WorldWideScience

Sample records for situation awareness information

  1. Perspective information in the cockpit to improve situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Three simulator experiments were carried out to quantify the potential benefits of perspective visual displays in the cockpit for situational awareness support of the pilot, in local guidance and global awareness tasks. In the first experiment, the application of an egocentric perspective display

  2. Flowing Valued Information and Cyber-Physical Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Applications Conference (ACSAC 2005) (pp. 337-351). IEEE Xplore . [4] Bell, D. E., & LaPadula, L. (1973). Secure Computer Systems: Mathematical...Bowes, and D. Gardner Net Force Maneuver, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance, West Point, NY. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org...of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on Computer Aided Control System Design, Kohala Coast, HI , USA, August 22-27, 1999, http

  3. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  4. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  5. Uncertainty Reasoning for Service-Based Situational Awareness Information on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate situational assessment is key to any decision maker and especially crucial in military command and control, air traffic control, and complex system decision making. Endsley described three dependent levels of situational awareness, (1) perception, (2) understanding, and (3) projection. This research was focused on Endsley's…

  6. Enhancing situational awareness by means of visualization and information integration of sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for information integration and sharing architecture, which is able to receive data simultaneously from multiple different sensor networks. Creating a Common Operational Picture (COP) object along with the base map of the building plays a key role in the research. The object is combined with desired map sources and then shared to the mobile devices worn by soldiers in the field. The sensor networks we used focus on location techniques indoors, and a simple set of symbols is created to present the information, as an addition to NATO APP6B symbols. A core element in this research is the MUSAS (Mobile Urban Situational Awareness System), a demonstration environment that implements central functionalities. Information integration of the system is handled by the Internet Connection Engine (Ice) middleware, as well as the server, which hosts COP information and maps. The entire system is closed, such that it does not need any external service, and the information transfer with the mobile devices is organized by a tactical 5 GHz WLAN solution. The demonstration environment is implemented using only commercial off-theshelf (COTS) products. We have presented a field experiment event in which the system was able to integrate and share real time information of a blue force tracking system, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) based intrusion detection system, and a robot using simultaneous location and mapping technology (SLAM), where all the inputs were based on real activities. The event was held in a training area on urban area warfare.

  7. Effects of Information Availability on Command-and-Control Decision Making: Performance, Trust, and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Laura R; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Onal, Emrah; Yu, Michael S; Schaffer, James; O'Donovan, John; Höllerer, Tobias; Buchler, Norbou; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how increases in task-relevant information affect human decision-making performance, situation awareness (SA), and trust in a simulated command-and-control (C2) environment. Increased information is often associated with an improvement of SA and decision-making performance in networked organizations. However, previous research suggests that increasing information without considering the task relevance and the presentation can impair performance. We used a simulated C2 task across two experiments. Experiment 1 varied the information volume provided to individual participants and measured the speed and accuracy of decision making for task performance. Experiment 2 varied information volume and information reliability provided to two participants acting in different roles and assessed decision-making performance, SA, and trust between the paired participants. In both experiments, increased task-relevant information volume did not improve task performance. In Experiment 2, increased task-relevant information volume reduced self-reported SA and trust, and incorrect source reliability information led to poorer task performance and SA. These results indicate that increasing the volume of information, even when it is accurate and task relevant, is not necessarily beneficial to decision-making performance. Moreover, it may even be detrimental to SA and trust among team members. Given the high volume of available and shared information and the safety-critical and time-sensitive nature of many decisions, these results have implications for training and system design in C2 domains. To avoid decrements to SA, interpersonal trust, and decision-making performance, information presentation within C2 systems must reflect human cognitive processing limits and capabilities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Situation awareness system for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  9. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  10. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  11. Automating Information Assurance for Cyber Situational Awareness within a Smart Cloud System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    monitoring and protection of data such as Transport Layer Security ( TLS ), Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ), and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) protocols...and usage of data loss prevention software. Protocols such as TLS , SSL , and IPsec encrypt data packets for secure transportation and decryption by...Representational State Transfer RSS rich site summary SA situational awareness SAF Singapore Armed Forces SoS system of systems SSL secure sockets layer S

  12. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  13. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Working Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development

  14. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  15. Integrity of a common operating picture in military situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of qualification of a common operating picture (COP) directly impacts the situational awareness of military Command and Control (C2). Since a commander is reliant on situational awareness information in order to make decisions regarding...

  16. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  17. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  18. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  19. Providing information on the spot : Using augmented reality for situational awareness in the security domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different

  20. Providing Information on the Spot : Using Augmented Reality for Situational Awareness in the Security Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different

  1. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  2. Big data for space situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  3. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    . The foundation for this framework is previous research in situation awareness and virtual reality, combined with our analysis of interviews with and observations of collaborating scientists. The framework suggests that situation awareness is comprised of contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information. Research in virtual reality systems suggests control, sensory, distraction and realism attributes of technology contribute to a sense of presence [Presence 7 (1998) 225]. We suggest that consideration of these attributes with respect to contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information provides insights to guide design decisions. We used the framework when designing a scientific collaboratory system. Results from a controlled experimental evaluation of the collaboratory system help illustrate the framework's utility....

  4. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  5. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology - Toward an International Information System for Space Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R.

    2016-09-01

    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding our knowledge of near-Earth space. To facilitate data-sharing interoperability among distinct orbital debris and space object catalogs, and SSA information systems, I proposed ontology in (Rovetto, 2015) and (Rovetto and Kelso, 2016). I continue this effort toward formal representations and models of the overall domain that may serve to improve peaceful SSA and increase our scientific knowledge. This paper explains the project concept introduced in those publications, summarizing efforts to date as well as the research field of ontology development and engineering. I describe concepts for an ontological framework for the orbital space environment, near-Earth space environment and SSA domain. An ontological framework is conceived as a part of a potential international information system. The purpose of such a system is to consolidate, analyze and reason over various sources and types of orbital and SSA data toward the mutually beneficial goals of safer space navigation and scientific research. Recent internationals findings on the limitations of orbital data, in addition to existing publications on collaborative SSA, demonstrate both the overlap with this project and the need for datasharing and integration.

  6. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  7. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  8. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  9. The perfect storm of information: combining traditional and non-traditional data sources for public health situational awareness during hurricane response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly J; Olsen, Jennifer M; Harris, Sara; Mekaru, Sumiko; Livinski, Alicia A; Brownstein, John S

    2013-12-16

    Hurricane Isaac made landfall in southeastern Louisiana in late August 2012, resulting in extensive storm surge and inland flooding. As the lead federal agency responsible for medical and public health response and recovery coordination, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) must have situational awareness to prepare for and address state and local requests for assistance following hurricanes. Both traditional and non-traditional data have been used to improve situational awareness in fields like disease surveillance and seismology. This study investigated whether non-traditional data (i.e., tweets and news reports) fill a void in traditional data reporting during hurricane response, as well as whether non-traditional data improve the timeliness for reporting identified HHS Essential Elements of Information (EEI). HHS EEIs provided the information collection guidance, and when the information indicated there was a potential public health threat, an event was identified and categorized within the larger scope of overall Hurricane Issac situational awareness. Tweets, news reports, press releases, and federal situation reports during Hurricane Isaac response were analyzed for information about EEIs. Data that pertained to the same EEI were linked together and given a unique event identification number to enable more detailed analysis of source content. Reports of sixteen unique events were examined for types of data sources reporting on the event and timeliness of the reports. Of these sixteen unique events identified, six were reported by only a single data source, four were reported by two data sources, four were reported by three data sources, and two were reported by four or more data sources. For five of the events where news tweets were one of multiple sources of information about an event, the tweet occurred prior to the news report, press release, local government\\emergency management tweet, and federal situation report. In all circumstances where

  10. Continuous measures of situation awareness and workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Skraaning, Gyrd jr.; Sverrbo, Mona; Dalen, Joergen; Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle

    1998-03-01

    This report presents methods for continuous measures for Situation Awareness and Workload. The objective has been to identify, develop and test the new measures, and compare them to instruments that require interruptions of scenarios. The new measures are: (1) the Visual Indicator of Situation Awareness (VISA); where Situation Awareness is scored from predefined areas of visual interest critical for solving scenarios. Visual monitoring of areas was recorded by eye-movement tracking. (2) Workload scores reflected by Extended Dwell Time (EDT) and the operator Activity Level. EDT was calculated from eye-movement data files, and the activity level was estimated from simulator logs. Using experimental data from the 1996 CASH NRC Alarm study and the 1997 Human Error Analysis Project/ Human-Centred Automation study, the new measurement techniques have been tested and evaluated on a preliminary basis. The results showed promising relationships between the new continuous measures of situation awareness and workload, and established instruments based upon scenario interruptions. (author)

  11. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  12. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  13. Improving situation awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usbeck, Kyle; Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Gronosky, Andrew; Sterling, Joshua; Kohler, Ralph; Hanlon, Kelly; Scally, Andrew; Newkirk, Richard; Canestrare, David

    2015-05-01

    To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information. A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video. This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.

  14. Revolutionize Situational Awareness in Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-05

    This report describes an integrated system that provides real-time actionable information to first responders. LANL will integrate three technologies to form an advanced predictive real-time sensor network including compact chemical and wind sensor sin low cost rugged package for outdoor installation; flexible robust communication architecture linking sensors in near-real time to globally accessible servers; and the QUIC code which predicts contamination transport and dispersal in urban environments in near real time.

  15. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  16. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  17. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  18. Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Victor Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design.

  19. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  20. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . The feedback loops and delays in the Command and Control system also contribute to the complex dynamic behavior. This paper will build on existing situation awareness models to develop a System Dynamics model to support a qualitative investigation through...

  1. Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Missen, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Bucknall, Tracey; Cant, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Nursing work often occurs in complex and potentially hazardous settings. Awareness of patient and practice environments is an imperative for nurses in practice. To explore nursing students' situation awareness while engaging in simulated patient deterioration scenarios. The educational process of FIRST(2)ACT was the model for the nurse intervention. Situation awareness was measured quantitatively using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment tool. Four domains were measured: physiological perception (patient parameters), global perception (surroundings), comprehension (interpretation of information), and projection (forecasting outcomes). Clinical laboratories at each of three participating universities. Ninety-seven nursing students from three Australian universities. Between March and July 2012, students participated in three video-recorded simulation events, in which a trained actor played patient roles and groups of three students worked as teams. To measure situation awareness, following the simulation each team leader was taken to a separate room and asked to report on a question set regarding the patient's vital signs, bedside setting and medical diagnosis. Overall, situation awareness was low (41%). Of the four domains, physiological perceptions scored the lowest (26%) and projection the highest (59%). Final year nursing students may not have well developed situation awareness skills, especially when dealing with these types of scenarios. Education providers need to consider ways to assist students to fully develop this attribute. Findings suggest that this is an aspect of undergraduate nursing education that requires significant consideration by curriculum developers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  3. New technologies for information retrieval to achieve situational awareness and higher patient safety in the surgical operating room: the MRI institutional approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Feussner, Hubertus

    2011-03-01

    Technical progress in the operating room (OR) increases constantly, but advanced techniques for error prevention are lacking. It has been the vision to create intelligent OR systems ("autopilot") that not only collect intraoperative data but also interpret whether the course of the operation is normal or deviating from the schedule ("situation awareness"), to recommend the adequate next steps of the intervention, and to identify imminent risky situations. Recently introduced technologies in health care for real-time data acquisition (bar code, radiofrequency identification [RFID], voice and emotion recognition) may have the potential to meet these demands. This report aims to identify, based on the authors' institutional experience and a review of the literature (MEDLINE search 2000-2010), which technologies are currently most promising for providing the required data and to describe their fields of application and potential limitations. Retrieval of information on the functional state of the peripheral devices in the OR is technically feasible by continuous sensor-based data acquisition and online analysis. Using bar code technologies, automatic instrument identification seems conceivable, with information given about the actual part of the procedure and indication of any change in the routine workflow. The dynamics of human activities also comprise key information. A promising technology for continuous personnel tracking is data acquisition with RFID. Emotional data capture and analysis in the OR are difficult. Although technically feasible, nonverbal emotion recognition is difficult to assess. In contrast, emotion recognition by speech seems to be a promising technology for further workflow prediction. The presented technologies are a first step to achieving an increased situational awareness in the OR. However, workflow definition in surgery is feasible only if the procedure is standardized, the peculiarities of the individual patient are taken into account

  4. Situational awareness and information flow in prehospital emergency medical care from the perspective of paramedic field supervisors: a scenario-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norri-Sederholm, Teija; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kurola, Jouni; Saranto, Kaija

    2015-01-16

    , police, and rescue services during the multi-authority incidents. This study provides knowledge about the critical information categories when receiving and sharing the information to obtain and maintain situational awareness. However, further research is needed to examine more the information flow in prehospital emergency care to enable a better understanding of required communication in situational awareness formation.

  5. Modeling Learner Situation Awareness in Collaborative Mobile Web 2.0 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…

  6. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    socio-technical limitations that restrict the free flow of information and communications (e.g., Bateman , 1996). The flow of information among the...networks. Phys. A Stat. Mech. Appl. 272, 173–187. doi: 10.1016/S0378- 4371(99)00291-5 Bateman , R. L. (1996). Force XXI and the death of

  7. Building shared situational awareness in surgery through distributed dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie BM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brigid M Gillespie,1 Karleen Gwinner,2 Nicole Fairweather,3 Wendy Chaboyer41NHMRC Research Centre for Clinical Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalised Patients (NCREN and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, 2Griffith Centre for Cultural Research, Griffith University, Queensland, 3Department of Anaesthesiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Queensland, Australia, 4Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalized Patients (NCREN Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice INHMRC Centre of Research Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Failure to convey time-critical information to team members during surgery diminishes members' perception of the dynamic information relevant to their task, and compromises shared situational awareness. This research reports the dialog around clinical decisions made by team members in the time-pressured and high-risk context of surgery, and the impact of these communications on shared situational awareness.Methods: Fieldwork methods were used to capture the dynamic integration of individual and situational elements in surgery that provided the backdrop for clinical decisions. Nineteen semistructured interviews were performed with 24 participants from anesthesia, surgery, and nursing in the operating rooms of a large metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis was used.Results: The domain "coordinating decisions in surgery" was generated from textual data. Within this domain, three themes illustrated the dialog of clinical decisions, ie, synchronizing and strategizing actions, sharing local knowledge, and planning contingency decisions based on priority.Conclusion: Strategies used to convey decisions that enhanced shared situational awareness included the use of "self-talk", closed-loop communications, and

  8. SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.N.; Follesoe, K.; Volden, F.S.; Torralba, B.

    1994-01-01

    Control room operator support systems and their interface designs have as one goal the enhancement of the operators' situation awareness of the dynamically changing process state. This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness within the Human Factors evaluation of control room operator-system interfaces. The technique, referred to as SACRI, has been evaluated in four simulator studies and the main findings from these studies are summarized in this paper. It is concluded that SACRI can be a useful supplement to operator performance measures currently existing for use within control room interface evaluations. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Uncertainty and Risk Management in Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason; Ou, Xinming; Rajagopalan, Raj

    Handling cyber threats unavoidably needs to deal with both uncertain and imprecise information. What we can observe as potential malicious activities can seldom give us 100% confidence on important questions we care about, e.g. what machines are compromised and what damage has been incurred. In security planning, we need information on how likely a vulnerability can lead to a successful compromise to better balance security and functionality, performance, and ease of use. These information are at best qualitative and are often vague and imprecise. In cyber situational awareness, we have to rely on such imperfect information to detect real attacks and to prevent an attack from happening through appropriate risk management. This chapter surveys existing technologies in handling uncertainty and risk management in cyber situational awareness.

  10. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  11. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  12. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed.

  13. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  14. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  15. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  16. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  17. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  18. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2013-09-01

    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  19. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  1. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, D O D; Shah, A; Sediono, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process

  2. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  3. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...... for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many...... the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible...

  4. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  5. Situation awareness and documentation of changes that affect patient outcomes in progress notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    To report on registered nurses' situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making when recording changes in patients' conditions. Progress notes are important to communicate patients' progress and detail changes in patients' conditions. However, documentation is often poorly completed. There is little work that examines nurses' decision-making during documentation. This study focused on describing situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making during documentation. This study used Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) work on situation awareness to guide and conceptualise information. The study was situated in a naturalistic paradigm to provide an interpretation of nurses' decision-making. Think-aloud research methods and semi-structured interviews were employed to illuminate decision-making processes. Audio recordings and interview texts were individually examined for evidence of cues, informed by Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) descriptions of situation awareness. As patients' conditions changed, nurses used complex mental models and pattern-matching of information, drawing on all 3 levels of situation awareness during documentation. Level 1 situation awareness provided context, level 2 situation awareness signified a change in condition and its significance for the patient, and level 3 situation awareness was evident when nurses thought aloud about what this information indicated. Three themes associated with changes in patients' conditions emerged: deterioration in condition, not responding to prescribed treatments as expected and issues related to professional practice that impacted on patients' conditions. Nurses used a complex mental model for decision-making, drawing on 3 levels of situation awareness. Hamm's cognitive continuum theory, when related to situation awareness, is a useful decision-making theory to provide a

  6. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  7. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  8. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  9. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  10. Multisensor Fusion for Intrusion Detection and Situational Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstensen, Christoffer V

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime damage costs the world several trillion dollars annually. And al-though technical solutions to protect organizations from hackers are being con-tinuously developed, criminals learn fast to circumvent them. The question is,therefore, how to create leverage to protect an organization by improving in-trusion detection and situational awareness? This thesis seeks to contribute tothe prior art in intrusion detection and situational awareness by using a multi-sensor data fusion...

  11. Maintaining Situational Awareness in Large, Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreno, Jose; Galdorisi, George; Goshorn, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    .... Another solution, gaining popularity in the business sector, is environmental scanning. Environmental scanning identifies, collects, translates and applies information about external events that influence an organization's strategic landscape...

  12. Towards ontology-driven situation-aware disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, numerous ICT applications with mechanisms to detect situations have been developed to support disaster management (DM), which is a field of a great societal and economic importance. Those applications are termed situation-aware (SA) because they try, in near real-time, to

  13. Modelling of Situation Awareness with Perception, Attention, and Prior and Retrospective Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Human awareness under different circumstances is complex and non-trivial to understand. Nevertheless, due to the importance of awareness for safety and efficiency in many domains (e.g.; the aviation domain), it is necessary to study the processes behind situation awareness, to eliminate possible

  14. A Visual Language for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    semiotics?s=t. 46 John Baines, “Communication and Display: The Integration of Early Egyptian Art and Writing,” Antiquity 63, no. 240 (September 1989...semiotics web and information architecture meetup, New York Public Library, November 1, 2014), http://whysel.com/ portfolio/semiotics-and...tabular data that can be related to a specific place can be displayed by a GIS. The scales of various GIS maps can range from architectural to global

  15. Modeling Cyber Situational Awareness Through Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    following table: Table 3.10: Example Vulnerable Hosts for Criticality Assessment Experiment Example Id OS Applications/Services Version 1 Mac OS X VLC ...linux.org/. [4] Blasch, E., I. Kadar, J. Salerno, M. Kokar, S. Das, G. Powell, D. Corkill, and E. Ruspini. “Issues and challenges of knowledge representation...Holsopple. “Issues and challenges in higher level fusion: Threat/impact assessment and intent modeling (a panel summary)”. Information Fusion (FUSION

  16. On detection and visualization techniques for cyber security situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Shixiao; Shen, Dan; Blowers, Misty; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe; Zhang, Hanlin; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Networking technologies are exponentially increasing to meet worldwide communication requirements. The rapid growth of network technologies and perversity of communications pose serious security issues. In this paper, we aim to developing an integrated network defense system with situation awareness capabilities to present the useful information for human analysts. In particular, we implement a prototypical system that includes both the distributed passive and active network sensors and traffic visualization features, such as 1D, 2D and 3D based network traffic displays. To effectively detect attacks, we also implement algorithms to transform real-world data of IP addresses into images and study the pattern of attacks and use both the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based scheme and the statistical based scheme to detect attacks. Through an extensive simulation study, our data validate the effectiveness of our implemented defense system.

