toxicities were gastrointestinal (n=11, dermatologic (n=5, and metabolic (n=4. One patient with gliomatosis cerebri who required prolonged corticosteroids died of septic shock associated with pancreatitis. Conclusions. Although therapy with erlotinib was mostly well tolerated, it did not change the poor outcome of our patients. Our results showed that erlotinib is not a promising medication in the treatment of children with intracranial AA and glioblastoma.

  3. [Associated factors to availability and use of electronic media in children from preschool to 4th grade]. (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos


    The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.

  4. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira


    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children. (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  6. A Comparison of Children's Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education, Recess, and Exergaming. (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Stodden, David F


    To compare young children's different intensity physical activity (PA) levels in physical education, recess and exergaming programs. Participants were 140 first and second grade children (73 girls; Meanage= 7.88 years). Beyond the daily 20-minute recess, participants attended 75-minute weekly physical education classes and another 75-minute weekly exergaming classes. Children's PA levels were assessed by ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometers for 3 sessions in the 3 programs. The outcome variables were percentages of time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). There were significant main effects for program and grade, and an interaction effect for program by grade. Specifically, children's MVPA in exergaming and recess was higher than in physical education. The 2nd-grade children demonstrated lower sedentary behavior and MVPA than the first-grade children during recess; less light PA in both recess and exergaming than first-grade children; and less sedentary behavior but higher MVPA in exergaming than first-grade children. Young children generated higher PA levels in recess and exergaming as compared with physical education. Hence, other school-based PA programs may serve as essential components of a comprehensive school PA program. Implications are provided for educators and health professionals.

  7. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children. (United States)

    Jolly, Caroline; Gentaz, Edouard


    Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD) children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6-7 years old; N = 85) and second-graders (7-8 years old; N = 88). Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation.

  8. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children (United States)

    Jolly, Caroline; Gentaz, Edouard


    Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD) children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6–7 years old; N = 85) and second-graders (7–8 years old; N = 88). Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation. PMID:24478735

  9. Servant Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: What Do Teachers Tell Us? (United States)

    Stoten, David William


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and co-constructed discussion eliciting the views of teachers on how they interpret leadership in a sixth form college. Three other models of leadership were discussed along with…


    Juhász, Csaba; Bosnyák, Edit


    Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pre-treatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas. We discuss key differences in the performance of the most commonly utilized PET radiotracers and highlight the advantage of PET/MRI fusion to obtain optimal information about tumor extent, heterogeneity and metabolism. Recent data also suggest that simultaneous acquisition of PET/MR images and the combination of advanced MRI techniques with quantitative PET can further improve the pre- and post-treatment evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:27659825

  11. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

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    Rydelius Per-Anders


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  12. Impacts of endoscopic gastroesophageal flap valve grading on pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.

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    Kai-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV endoscopic grading is reported to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adults; however its role in pediatric groups remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the significance of GEFV grading and the associations to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in children with GERD.A total of 48 children with GERD symptoms who received esophagogastroduodenoscopy and MII-pH monitoring were enrolled. The degree of GEFV was graded from I to IV according to the Hill classification, and classified into two groups: normal GEFV (Hill grades I and II, and abnormal GEFV (Hill grades III and VI. Endoscopic findings and MII-pH monitoring were analyzed among the groups.Thirty-six patients had normal GEFV while 12 had abnormal GEFV. The presence of erosive esophagitis was significantly more common in the patients with abnormal GEFV (p = 0.037, OR 9.84, 95% CI 1.15-84.42. Pathological acidic gastroesophageal reflux (GER determined by MII-pH was more prevalent in the patients with loosened GEFV geometry (p = 0.01, OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.67-27.38. There were significant positive correlations between GEFV Hill grading I to IV and the severity of erosive esophagitis (r = 0.49, p<0.001, percentage of supine acid reflux (r = 0.37, p = 0.009, percentage of total acid reflux (r = 0.3284, p = 0.023, and DeMeester score (r = 0.36, p = 0.01 detected by pH monitoring. In the impedance study, GEFV Hill grading also positively correlated to median number of acid reflux events (r = 0.3015, p = 0.037.GEFV dysfunction highly associated with acid GER and severe erosive esophagitis. An abnormal GEFV is a sign of acid GER in children.