  17. Towards Incidence Management in 5G Based on Situational Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their components, which raises important challenges related to safety. In order to contribute to their resolution, this paper proposes a novel architecture for incident management on 5G. The approach combines the conventional risk management schemes with the Endsley Situational Awareness model, thus improving effectiveness in different aspects, among them the ability to adapt to complex and dynamical monitoring environments, and countermeasure tracking or the role of context when decision-making. The proposal takes into account all layers for information processing in 5G mobile networks, ranging from infrastructure to the actuators responsible for deploying corrective measures.

  18. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  19. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  20. Towards Information Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu

    2010-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  1. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  2. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Teles, Ariel; Rocha, Artur; José da Silva E Silva, Francisco; Correia Lopes, João; O'Sullivan, Donal; Van de Ven, Pepijn; Endler, Markus

    2017-01-10

    Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan , a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster , an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient's daily routine (e.g., "studying", "at work", "working out"). MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  3. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Soares Teles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan, a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster, an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient’s daily routine (e.g., “studying”, “at work”, “working out”. MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  4. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  5. Situation awareness and workload in complex tactical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides an example of a method to get insight into workload changes over time, executed tasks and situation awareness (SA) in complex task environments. The method is applied to measure the workload of a helicopter crew. The method has three components: 1) task analysis, 2) video

  6. Modelling situation awareness relations in a multiagent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus that situation awareness (SA) plays a key role in agent-based modelling of complex sociotechnical systems. However in the social sciences and human factors literature there are different views on what SA is and how it could be modelled. More specifically, one school of

  7. Designing for Situation Awareness : the World behind the Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Borst, C.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the design of human-machine interfaces and automation, an important question is how to obtain and validate a design that is capable of supporting the operator’s understanding and situation awareness of the process under control. Whereas many research efforts address the question of ‘what is the

  8. Situation Awareness in Sea Kayaking: Towards a Practical Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart; Varley, Peter; Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2017-01-01

    Ever-changing weather and sea conditions constitute environmental hazards that sea kayakers must pay attention to and act upon to stay safe. The aim of this study was to propose a tool to aid sea kayakers' situation awareness (SA). We developed a checklist guided by theory on the concept of SA and expert problem detection, judgement and…

  9. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Jorge, J

    2008-01-01

    Modern collaborative environments often provide an overwhelming amount of visual information on multiple displays. The multitude of personal and shared interaction devices leads to lack of awareness of team members on ongoing activities, and awareness of who is in control of shared artefacts. This

  10. Can teamwork and situational awareness (SA) in ED resuscitations be improved with a technological cognitive aid? Design and a pilot study of a team situation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parush, A; Mastoras, G; Bhandari, A; Momtahan, K; Day, K; Weitzman, B; Sohmer, B; Cwinn, A; Hamstra, S J; Calder, L

    2017-12-01

    Effective teamwork in ED resuscitations, including information sharing and situational awareness, could be degraded. Technological cognitive aids can facilitate effective teamwork. This study focused on the design of an ED situation display and pilot test its influence on teamwork and situational awareness during simulated resuscitation scenarios. The display design consisted of a central area showing the critical dynamic parameters of the interventions with an events time-line below it. Static information was placed at the sides of the display. We pilot tested whether the situation display could lead to higher scores on the Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS), improved scores on a context-specific Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) tool, and team communication patterns that reflect teamwork and situational awareness. Resuscitation teamwork, as measured by the CTS, was overall better with the presence of the situation display as compared with no situation display. Team members discussed interventions more with the situation display compared with not having the situation display. Situational awareness was better with the situation display only in the trauma scenario. The situation display could be more effective for certain ED team members and in certain cases. Overall, this pilot study implies that a situation display could facilitate better teamwork and team communication in the resuscitation event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Situational Awareness Data Processing Scalability Utilizing Google Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, D.; Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.; Flores, F.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a fundamental and critical component of current space operations. The term SSA encompasses the awareness, understanding and predictability of all objects in space. As the population of orbital space objects and debris increases, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows and prompts the need for accurate and timely process measures. The SSA mission continually evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis demanding the need for higher processing capabilities. By conventional methods, meeting these demands requires the integration of new hardware to keep pace with the growing complexity of maneuver planning algorithms. SpaceNav has implemented a highly scalable architecture that will track satellites and debris by utilizing powerful virtual machines on the Google Cloud Platform. SpaceNav algorithms for processing CDMs outpace conventional means. A robust processing environment for tracking data, collision avoidance maneuvers and various other aspects of SSA can be created and deleted on demand. Migrating SpaceNav tools and algorithms into the Google Cloud Platform will be discussed and the trials and tribulations involved. Information will be shared on how and why certain cloud products were used as well as integration techniques that were implemented. Key items to be presented are: 1.Scientific algorithms and SpaceNav tools integrated into a scalable architecture a) Maneuver Planning b) Parallel Processing c) Monte Carlo Simulations d) Optimization Algorithms e) SW Application Development/Integration into the Google Cloud Platform 2. Compute Engine Processing a) Application Engine Automated Processing b) Performance testing and Performance Scalability c) Cloud MySQL databases and Database Scalability d) Cloud Data Storage e) Redundancy and Availability

  12. CubeSat Integration into the Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.

    2013-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of

  13. Tag-n-Track system for situation awareness for MOUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Manoj; Germano, Thomas E.; Zhao, Tao; Fontana, Robert; Bushika, Martin

    2006-05-01

    In order to train war fighters for urban warfare, live exercises are held at various Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities. Commanders need to have situation awareness (SA) of the entire mock battlefield, and also the individual actions of the various war fighters. The commanders must be able to provide instant feedback and play through different actions and 'what-if' scenarios with the war fighters. The war fighters in their turn should be able to review their actions and rehearse different maneuvers. In this paper, we describe the technologies behind a prototype training system, which tracks war fighters around an urban site using a combination of ultra-wideband (UWB) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and smart video based tracking. The system is able to: (1) Tag each individual with an unique ID using an RFID system, (2) Track and locate individuals within the domain of interest, (3) Associate IDs with visual appearance derived from live videos, (4) Visualize movement and actions of individuals within the context of a 3D model, and (5) Store and review activities with (x,y,ID) information associated with each individual. Dynamic acquisition and recording of the precise location of individual troops and units during training greatly aids the analysis of the training sessions allowing improved review, critique and instruction.

  14. Cognitive Task Analysis Based Training for Cyber Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Huang , Zequn; Shen , Chien-Chung; Doshi , Sheetal; Thomas , Nimmi; Duong , Ha

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Innovative Methods; International audience; Cyber attacks have been increasing significantly in both number and complexity, prompting the need for better training of cyber defense analysts. To conduct effective training for cyber situation awareness, it becomes essential to design realistic training scenarios. In this paper, we present a Cognitive Task Analysis based approach to address this training need. The technique of Cognitive Task Analysis is to capture and represent knowledge ...

  15. Measuring situation awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, PM; Stanton, NA; Walker, GH; Jenkins, DP; Ladva, D; Rafferty, L; Young, MS

    2008-01-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is a distinct critical commodity for teams working in complex industrial systems and its measurement is a key provision in system, procedural and training design efforts. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare three different SA measures (a freeze probe recall approach, a post trial subjective rating approach and a critical incident interview technique) when used to assess participant SA during a military planning task. The results indi...

  16. Simulation-based evaluation of an in-vehicle smart situation awareness enhancement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriades, Andreas; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2018-07-01

    Situation awareness (SA) constitutes a critical factor in road safety, strongly related to accidents. This paper describes the evaluation of a proposed SA enhancement system (SAES) that exploits augmented reality through a head-up display (HUD). Two SAES designs were evaluation (information rich vs. minimal information) using a custom-made simulator and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique with performance and EEG measures. The paper describes the process of assessing the SA of drivers using the SAES, through a series of experiments with participants in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment. The effectiveness of the SAES was tested in a within-group research design. The results showed that the information rich (radar-style display) was superior to the minimal (arrow hazard indicator) design and that both SAES improved drivers' SA and performance compared to the control (no HUD) design. Practitioner Summary: Even though driver situation awareness is considered as one of the leading causes of road accidents, little has been done to enhance it. The current study demonstrates the positive effect of a proposed situation awareness enhancement system on driver situation awareness, through an experiment using virtual prototyping in a simulator.

  17. A development of a quantitative situation awareness measurement tool: Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed quantitative situation awareness (SA) evaluation technique. • We developed a computer based SA evaluation tool for NPPs training environment. • We introduced three rules and components to express more human-like results. • We conducted three sets of training with real plant operators. • Results showed that the tool could reasonably represent operator’s SA. - Abstract: Operator performance measures are used for multiple purposes, such as control room design, human system interface (HSI) evaluation, training, and so on. Performance measures are often focused on results; however, especially for a training purpose – at least in a nuclear industry, more detailed descriptions about processes are required. Situation awareness (SA) measurements have directly/indirectly played as a complimentary measure and provided descriptive insights on how to improve performance of operators for the next training. Unfortunately, most of the well-developed SA measurement techniques, such as Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) need an expert opinion which sometimes troubles easy spread of measurement’s application or usage. A quantitative SA measurement tool named Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE) is introduced to resolve some of these concerns. CoRSAGE is based on production rules to represent a human operator’s cognitive process of problem solving, and Bayesian inference to quantify it. Petri Net concept is also used for graphical expressions of SA flow. Three components – inference transition, volatile/non-volatile memory tokens – were newly developed to achieve required functions. Training data of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario for an emergency condition and an earthquake scenario for an abnormal condition by real plant operators were used to validate the tool. The validation result showed that CoRSAGE performed a reasonable match to other performance

  18. Determining Type I and Type II Errors when Applying Information Theoretic Change Detection Metrics for Data Association and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Moyer, E. J.; Hussein, Islam I.; Schumacher, P. W., Jr.

    Correlating new detections back to a large catalog of resident space objects (RSOs) requires solving one of three types of data association problems: observation-to-track, track-to-track, or observation-to-observation. The authors previous work has explored the use of various information divergence metrics for solving these problems: Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, mutual information, and Bhattacharrya distance. In addition to approaching the data association problem strictly from the metric tracking aspect, we have explored fusing metric and photometric data using Bayesian probabilistic reasoning for RSO identification to aid in our ability to correlate data to specific RS Os. In this work, we will focus our attention on the KL Divergence, which is a measure of the information gained when new evidence causes the observer to revise their beliefs. We can apply the Principle of Minimum Discrimination Information such that new data produces as small an information gain as possible and this information change is bounded by ɛ. Choosing an appropriate value for ɛ for both convergence and change detection is a function of your risk tolerance. Small ɛ for change detection increases alarm rates while larger ɛ for convergence means that new evidence need not be identical in information content. We need to understand what this change detection metric implies for Type I α and Type II β errors when we are forced to make a decision on whether new evidence represents a true change in characterization of an object or is merely within the bounds of our measurement uncertainty. This is unclear for the case of fusing multiple kinds and qualities of characterization evidence that may exist in different metric spaces or are even semantic statements. To this end, we explore the use of Sequential Probability Ratio Testing where we suppose that we may need to collect additional evidence before accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis that a change has occurred. In this work, we

  19. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

    2013-01-01

    The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

  20. Learning game for training child bicyclists' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Esko; Sahlberg, Heidi; Rovamo, Emilia; Summala, Heikki

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8-9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the

  1. Ego-location and situational awareness in semistructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Stevens, Mark R.; Stube, Brian; McBride, Jonah

    2003-09-01

    The success of any potential application for mobile robots depends largely on the specific environment where the application takes place. Practical applications are rarely found in highly structured environments, but unstructured environments (such as natural terrain) pose major challenges to any mobile robot. We believe that semi-structured environments-such as parking lots-provide a good opportunity for successful mobile robot applications. Parking lots tend to be flat and smooth, and cars can be uniquely identified by their license plates. Our scenario is a parking lot where only known vehicles are supposed to park. The robot looks for vehicles that do not belong in the parking lot. It checks both license plates and vehicle types, in case the plate is stolen from an approved vehicle. It operates autonomously, but reports back to a guard who verifies its performance. Our interest is in developing the robot's vision system, which we call Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME). In this paper, we present initial results from the development of two SESAME subsystems, the ego-location and license plate detection systems. While their ultimate goals are obviously quite different, our design demonstrates that by sharing intermediate results, both tasks can be significantly simplified. The inspiration for this design approach comes from the basic tenets of Situational Awareness (SA), where the benefits of holistic perception are clearly demonstrated over the more typical designs that attempt to solve each sensing/perception problem in isolation.

  2. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Crisis Information-Sharing Strategy in Support of Situational Awareness, Understanding Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructure, Regional Resilience, Preparedness, Risk Assessment/mitigation, Decision-Making and Everyday Operational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Morentz, J.; Beilin, P.

    2017-12-01

    The principal function of the California Earthquake Clearinghouse is to provide State and Federal disaster response managers, and the scientific and engineering communities, with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The overarching problem highlighted in discussions with Clearinghouse partners is the confusion and frustration of many of the Operational Area representatives, and some regional utilities throughout the state on what software applications they should be using and maintaining to meet State, Federal, and Local, requirements, and for what purposes, and how to deal with the limitations of these applications. This problem is getting in the way of making meaningful progress on developing multi-application interoperability and the necessary supporting cross-sector information-sharing procedures and dialogue on essential common operational information that entities need to share for different all hazards missions and related operational activities associated with continuity, security, and resilience. The XchangeCore based system the Clearinghouse is evolving helps deal with this problem, and does not compound it by introducing yet another end-user application; there is no end-user interface with which one views XchangeCore, all viewing of data provided through XchangeCore occurs in and on existing, third-party operational applications. The Clearinghouse efforts with XchangeCore are compatible with FEMA, which is currently using XchangeCore-provided data for regional and National Business Emergency Operations Center (source of business information sharing during emergencies) response. Also important, and should be emphasized, is that information-sharing is not just for response, but for preparedness, risk assessment/mitigation decision-making, and everyday operational needs for situational awareness. In other words, the benefits of the Clearinghouse

  3. A Simulation and Modeling Framework for Space Situational Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and initial demonstration of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness enterprise, for quantitatively assessing the benefit of specific sensor systems, technologies and data analysis techniques. The framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient, physics-based simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The details of the modeling and simulation framework are described, including hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, radar cross section calculations, optical brightness calculations, generic radar system models, generic optical system models, specific Space Surveillance Network models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, and visualization tools. The use of this integrated simulation and modeling framework on a specific scenario involving space debris is demonstrated

  4. High Performance Computing Software Applications for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, C.; Schumacher, P.; Matson, C.; Chun, F.; Duncan, B.; Borelli, K.; Desonia, R.; Gusciora, G.; Roe, K.

    The High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA) has completed its first full year of applications development. The emphasis of our work in this first year was in improving space surveillance sensor models and image enhancement software. These applications are the Space Surveillance Network Analysis Model (SSNAM), the Air Force Space Fence simulation (SimFence), and physically constrained iterative de-convolution (PCID) image enhancement software tool. Specifically, we have demonstrated order of magnitude speed-up in those codes running on the latest Cray XD-1 Linux supercomputer (Hoku) at the Maui High Performance Computing Center. The software applications improvements that HSAI-SSA has made, has had significant impact to the warfighter and has fundamentally changed the role of high performance computing in SSA.

  5. Situation awareness of active distribution network: roadmap, technologies, and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of local generation and demand response, the active distribution network (ADN), which aggregates and manages miscellaneous distributed resources, has moved from theory to practice. Secure and optimal operations now require an advanced situation awareness (SA) system so...... in the project of developing an SA system as the basic component of a practical active distribution management system (ADMS) deployed in Beijing, China, is presented. This paper reviews the ADN’s development roadmap by illustrating the changes that are made in elements, topology, structure, and control scheme....... Taking into consideration these hardware changes, a systematic framework is proposed for the main components and the functional hierarchy of an SA system for the ADN. The SA system’s implementation bottlenecks are also presented, including, but not limited to issues in big data platform, distribution...

  6. Describing Older Adults' Awareness of Fall Risk Using Situation Awareness Research Techniques: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Jo; Hall, Beth

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate efficacy of techniques adapted from situation awareness research for describing how older adults perceive and understand fall risk factors in the context of daily routine. Eleven older adults watched a video of an older woman performing daily activities. Thirteen intrinsic, extrinsic, and behavioral fall risks were embedded throughout the scenario. The video was periodically frozen/blanked from view while participants answered questions about their understanding of the situation and associated story elements. Participants perceived a variety of fall risk factors but did not necessarily interpret them as indicating fall risk. Many fall risks held non-fall meaning for participants (e.g., newspapers on the floor meant the woman liked to read). Although four participants readily identified a fall risk situation, seven did not until they were explicitly asked to consider safety. Study techniques were effective for describing situation awareness of fall risk and several suggestions for improvement are described. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):161-166.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. A Korean Space Situational Awareness Program : OWL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Im, H.; Park, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are going to present a brief introduction to the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network, one of Korean space situational awareness facilities. Primary objectives of the OWL network are 1) to obtain orbital information of Korean domestic LEOs using optical method, 2) to monitor GEO-belt over territory of Korea, and 3) to alleviate collisional risks posed to Korean satellites from space debris. For these purposes, we are planning to build a global network of telescopes which consists of five small wide-field telescopes and one 2m class telescope. The network of small telescopes will be dedicated mainly to the observation of domestic LEOs, but many slots will be open to other scientific programs such as GRB follow-up observations. Main targets of 2m telescope not only include artificial objects such as GEO debris and LEO debris with low inclination and high eccentricity, but also natural objects such as near Earth asteroids. We expect to monitor space objects down to 10cm in size in GEO using the 2m telescope system. Main research topics include size distribution and evolution of space debris. We also expect to utilize this facility for physical characterization and population study of near Earth asteroids. The aperture size of the small telescope system is 0.5m with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.75 deg x 1.75 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its plate scale is 1.3 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel is employed to maximize astrometric solutions in a single CCD frame, and a de-rotator is used to compensate field rotation of the alt-az type mount. We have designed a compact end unit in which three rotating parts (chopper wheel, filter wheel, de-rotator) and a CCD camera are integrated, and dedicated telescope/site control boards for the OWL network. The design of 2m class telescope is still under discussion yet is expected to be fixed in the first half of 2013 at the latest. The OWL network will be operated in a fully

  8. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation. PMID:28749407

  9. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2017-07-27

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  10. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  11. Using Twitter and other social media platforms to provide situational awareness during an incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Ed

    2011-10-01

    The recent use of social media by protesters in Iran, Egypt, Yemen and elsewhere has focused new attention on this communications medium. Government agencies and businesses, as well, are using social media to push information to their stakeholders. Those who are on the front lines of this information revolution, however, realise that social media is most effective when the communication is two-way. Unlike other media, social media allows information sharing. This, in turn, provides emergency managers with new situational-awareness resources when trying to mitigate an incident. As Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Administrator Craig Fugate told Information Week on January 19th, 2011: 'We can adjust much quicker if we can figure out how to have (a) two-way conversation and if we can look at the public as a resource. The public is putting out better situational awareness than many of our own agencies can.' This paper provides examples of how social media can be used as a situational-awareness resource and specific 'tools' that can be used to assist with this task.

  12. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  13. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  14. Can We Measure Operating Team's Situation Awareness with Verbal Protocols?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Today's systems are complex, focused on not just physical tasks, but on elaborate perceptual and cognitive tasks as well. Hence, humans in many complex and dynamic systems are required to act as effective and timely decision makers. Situation Awareness (SA), which is used within human factor research to explain to what extent operators of safety critical and complex real systems know what is going on the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor for effective decision making and performance. Thus, the need for operators to maintain SA in complex and dynamic environments is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. In terms of understanding SA, much effort has been devoted to the development of a measurement method of SA. Thus far, however, various studies have been limited to addressing the SA of individual operators. However, many complex systems are operated by teams. It is typical of complex systems that they require more than one operator. The purpose of this study is to develop team SA measurement method using verbal protocol data

  15. Prediction of situational awareness in F-15 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, T R; Perry, D C; Ree, M J

    1996-01-01

    Situational awareness (SA) is a skill often deemed essential to pilot performance in both combat and noncombat flying. A study was conducted to determine if SA in U.S. Air Force F-15 pilots could be predicted. The participants were 171 active duty F-15 A/C pilots who completed a test battery representative of various psychological constructs proposed or demonstrated to be valid for the prediction of performance in a wide variety of military and civilian jobs. These predictors encompassed measures of cognitive ability, psychomotor ability, and personality. Supervisor and peer ratings of SA were collected. Supervisors and peers showed substantial agreement on the SA ratings of the pilots. The first unrotated principle component extracted from the supervisor and peer ratings accounted for 92.5% of the variability of ratings. The unrotated first principal component served as the SA criterion. Flying experience measured in number of F-15 hours was the best predictor of SA. After controlling for the effects of F-15 flying hours, the measures of general cognitive ability based on working memory, spatial reasoning, and divided attention were found to be predictive of SA. Psychomotor and personality measures were not predictive. With additional F-15 flying hours it is expected that pilots would improve their ratings of SA.

  16. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  17. Peripheral Social Awareness Information in Collaborative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michael B.; Vathanophas, Vichita

    2003-01-01

    Discusses being aware of other members of a team in a collaborative environment and reports on a study that examined group performance on a task that was computer mediated with and without awareness information. Examines how an awareness tool impacts the quality of a collaborative work effort and the communications between group members.…

  18. From situation modelling to a distributed rule-based platform for situation awareness : an ontological framework for disaster management applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João

    2015-01-01

    Situation-aware (SA) applications are particularly useful for disaster management. The complex nature of emergency scenarios presents challenges to the development of collaborative and distributed SA solutions. These challenges concern the whole lifecycle, from specification to implementation

  19. Empirical research on an ecological interface design for improving situation awareness of operators in an advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Suh, Sang Moon; Jang, Gwi Sook; Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An EID prototype for monitoring primary side of nuclear power plant is proposed. ► The effectiveness of the prototype is validated using a partial scoped dynamic mockup in terms of situation awareness. ► The validation is based on comparison of a mimic display with an EID plus mimics. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to validate whether an ecological interface design (EID) improves operators’ situation awareness in an advanced control room of a nuclear power plant (NPP). EID is defined as an approach to interface design that was introduced specifically for complex socio-technical, real-time, and dynamic systems. The EID technology has not yet been adapted to the nuclear power industry due to lack of empirical studies. Especially in a situational awareness aspect, many researchers have predicted that the EID will support operators to detect unanticipated events. Just a few studies, however, unveiled the positive effect of the EID display on human performance using a full scoped simulator. In this study, to investigate whether an EID improves operators’ situational awareness, we developed an EID prototype for nuclear power operations and a partial scoped dynamic mockup to validate the effectiveness of the EID prototype. Three experienced operators were involved as subjects in our study and they were fully well trained for using the EID prototype. We compared two types of situations in terms of situation awareness. One is mimic based information display and the other is a mimic plus EID based information display. The result of our study revealed that a mimic plus EID based information display is more effective than a mimic based information display in terms of situation awareness. This study is significant in that the EID as an emerging technology is adoptable to a digitalized control room in an aspect of improving operators’ situation awareness.

  20. Performance Analysis of Sensor Systems for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jang-Hyun; Chung, Taejin; Park, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hocheol; Yun, Ami; Lee, Yonghui

    2017-12-01

    With increased human activity in space, the risk of re-entry and collision between space objects is constantly increasing. Hence, the need for space situational awareness (SSA) programs has been acknowledged by many experienced space agencies. Optical and radar sensors, which enable the surveillance and tracking of space objects, are the most important technical components of SSA systems. In particular, combinations of radar systems and optical sensor networks play an outstanding role in SSA programs. At present, Korea operates the optical wide field patrol network (OWL-Net), the only optical system for tracking space objects. However, due to their dependence on weather conditions and observation time, it is not reasonable to use optical systems alone for SSA initiatives, as they have limited operational availability. Therefore, the strategies for developing radar systems should be considered for an efficient SSA system using currently available technology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a radar system in detecting and tracking space objects. With the radar system investigated, the minimum sensitivity is defined as detection of a 1-m2 radar cross section (RCS) at an altitude of 2,000 km, with operating frequencies in the L, S, C, X or Ku-band. The results of power budget analysis showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000 km, which includes the low earth orbit (LEO) environment, can be achieved with a transmission power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, a pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3 dB, at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. We defined the key parameters of the radar following a performance analysis of the system. This research can thus provide guidelines for the conceptual design of radar systems for national SSA initiatives.

  1. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information.

  2. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information

  3. Effects of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Navigation Cues on Navigation Performance, Situation Awareness, and Mental Workload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Bradley M

    2007-01-01

    .... Results from both experiments indicate that augmented visual displays reduced time to complete navigation, maintained situation awareness, and drastically reduced mental workload in comparison...

  4. Optimal SSN Tasking to Enhance Real-time Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J., III; Hussein, I.; Gerber, J.; Sivilli, R.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is currently constrained by an overwhelming number of resident space objects (RSOs) that need to be tracked and the amount of data these observations produce. The Joint Centralized Autonomous Tasking System (JCATS) is an autonomous, net-centric tool that approaches these SSA concerns from an agile, information-based stance. Finite set statistics and stochastic optimization are used to maintain an RSO catalog and develop sensor tasking schedules based on operator configured, state information-gain metrics to determine observation priorities. This improves the efficiency of sensors to target objects as awareness changes and new information is needed, not at predefined frequencies solely. A net-centric, service-oriented architecture (SOA) allows for JCATS integration into existing SSA systems. Testing has shown operationally-relevant performance improvements and scalability across multiple types of scenarios and against current sensor tasking tools.

  5. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauben, L S G L; Dekker-van Doorn, C M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; Goossens, R H M; Huijsman, R; Klein, J; Lange, J F

    2011-04-01

    To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Questionnaire design. Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists. All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT. Ratings for 'communication' were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for 'teamwork' differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within 'situation awareness' significant differences were mainly observed for 'gathering information' between surgeons and other team members (P communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.

  7. Evaluating Options for Civil Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B.; Carioscia, S. A.

    In recent years, the number of active satellites and human-made orbital space debris has increased dramatically. An expansion of activities in space, as is currently being proposed by many commercial and international entities, is expected to further exacerbate this challenge. The 18th Space Control Squadron under the Department of Defense (DOD) United States Strategic Command provides space situational awareness (SSA) services to users outside the national security community at no cost. International and commercial users demand better SSA service than is currently feasible, and the demand comes at a time when DOD is under pressure to better prepare for and respond to growing space-based threats to national security. Concerned about the possibility of overextending across conflicting missions in a fiscally constrained environment, some DOD officials have publicly noted a desire to move SSA services not related to national security out of DOD purview. Responding to a request from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), researchers at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) identified and evaluated potential approaches for providing SSA services for civil and commercial operations in space. In this paper, we summarize the report [1] and present the pros and cons of four approaches to the provision of civil SSA services in the United States: (1) maintaining status quo through continued provision by DOD; (2) provision by a civil government entity; (3) industry self-provision; and (4) provision by an international organization. Within the second approach, assuming the provision of SSA by a civil agency, STPI further identified and discussed four options: (1) civil agency service capability embedded within DOD; (2) independent civil service capability, using DOD software and systems; (3) independent civil service capability, using commercial software and systems; and (4) the government certifies non

  8. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  9. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  10. An Integrated Agent Model Addressing Situation Awareness and Functional State in Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; van Lambalgen, R.M.; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated agent model is introduced addressing mutually interacting Situation Awareness and Functional State dynamics in decision making. This shows how a human's functional state, more specific a human's exhaustion and power, can influence a human's situation awareness, and in

  11. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  12. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M. [AREVA NP Inc., 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  13. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  14. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  15. Simulation Development for Dynamic Situation Awareness and Prediction II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Kevin C

    2006-01-01

    ... within the simulation environment. These simulations provide feedback to prototype C4ISR systems in the form of mission status reports, sensor tracks, and other ISR mission results reports, which can be used to maintain situation...

  16. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... communicating over a network protocol (UDP) enabling distribution on several hardware devices. The modules are: Graphical user interface, head tracking server, truck tracking, and binaural synthesis module. The function of the individual modules as well as overall topology of the system will be presented...

  17. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  18. Unmanned Tactical Autonomous Control and Collaboration Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    They can assume, but ultimately they have to hope that the agent is later able to recall their thoughts in order to complete the picture of SA...environmental data with long term memory “schemata,” and the application of those schemata to the situation until the agent achieves a level of SA. Here, 8...schemata” is the term used for knowledge that is stored in long-term memory . He saw the usefulness and application of those schemata as inversely

  19. Data-Centric Situational Awareness and Management in Intelligent Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxiao

    The rapid development of technology and society has made the current power system a much more complicated system than ever. The request for big data based situation awareness and management becomes urgent today. In this dissertation, to respond to the grand challenge, two data-centric power system situation awareness and management approaches are proposed to address the security problems in the transmission/distribution grids and social benefits augmentation problem at the distribution-customer lever, respectively. To address the security problem in the transmission/distribution grids utilizing big data, the first approach provides a fault analysis solution based on characterization and analytics of the synchrophasor measurements. Specically, the optimal synchrophasor measurement devices selection algorithm (OSMDSA) and matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) based spatial-temporal synchrophasor data characterization method was developed to reduce data volume while preserving comprehensive information for the big data analyses. And the weighted Granger causality (WGC) method was investigated to conduct fault impact causal analysis during system disturbance for fault localization. Numerical results and comparison with other methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this analytic approach. As more social effects are becoming important considerations in power system management, the goal of situation awareness should be expanded to also include achievements in social benefits. The second approach investigates the concept and application of social energy upon the University of Denver campus grid to provide management improvement solutions for optimizing social cost. Social element--human working productivity cost, and economic element--electricity consumption cost, are both considered in the evaluation of overall social cost. Moreover, power system simulation, numerical experiments for smart building modeling, distribution level real-time pricing and social

  20. An approach to electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control for situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author provides insight on the role of modern electronic warfare technology for the purposes of electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control, which plays a crucial role in situational awareness required for peacekeeping...

  1. Increasing Situational Awareness by Combining Realistic and Non-Realistic Rendering Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Valerie A; Normoyle, Aline; Flo, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... Although this improved visual realism can lead to a better sense of immersion and a more faithful reproduction of the natural world, it does not necessarily promote increased awareness of an evolving situation...

  2. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  3. Constructible Assessment for Situation Awareness in a Distributed C2 Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seet, Alfred W; Teh, Cheryl A; Soo, John K; Teo, Leonghwee

    2004-01-01

    .... This method is an adaptation of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) by M. R. Endsley (1995) that takes into account specific constraints for use in a field exercise, such as minimizing the level of intrusiveness...

  4. External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    identify and coordinate with community resources. Hospital evacuation requires coordinated processes and resources, including situational awareness that reflects the condition of the community as a result of the incident. Successful hospital evacuation decision making is influenced by community-wide situational awareness and transportation deficits. Planning with the community to create realistic EOPs that accurately reflect available resources and protocols is critical to informing hospital decision making during a crisis. Knowledge of these factors could improve decision making and evacuation practices, potentially reducing evacuation times in future hurricanes.

  5. Situation awareness and complexity: the role of wearable technologies in sports science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Situation Awareness is a key concept in activities in which cognitive and physical tasks are being performed in a complex system consisting of multiple humans and artifacts, under quickly changing conditions. The spread, in sports, of wearable technologies that can record and return in real time a wide variety of data related to the athlete and to the context provides a great opportunity to increase the level of Situation Awareness. Often, however, we are dealing with heterogeneous devices th...

  6. Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    1 DM-0001694 Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness Benghazi Case Study Jeff Boleng, PhD Marc Novakouski Gene...command and control element at the CIA compound that would have been monitoring OSINT and other sources of intelligence before the attack and... Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brett; Cooper,Simon; Quested,Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Brett Williams,1 Andrew Quested,1 Simon Cooper21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Berwick, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing ...

  8. A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.

  9. Affordable multisensor digital video architecture for 360° situational awareness displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Steven P.; Khan, Dina A.; Marecki, Alexander L.; Berman, David A.; Carberry, Dana

    2011-06-01

    One of the major challenges facing today's military ground combat vehicle operations is the ability to achieve and maintain full-spectrum situational awareness while under armor (i.e. closed hatch). Thus, the ability to perform basic tasks such as driving, maintaining local situational awareness, surveillance, and targeting will require a high-density array of real time information be processed, distributed, and presented to the vehicle operators and crew in near real time (i.e. low latency). Advances in display and sensor technologies are providing never before seen opportunities to supply large amounts of high fidelity imagery and video to the vehicle operators and crew in real time. To fully realize the advantages of these emerging display and sensor technologies, an underlying digital architecture must be developed that is capable of processing these large amounts of video and data from separate sensor systems and distributing it simultaneously within the vehicle to multiple vehicle operators and crew. This paper will examine the systems and software engineering efforts required to overcome these challenges and will address development of an affordable, integrated digital video architecture. The approaches evaluated will enable both current and future ground combat vehicle systems the flexibility to readily adopt emerging display and sensor technologies, while optimizing the Warfighter Machine Interface (WMI), minimizing lifecycle costs, and improve the survivability of the vehicle crew working in closed-hatch systems during complex ground combat operations.

  10. Satellite-Based Assessment of Rainfall-Triggered Landslide Hazard for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Determining the time, location, and severity of natural disaster impacts is fundamental to formulating mitigation strategies, appropriate and timely responses, and robust recovery plans. A Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness (LHASA) model was developed to indicate potential landslide activity in near real-time. LHASA combines satellite-based precipitation estimates with a landslide susceptibility map derived from information on slope, geology, road networks, fault zones, and forest loss. Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission are used to identify rainfall conditions from the past 7 days. When rainfall is considered to be extreme and susceptibility values are moderate to very high, a "nowcast" is issued to indicate the times and places where landslides are more probable. When LHASA nowcasts were evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog, the probability of detection (POD) ranged from 8% to 60%, depending on the evaluation period, precipitation product used, and the size of the spatial and temporal window considered around each landslide point. Applications of the LHASA system are also discussed, including how LHASA is used to estimate long-term trends in potential landslide activity at a nearly global scale and how it can be used as a tool to support disaster risk assessment. LHASA is intended to provide situational awareness of landslide hazards in near real-time, providing a flexible, open-source framework that can be adapted to other spatial and temporal scales based on data availability.

  11. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  12. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  13. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  14. Miniaturization of a Microcontroller for the Tactile Situational Awareness System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wood, Terrence

    1999-01-01

    ...). The primary objective of TSAS is to enhance pilot performance and reduce SA related aircrew/aircraft losses by providing continuous non-visual information using the normally underutilized sensory channel of touch...

  15. A Cyber Situational Awareness Model for Network Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    amount of unnecessary data and focus on the most important information that can help them better guarantee cyber security of their systems. 14. SUBJECT...the most important information that can help them better guarantee cyber security of their systems. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although there are many well-established cyber security tools and techniques available to

  16. Measuring situational awareness and resolving inherent high-level fusion obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie

    2006-04-01

    Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.

  17. 3 CFR 8429 - Proclamation 8429 of October 1, 2009. National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009 8429 Proclamation 8429 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8429 of October 1, 2009 Proc. 8429 National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009By the... evaluate information for any situation. This new type of literacy also requires competency with...

  18. Developing situation-aware applications for disaster management with a distributed rule-based platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Moreira, Joao; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance interoperability and productivity in the develop-ment of situation-aware applications for disaster management, proper mecha-nisms and guidelines are required. They must address the lack of semantics in modelling emergency situations. In addition, the ever changing and

  19. 1st workshop on situational awareness in semi-Automated vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, R.; Baumann, M.; Politis, I.; Borojeni, S.S.; Alvarez, I.; Mirnig, A.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; Tscheligi, M.; Chuang, L.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will focus on the problem of occupant and vehicle situational awareness with respect to automated vehicles when the driver must take over control. It will explore the future of fully automated and mixed traffic situations where vehicles are assumed to be operating at level 3 or above.

  20. A Quantitative Team Situation Awareness Measurement Method Considering Technical and Nontechnical Skills of Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Yim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human capabilities, such as technical/nontechnical skills, have begun to be recognized as crucial factors for nuclear safety. One of the most common ways to improve human capabilities in general is training. The nuclear industry has constantly developed and used training as a tool to increase plant efficiency and safety. An integrated training framework was suggested for one of those efforts, especially during simulation training sessions of nuclear power plant operation teams. The developed training evaluation methods are based on measuring the levels of situation awareness of teams in terms of the level of shared confidence and consensus as well as the accuracy of team situation awareness. Verification of the developed methods was conducted by analyzing the training data of real nuclear power plant operation teams. The teams that achieved higher level of shared confidence showed better performance in solving problem situations when coupled with high consensus index values. The accuracy of nuclear power plant operation teams' situation awareness was approximately the same or showed a similar trend as that of senior reactor operators' situation awareness calculated by a situation awareness accuracy index (SAAI. Teams that had higher SAAI values performed better and faster than those that had lower SAAI values.

  1. Simulation for Dynamic Situation Awareness and Prediction III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    axis of the reference ellipsoid as it is rotated about the semi-minor axis. Equipotential Surface – A surface with the same potential, usually...including temperature, pressure, and precipitation information, in one-dimensional (profile), two-dimensional ( surface ), and three-dimensional...type of the weapon and its proximity to the terrain surface , or a specific terrain feature, determine that a crater should be created, or that a

  2. Robotic situational awareness of actions in human teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave

    2015-06-01

    When robots can sense and interpret the activities of the people they are working with, they become more of a team member and less of just a piece of equipment. This has motivated work on recognizing human actions using existing robotic sensors like short-range ladar imagers. These produce three-dimensional point cloud movies which can be analyzed for structure and motion information. We skeletonize the human point cloud and apply a physics-based velocity correlation scheme to the resulting joint motions. The twenty actions are then recognized using a nearest-neighbors classifier that achieves good accuracy.

  3. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  4. Catalogue Creation for Space Situational Awareness with Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, T.; Clarkson, I.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.; Moretti, N.; Morreale, B.