  13. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, O Y [Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia, PO Box 384, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail:


    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u{sub tt} = u{sub xx} + 3(u{sup 2}){sub xx} + u{sub xxxx} + {alpha}u{sub xxxxxx}, {alpha} in R, depending on the positive parameter {alpha}. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  14. Equation of state at finite net-baryon density using Taylor coefficients up to sixth order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huovinen, Pasi; Petreczky, Péter; Schmidt, Christian


    We employ the lattice QCD data on Taylor expansion coefficients up to sixth order to construct an equation of state at finite net-baryon density. When we take into account how hadron masses depend on lattice spacing and quark mass, the coefficients evaluated using the p4 action are equal to those of hadron resonance gas at low temperature. Thus the parametrised equation of state can be smoothly connected to the hadron resonance gas equation of state. We see that the equation of state using Taylor coefficients up to second order is realistic only at low densities, and that at densities corresponding to s/n B ≳40, the expansion converges by the sixth order term

  15. Sixth Grade Students' Content-Specific Competencies and Challenges in Learning the Seasons Through Modeling (United States)

    Sung, Ji Young; Oh, Phil Seok


    Recent science education reform initiatives suggest that learning in science should be organized on the basis of scientists' actual practices including the development and use of models. In line with this, the current study adapted three types of modeling practices to teach two Korean 6th grade science classes the causes of the Earth's seasons. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the students' content-specific competencies and challenges based on fine-grained descriptions and analyses of two target groups' cases. Data included digital recordings of modeling-based science lessons in the two classes, the teacher's and students' artifacts, and interviews with the students. These multiple types of data were analyzed complementarily and qualitatively. It was revealed that the students had a competency in constructing models to generate the desired phenomenon (i.e., seasons). They had difficulty, however, in considering the tilt of the Earth's rotation axis as a cause of the seasons and in finding a proper way of representing the Sun's meridian altitude on a globe. But, when the students were helped and guided by the teacher and peers' interventions, they were able to revise their models in alignment with the scientific understanding of the seasons. Based on these findings, the teacher's pedagogical roles, which include using student competencies as resources, asking physical questions, and explicit guidance on experimentation skills, were recommended to support successful incorporations of modeling practices in the science classroom.

  16. Algebra for All: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula. (United States)

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M; Penner, Emily K; Conley, Annemarie


    district implemented the state's Algebra mandate. However, even as the district implemented a constrained curriculum strategy, mathematics achievement growth between 6th sixth and 10th grade slowed and the achievement advantages associated with 8th eighth grade Algebra declined. Our analyses suggest that curricular intensification increased the inclusiveness and decreased the selectivity of the mathematics tracking regime in Towering Pines middle schools. However, the findings suggest that this constrained curriculum strategy may have may have unintended negative consequences for student achievement.

  17. The impact of speech and language problems in kindergarten on academic learning and special education status in grade three. (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena; Labonté, Chantal; Kirkpatrick, Ryan; Davies, Scott; Duku, Eric


    This study addressed the implications of experiencing early speech-language pathologies (SLPs) in kindergarten on special education needs (SEN) and academic outcomes in grade three. Early Development Instrument (EDI) kindergarten data on development and the presence or absence of SLPs were matched with grade three school-system standardised tests of reading, writing and maths, and SEN classification in Ontario, Canada for 59 015 students. Children were classified as having a Persistent speech language pathology (SLP), Remittent SLP, Latent SEN or as a typically developing Control. Even though 72.3% of children's SLPs remitted by grade three, kindergarten SLPs conveyed higher likelihood of having an SEN, and of lower achievement levels in grade three. The degree of impact varied between Persistent and Remittent groups. Children in the Latent group had lower scores in kindergarten on all five EDI domains than Control children. These population level results provide strong evidence to indicate that all children who present with an SLP in kindergarten face further academic challenges, even if their SLP resolves over time. Findings have implications for early intervention and treatment for children with early SLPs.

  18. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)


    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  19. IAEA research contracts. Sixth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume is the sixth annual report and presents full summaries of 37 final reports from contracts, sponsored under the Agency's Research Contract Programme, which were completed during 1965. Including these, a total of 136 summaries have been published in the various fields in which support is provided under the IAEA Research contract program. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology.

  20. IAEA research contracts. Sixth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This volume is the sixth annual report and presents full summaries of 37 final reports from contracts, sponsored under the Agency's Research Contract Programme, which were completed during 1965. Including these, a total of 136 summaries have been published in the various fields in which support is provided under the IAEA Research contract program. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology

  1. Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? (United States)

    Barnosky, Anthony D; Matzke, Nicholas; Tomiya, Susumu; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Swartz, Brian; Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles; McGuire, Jenny L; Lindsey, Emily L; Maguire, Kaitlin C; Mersey, Ben; Ferrer, Elizabeth A


    Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only five times in the past 540 million years or so. Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia. Here we review how differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis. Our results confirm that current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

  2. Through our children's eyes--the public health impact of the vision screening requirements for Indiana school children. (United States)

    Marshall, Edwin C; Meetz, Richard E; Harmon, L'erin L


    The vision screening of preschool and school children is a widely accepted procedure to detect vision problems that can interfere with learning. The Indiana General Assembly requires the annual vision screening with the Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) of all children upon their enrollment in either kindergarten or the first grade, with the exception of schools that apply for and receive waivers to conduct only a distance Snellen chart screening. In association with the Indiana State Department of Health, the Indiana University School of Optometry conducted an analysis of statewide school screening data on 36,967 grade 1 children from 139 of the 294 Indiana school corporations that submitted data for the 2000-2001 school year to examine differences in referral rate by screening method, the socioeconomic status of children screened, and academic performance. The MCT was used by 125 of the school corporations, and some other technique was used by 14 school corporations. Significant differences were seen when comparing the mean referral rates of school corporations that conduct the MCT against school corporations that do not conduct the MCT (P = 0.001) and in the rate of referral by median family income of the children screened (P = 0.050). A median family income of $46,500 was identified as the level at which the income-specific difference in referral rates ceased to be significant (P = 0.074). In spite of an observed tendency toward a higher referral rate for children who performed below average on the standardized Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam, results were found to be not significant (P = 0.116) when comparing the percentage of grade 1 children referred to an eye care provider in 2000-2001 with their percentages of passing both the English/language arts and mathematics components of the 2002-2003 ISTEP+ exam (in grade 3). Schools using the highly sensitive and specific MCT identified more visually at-risk children than

  3. Effect of childhood coeliac disease on ninth grade school performance: evidence from a population-based study. (United States)

    Namatovu, Fredinah; Strandh, Mattias; Ivarsson, Anneli; Nilsson, Karina


    Coeliac disease might affect school performance due to its effect on cognitive performance and related health consequences that might increase school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with coeliac disease performed differently on completion of ninth grade in school compared with children without coeliac disease. Analysis was performed on a population of 445 669 children born in Sweden between 1991 and 1994 of whom 1767 were diagnosed with coeliac disease. School performance at ninth grade was the outcome and coeliac disease was the exposure. Other covariates included sex, Apgar score at 5 min, small for gestational age, year of birth, family type, parental education and income. There was no association between coeliac disease and school performance at ninth grade (adjusted coefficient -2.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 0.4). A weak association was established between late coeliac diagnosis and higher grades, but this disappeared after adjusting for parent socioeconomic conditions. Being small for gestational age affected performance negatively (adjusted coefficient -6.9, 95% CI 8.0 to 5.7). Grade scores were significantly lower in children living with a single parent (adjusted coefficient -20.6, 95% CI 20.9 to 20.2), compared with those with married/cohabiting parents. A positive association was found between scores at ninth grade and parental education and income. Coeliac disease diagnosis during childhood is not associated with poor school performance at ninth grade. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. An Analysis of the Role and Responsibilities of Chairs of Further Education College and Sixth-Form College Governing Bodies in England (United States)