    2016-09-01

    In order to safeguard the continued use of space-based technologies, effective monitoring and tracking of man-made resident space objects (RSOs) is paramount. The diverse characteristics, behaviours and trajectories of RSOs make space surveillance a challenging application of the discipline that is tracking and surveillance. When surveillance systems are faced with non-canonical scenarios, it is common for human operators to intervene while researchers adapt and extend traditional tracking techniques in search of a solution. A complementary strategy for improving the robustness of space surveillance systems is to place greater emphasis on the anticipation of uncertainty. Namely, give the system the intelligence necessary to autonomously react to unforeseen events and to intelligently and appropriately act on tenuous information rather than discard it. In this paper we build from our 2015 campaign and describe the progression of a low-cost intelligent space surveillance system capable of autonomously cataloguing and maintaining track of RSOs. It currently exploits robotic electro-optical sensors, high-fidelity state-estimation and propagation as well as constrained initial orbit determination (IOD) to intelligently and adaptively manage its sensors in order to maintain an accurate catalogue of RSOs. In a step towards fully autonomous cataloguing, the system has been tasked with maintaining surveillance of a portion of the geosynchronous (GEO) belt. Using a combination of survey and track-refinement modes, the system is capable of maintaining a track of known RSOs and initiating tracks on previously unknown objects. Uniquely, due to the use of high-fidelity representations of a target's state uncertainty, as few as two images of previously unknown RSOs may be used to subsequently initiate autonomous search and reacquisition. To achieve this capability, particularly within the congested environment of the GEO-belt, we use a constrained admissible region (CAR) to

  5. Empirical verification for application of Bayesian inference in situation awareness evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Situation awareness (SA) of human operators is significantly important for safe operation in nuclear power plants (NPPs). • SA of human operators was empirically estimated using Bayesian inference. • In this empirical study, the effect of attention and working memory to SA was considered. • Complexcity of the given task and design of human machine interface (HMI) considerably affect SA of human operators. - Abstract: Bayesian methodology has been widely used in various research fields. According to current research, malfunctions of nuclear power plants can be detected using this Bayesian inference, which consistently piles up newly incoming data and updates the estimation. However, these studies have been based on the assumption that people work like computers—perfectly—a supposition that may cause a problem in real world applications. Studies in cognitive psychology indicate that when the amount of information to be processed becomes larger, people cannot save the whole set of data in their heads due to limited attention and limited memory capacity, also known as working memory. The purpose of the current research is to consider how actual human aware the situation contrasts with our expectations, and how such disparity affects the results of conventional Bayesian inference, if at all. We compared situation awareness (SA) of ideal operators with SA of human operators, and for the human operator we used both text-based human machine interface (HMI) and infographic-based HMI to further compare two existing human operators. In addition, two different scenarios were selected how scenario complexity affects SA of human operators. As a results, when a malfunction occurred, the ideal operator found the malfunction nearly 100% probability of the time using Bayesian inference. In contrast, out of forty-six human operators, only 69.57% found the correct malfunction with simple scenario and 58.70% with complex scenario in the text-based HMI. In

  6. An ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction and process and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Masataka; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Toshiyuki; Monta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of an experiment to investigate the effect of an ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction of process. We developed an ecological interface and an conventional interface for the simulator SCARLETT of a virtual plant that have two process control modes (automatic process control mode and manual process control mode). The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how interface and process control mode have any effects on situation awareness of human operator during malfunction of process, whether there are any interaction between interface and process control mode. We have been conducted this experiment now. (author)

  7. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Quested, Andrew; Cooper, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events.

  8. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  9. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  10. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  11. Augmented Reality Tool for the Situational Awareness Improvement of UAV Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Susana; Cuevas, Carlos; Gallego, Guillermo; García, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being extensively used nowadays. Therefore, pilots of traditional aerial platforms should adapt their skills to operate them from a Ground Control Station (GCS). Common GCSs provide information in separate screens: one presents the video stream while the other displays information about the mission plan and information coming from other sensors. To avoid the burden of fusing information displayed in the two screens, an Augmented Reality (AR) tool is proposed in this paper. The AR system has two functionalities for Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE) UAVs: route orientation and target identification. Route orientation allows the operator to identify the upcoming waypoints and the path that the UAV is going to follow. Target identification allows a fast target localization, even in the presence of occlusions. The AR tool is implemented following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standards so that it can be used in different GCSs. The experiments show how the AR tool improves significantly the situational awareness of the UAV operators. PMID:28178189

  12. Counterterrorism and cybersecurity total information awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Newton

    2013-01-01

    Provides a broad survey of the United States' counterterrorism history, the use of artificial intelligence in data mining, social media and privacy, cyber attacks and prevention, and longstanding issues of war and peace Closely examines how Total Information Awareness, a governmental data mining project focused on scanning public and private data, plays an integral role in cybersecurity Analyzes recent cyberattacks across the globe orchestrated by 'hacktivist' groups, such as Anonymous

  13. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%.

  14. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%

  15. Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations (La Perception de la Situation au cours des Operations Aeriennes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iialma ’White WA lime I in the olv i N 40 0 20 10 0 10 210 40 Interaction with other-aircraft: causal factors, NF5 lTroll,,ng Fa1 6 " rmotion joinL...degree of attention - High degree of attention switching switching switching A3.04 Motivation Low level of motivation - High level of motivation 84.01...S14.04 Familiarity 2 83.02 Consciousness 4 35.,1 Information quality 83,04 Motivation q8.03 Antioipation 4 m Link length Inversely proportional to link

  16. Assessment of situational awareness: team resources brought in action to enhance patient safety at the ICU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Situational Awareness (SA) relates to the team’s ability to perceive and anticipate threats in the care for patients. The present paper describes the development of a questionnaire that measures this SA gradient in the context of healthcare. The Resulting questionnaire (SafeTeam) consists

  17. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, H.E.; van Emmerik, M.L.; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2017-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  18. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    David Myers1 Timothy Gowen2 Angus Rupert3 Ben Lawson3 Justin Dailey3,4 1Chesapeake Technology International 2Naval Aviation Center for... Angus Rupert of the USAARL. The algorithm is described in “Configuration Parameters for the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS)” dated July 2010

  19. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  20. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  1. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, H.E.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kerstholt, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  2. Lessons learned from creating a mobile version of an educational board game to increase situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Lukosch, Heide; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an iterative design process for a serious game, which aims to raise situational awareness among different stakeholders in a logistics value chain by introducing multi-user role-playing games. It does so in several phases: After introducing the field of logistics as a problem

  3. Introduction: Situation Awareness, Systems of Systems, and Maritime Safety and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    This book presents and discusses various challenges and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for attaining situation awareness, with applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. This chapter introduces the book, describes the Dutch research project Poseidon from which it

  4. A structured approach to increase situational awareness in low voltage distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Broersma, T.; Morren, J.; Kruizinga, B.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.; Baldinger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Wear and tear, electrification and aging of (low voltage) distribution grids require maintenance in order to assure continuous provision of electricity. Situational awareness is required to find out when parts of the grid need maintenance and which parts should be prioritized. The paper proposes a

  5. Investigating the Effect of Situational Awareness on Persistence of Doctoral Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harleman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the effect of heightened situational awareness (SA) on persistence of doctoral distance learners. Factors in the distance learners' micro-environment, vis-à-vis Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecology theory of human development, were the focus. Study participants included new doctoral candidates continuing…

  6. Real-time Social Media Data Analytics for Situational Awareness of the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Chinthavali, S.; Lee, S.; Shankar, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing frequency of extreme events due to climate change, wide area situational awareness (SA) of the electric grid has become a primary need for federal agencies like DOE,FEMA etc. for emergency preparedness and recovery purposes. While several sensor feeds from Genscape, GridEye, PMUs provide a comprehensive view of the transmission grid, national-scale situational awareness tools are still relying on utility websites for outage information at a distribution level. The inconsistency and the variety in outage website's data formats makes this approach unreliable and also incurs huge software maintenance costs. Social media has emerged as a great medium for the utilities to share outage information with their customers. Despite their potential usefulness, extracting relevant data from these social media data-streams is challenging due to the inherent noise and irrelevant information such as tips to customers during storms, marketing, etc. In this study, we implement a practical and novel machine learning based data-analytics pipeline (Fig 1) for SA, which extracts real-time tweets from around 300 utility companies, processes these tweets using keyword filtering and Naïve-Bayes text classifier trained using supervised learning techniques to detect only relevant tweets. We validated the results by comparing it with the results identified by a human analyst for a period of 48 hours, and it showed around 98.3% accuracy. In addition to the tweets posted by utility companies, millions of twitter users, who are considered as human "social sensors", report power outages online. Therefore, we use Twitter Streaming API to extract real-time tweets containing keywords such as "power outage", "blackout", and "power cuts". An advanced natural language processing technique is proposed to identify the geo-locations associated with this power outage data. The detected tweets are visualized as a color-coded state and a county US map based on the number of outage tweets

  7. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  8. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  9. Modeling and analyses for an extended car-following model accounting for drivers' situation awareness from cyber physical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Sun, Dihua; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Senlin

    2018-07-01

    In fact, driving process is a typical cyber physical process which couples tightly the cyber factor of traffic information with the physical components of the vehicles. Meanwhile, the drivers have situation awareness in driving process, which is not only ascribed to the current traffic states, but also extrapolates the changing trend. In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to account for drivers' situation awareness. The stability criterion of the proposed model is derived via linear stability analysis. The results show that the stable region of proposed model will be enlarged on the phase diagram compared with previous models. By employing the reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equation is obtained. The kink-antikink soliton of mKdV equation reveals theoretically the evolution of traffic jams. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the analytical results. Two typical traffic Scenarios are investigated. The simulation results demonstrate that drivers' situation awareness plays a key role in traffic flow oscillations and the congestion transition.

  10. A multi-sensor fusion framework for improving situational awareness in demanding maritime training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Real offshore operational scenarios can involve a considerable amount of risk. Sophisticated training programmes involving specially designed simulator environments constitute a promising approach for improving an individual's perception and assessment of dangerous situations in real applications. One of the world's most advanced providers of simulators for such demanding offshore operations is the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). However, even though the OSC provides powerful simulation tools, techniques for visualising operational procedures that can be used to further improve Situational awareness (SA), are still lacking. Providing the OSC with an integrated multi-sensor fusion framework is the goal of this work. The proposed framework is designed to improve planning, execution and assessment of demanding maritime operations by adopting newly-designed risk-evaluation tools. Different information from the simulator scene and from the real world can be collected, such as audio, video, bio-metric data from eye-trackers, other sensor data and annotations. This integration is the base for research on novel SA assessment methodologies. This will serve the industry for the purpose of improving operational effectiveness and safety through the use of simulators. In this work, a training methodology based on the concept of briefing/debriefing is adopted based on previous literature. By using this methodology borrowed from similarly demanding applications, the efficiency of the proposed framework is validated in a conceptual case study. In particular, the training procedure, which was previously performed by Statoil and partners, for the world's first sub-sea gas compression plant, in Aasgard, Norway, is considered and reviewed highlighting the potentials of the proposed framework. - Highlights: • A framework for improving SA in demanding maritime training is proposed. • The proposed framework is integrated with the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). • This

  11. The RF Probe: providing space situational awareness through broad-spectrum detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenick, Raymond; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Partch, Russell

    2004-09-01

    AeroAstro's patented RF Probe is a system designed to address the needs of spacecraft developers and operators interested in measuring and analyzing near-field RF emissions emanating from a nearby spacecraft of interest. The RF Probe consists of an intelligent spectrum analyzer with digital signal processing capabilities combined with a calibrated, wide-bandwidth antenna and RF front end that covers the 50 kHz to 18 GHz spectrum. It is capable of acquiring signal level and signal vector information, classifying signals, assessing the quality of a satellite"s transponders, and characterizing near-field electromagnetic emissions. The RF Probe is intended for either incorporation as part of a suite of spacecraft sensors, or as a stand-alone sensor on spacecraft or other platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The RF Probe was initially conceived as a tool to detect and aid in diagnosis of malfunctions in a spacecraft of interest. However, the utility of the RF Probe goes far beyond this initial concept, spanning a wide range of military applications. Most importantly, the RF Probe can provide space situational awareness for critical on-orbit assets by detecting externally induced RF fields, aiding in protection against potentially devastating attacks.

  12. Approaches at KAIST NICIE Lab to quantifying situation awareness in nuclear power plant MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong-Hyun; Yim, Ho-Bin; Kim, Man-Cheol; Ha, Jun-Su; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community. But, techniques to measure SA have normally used expert judgment or a self-rating method so far. One of the problems of these techniques is inconsistency of results. So, empirical and analytical studies on an objective and quantitative SA measurement methods have been carried out at Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Lab (NICIE Lab) in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Empirical studies are based on physical and cognitive human behaviors, whereas analytical studies are mainly based on Bayesian inference. Eye movement signals and verbal protocol analysis were used for empirical approaches to obtain objective measures. FIR and SAE measures showed feasibility of an eye-tracking method for robust application. TSA score based on a verbal protocol analysis also showed its possibility of team SA (TSA) quantification. Bayesian inference was used for analytical approaches of SA quantification. The analytical quantification method was further expanded to consider some of the important human properties, and a SA modelling tool called ‘CoRSAGE, ver01” was developed. (author)

  13. Enhanced situation awareness and decision making for an intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.J.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Learning Automata based intelligent reconfigurable controller has been adapted for use as a reactor power controller to achieve improved reactor temperature performance. The intelligent reconfigurable controller is capable of enforcing either a classical or an optimal reactor power controller based on control performance feedback. Four control performance evaluation measures: dynamically estimated average quadratic temperature error, power, rod reactivity and rod reactivity rate were developed to provide feedback to the control decision component of the intelligent reconfigurable controller. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network controllers have been studied for inclusion in the bank of controllers that form the intermediate level of an enhanced intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller (IRRPC). The increased number of alternatives available to the supervisory level of the IRRPC requires enhanced situation awareness. Additional performance measures have been designed and a method for synthesizing them into a single indication of the overall performance of the currently enforced reactor power controller has been conceptualized. Modification of the reward/penalty scheme implemented in the existing IRRPC to increase the quality of the supervisory level decision process has been studied. The logogen model of human memory (Morton, 1969) and individual controller design information could be used to allocate reward to the most appropriate controller. Methods for allocating supervisory level attention were also studied with the goal of maximizing learning rate

  14. Benefits of Applying Predictive Intelligence to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B.; Mann, B.; Millard, C.

    Recent events have heightened the interest in providing improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to the warfighter using novel techniques that are affordable and effective. The current Space Surveillance Network (SSN) detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting earth and provides information on Resident Space Objects (RSO) as well as new foreign launch (NFL) satellites. The reactive nature of the SSN provides little to no warning on changes to the expected states of these RSOs or NFLs. This paper will detail the use of the historical data collected on RSOs to characterize what their steady state is, proactively help identify when changes or anomalies have occurred using a pattern-of-like activity based intelligence approach, and apply dynamic, adaptive mission planning to the observables that lead up to a NFL. Multiple hypotheses will be carried along with the intent or the changes to the steady state to assist the SSN in tasking the various sensors in the network to collect the relevant data needed to help prune the number of hypotheses by assigning likelihood to each of those activities. Depending on the hypothesis and thresholds set, these likelihoods will then be used in turn to alert the SSN operator with changes to the steady state, prioritize additional data collections, and provide a watch list of likely next activities.

  15. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  16. Application of Synchrophasor Measurements for Improving Situational Awareness of the Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Mutule, A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper focuses on the application of synchrophasor measurements that present unprecedented benefits compared to SCADA systems in order to facilitate the successful transformation of the Nordic-Baltic-and-European electric power system to operate with large amounts of renewable energy sources and improve situational awareness of the power system. The article describes new functionalities of visualisation tools to estimate a grid inertia level in real time with monitoring results between Nordic and Baltic power systems.

  17. Procedure automation: the effect of automated procedure execution on situation awareness and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Svengren, Haakan; Heimdal, Jan O.; Nilsen, Svein; Hulsund, John-Einar; Bisio, Rossella; Debroise, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    As advised by the procedure workshop convened in Halden in 2000, the Halden Project conducted an experiment on the effect of automation of Computerised Procedure Systems (CPS) on situation awareness and human performance. The expected outcome of the study was to provide input for guidance on CPS design, and to support the Halden Project's ongoing research on human reliability analysis. The experiment was performed in HAMMLAB using the HAMBO BWR simulator and the COPMA-III CPS. Eight crews of operators from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated. Three research questions were investigated: 1) Does procedure automation create Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) performance problems? 2) Does procedure automation affect situation awareness? 3) Does procedure automation affect crew performance? The independent variable, 'procedure configuration', had four levels: paper procedures, manual CPS, automation with breaks, and full automation. The results showed that the operators experienced OOTL problems in full automation, but that situation awareness and crew performance (response time) were not affected. One possible explanation for this is that the operators monitored the automated procedure execution conscientiously, something which may have prevented the OOTL problems from having negative effects on situation awareness and crew performance. In a debriefing session, the operators clearly expressed their dislike for the full automation condition, but that automation with breaks could be suitable for some tasks. The main reason why the operators did not like the full automation was that they did not feel being in control. A qualitative analysis addressing factors contributing to response time delays revealed that OOTL problems did not seem to cause delays, but that some delays could be explained by the operators having problems with the freeze function of the CPS. Also other factors such as teamwork and operator tendencies were of importance. Several design implications were drawn

  18. Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking it to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Power Journal | 52 Baird The Importance of Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking It to the Next Level FeatureSpace Focus junction ...Communications (BMC3) infrastructure. We must build a new space superiority enterprise around SSA sensors that utilize com- mon data models to...vehicle, a modified version of China’s DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile, and launcher system en- gaged the satellite at a closing velocity of

  19. Development of a Vision-Based Situational Awareness Capability for Unmanned Surface Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    camera), which is similar to the movement of the ship in the electro-optics (EO) video imagery. An image of the model representing the ship with a...with both color video imagery and infrared video imagery, and the results obtained from processing the images demonstrated the viability of using this...situational awareness capability, which is required to achieve autonomous navigation. The algorithm was tested with both color video imagery and infrared

  20. Anomaly-based online intrusion detection system as a sensor for cyber security situational awareness system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Almost all the organisations and even individuals rely on complex structures of data networks and networked computer systems. That complex data ensemble, the cyber domain, provides great opportunities, but at the same time it offers many possible attack vectors that can be abused for cyber vandalism, cyber crime, cyber espionage or cyber terrorism. Those threats produce requirements for cyber security situational awareness and intrusion detection capability. This dissertation conc...

  1. Distributed sensor management for space situational awareness via a negotiation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is critical to many space missions serving weather analysis, communications, and navigation. However, the number of sensors used in space situational awareness is limited which hinders collision avoidance prediction, debris assessment, and efficient routing. Hence, it is critical to use such sensor resources efficiently. In addition, it is desired to develop the SSA sensor management algorithm in a distributed manner. In this paper, a distributed sensor management approach using the negotiation game (NG-DSM) is proposed for the SSA. Specifically, the proposed negotiation game is played by each sensor and its neighboring sensors. The bargaining strategies are developed for each sensor based on negotiating for accurately tracking desired targets (e.g., satellite, debris, etc.) . The proposed NG-DSM method is tested in a scenario which includes eight space objects and three different sensor modalities which include a space based optical sensor, a ground radar, or a ground Electro-Optic sensor. The geometric relation between the sensor, the Sun, and the space object is also considered. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NG-DSM sensor management methods, which facilitates an application of multiple-sensor multiple-target tracking for space situational awareness.

  2. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. USING AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSING TO INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IN CIVIL PROTECTION AND HUMANITARIAN RELIEF – THE IMPORTANCE OF USER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Römer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR’s 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management and product dissemination (editable web services. Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user’s requirements.

  4. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  5. Staff acceptance of video monitoring for coordination: a video system to support perioperative situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Peter; Dutton, Richard

    2009-08-01

    To understand staff acceptance of a remote video monitoring system for operating room (OR) coordination. Improved real-time remote visual access to OR may enhance situational awareness but also raises privacy concerns for patients and staff. Survey. A system was implemented in a six-room surgical suite to display OR monitoring video at an access restricted control desk area. Image quality was manipulated to improve staff acceptance. Two months after installation, interviews and a survey were conducted on staff acceptance of video monitoring. About half of all OR personnel responded (n = 63). Overall levels of concerns were low, with 53% rated no concerns and 42% little concern. Top two reported uses of the video were to see if cases are finished and to see if a room is ready. Viewing the video monitoring system as useful did not reduce levels of concern. Staff in supervisory positions perceived less concern about the system's impact on privacy than did those supervised (p < 0.03). Concerns for patient privacy correlated with concerns for staff privacy and performance monitoring. Technical means such as manipulating image quality helped staff acceptance. Manipulation of image quality resulted overall acceptance of monitoring video, with residual levels of concerns. OR nurses may express staff privacy concern in the form of concerns over patient privacy. This study provided suggestions for technological and implementation strategies of video monitoring for coordination use in OR. Deployment of communication technology and integration of clinical information will likely raise concerns over staff privacy and performance monitoring. The potential gain of increased information access may be offset by negative impact of a sense of loss of autonomy.