    Hill, Ron; James, Chris


    This article reports research into the role and responsibilities of the chairs of governing bodies of further education colleges and sixth-form colleges in England. Further education colleges and sixth-form colleges represent a significant part of post-16 educational provision in England. Every college in the sector has a governing body, which has…

  5. The Role of Imagery Training on Tohono O'odham Children's Creativity Scores. (United States)

    Nelson, Annabelle; Lalemi, Bisi


    Among 40 second and sixth graders in a Bureau of Indian Affairs reservation school, those who participated in 6 15-minute sessions of imagery training had significantly higher posttest scores on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, compared to controls. Such training may increase children's problem-solving ability. Contains 24 references. (SV)

  6. Pathways to Third-Grade Calculation versus Word-Reading Competence: Are They More Alike or Different? (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.


    Children (n = 747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of first grade), addition retrieval (end of second grade), and calculations and word reading (end of third grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly…

  7. Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Trends in Functional Programming in Education


    Thompson, Simon


    The Sixth International Workshops on Trends in Functional Programming in Education, TFPIE 2017, was held on 22 June 2017 at the University of Kent, in Canterbury, UK, and was co-located with TFP, the Symposium on Trends in Functional Programming. The goal of TFPIE is to gather researchers, professors, teachers, and all professionals interested in functional programming in education. This includes the teaching of functional programming, but also the application of functional programming as a t...

  8. Stimulating Creative Writing Through Literature: A Guide for Teachers of the Intermediate Grades. (United States)

    Pilon, Alice Barbara Cummings

    A structured writing program for the intermediate grades was designed, utilizing such children's literature as poems, legends, fairy tales, tall tales, and books to stimulate elementary school children to write creatively. Chapters in the teacher's guide for the program present many specific suggestions and activities to help children (1) use…

  9. [Are children from resort spa healthy? The overweight and obesity in children from Kudowa-Zdrój]. (United States)

    Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa


    Overweight and obesity are becoming a more and more common problem among children and teenagers. . The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of children and teenagers from Kudowa-Zdroj and to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. . The study included 545 children, aged 5-16 years from Kudowa-Zdroj. The following anthropometric parameters were assessed: body weight and height, BMI, Quetelet index, Rohrer's index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio (WHtR). . Overweight or obesity diagnosed by BMI SDS were observed in 26.7% of children from grades 0-3, 22.02% of children from grades 4-6 and 22.52% of Junior High School students. Students in grades 0-3 (mean 0.95 ± 2.17) achieved higher BMI SDS compared to students in grades 4-6 (mean 0.37 ± 1.71) and secondary school (mean 0.65 ± 1.61) (p= 0.023).Overweight or obesity diagnosed by Rohrer index SDS and Quetelet index SDS were observed in 22,84% and 17,13% children. Elevated value of the hip circumference SDS was found in 19.48% of children and waist circumference SDS was increased in 17.5% of children. In the group of children with overweight and obesity 59.4% had elevated waist circumference SDS and 53.4% waist circumference SDS. WHtR was elevated in 8.3% of children, more often in boys (p overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are common disorders among children from Kudowa-Zdroj. It is recommended to educate children, adolescence and their family about healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  10. Compensating Hand Function in Chronic Stroke Patients Through the Robotic Sixth Finger. (United States)

    Salvietti, Gionata; Hussain, Irfan; Cioncoloni, David; Taddei, Sabrina; Rossi, Simone; Prattichizzo, Domenico


    A novel solution to compensate hand grasping abilities is proposed for chronic stroke patients. The goal is to provide the patients with a wearable robotic extra-finger that can be worn on the paretic forearm by means of an elastic band. The proposed prototype, the Robotic Sixth Finger, is a modular articulated device that can adapt its structure to the grasped object shape. The extra-finger and the paretic hand act like the two parts of a gripper cooperatively holding an object. We evaluated the feasibility of the approach with four chronic stroke patients performing a qualitative test, the Frenchay Arm Test. In this proof of concept study, the use of the Robotic Sixth Finger has increased the total score of the patients by two points in a five points scale. The subjects were able to perform the two grasping tasks included in the test that were not possible without the robotic extra-finger. Adding a robotic opposing finger is a very promising approach that can significantly improve the functional compensation of the chronic stroke patient during everyday life activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOJATI


    Full Text Available Learning disability is a life-long condition that can affect academic functioning, everyday life and social life. In multiple areas, academic and other, students with LD often underachieve, and often with pervasive negative consequences. This study compared self-efficacy and hope in 30 elementary school (sixth grade children with learning disabilities (LD and 30 their peers without LD. An ex post facto design was used. Statistical population comprised of all students in elementary schools (sixth grade in, Harsin, Iran, during the 2012-2013 academic year. Students with learning disabilities were randomly selected. The students with LD had been diagnosed by Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ. The students completed the Wechsler Memory Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Children’s Hope Scale. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20 was used for computing descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Differences were found between the groups on the self-efficacy and hope. The study demon­strated the important role of self-efficacy and hope for students with LD.

  12. Academic Stressors and Anxiety in Children: The Role of Paternal Support (United States)

    Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.


    We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…

  13. Homework particularities for small school children. (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha


    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  14. Proceedings of the Sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (United States)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)


    This volume is the proceedings of the sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, February 7-13, 2010. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at The keynote of the sixth GM was the new perspectives of the next generation VLBI system under the theme "VLBI2010: From Vision to Reality". The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross-section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 88 papers. All papers were edited by the editors for usage of the English language, form, and minor content-related issues.

  15. Effects of Online Visual and Interactive Technological Tool (OVITT) on Early Adolescent Students' Mathematics Performance, Math Anxiety and Attitudes toward Math (United States)

    Orabuchi, Nkechi


    This study reported the results of a 3-month quasi-experimental study that determined the effectiveness of an online visual and interactive technological tool on sixth grade students' mathematics performance, math anxiety and attitudes towards math. There were 155 sixth grade students from a middle school in the North Texas area who participated…

  16. A sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator for digital radio IF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van J.A.E.P.; Plassche, van de R.J.; Stikvoort, E.F.; Venes, A.G.W.


    This paper presents a sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator (SDM) for analog-to-digital conversion of intermediate-frequency signals. An important aspect in the design of this SDM is the stability analysis using the describing function method. The key to the analysis is the

  17. Leaping from Discrete to Continuous Independent Variables: Sixth Graders' Science Line Graph Interpretations (United States)

    Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.


    Students often struggle to interpret graphs correctly, despite emphasis on graphic literacy in U.S. education standards documents. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges sixth graders with varying levels of science and mathematics achievement encounter when transitioning from interpreting graphs having discrete independent variables…

  18. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  19. Parents' Involvement in Children's Learning in the United States and China: Implications for Children's Academic and Emotional Adjustment


    Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.


    This research examined parents' involvement in children's learning in the United States and China. Beginning in seventh grade, 825 American and Chinese children (mean age = 12.74 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning as well as their parents' psychological control and autonomy support every six months until the end of eighth grade. Information on children's academic and emotional adjustment was obtained. American (vs. Chinese) parents' involvement was associated less...

  20. A Psycholinguistic Description of the Development of Writing in Selected First Grade Students. (United States)

    Milz, Vera E.

    A study was conducted to examine writing development in first grade children. The writings from an entire classroom were collected. From these, six children's writings were chosen for cross-sectional analysis. Two children from this group were then selected for further in-depth case studies. Interviews, parent surveys, and observations were used…