  6. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  7. Supporting Information Access in a Hospital Ward by a Context-Aware Mobile Electronic Patient Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mikael B.; Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2006-01-01

    Context-awareness holds promise for improving the utility of software products. Context-aware mobile systems encompass the ability to automatically discover and react to changes in an environment. Most contemporary context-aware mobile systems aim to support users in private situations, for example......Ward is to support nurses in conducting morning procedures in a hospital ward. MobileWard is context-aware as it is able to discover and react autonomously according to changes in the environment and since it integrates the ability to provide information and services to the user where the relevancy depends....... Implications and limitations of the proposed solution are further discussed....

  8. Fuzzy assessment of health information system users' security awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Özlem Müge; Chouseinoglou, Oumout

    2013-12-01

    Health information systems (HIS) are a specific area of information systems (IS), where critical patient data is stored and quality health service is only realized with the correct use and efficient dissemination of this data to health workers. Therefore, a balance needs to be established between the levels of security and flow of information on HIS. Instead of implementing higher levels and further mechanisms of control to increase the security of HIS, it is preferable to deal with the arguably weakest link on HIS chain with respect to security: HIS users. In order to provide solutions and approaches for transforming users to the first line of defense in HIS but also to employ capable and appropriate candidates from the pool of newly graduated students, it is important to assess and evaluate the security awareness levels and characteristics of these existing and future users. This study aims to provide a new perspective to understand the phenomenon of security awareness of HIS users with the use of fuzzy analysis, and to assess the present situation of current and future HIS users of a leading medical and educational institution of Turkey, with respect to their security characteristics based on four different security scales. The results of the fuzzy analysis, the guide on how to implement this fuzzy analysis to any health institution and how to read and interpret these results, together with the possible implications of these results to the organization are provided.

  9. A neuroergonomic quasi-experiment: Predictors of situation awareness and display usability while performing complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is the ability and capacity to perceive information and act on it acceptably. Head Up Display (HUD) versus Head Down Display (HDD) manipulation induced variation in task difficulty. HUD and HDD cockpit displays or display designs promoted or impaired SA. The quantitative research presented in this paper examines basic neurocognitive factors in order to identify their specific contributions to the formation of SA, while studying display usability and the effects on SA. Visual attentiveness (Va), perceptiveness (Vp), and spatial working memory (Vswm) were assessed as predictors of SA under varying task difficulty. The study participants were 19 tactical airlift pilots, selected from the Ohio Air National Guard. Neurocognitive tests were administered to the participants prior to flight. In-flight SA was objectively and subjectively assessed for 24 flights. At the completion of this field experiment, the data were analyzed and the tests were statistically significant for the three predictor visual abilities Vp, Va, and Vswm as task difficulty was varied, F(3,11) = 8.125, p = .008. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual abilities together predicted a majority of the variance in SA, R2 = 0.753, p = .008. As validated and verified by ECG and EEG data, the HUD yielded a full ability and capacity to anticipate and accommodate trends were as the HDD yielded a saturated ability to anticipate and accommodate trends. Post-hoc tests revealed a Cohen's f2 = 3.05 yielding statistical power to be 0.98. This work results in a significant contribution to the field by providing an improved understanding of SA and path to safer travel for society worldwide. PA 88ABW-2015-1282.

  10. Nurse-surgeon object transfer: video analysis of communication and situation awareness in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakangas, Terhi; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Bezemer, Jeff; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-09-01

    One of the most central collaborative tasks during surgical operations is the passing of objects, including instruments. Little is known about how nurses and surgeons achieve this. The aim of the present study was to explore what factors affect this routine-like task, resulting in fast or slow transfer of objects. A qualitative video study, informed by an observational ethnographic approach, was conducted in a major teaching hospital in the UK. A total of 20 general surgical operations were observed. In total, approximately 68 h of video data have been reviewed. A subsample of 225 min has been analysed in detail using interactional video-analysis developed within the social sciences. Two factors affecting object transfer were observed: (1) relative instrument trolley position and (2) alignment. The scrub nurse's instrument trolley position (close to vs. further back from the surgeon) and alignment (gaze direction) impacts on the communication with the surgeon, and consequently, on the speed of object transfer. When the scrub nurse was standing close to the surgeon, and "converged" to follow the surgeon's movements, the transfer occurred more seamlessly and faster (1.0 s). The smoothness of object transfer can be improved by adjusting the scrub nurse's instrument trolley position, enabling a better monitoring of surgeon's bodily conduct and affording early orientation (awareness) to an upcoming request (changing situation). Object transfer is facilitated by the surgeon's embodied practices, which can elicit the nurse's attention to the request and, as a response, maximise a faster object transfer. A simple intervention to highlight the significance of these factors could improve communication in the operating theatre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David T. A.

    1971-01-01

    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  12. Measuring situation awareness of operation teams in NPPs using a verbal protocol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ar ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for measuring team situation awareness is developed. ► Verbal protocol analysis is adopted in this method. ► This method resolves uncertainties from conventional methods. ► This method can be used in evaluating the human–system interfaces. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community given that need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Although complex and dynamic environments such as that of a main control room (MCR) in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are operated by operation teams, and while team situation awareness (TSA) is also cited as an important factor, research is limited to individual SA. However, understanding TSA can provide a window onto the characteristics of team acquisition as well as the performance of a complex skill. Therefore, such knowledge can be valuable in diagnosing team performance successes and failures. Moreover, training and design interventions can target the cognitive underpinnings of team performance, with implications for the design of technological aids to improve team performance. Despite these advantages and the importance of understanding TSA, measures and methods targeting TSA are sparse and fail to address it properly. In this study, an objective TSA measurement method is developed in an effort to understand TSA. First, key considerations for developing a method are derived. Based on these considerations, the proposed method is developed while mainly focusing on the creation of logical connections between team communications and TSA. A speech act coding scheme is also implemented to analyze team communications. The TSA measurement method developed in this study provides a measure for each level of TSA. It was revealed from a preliminary study that this TSA measurement method is feasible for measuring TSA to a fair extent. Useful insight into TSA is also derived.

  13. Load Situation Awareness Design for Integration in Multi-Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have been penetrating in power system at a staggering pace in recent years. Their intermittent nature is, however, posing great threat to system operation. Recently, active load management has been suggested as a tool to counteract these side effects. In multi......-energy system, thermal load management will benefit not only electric network but also district heating network. Electric heater will be the main focus of this paper as a common thermal load. A situation awareness framework for its integration into electric and district heating network will be proposed...

  14. Ecological interface design for turbine secondary systems in a nuclear power plant : effects on operator situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into past accidents at nuclear power generating facilities such as that of Three Mile Island have identified human factors as one of the foremost critical aspects in plant safety. Errors resulting from limitations in human information processing are of particular concern for human-machine interfaces (HMI) in plant control rooms. This project examines the application of Ecological Interface Design (EID) in HMI information displays and the effects on operator situation awareness (SA) for turbine secondary systems based on the Swedish Forsmark 3 boiling-water reactor nuclear power plant. A work domain analysis was performed on the turbine secondary systems yielding part-whole decomposition and abstraction hierarchy models. Information display requirements were subsequently extracted from the models. The resulting EID information displays were implemented in a full-scope simulator and evaluated with six licensed operating crews from the Forsmark 3 plant. Three measures were used to examine SA: self-rated bias, Halden Open Probe Elicitation (HOPE), and Situation Awareness Control Room Inventory (SACRI). The data analysis revealed that operators achieved moderate to good SA; operators unfamiliar with EID information displays were able to develop and maintain comparable levels of SA to operators using traditional forms of single sensor-single indicator (SS-SI) information displays. With sufficient training and experience, operator SA is expected to benefit from the knowledge-based visual elements in the EID information displays. This project was researched in conjunction with the Cognitive Engineering Laboratory at the University of Toronto and the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. (author)

  15. Improved maritime situation awareness by fusing sensor information with intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Deves, T.K.G.; Neef, R.M.; Smith, A.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than inconventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. For example, during maritime missions in littoral environments, acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other threatening events

  16. Improving maritime situational awareness by fusing sensor information and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Neef, R.M.; Hanckmann, P.; Gosliga, S.P. van; Halsema, D. van

    2011-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than in conventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. These maritime missions often take place in littoral environments, where acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other

  17. Process-aware information systems : design, enactment and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Wah, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Process-aware information systems support operational business processes by combining advances in information technology with recent insights from management science. Workflow management systems are typical examples of such systems. However, many other types of information systems are also "process

  18. Rapid SAR and GPS Measurements and Models for Hazard Science and Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Liu, Z.; Moore, A. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Linick, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Polet, J.; Manipon, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), SAR-based change detection, and image pixel tracking have recently become critical additions to our toolset for understanding and mapping the damage caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods. Analyses of these data sets are still largely handcrafted following each event and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for response to natural disasters or for timely analysis of large data sets. The ARIA project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has been capturing the knowledge applied to these responses and building it into an automated infrastructure to generate imaging products in near real-time that can improve situational awareness for disaster response. In addition, the ARIA project is developing the capabilities to provide automated imaging and analysis capabilities necessary to keep up with the imminent increase in raw data from geodetic imaging missions planned for launch by NASA, as well as international space agencies. We will present the progress we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from Sentinel 1a/b as well as continuous GPS stations. Since the beginning of our project, our team has imaged events and generated response products for events around the world. These response products have enabled many conversations with those in the disaster response community

  19. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent

  20. Situational awareness for unmanned ground vehicles in semi-structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.

    2002-07-01

    Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.

  1. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent.

  2. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  3. A computational approach to achieve situational awareness from limited observations of a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Jason

    At the start of the 21st century, the topic of complexity remains a formidable challenge in engineering, science and other aspects of our world. It seems that when disaster strikes it is because some complex and unforeseen interaction causes the unfortunate outcome. Why did the financial system of the world meltdown in 2008--2009? Why are global temperatures on the rise? These questions and other ones like them are difficult to answer because they pertain to contexts that require lengthy descriptions. In other words, these contexts are complex. But we as human beings are able to observe and recognize this thing we call 'complexity'. Furthermore, we recognize that there are certain elements of a context that form a system of complex interactions---i.e., a complex system. Many researchers have even noted similarities between seemingly disparate complex systems. Do sub-atomic systems bear resemblance to weather patterns? Or do human-based economic systems bear resemblance to macroscopic flows? Where do we draw the line in their resemblance? These are the kinds of questions that are asked in complex systems research. And the ability to recognize complexity is not only limited to analytic research. Rather, there are many known examples of humans who, not only observe and recognize but also, operate complex systems. How do they do it? Is there something superhuman about these people or is there something common to human anatomy that makes it possible to fly a plane? Or to drive a bus? Or to operate a nuclear power plant? Or to play Chopin's etudes on the piano? In each of these examples, a human being operates a complex system of machinery, whether it is a plane, a bus, a nuclear power plant or a piano. What is the common thread running through these abilities? The study of situational awareness (SA) examines how people do these types of remarkable feats. It is not a bottom-up science though because it relies on finding general principles running through a host of varied

  4. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  5. A High Fidelity Approach to Data Simulation for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, S.; Ellis, H., Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is vital to maintaining our Space Superiority. A high fidelity, time-based simulation tool, PROXOR™ (Proximity Operations and Rendering), supports SSA by generating realistic mission scenarios including sensor frame data with corresponding truth. This is a unique and critical tool for supporting mission architecture studies, new capability (algorithm) development, current/future capability performance analysis, and mission performance prediction. PROXOR™ provides a flexible architecture for sensor and resident space object (RSO) orbital motion and attitude control that simulates SSA, rendezvous and proximity operations scenarios. The major elements of interest are based on the ability to accurately simulate all aspects of the RSO model, viewing geometry, imaging optics, sensor detector, and environmental conditions. These capabilities enhance the realism of mission scenario models and generated mission image data. As an input, PROXOR™ uses a library of 3-D satellite models containing 10+ satellites, including low-earth orbit (e.g., DMSP) and geostationary (e.g., Intelsat) spacecraft, where the spacecraft surface properties are those of actual materials and include Phong and Maxwell-Beard bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) coefficients for accurate radiometric modeling. We calculate the inertial attitude, the changing solar and Earth illumination angles of the satellite, and the viewing angles from the sensor as we propagate the RSO in its orbit. The synthetic satellite image is rendered at high resolution and aggregated to the focal plane resolution resulting in accurate radiometry even when the RSO is a point source. The sensor model includes optical effects from the imaging system [point spread function (PSF) includes aberrations, obscurations, support structures, defocus], detector effects (CCD blooming, left/right bias, fixed pattern noise, image persistence, shot noise, read noise, and quantization

  6. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  7. Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Michael J. Kuhlman1, Student Member, IEEE, Petr Švec2, Member, IEEE, Krishnanand...Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Culturally Informed Notions of Mobile Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiangang; Tan, Chee-Wee; Bødker, Mads

    2017-01-01

    associated with such applications. To this end, this study endeavours to shed light on how context-aware applications are construed by users. Drawing inspiration from the ‘future workshop’ methodological approach, two focus groups were conducted in Denmark and China to elicit insights into the benefits...

  9. Information Fusion for High Level Situation Assessment and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, we developed algorithms for performing active information fusion to improve both fusion accuracy and efficiency so that decision making and situation assessment can be made in a timely and efficient manner...

  10. A collaborative game to study presence and situational awareness in a physical and an augmented reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    While augmented reality research has grown into a mature field over the last years, the aspects of situational awareness and presence of augmented reality (AR) are still quite open research topics. This paper introduces a collaborative game to explore the different perception of situational

  11. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  12. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  13. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  14. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  15. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  16. Analysis of Pilot Feedback Regarding the Use of State Awareness Technologies During Complex Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emory; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi; Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Etherington, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A flight simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate flight deck systems that (1) predict aircraft energy state and/or autoflight configuration, (2) present the current state and expected future state of automated systems, and/or (3) show the state of flight-critical data systems in use by automated systems and primary flight instruments. Four new technology concepts were evaluated vis-à-vis current state-of-the-art flight deck systems and indicators. This human-in-the-loop study was conducted using commercial airline crews. Scenarios spanned a range of complex conditions and several emulated causal factors and complexity in recent accidents involving loss of state awareness by pilots (e.g. energy state, automation state, and/or system state). Data were collected via questionnaires administered after each flight, audio/video recordings, physiological data, head and eye tracking data, pilot control inputs, and researcher observations. This paper strictly focuses on findings derived from the questionnaire responses. It includes analysis of pilot subjective measures of complexity, decision making, workload, situation awareness, usability, and acceptability.

  17. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  18. VIRTUAL REALITY FOR MANAGEMENT OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DURING GLOBAL MASS GATHERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karsakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a training technology for staff of mass events for development of action skills in large gatherings of people, including crowd dynamic management and actions in extreme situations caused by the panic. The technology is based on the multi-agent model of crowd dynamic with dynamically re-computable navigation fields. We implemented the software system that provides a collaborative and distributed process of training activities in the virtual reality environment. The following characteristics of the developed software system available from experimental studies were analyzed: computational intensity of simulations, scalability of rendering system and reactivity of the final system when rendering computationally intensive scenes. The proposed models and infrastructure for training through collaborative immersion in the virtual reality can improve situational awareness of events staff prior to the event. The developed technology is a unique tool for improving the quality and safety of disposable and unique events involving the broad masses of people, including unfunded by retrospective experience mass gatherings. Developed technology was tested within the Kumbh Mela festival in Ujjain, India.

  19. A System to Provide Real-Time Collaborative Situational Awareness by Web Enabling a Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangadan, Anand; Monacos, Steve; Burleigh, Scott; Joswig, Joseph; James, Mark; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture of both the PATS and SAP systems and how these two systems interoperate with each other forming a unified capability for deploying intelligence in hostile environments with the objective of providing actionable situational awareness of individuals. The SAP system works in concert with the UICDS information sharing middleware to provide data fusion from multiple sources. UICDS can then publish the sensor data using the OGC's Web Mapping Service, Web Feature Service, and Sensor Observation Service standards. The system described in the paper is able to integrate a spatially distributed sensor system, operating without the benefit of the Web infrastructure, with a remote monitoring and control system that is equipped to take advantage of SWE.

  20. Awareness, access and use of information and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the awareness, access and use of information and communication technologies in extension service delivery by ADP extension personnel in Abia State, Nigeria. The study described the socio-economic characteristics of ADP extension personnel in Abia State; ascertained the extent of awareness, ...

  1. Awareness And Use Of Information Communication Technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the access to information and augmenting the process of information exchange, Information Communication Technology (ICT) offers the potential to increase efficiency, productivity, competitiveness and growth in various business and social sectors. The study thus investigated the use of ICTs among cattle ...

  2. The Global Muon Detector Network -GMDN and the space situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Munakata, Kazuoki; Dal Lago, Alisson; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Echer, Ezequiel; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; Rigozo, Nivaor R.; Petry, Adriano; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Ramos Vieira, Lucas; Kemmerich, Níkolas; Kato, Chihiro; Fushishita, Akira; Fujii, Zenjirou; Bieber, John W.; Evenson, Paul; Kuwabara, Takao; Duldig, Marcus L.; Humble, John E.; Chilingarian, Ashot; Sabbah, Ismail; Jansen, Frank

    Space weather forecasting is a very important tool for the space situational awareness to the space objects, the space environment and related threats and risks for manned and non-manned spacecrafts. The global network of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN) can be considered as one example of an important emerging Space Situational Awareness program around the world, since its requirements needs global technical, scientific and logistic collab-oration between several countries in different continents. ICMEs accompanied by a strong shock often forms a high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) depleted region behind the shock known as a Forbush decrease. The ICME arrival also causes a systematic variation in the GCR streaming (i.e. the directional anisotropy of intensity). The magnitude of the streaming is small (about 1 % or less), but its variation is relevant. Some particles from this suppressed density region traveling with about the speed of light leak into the upstream region, much faster than the approaching shock, creating the possibility of being observed at the earth, by a global net-work of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN), as precursory loss-cone anisotropy. Loss-cones are typically visible 4-8 hours ahead of shock arrival for shocks associated with ma-jor geomagnetic storms. A multi-directional muon detector for detection of GCR was installed in 2001, through an international cooperation between Brazil, Japan and USA, and has been in operation since then at the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, (29.4° S, 53.8° W, 480m a.s.l), Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, in southern Brazil. The detector's capability and sensitivity were upgraded in 2005. The observations conducted by this detector are used for forecasting the arrival of the geomagnetic storm and their interplanetary coronal mass ejec-tion (ICME) drivers in the near-earth geospace. The detector measures high-energy GCRs by detecting secondary muons produced from the

  3. The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study is being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. In this part of the experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels. Qualitative (questionnaires) and quantitative (pilot performance and physiological) data were collected during

  4. Unified Lambert Tool for Massively Parallel Applications in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn M.; Read, Julie; Hernandez, Kevin; Probe, Austin; Junkins, John L.

    2018-03-01

    Awareness computer cluster at the LASR Lab, Texas A&M University. We demonstrate the power of our tool by solving a highly parallel example problem, that is the generation of extremal field maps for optimal spacecraft rendezvous (and eventual orbit debris removal). In addition we demonstrate the need for including perturbative effects in simulations for satellite tracking or data association. The unified Lambert tool is ideal for but not limited to space situational awareness applications.

  5. Use of human patient simulation and the situation awareness global assessment technique in practical trauma skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael P; Pace, David E; Hapgood, Joanne; Boone, Darrell C

    2006-11-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is defined as the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. This construct is vital to decision making in intense, dynamic environments. It has been used in aviation as it relates to pilot performance, but has not been applied to medical education. The most widely used objective tool for measuring trainee SA is the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). The purpose of this study was to design and validate SAGAT for assessment of practical trauma skills, and to compare SAGAT results to traditional checklist style scoring. Using the Human Patient Simulator, we designed SAGAT for practical trauma skills assessment based on Advanced Trauma Life Support objectives. Sixteen subjects (four staff surgeons, four senior residents, four junior residents, and four medical students) participated in three scenarios each. They were assessed using SAGAT and traditional checklist assessment. A questionnaire was used to assess possible confounding factors in attaining SA and overall trainee satisfaction. SAGAT was found to show significant difference (analysis of variance; p level of training lending statistical support to construct validity. SAGAT was likewise found to display reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.767), and significant scoring correlation with traditional checklist performance measures (Pearson's coefficient 0.806). The questionnaire revealed no confounding factors and universal satisfaction with the human patient simulator and SAGAT. SAGAT is a valid, reliable assessment tool for trauma trainees in the dynamic clinical environment created by human patient simulation. Information provided by SAGAT could provide specific feedback, direct individualized teaching, and support curriculum change. Introduction of SAGAT could improve the current assessment model for practical trauma education.

  6. ISAP - an information security awareness portal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.Sc. The exponential growth of the Internet contributes to risks and threats which materialize without our knowledge. The more computer and Internet use becomes a part of our daily lives, the more we expose ourselves and our personal information on the World Wide Web and hence, the more opportunities arise for fraudsters to get hold of this information. Internet use can be associated with Internet banking, online shopping, online transactions, Internet Relay Chat, newsgroups, search engin...

  7. Examining the Relationship between Organization Systems and Information Security Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintamusik, Yanarong

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to examine the crucial relationship between organization systems within the framework of the organizational behavior theory and information security awareness (ISA) of users within the framework of the information security theory. Despite advanced security technologies designed to protect information assets,…

  8. Metacognitive monitoring and control in visual change detection: Implications for situation awareness and cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Ken I.; Morris, Adam P.; Best, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP). In Experiment 1, observers failed to detect some changes to the display, indicating imperfect SA, but JOPs were reasonably well calibrated to objective performance. Experiment 2 examined JOLs and JOPs in two task contexts: with study-time limits imposed by the task or with self-pacing to meet specified performance targets. JOPs were well calibrated in both conditions as were JOLs for high performance targets. In summary, observers had limited SA, but good insight about their performance and learning for high performance targets and allocated study time appropriately. PMID:28915244

  9. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  10. Predictive analytics as an essential mechanism for situational awareness at the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The workflow management process should be under the control of the certain service that is able to forecast the processing time dynamically according to the status of the processing environment and workflow itself, and to react immediately on any abnormal behaviour of the execution process. Such situational awareness analytic service would provide the possibility to monitor the execution process, to detect the source of any malfunction, and to optimize the management process. The stated service for the second generation of the ATLAS Production System (ProdSys2, an automated scheduling system) is based on predictive analytics approach to estimate the duration of the data processings (in terms of ProdSys2, it is task and chain of tasks) with later usage in decision making processes. Machine learning ensemble methods are chosen to estimate completion time (i.e., “Time To Complete”, TTC) for every (production) task and chain of tasks, thus “abnormal” task processing times would warn about possible failure...

  11. Measuring Situation Awareness of Operating Team in Different Main Control Room Environments of Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woo Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.

  12. Crew Situation Awareness, Diagnoses, and Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Process Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Kaarstad, Magnhild

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project to identify issues in crew performance in complex simulated nuclear power plant scenarios. Eight crews of operators participated in five scenarios, administered over a two or three-day period. Scenarios required either rule-based or knowledge-based problem solving. Several performance parameters were collected, including Situation Awareness (SA), objective performance, rated crew performance, and crew diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in performance measures in knowledge-based and rule-based scenarios. Preliminary data analysis revealed a significant difference in crew SA between the two scenario types: crews in the rule-based scenarios had significantly higher SA then crews in the knowledge-based scenarios. Further investigations were initiated to determine if crews performed differently, in terms of objective performance, rated crew performance, and diagnoses, between the scenario types. Correlations between the various crew performance measurements were calculated to reveal insights into the nature of SA, performance, and diagnoses. The insights into crew performance can be used to design more effective interfaces and operator performance aids, thus contributing to enhanced crew performance and improved plant safety. (authors)

  13. Perceived learning outcome: the relationship between experience, realism and situation awareness during simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Navigation errors are a frequent cause of serious accidents and work-related injuries among seafarers. The present study investigated the effects of experience, perceived realism, and situation awareness (SA) on the perceived learning outcome of simulator-based navigation training. Thirty-two Norwegian Navy officer cadets were assigned to a low and a high mental workload conditions based on previous educational and navigational experience. In the low mental workload condition, experience (negatively associated), perceived realism, and subjective SA explained almost half of the total variance in perceived learning outcome. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that only subjective SA made a unique contribution to the learning outcome. In the high mental workload condition, perceived realism and subjective SA together explained almost half of the variance in perceived learning outcome. Furthermore, both perceived realism and subjective SA were shown to make an independent contribution to perceived learning outcomes. The results of this study show that in order to enhance the learning outcomes from simulator training it is necessary to design training procedures and scenarios that enable students to achieve functional fidelity and to generate and maintain SA during training. This can further improve safety and reduce the risk of maritime disasters.

  14. Comparison between Simulation-based Training and Lecture-based Education in Teaching Situation Awareness. A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dym, Andrew A; Venegas-Borsellino, Carla; Bangar, Maneesha; Kazzi, Massoud; Lisenenkov, Dmitry; Qadir, Nida; Keene, Adam; Eisen, Lewis Ari

    2017-04-01

    Situation awareness has been defined as the perception of the elements in the environment within volumes of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. Intensivists often make time-sensitive critical decisions, and loss of situation awareness can lead to errors. It has been shown that simulation-based training is superior to lecture-based training for some critical scenarios. Because the methods of training to improve situation awareness have not been well studied in the medical field, we compared the impact of simulation vs. lecture training using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) score. To identify an effective method for teaching situation awareness. We randomly assigned 17 critical care fellows to simulation vs. lecture training. Training consisted of eight cases on airway management, including topics such as elevated intracranial pressure, difficult airway, arrhythmia, and shock. During the testing scenario, at random times between 4 and 6 minutes into the simulation, the scenario was frozen, and the screens were blanked. Respondents then completed the 28 questions on the SAGAT scale. Sample items were categorized as Perception, Projection, and Comprehension of the situation. Results were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Eight fellows from the simulation group and nine from the lecture group underwent simulation testing. Sixty-four SAGAT scores were recorded for the simulation group and 48 scores were recorded for the lecture group. The mean simulation vs. lecture group SAGAT score was 64.3 ± 10.1 (SD) vs. 59.7 ± 10.8 (SD) (P = 0.02). There was also a difference in the median Perception ability between the simulation vs. lecture groups (61.1 vs. 55.5, P = 0.01). There was no difference in the median Projection and Comprehension scores between the two groups (50.0 vs. 50.0, P = 0.92, and 83.3 vs. 83.3, P = 0.27). We found a significant, albeit

  15. Toma de conciencia de las situaciones y competencia deportiva. Situational awareness and sport competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De La Vega Marcos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el contexto de los deportes colectivos, los deportistas tienen que tener la capacidad de juego definida como un don muy complejo que consiste en saber utilizar las capacidades condicionales de coordinación, intelectuales y la habilidad técnica de manera que pueda resolver bien el objetivo de juego (Lorenzo, 2002. Este objetivo se debe plantear teniendo en cuenta el aspecto funcional bajo un enfoque constructivista. La conceptualización de una situación de juego colectivo 3x3 en baloncesto nos otorga la posibilidad de constatar con mayor claridad hasta qué punto los participantes son capaces de tomar conciencia de la acción por medio de la explicación verbal, el control necesario en la acción y la estrategia de actuación. Para ello hemos utilizado la entrevista clinica y el dibujo para describir cómo los jugadores elaboran y memorizan el conocimiento implicado en las acciones motrices (Gréhaigne y Godbout, 1995; Del Valle, 1999; Rychecki, 2001; De la Vega, 2002, ya que los jugadores en todo momento están llevando a cabo procesos cognitivos a la hora de analizar, planificar y evaluar el problema que se les plantea durante el desarrollo del partido o en el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la toma de conciencia explícita sobre la acción está en función del nivel de práctica que poseen los participantes y por otro, que las diferencias existentes entre los grupos no experto y expertos, se han constatado por las disimilitudes halladas entre el número de relaciones que los participantes han sido capaces de establecer entre los distintos elementos que conforman la tarea.AbstractIn the context of sports, player´s competence is defined as a very complex issue. The player needs conditional capacities of coordination, intellectual and the technical skill to solve well the game (Lorenzo, 2002. The functional constructivist rationale can solve this problem. The awareness of a situation of collective

  16. Fuzzy Privacy Decision for Context-Aware Access Personal Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingsheng; QI Yong; ZHAO Jizhong; HOU Di; NIU Yujie

    2007-01-01

    A context-aware privacy protection framework was designed for context-aware services and privacy control methods about access personal information in pervasive environment. In the process of user's privacy decision, it can produce fuzzy privacy decision as the change of personal information sensitivity and personal information receiver trust. The uncertain privacy decision model was proposed about personal information disclosure based on the change of personal information receiver trust and personal information sensitivity. A fuzzy privacy decision information system was designed according to this model. Personal privacy control policies can be extracted from this information system by using rough set theory. It also solves the problem about learning privacy control policies of personal information disclosure.

  17. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. In P. Rooney (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning (pp. 8-9). Dublin, Ireland. Please see

  18. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. Presentation at the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning, Dublin, Ireland. Please see also

  19. An interorganizational IT infrastructure for self-organization in logistics : situation awareness and real-time chain composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.; Punter, L.M.; Bastiaansen, H.J.M.; Cornelisse, E.; Dalmolen, S.; Palaskas, Z.; Karakostas, B.; Gato, J.; Garcia, J.; Herrero, G.; Gonzalez-Rodrigues, M.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges for more sustainable, effective and efficient transport services in global logistics, a new IT-paradigm is needed to harvest the opportunities that capabilities for situation awareness and real-time chain composition provide. The iCargo project provides such an advanced,

  20. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  1. Using corporate governance to enhance 'long-term situation awareness' and assist in the avoidance of organisation-induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of how corporate governance can and should deal with the long-term understanding of systems health-what we may call 'long-term situation awareness' (i.e. which evolves and is coherent over time) for organisational systems (and their component sub systems) in the engineering domain. Many characteristics affect long-term situation awareness-the rate of change to processes, pressures for greater efficiency from existing resources, changes in personnel, cultural changes and changes to the operational environment of the organisational systems. Many disasters (e.g. Chernobyl, Flixborough, Piper Alpha) have a causal path that indicates a loss of group situation awareness, over a long period of time. The problem of the gradual, slow drift over many years towards unsafe conduct of company operations is discussed and examples of possible consequences provided. A 'parable' from the world of manufacturing is used to exemplify the problem. The paper goes on to discuss some ways by which this problem could be addressed and longer-term system situational awareness increased; essentially by good corporate governance, knowledge management and ownership of processes. Links are made to the literature on these topics, and a route map to help organisations to gain the benefits is offered.

  2. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  3. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  4. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  5. Students' access usage and awareness of electronic information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' access usage and awareness of electronic information resources at the University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. RA Ojo, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 3(1) 2005: 16-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  6. Health information dissemination for breast cancer awareness, early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is to explore how information about breast cancer (BC) is disseminated to working class mothers in Lagos State. It is to investigate how information disseminated is used by the respondents to detect early this deadly disease and ascertain if they are aware of any support by organisation and the government.

  7. Optimization of automation: II. Estimation method of ostracism rate based on the loss of situation awareness of human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Man Cheol; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the relationship between Out-of-the-Loop and the loss of human operators’ situation awareness. • We propose an ostracism rate estimation method by only considering the negative effects of automation. • The ostracism rate reflects how much automation interrupts human operators to receive information. • The higher the ostracism rate is, the lower the accuracy of human operators’ SA will be. - Abstract: With the introduction of automation in various industries including the nuclear field, its side effect, referred to as the Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL) problem, has emerged as a critical issue that needs to be addressed. Many studies have been attempted to analyze and solve the OOTL problem, but this issue still needs a clear solution to provide criteria for introducing automation. Therefore, a quantitative estimation method for identifying negative effects of automation is proposed in this paper. The representative aspect of the OOTL problem in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that human operators in automated operations are given less information than human operators in manual operations. In other words, human operators have less opportunity to obtain needed information as automation is introduced. From this point of view, the degree of difficulty in obtaining information from automated systems is defined as the Level of Ostracism (LOO). Using the LOO and information theory, we propose the ostracism rate, which is a new estimation method that expresses how much automation interrupts human operators’ situation awareness. We applied production rules to describe the human operators’ thinking processes, Bayesian inference to describe the production rules mathematically, and information theory to calculate the amount of information that human operators receive through observations. The validity of the suggested method was proven by conducting an experiment. The results show that the ostracism rate was significantly related to the accuracy

  8. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  9. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  10. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems

  11. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  12. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  13. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study investigates procedure types’ effects on operators’ performance. ► The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. ► The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. ► And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. ► The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users’ mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower “field of view” provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the status and progress through the procedure. Based on a human factors experiment in which each participant monitored and controlled multiple simulated

  14. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih-Wei, E-mail: yangcw@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigates procedure types' effects on operators' performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users' mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower 'field of view' provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the

  15. Agent Services for Situation Aware Control of Power Systems With Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Electric Power system of Denmark exhibits some unique characteristics. An increasing part of the electricity is produced by distributed generators (DGs). Most of these DGs are connected to the network at the distribution level. At the same time the concept of vehicle to grid (V2G) is already...... in the process of realization. This situation has created an incentive in electric power industry to utilize modern information and communication technologies (ICT) for improving the distribution system automation. This paper describes our work on how significantly increased amount of distributed generation...... services. We present results from several experiments where agents offer and utilize services in order to achieve distributed and autonomous control for subgrid operation of a distribution system. Finally it is discussed how the service oriented architecture can be combined with knowledge based reasoning...

  16. Music in Informal and formal learning situations in ECEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sæther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007. The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002. The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of  Riessman (2008 and Polkinghorne (1995.

  17. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  18. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  19. WENESSA, Wide Eye-Narrow Eye Space Simulation fo Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarait, O.; Payne, D. M.; LeVan, P. D.; Luu, K. K.; Spillar, E.; Freiwald, W.; Hamada, K.; Houchard, J.

    In an effort to achieve timelier indications of anomalous object behaviors in geosynchronous earth orbit, a Planning Capability Concept (PCC) for a “Wide Eye-Narrow Eye” (WE-NE) telescope network has been established. The PCC addresses the problem of providing continuous and operationally robust, layered and cost-effective, Space Situational Awareness (SSA) that is focused on monitoring deep space for anomalous behaviors. It does this by first detecting the anomalies with wide field of regard systems, and then providing reliable handovers for detailed observational follow-up by another optical asset. WENESSA will explore the added value of such a system to the existing Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The study will assess and quantify the degree to which the PCC completely fulfills, or improves or augments, these deep space knowledge deficiencies relative to current operational systems. In order to improve organic simulation capabilities, we will explore options for the federation of diverse community simulation approaches, while evaluating the efficiencies offered by a network of small and larger aperture, ground-based telescopes. Existing Space Modeling and Simulation (M&S) tools designed for evaluating WENESSA-like problems will be taken into consideration as we proceed in defining and developing the tools needed to perform this study, leading to the creation of a unified Space M&S environment for the rapid assessment of new capabilities. The primary goal of this effort is to perform a utility assessment of the WE-NE concept. The assessment will explore the mission utility of various WE-NE concepts in discovering deep space anomalies in concert with the SSN. The secondary goal is to generate an enduring modeling and simulation environment to explore the utility of future proposed concepts and supporting technologies. Ultimately, our validated simulation framework would support the inclusion of other ground- and space-based SSA assets through integrated

  20. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  1. Autonomous Preference-Aware Information Services Integration for High Response in Integrated Faded Information Field Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.

  2. Expected information needs of parents for pervasive awareness systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, V.J.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Schiele, B.; Dey, A.K.; Gellersen, H.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Aarts, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the communication needs of busy parents that can be served by awareness systems: systems supporting a continuous and semi-automated flow of information about the activities of communicating individuals. We report an online survey involving 69 participants. This survey focused on

  3. Awareness and Use of Nutrition Information on Labels of Packaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The awareness and use of nutrition information on labels of packaged food snacks by commuters on Aba Road – Port Harcourt was investigated. Methodology: Purposive sampling was used to select two (2) heavy traffic zones among others from the road. Simple random sampling was used to select 200 ...

  4. Process-aware information systems for emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoni, de M.; Marrella, A.; Russo, A.; Cezon, M.; Wolfsthal, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, Process-aware Information Systems (PAISs) are widely used in many business scenarios, e.g., by government agencies, by insurance companies, and by banks. Despite this widespread usage, the typical application of such systems is predominantly in the context of business scenarios.

  5. Information Sources and Awareness of Climate Change by Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    to their production. The study therefore examines the various sources of information available to farmers on climate change and their level of awareness. .... Source of Financial Capital. Bank loan. 8.1. Coop loan. 21.1. Self financed. 60.2. Mode=Self financed. Friends and Relations. 10.5. Source: Field survey, 2011.

  6. Assessment for Operator Confidence in Automated Space Situational Awareness and Satellite Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, J.; Voshell, M.; Sliva, A.

    2016-09-01

    The United States is highly dependent on space resources to support military, government, commercial, and research activities. Satellites operate at great distances, observation capacity is limited, and operator actions and observations can be significantly delayed. Safe operations require support systems that provide situational understanding, enhance decision making, and facilitate collaboration between human operators and system automation both in-the-loop, and on-the-loop. Joint cognitive systems engineering (JCSE) provides a rich set of methods for analyzing and informing the design of complex systems that include both human decision-makers and autonomous elements as coordinating teammates. While, JCSE-based systems can enhance a system analysts' understanding of both existing and new system processes, JCSE activities typically occur outside of traditional systems engineering (SE) methods, providing sparse guidance about how systems should be implemented. In contrast, the Joint Director's Laboratory (JDL) information fusion model and extensions, such as the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture, provide the means to divide and conquer such engineering and implementation complexity, but are loosely coupled to specialized organizational contexts and needs. We previously describe how Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) extend the DNN to integrate JCSE analysis and design with the practicalities of system engineering and implementation using the DNN. Insights from Rasmussen's JCSE Decision Ladders align system implementation with organizational structures and processes. In the current work, we present a novel approach to assessing system performance based on patterns occurring in operational decisions that are documented by JCSE processes as traces in a decision ladder. In this way, system assessment is closely tied not just to system design, but the design of the joint cognitive system that includes human operators, decision-makers, information systems, and

  7. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Han, Tianlin; Dai, Xingyun

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people's awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people's awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people's cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  8. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people’s awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people’s awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people’s cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  9. Emergent situation awareness of drivable routes for autonomous robots using temporal probalistic reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available of hidden paths embedded in the complex environments. Experimental evaluations of the ESA on real life and publicly available road frames outperform the classical statistical baseline methods in handling uncertainties over time. Our awareness results reveal...

  10. The influence of situation awareness training on nurses' confidence about patient safety skills: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Norman; Gluyas, Heather; Andrus, Prue; Williams, Anne; Hopkins, Martin; Walters, Jennifer; Sandy, Martinique; Morrison, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Several studies report that patient safety skills, especially non-technical skills, receive scant attention in nursing curricula. Hence, there is a compelling reason to incorporate material that enhances non-technical skills, such as situation awareness, in nursing curricula in order to assist in the reduction of healthcare related adverse events. The objectives of this study were to: 1) understand final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills; and 2) examine the impact of situation awareness training on final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample comprising final year nursing students at a Western Australia university. Self-reported confidence in patient safety skills was assessed with the Health Professional in Patient Safety Survey before and after the delivery of a situation awareness educational intervention. Pre/post educational intervention differences were examined by repeated measures ANOVA. No significant differences in confidence about patient safety skills were identified within settings (class/clinical). However, confidence in patient safety skills significantly decreased between settings i.e. nursing students lost confidence after clinical placements. The educational intervention delivered in this study did not seem to improve confidence in patient safety skills, but substantial ceiling effects may have confounded the identification of such improvement. Further studies are required to establish whether the findings of this study can be generalised to other university nursing cohorts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Information Richness on Information Security Awareness Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R. S.; Chen, Charlie C.; Harris, Albert L.; Huang, Hui-Jou

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress in the use of the internet has resulted in huge losses in many organizations due to lax security. As a result, information security awareness is becoming an important issue to anyone using the Internet. To reduce losses, organizations have made information security awareness a top priority. The three main barriers…

  12. Gaze-informed, task-situated representation of space in primate hippocampus during virtual navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Sylvia; Baraduc, Pierre; Planté, Aurélie; Pinède, Serge; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate how gaze informs the construction of mental space during wayfinding in visual species like primates, we jointly examined navigation behavior, visual exploration, and hippocampal activity as macaque monkeys searched a virtual reality maze for a reward. Cells sensitive to place also responded to one or more variables like head direction, point of gaze, or task context. Many cells fired at the sight (and in anticipation) of a single landmark in a viewpoint- or task-dependent manner, simultaneously encoding the animal’s logical situation within a set of actions leading to the goal. Overall, hippocampal activity was best fit by a fine-grained state space comprising current position, view, and action contexts. Our findings indicate that counterparts of rodent place cells in primates embody multidimensional, task-situated knowledge pertaining to the target of gaze, therein supporting self-awareness in the construction of space. PMID:28241007

  13. Information Security Service Branding – beyond information security awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Rastogi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available End-users play a critical role in the effective implementation and running of an information security program in any organization. The success of such a program depends primarily on the effective implementation and execution of associated information security policies and controls and the resultant behavior and actions of end-users. However, end-users often have negative perception of information security in the organization and exhibit non-compliance. In order to improve compliance levels, it is vital to improve the image of information security in the minds of end-users. This paper borrows the concepts of brands and branding from the domain of marketing to achieve this objective and applies these concepts to information security. The paper also describes a process for creating the information security service brand in the organization.

  14. Information-theoretic decomposition of embodied and situated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rold, Federico

    2018-07-01

    The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system. Specifically, the mutual information is utilized to quantify the degree of dependence and the transfer entropy to detect the direction of the information flow. Furthermore, the system is analyzed with the local form of such measures, thus capturing the underlying dynamics of information. Results show that different measures are interdependent and complementary in uncovering aspects of the robots' interaction with the environment, as well as characteristics of the functional neural structure. Therefore, the set of information-theoretic measures provides a decomposition of the system, capturing the intricacy of nonlinear relationships that characterize robots' behavior and neural dynamics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chinese Students' Awareness of Relationship between Green Finance, Environmental Protection Education and Real Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…

  16. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  17. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia A. Wackowski; Michelle T. Bover Manderski; Cristine D. Delnevo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  18. A Framework for Achieving Situational Awareness during Crisis based on Twitter Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrea; Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Middleton, Stuart; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Decision Support Systems for Natural Crisis Management increasingly employ Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies for future collaborative decision making, including the use of social networks like Twitter. However, human sensor data is not readily accessible and interpretable, since the texts are unstructured, noisy and available in various languages. The present work focusses on the detection of crisis events in a multilingual setting as part of the FP7-funded EU project TRIDEC and is motivated by the goal to establish a Tsunami warning system for the Mediterranean. It is integrated into a dynamic spatial-temporal decision making component with a command and control unit's graphical user interface that presents all relevant information to the human operator to support critical decision-support. To this end, a tool for the interactive visualization of geospatial data is implemented: All tweets with an exact timestamp or geo-location are monitored on the map in real-time so that the operator on duty can get an overall picture of the situation. Apart from the human sensor data, the seismic sensor data will appear also on the same screen. Signs of abnormal activity from twitter usage in social networks as well as in sensor networks devices can then be used to trigger official warning alerts according to the CAP message standard. Whenever a certain threshold of relevant tweets in a HASC region (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Code) is exceeded, the twitter activity in this administrative region will be shown on a map. We believe that the following functionalities are crucial for monitoring crisis, making use of text mining and network analysis techniques: Focussed crawling, trustworthyness analysis geo-parsing, and multilingual tweet classification. In the first step, the Twitter Streaming API accesses the social data, using an adaptive keyword list (focussed crawling). Then, tweets are filtered and aggregated to form counts for a certain time-span (e.g., an interval of

  19. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  20. Multidisciplinary Cooperation in Crisis Management Teams: a Tool to Improve Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, L. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Theunissen, N.; Rijk, R. van; Huis in 't Veld, M.

    2011-01-01

    When a crisis occurs, people from different organizations, on different hierarchical levels have to deal with unexpected situations that require coordinated effort. The goal of this research is to improve multidisciplinary cooperation for crisis management teams. We developed a tool, the Multi-mono

  1. Use of Mobile Video to Enhance Situational Awareness in HA/DR Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    challenges . Although many definitions have been proposed so far, Mica R. Endsley describes “situational awareness” as: [T]he perception of the...Player, QuickTime, Flash Player, VLC Media Player, HTML 5 Video and DivX Web Player. This feature helps overcome a usual handicap that developers

  2. Development of the Huddle Observation Tool for structured case management discussions to improve situation awareness on inpatient clinical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Hayes, Jacqueline; Sharples, Evelyn; Gondek, Dawid; Stapley, Emily; Sevdalis, Nick; Lachman, Peter; Deighton, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    'Situation Awareness For Everyone' (SAFE) was a 3-year project which aimed to improve situation awareness in clinical teams in order to detect potential deterioration and other potential risks to children on hospital wards. The key intervention was the 'huddle', a structured case management discussion which is central to facilitating situation awareness. This study aimed to develop an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. A cross-sectional observational design was used to psychometrically develop the 'Huddle Observation Tool' (HOT) over three phases using standardised psychometric methodology. Huddles were observed across four NHS paediatric wards participating in SAFE by five researchers; two wards within specialist children hospitals and two within district general hospitals, with location, number of beds and length of stay considered to make the sample as heterogeneous as possible. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient. Inter - rater reliability was acceptable for the collaborative culture (weighted kappa=0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.42), environment items (weighted kappa=0.78, 95% CI 0.52 to 1) and total score (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95). It was lower for the structure and risk management items, suggesting that these were more variable in how observers rated them. However, agreement on the global score for huddles was acceptable. We developed an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. Future research should examine whether observational evaluations of huddles are associated with other indicators of safety on clinical wards (eg, safety climate and incidents of patient harm), and whether scores on the HOT are associated with improved situation awareness and reductions in deterioration and adverse

  3. Radio Communications and Situation Awareness of Infantry Squads during Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christ, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Important moderating factors for these results were differences found for downward and upward-directed communications and conflicting requirements for processing information under conditions of information overload...

  4. Information Security – Guidance for Manually Completing the Information Security Awareness Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this guidance is to provide an alternative manual process for disseminating EPA Information Security Awareness Training (ISAT) materials and collecting results from EPA users who elect to complete the ISAT manually.

  5. Psycho-Cultural Analysis of Disaster Risk Attitudes in Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Ignore information - Seek information .595 B2 Warn people - Remain silent .741 B1 Attend warnings - Ignore warning .719...Trust warning siren .714 B5 Ignore information - Seek information .697 B1 Attend warnings - Ignore warning .638...Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. Rugby , UK: Practical Action Publishing, ISBN 978-1-85339-786-8. UNISDR (2009). Terminology on Disaster Risk

  6. Emergent future situation awareness: a temporal probabilistic reasoning in the absence of domain experts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ). The treatment records from the behavior of a diabetes patient were captured electronically as MTS. It contains several treatment measurement codes such as 33 (regular insulin dose), 48 (unspecified blood glucose), etc. It is expected here to predict treatment... measurements required in future for the patient based on the historical behavioral patterns. For instance, equation (6) below is a situation which predicts how much of the minimum (about 7 units) measurement of regular insulin dose will be required...

  7. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to "common sense" (76.4%), the news (39.2%) and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, though almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.

  8. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  9. Situational Awareness: Deadly Bioconvergence at the Boundaries of Bodies and Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Suchman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay sets out an initial analytic framing for research in progress on the problem of ‘situational awareness’ within contemporary forms of (particularly U.S. warfare. My focus more specifically is on the logics, rhetorics and material practices of remotely-controlled weapon systems (particularly armed drones and weaponized robots. Drawing from reports in investigative journalism, military documents, and critical scholarship, I examine connections between the emphasis in military and security discourses on keeping ‘our’ bodies safe through so called network-centric warfare, and the project of cutting the networks that might bring our wars too close to home.

  10. The importance of shared mental models and shared situation awareness for transforming robots from tools to teammates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.

  11. Use of Highways in the Sky and a virtual pad for landing Head Up Display symbology to enable improved helicopter pilots situation awareness and workload in degraded visual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Allison, Craig K

    2017-12-15

    Flight within degraded visual conditions is a great challenge to pilots of rotary-wing craft. Environmental cues typically used to guide interpretation of speed, location and approach can become obscured, forcing the pilots to rely on data available from in-cockpit instrumentation. To ease the task of flight during degraded visual conditions, pilots require easy access to flight critical information. The current study examined the effect of 'Highways in the Sky' symbology and a conformal virtual pad for landing presented using a Head Up Display (HUD) on pilots' workload and situation awareness for both clear and degraded conditions across a series of simulated rotary-wing approach and landings. Results suggest that access to the HUD lead to significant improvements to pilots' situation awareness, especially within degraded visual conditions. Importantly, access to the HUD facilitated pilot awareness in all conditions. Results are discussed in terms of future HUD development. Practitioner Summary: This paper explores the use of a novel Heads Up Display, to facilitate rotary-wing pilots' situation awareness and workload for simulated flights in both clear and degraded visual conditions. Results suggest that access to HUD facilitated pilots' situation awareness, especially when flying in degraded conditions.

  12. [Analysis of the current situation the oral medical interns' awareness on occupation safety behavior in college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Song; Yu, Wang; Rongrong, He; Ying, Xu

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine the awareness oral medical interns about occupation safety protection of knowledge and to present a scientific basis for perfecting the occupation safety education system and standard protection behavior. A self-designed questionnaire that used a retrospective questionnaire survey on 425 stomatological interns, scoring, and statistical analysis of the survey were performed. The questionnaire included occupation safety prevention knowledge, behavior cognitive, and protective behavior, among others. The questionnaire recovery rate was 100%, and the average scores of the prevention knowledge and behavior cognitive were 4.55 ± 0.91 and 4.40 ± 1.05, respectively. More than 90% interns can conduct the conventional protection, and less than 40% can perform special protection. For the item "occupation safety protection knowledge", the scores of three grade III hospitals were higher than that of stomatological hospitals and second level of first-class hospitals; the difference was statistically significant (P safety protection knowledge, behavioral cognitive, and protection behavior. The average score was higher for than for boys in the three contents, and the average score of interns accepting pre-job training was higher than those rejected; the difference was statistically significant (P safety knowledge of oral medical interns is not sufficient, and the protective behavior is poor. Schools and hospitals should strengthen the intern occupation safety and protection education and improve the status of occupation safety behavior.

  13. Closed-loop approach for situation awareness of medical devices and operating room infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Max

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, approaches for information and control integration in the digital operating room have emerged. A major step towards an intelligent operating room and a cooperative technical environment would be autonomous adaptation of medical devices and systems to the surgical workflow. The OR staff should be freed from information seeking and maintenance tasks. We propose a closed-loop concept integrating workflow monitoring, processing and (semi-automatic interaction to bridge the gap between OR integration of medical devices and workflow-related information management.

  14. Medical Situational Awareness in Theater Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Project Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garland, Frank C; Embrey, Ellen; DeNicola, Anthony; Martinez-Lopez, Lester

    2004-01-01

    ...). Current information systems are not well integrated and do not provide optimal trend analysis or alerts that identify health and readiness risks that can be rapidly used by Combatant Commanders...

  15. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  16. Effects of mobile map orientation and tactile feedback on navigation speed and situation awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    doi:10.1145/1409240.1409249; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Brake, G.M. te; Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile information systems aid first responders in their tasks. Support is often based on mobile maps. People have different preferences for map orientations (heading-up or north-up), but map orientations also have different advantages and disadvantages. In general north-up maps are good for

  17. Enriching Adaptation in E-Learning Systems through a Situation-Aware Ontology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, Ana Marilza; Diaz, Alicia; Motz, Regina; de Oliveira, Jose Palazzo Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The broader adoption of the internet along with web-based systems has defined a new way of exchanging information. That advance added by the multiplication of mobile devices has required systems to be even more flexible and personalized. Maybe because of that, the traditional teaching-controlled learning style has given up space to a new…

  18. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  19. A Simulation-based Approach to Measuring Team Situational Awareness in Emergency Medicine: A Multicenter, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Dixon, Aurora J; Webb, Jessica M; Brolliar, Sarah; Golden, Simon J; Jones, Kerin A; Shah, Sachita; Grand, James A; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2018-02-01

    Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA, but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine (EM) teams. We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement. Interprofessional emergency medical teams, consisting of EM resident physicians, nurses, and medical students, were recruited from the University of Washington (Seattle, WA) and Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). Each team completed a simulated emergency resuscitation scenario. Immediately following the simulation, team members completed a TSA measure, a team perception of shared understanding measure, and a team leader effectiveness measure. Subject matter expert reviews and pilot testing of the TSA measure provided evidence of content and response process validity. Simulations were recorded and independently coded for team performance using a previously validated measure. The relationships between the TSA measure and other variables (team clinical performance, team perception of shared understanding, team leader effectiveness, and team experience) were explored. The TSA agreement metric was indexed by averaging the pairwise agreement for each dyad on a team and then averaging across dyads to yield agreement at the team level. For the team perception of shared understanding and team leadership effectiveness measures, individual team member scores were aggregated within a team to create a single team score. We computed descriptive statistics for all outcomes. We calculated Pearson's product-moment correlations to determine bivariate correlations between outcome variables with two-tailed significance testing (p teams (n = 41

  20. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  1. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  2. Using temporal information to construct, update, and retrieve situation models of narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Hähnel, A.; Becker, G.

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments explored how readers use temporal information to construct and update situation models and retrieve them from memory. In Experiment 1, readers spontaneously constructed temporal and spatial situation models of single sentences. In Experiment 2, temporal inconsistencies caused

  3. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  4. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Keun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Bayesian methodology has been used widely used in various research fields. It is method of inference using Bayes' rule to update the estimation of probability for the certain hypothesis when additional evidences are acquired. According to the current researches, malfunction of nuclear power plant can be detected by using this Bayesian inference which consistently piles up the newly incoming data and updates its estimation. However, those researches are based on the assumption that people are doing like computer perfectly, which can be criticized and may cause a problem in real world application. Studies in cognitive psychology indicates that when the amount of information becomes larger, people can't save the whole data because people have limited memory capacity which is well known as working memory, and also they have attention problem. The purpose of this paper is to consider the psychological factors and confirm how much this working memory and attention will affect the resulted estimation based on the Bayesian inference. To confirm this, experiment on human is needed, and the tool of experiment is Compact Nuclear Simulator (CNS)

  5. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Keun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian methodology has been used widely used in various research fields. It is method of inference using Bayes' rule to update the estimation of probability for the certain hypothesis when additional evidences are acquired. According to the current researches, malfunction of nuclear power plant can be detected by using this Bayesian inference which consistently piles up the newly incoming data and updates its estimation. However, those researches are based on the assumption that people are doing like computer perfectly, which can be criticized and may cause a problem in real world application. Studies in cognitive psychology indicates that when the amount of information becomes larger, people can't save the whole data because people have limited memory capacity which is well known as working memory, and also they have attention problem. The purpose of this paper is to consider the psychological factors and confirm how much this working memory and attention will affect the resulted estimation based on the Bayesian inference. To confirm this, experiment on human is needed, and the tool of experiment is Compact Nuclear Simulator (CNS)

  6. Forecasted Flood Depth Grids Providing Early Situational Awareness to FEMA during the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Longenecker, H. E., III

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 hurricane season brought the unprecedented landfall of three Category 4 hurricanes (Harvey, Irma and Maria). FEMA is responsible for coordinating the federal response and recovery efforts for large disasters such as these. FEMA depends on timely and accurate depth grids to estimate hazard exposure, model damage assessments, plan flight paths for imagery acquisition, and prioritize response efforts. In order to produce riverine or coastal depth grids based on observed flooding, the methodology requires peak crest water levels at stream gauges, tide gauges, high water marks, and best-available elevation data. Because peak crest data isn't available until the apex of a flooding event and high water marks may take up to several weeks for field teams to collect for a large-scale flooding event, final observed depth grids are not available to FEMA until several days after a flood has begun to subside. Within the last decade NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) has implemented the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS), a web-based suite of accurate forecast products that provide hydrograph forecasts at over 3,500 stream gauge locations across the United States. These forecasts have been newly implemented into an automated depth grid script tool, using predicted instead of observed water levels, allowing FEMA access to flood hazard information up to 3 days prior to a flooding event. Water depths are calculated from the AHPS predicted flood stages and are interpolated at 100m spacing along NHD hydrolines within the basin of interest. A water surface elevation raster is generated from these water depths using an Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation. Then, elevation (USGS NED 30m) is subtracted from the water surface elevation raster so that the remaining values represent the depth of predicted flooding above the ground surface. This automated process requires minimal user input and produced forecasted depth grids that were comparable to post

  7. 5 CFR 930.301 - Information systems security awareness training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information systems security awareness... (MISCELLANEOUS) Information Security Responsibilities for Employees who Manage or Use Federal Information Systems § 930.301 Information systems security awareness training program. Each Executive Agency must develop a...

  8. Situation Awareness Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    IntroductIon Pilots , automobile drivers, power plant workers, and supervisory control operators are required to allocate attention to multiple objects...restoring SA after SA has been reduced. A reduc- tion in SA can be caused by a loss of attention, interruptions, multitasking , operator overload, and so...the UAV to a different target, or the operator could add waypoints to the UAV’s trajectory, which effectively allowed the opera- tor to pilot the

  9. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The expert mind has its value: for example, Pasteur argued that “in the fields of observation chance favours only the prepared mind” 1. Garrett...and listen intently. Avoid lumping details together or attempting to normalize an unexpected event in order to preserve a preconceived expectation

  10. Public awareness - calendar with information about emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2009-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  11. Public awareness - calendar with information about emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S; Novosel, N [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  12. Public Awareness - Calendar with Information about Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2008-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  13. Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-Based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary...terms of specialized Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) elements to estimate the state of resident space objects in the geostationary regime. Justification...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0114 TR-2016-0114 SPECIALIZED FINITE SET STATISTICS (FISST)- BASED ESTIMATION METHODS TO ENHANCE SPACE SITUATIONAL

  14. The implementation of the situational control concept of information security in automated training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to ensuring security of information in the automated training systems are considered, need of application of situational management of security of information for the automated training systems is proved, the mathematical model and a problem definition of situational control is offered, the technique of situational control of security of information is developed.The purpose of the study. The aim of the study is to base the application of situational control of information security by subsystem of the control and protection of information in automated learning systems and to develop implementation methods of the situational control concept.Materials and methods. It is assumed that the automated learning system is a fragment of a larger information system that contains several information paths, each of them treats different information in the protection degree from information, containing constituting state secrets, to open access information.It is considered that the technical methods, measures and means of information protection in automated learning systems implement less than half (30% functions of subsystems of control and protection information. The main part of the functions of this subsystem are organizational measures to protect information. It is obvious that the task of ensuring the security of information in automated learning systems associated with the adoption of decisions on rational selection and proper combination of technical methods and institutional arrangements. Conditions of practical application of automated learning systems change over time and transform the situation of such a decision, and this leads to the use of situational control methods.When situational control is implementing, task of the protection of information in automated learning system is solved by the subsystem control and protection of information by distributing the processes ensuring the security of information and resources of

  15. A qualitative study examining the influences on situation awareness and the identification, mitigation and escalation of recognised patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick W; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    Situation awareness (SA)-the perception of data elements, comprehension of their meaning and projection of their status in the near future-has been associated with human performance in high-risk environments, including aviation and the operating room. The influences on SA in inpatient medicine are unknown. We conducted seven focus groups with nurses, respiratory therapists and resident physicians using a standardised semistructured focus group guide to promote discussion. Recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were qualitatively analysed by two independent reviewers to identify convergent and divergent themes. Three themes emerged: (1) team-based care, (2) availability of standardised data and (3) standardised processes and procedures. We categorised these into social, technological and organisational influences on SA. Subthemes that emerged from each focus group were shared language to describe at-risk patients, provider experience in critical care/deterioration and interdisciplinary huddles to identify and plan for at-risk patients. An objective early warning score, proactive assessment and planning, adequate clinician staffing and tools for entering, displaying and monitoring data trends were identified by six of seven groups. Our data better reflected the concepts of team SA and shared SA than individual SA. Team-based care and standardisation support SA and the identification and treatment of patient risk in the complex environment of inpatient care. These findings can be used to guide the development and implementation of targeted interventions such as huddles to proactively scan for risk and electronic health record displays of data trends.

  16. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  17. Online maritime health information: an overview of the situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Matthieu J

    2015-01-01

    Due to their working conditions, seafarers often don't benefit from the same medical coverage than the onshore population. Therefore, seafarers and their relatives often need to locate health information by themselves. While the rise of the Internet has drastically transformed the way people can gather information, the availability of specific maritime health information online still need to be evaluated scientifically. We aim here to document of the characteristic of maritime health-related online information. A web survey was performed, articulated on two complementary analyses. First, an overall analysis of websites related to maritime health compared to websites related to two other health areas relevant for the general population (dental health and otorhinolaryngology) used as control. Second, an analysis of the understandability and actionability of a series of Wikipedia articles related to pathologies relevant for seafarers using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Online resources associated with maritime health were sparse and difficult to locate. When compared to other medical fields, maritime health websites were extremely poor in displaying useful information for seafarers. Available online resources regarding specific diseases affecting seafarers were mainly not adapted for a general audience and scored poorly both in terms of understandability and of actionability. This study provides a general overview of the degree of adaption of online material related to maritime health to seafarers' potential needs. Considerably more efforts need to be made in order to provide controlled online materials to answer the health information needs of the seafarers and their relatives.

  18. Data retrieval systems and models of information situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1984-01-01

    Demands placed on data retrieval systems and their basic parameters are given. According to the stage of development of data collection and processing, data retrieval systems may be divided into systems for the simple recording and provision of data, systems for recording and providing data with integrated statistical functions, and logical information systems. The structure is characterized of the said information systems as are methods of processing and representation of facts. The notion is defined of ''artificial intelligence'' in the development of logical information systems. The structure of representing knowledge in diverse forms of the model is decisive in logical information systems related to nuclear research. The main model elements are the characteristics of data, forms of representation and program. In dependence on the structure of data, the structure of the preparatory and transformation algorithms and on the aim of the system it is possible to classify data retrieval systems related to nuclear research and technology into five logical information models: linear, identification, advisory, theory-experiment models and problem solving models. The characteristics are given of the said models and examples of data retrieval systems for the individual models. (E.S.)

  19. Ultrascalable Techniques Applied to the Global Intelligence Community Information Awareness Common Operating Picture (IA COP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdes, Alfonso; Kadte, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop detection, correlation, and representation approaches to address the needs of the Intelligence Community Information Awareness Common Operating Picture (IA COP...

  20. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  1. Swedish approach to information needs in severe accident situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, E. (ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Karnik, P. (ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-07-01

    In Sweden, systems for mitigating severe accidents have been installed at all plants and procedures have been implemented for accident management. This work has included the assessment of needs of information and the survivability of existing instrumentation during the various phases of an accident scenario. The approach has been pragmatic and based on existing knowledge of accident phenomenology and MAAP code calculations together with plant staff experience of detailed plant design and installation. During the early phases of accidents, which is defined to remain up to maximum fuel temperatures in the order of 800 C, the ordinary instrumentation is to a great extent useful. The reactor vessel level measurement is however identified to be weak in BWRs as soon as the core is partly uncovered. This has lead to the development of a Core Cooling Monitor. In later phases of accident scenarios, the general basis has been that no intrumentation inside the containment can survive. It has been analysed what information is strictly needed. It has been found that detailed information of the status inside the pressure vessel is of little importance after vessel penetration. Certain important information needs have been identified, that was not safely accessible from existing instrumentation. This had lead to complementary installations, using instruments inserted into the containment through protected guide tubes. Also for sampling of gas and water complementary installations have been made. (orig.)

  2. Swedish approach to information needs in severe accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.; Karnik, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Sweden, systems for mitigating severe accidents have been installed at all plants and procedures have been implemented for accident management. This work has included the assessment of needs of information and the survivability of existing instrumentation during the various phases of an accident scenario. The approach has been pragmatic and based on existing knowledge of accident phenomenology and MAAP code calculations together with plant staff experience of detailed plant design and installation. During the early phases of accidents, which is defined to remain up to maximum fuel temperatures in the order of 800 C, the ordinary instrumentation is to a great extent useful. The reactor vessel level measurement is however identified to be weak in BWRs as soon as the core is partly uncovered. This has lead to the development of a Core Cooling Monitor. In later phases of accident scenarios, the general basis has been that no intrumentation inside the containment can survive. It has been analysed what information is strictly needed. It has been found that detailed information of the status inside the pressure vessel is of little importance after vessel penetration. Certain important information needs have been identified, that was not safely accessible from existing instrumentation. This had lead to complementary installations, using instruments inserted into the containment through protected guide tubes. Also for sampling of gas and water complementary installations have been made. (orig.)

  3. A study of the use of simulated work task situations in interactive information retrieval evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether....... The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study. Keywords Interactive information retrieval study, IIR study, Test design, Simulated work task situations, Meta-evaluation...... situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information...

  4. Informing physicians using a situated decision support system: Disease management for the smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat George Saade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We are in the midst of a healthcare paradigm shift driven by the wide adoption of ubiquitous computing and various modes of information communications technologies. As a result, cities worldwide are undergoing a major process of urbanization with ever increasing wealth of sensing capabilities – hence the Internet of Things (IoT. These trends impose great pressure on how healthcare is done. This paper describes the design and implementation of a situated clinical decision support (SCDSS system, most appropriate for smart cities. The SCDSS was prototyped and enhanced in a clinic. The SCDSS was then used in a clinic as well as in a university hospital centre. In this article, the system’s architecture, subcomponents and integrated workflow are described. The systems’ design was the result of a knowledge acquisition process involving interviews with five specialists and testing with 50 patients. The reports (specialist consultation report generated by the SCDSS were shown to general practitioners who were not able to distinguish them from human specialist reports. We propose a context-aware CDSS and assess its effectiveness in managing a wide medical range of patients. Five different patient cases were identified for analysis. The SCDSS was used to produce draft electronic specialist consultations, which were then compared to the original specialists’ consultations. It was found that the SCDSS-generated consults were of better quality for a number of reasons discussed herein. SCDSSs have great promise for their use in the clinical environment of smart cities. Valuable insights into the integration and use of situated clinical decision support systems are highlighted and suggestions for future research are given.

  5. A Method to Measure the Amount of Battlefield Situation Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    log)( 20 atS  3.2 Measurement of trends information Kierkegaard once said “Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards” [8...Towards a theory of s 10 11 , “The Journals of Soren Kierkegaard ”, A selection and translated by Alexander chun, “Formal Description of Command...and 37(2), pp32-64, 1995. [8] Kierkegaard , Soren – Dru , Oxford: Oxford University Press (1938). pp465 [9] ZHOU Dao-an, ZHANG Dong-ge, CHANG Shu

  6. Information search with situation-specific reward functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Meder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available can strongly conflict with the goal of obtaining information for improving payoffs. Two environments with such a conflict were identified through computer optimization. Three subsequent experiments investigated people's search behavior in these environments. Experiments 1 and 2 used a multiple-cue probabilistic category-learning task to convey environmental probabilities. In a subsequent search task subjects could query only a single feature before making a classification decision. The crucial manipulation concerned the search-task reward structure. The payoffs corresponded either to accuracy, with equal rewards associated with the two categories, or to an asymmetric payoff function, with different rewards associated with each category. In Experiment 1, in which learning-task feedback corresponded to the true category, people later preferentially searched the accuracy-maximizing feature, whether or not this would improve monetary rewards. In Experiment 2, an asymmetric reward structure was used during learning. Subjects searched the reward-maximizing feature when asymmetric payoffs were preserved in the search task. However, if search-task payoffs corresponded to accuracy, subjects preferentially searched a feature that was suboptimal for reward and accuracy alike. Importantly, this feature would have been most useful, under the learning-task payoff structure. Experiment 3 found that, if words and numbers are used to convey environmental probabilities, neither reward nor accuracy consistently predicts search. These findings emphasize the necessity of taking into account people's goals and search-and-decision processes during learning, thereby challenging current models of information search.

  7. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  8. Process-aware information systems : bridging people and software through process technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    A unifying foundation to design and implement process-aware information systems This publication takes on the formidable task of establishing a unifying foundation and set of common underlying principles to effectively model, design, and implement process-aware information systems. Authored by

  9. Introducing RiskSOAP to communicate the distributed situation awareness of a system about safety issues: an application to a robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the RiskSOAP ('RiskSOAP' is the abbreviation for Risk SituatiOn Awareness Provision.) indicator to measure the capability of a complex socio-technical system to provide its agents with situation awareness (SA) about the presence of its threats and vulnerabilities and enables analysts to assess distributed SA. The RiskSOAP methodology adopts a comparative approach between two design versions of a system differing in the elements and characteristics that can enhance or cause the degradation of the awareness provision capability. The methodology uniquely combines three methods: (1) the STPA hazard analysis, (2) the EWaSAP early warning sign identification approach, and (3) a dissimilarity measure for calculating the distance between binary sets. In this paper, the RiskSOAP methodology was applied to a robotic system and the findings show that the indicator is an objective measure for the system's capability to provide its agents with SA about its threats and vulnerabilities. Practitioner Summary: This paper suggests a novel methodology for assessing distributed situation awareness (DSA) regarding safety issues. Given that systems consist of specifications and components possible to be mapped, the risk SA provision capability (RiskSOAP) methodology demonstrates the feasibility of measuring to what extent systems' elements contribute to the emergence of DSA.

  10. Framing of different types of information needs within simulated work task situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    to reflect verificative, conscious topical and muddled topical information needs of each group of test participants. The study shows that it is challenging to formulate verificative simulated work task situations and to incorporate curiosity in the muddled topical simulated work task situations. The results...

  11. Consciência situacional, tomada de decisão e modos de controle cognitivo em ambientes complexos Situation awareness, decision making, and cognitive control in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Henriqson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a consciência situacional, os processos de tomada de decisão naturalística e os modos de controle cognitivo utilizados por pilotos de aeronaves em um experimento em simulador de voo. Dessa forma, diferentes situações foram propostas durante a simulação objetivando o estudo da consciência situacional e tomada de decisão dos tripulantes. As ações dos participantes foram investigadas e classificadas de acordo com o modelo de controle cognitivo proposto. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de complexidade contextual afetam a gestão da dificuldade, influenciando a consciência situacional, a tomada de decisão e os modos de controle cognitivo dos pilotos.This work aims to analyze situation awareness, natural decision-making processes and cognitive control modes used by airplane pilots in a flight simulator experiment. In this way, different situations during flight simulation were considered in order to study the crew's situation awareness and natural decision-making. The participants' actions were investigated and classified according to the cognitive control model proposed. Results suggest that context complexity factors affect difficulty management, influencing situation awareness, decision-making and pilots' cognitive control modes.

  12. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  13. The effects of shared situational awareness on functional and hospital outcomes of hospitalized older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joo H Lee,1 Sun J Kim,2,3 Julia Lam,4 Sulgi Kim,5 Shunichi Nakagawa,6 Ji W Yoo7,8 1Department of Media and Communication, Hanyang University College of Social Sciences, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Public Health, 3Institute of Health Services Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 4University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; 7Center for Senior Health and Longevity, Aurora Health Care, 8Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Milwaukee, WI, USA Background: Functional decline of hospitalized older adults is common and triggers health care expenditures. Physical therapy can retard the functional decline that occurs during hospitalization. This study aims to examine whether shared situational awareness (SSA intervention may enhance the benefits of physical therapy for hospitalized older persons with a common diagnosis, heart failure. Method: An SSA intervention that involved daily multidisciplinary meetings was applied to the care of functionally declining older adults admitted to the medicine floor for heart failure. Covariates were matched between the intervention group (n=473 and control group (n=475. Both intervention and control groups received physical therapy for ≥0.5 hours per day. The following three outcomes were compared between groups: 1 disability, 2 transition to skilled nursing facility (SNF, post-acute care setting, and 3 30-day readmission rate. Results: Disability was lower in the intervention group (28% than in the control group (37% (relative risk [RR] =0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35–0.97; P=0.026, and transition to SNF was lower in the intervention group (22% than in the control group (30% (RR =0.77; 95% CI, 0.39

  14. Consideration on information work under new situation consider the situation, integrate the resources, develop the innovate, improve the information work level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Erni

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear document information work under the new socioeconomic development situation in China shall focus on the nuclear fuel cycle industry, accelerate the information network informatization process, establish the information network platform so as to improve the management efficiency and benefit and reduce the resource consumption and management cost through publicity and information acquisition; we shall narrow the difference in understanding and application between the specialized technical personnel and informatization personnel during informatization management process, and speed up the structural readjustment through information resources sharing and network information system; during the transformation of the nuclear information work and nuclear resources into effective productive power, we shall conduct management and technology innovation and resource integration according to the development strategy of the enterprise so as to promote the enthusiasm for informatization as well as invention, creation and technological innovation in the enterprise and the whole country, in general, the nuclear information work shall be in the service of the nuclear manufacturing enterprises and we shall change our ideology and work style under the new situation so as to improve the overall capability and level of our scientific and technological information system by advanced science and technology. (author)

  15. Supporting emergency management through process-aware information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagebölling, D.; Leoni, de M.; Ardagna, D.; Mecella, M.; Yang, J.

    2009-01-01

    This short paper aims at summarising the invited talk given by Dirk Hagebölling in the PM4HDPS workshop and the subsequent discussion with participants. The talk concerned the current situation of systems for emergency management and their drawbacks. Moreover, it dealt also with the expectation for

  16. "Informed" Consent: An Audit of Informed Consent of Cesarean Section Evaluating Patient Education and Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirane, Akhilesh G; Gaikwad, Nandkishor B; Bhingare, Prashant E; Mule, Vidya D

    2015-12-01

    Better diagnosis and early referral due to increased health care coverage have increased the cesarean deliveries at tertiary-care hospitals of India. Improvements in the health care system raise many concerns and need of cross-checking system in place to counter the problems pertaining to patient education and participation of patient. While most of the cesarean sections are done in good faith for the patient, it does not escape the purview of consumer awareness and protection. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary level government institution to understand the level of awareness of 220 patients regarding the various aspects of cesarean delivery which are essential for women to know before giving an informed consent. 71 % of the women had knowledge about the indication and need to do cesarean delivery. Of these, only one-third (25 % of total women) were properly explained about procedure and complications. Other demographic and social characteristics were also evaluated. While the health care schemes have had their improved results, the onus lies upon the caregivers to improve and maintain the quality of health care in these tertiary-care government hospitals in proportion to the increase in patient load. The results of this study highlight the need for proper counseling of patients regarding complications of cesarean section. The fact that only 25 % of total cases were explained proper procedure and complication as opposed to 71 % of patients having proper knowledge about the indication of cesarean section points out the lack of information in seemingly "informed" consent. To bring about awareness about the risks and complications of cesarean section, there is a need that patients be counseled during the antenatal visits, specifically when patients visit near term for antenatal check up.

  17. Situation-aware GeoVisualization considering applied logic and extensibility: a new architecture and mechanism for intelligent GeoWeb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelin; Gold, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging Virtual Globe technology which has been increasingly exhibiting powerful features and capabilities. However, the current technical architecture for geovisualization is still the traditional data- viewer mode, i.e. KML-Geobrowser. Current KML is basically an encoding format for wrapping static snapshots of information frozen at discrete time points, and a geobrowser is virtually a data renderer for geovisualization. In the real world spatial-temporal objects and elements possess specific semantics, applied logic and operational rules, naturally or socially, which need to be considered and to be executed when corresponding data is integrated or visualized in a visual geocontext. However, currently there is no a way to express and execute this kind of applied logic and control rules within the current geobrowsing architecture. This paper proposes a novel architecture by originating a new mechanism, DKML, and implementing a DKML-supporting prototype geobrowser. Embedded programming script within KML files can express applied logic, control conditions, situation-aware analysis utilities and special functionality, to achieve intelligent, controllable and applied logic-conformant geovisualization, and to flexibly extend and customize the DKMLsupporting geobrowser. Benefiting from the mechanism developed in this research, geobrowsers can truly evolve into powerful multi-purpose GeoWeb platforms with promising potential and prospects.

  18. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance

    2010-04-01

    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  19. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  20. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  1. Understanding Employee Awareness of Health Care Quality Information: How Can Employers Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean; Feldman, Roger; Carlin, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors associated with employee awareness of employer-disseminated quality information on providers. Data Sources Primary data were collected in 2002 on a stratified, random sample of 1,365 employees in 16 firms that are members of the Buyers Health Care Action Group (BHCAG) located in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region. An employer survey was also conducted to assess how employers communicated the quality information to employees. Study Design In 2001, BHCAG sponsored two programs for reporting provider quality. We specify employee awareness of the quality information to depend on factors that influence the benefits and costs of search. Factors influencing the benefits include age, sex, provider satisfaction, health status, job tenure, and Twin Cities tenure. Factors influencing search costs include employee income, education, and employer communication strategies. We estimate the model using bivariate probit analysis. Data Collection Employee data were collected by phone survey. Principal Findings Overall, the level of quality information awareness is low. However, employer communication strategies such as distributing booklets to all employees or making them available on request have a large effect on the probability of quality information awareness. Employee education and utilization of providers' services are also positively related to awareness. Conclusions This study is one of the first to investigate employee awareness of provider quality information. Given the direct implications for medical outcomes, one might anticipate higher rates of awareness regarding provider quality, relative to plan quality. However, we do not find empirical evidence to support this assertion. PMID:15533188

  2. Advances in intelligent process-aware information systems concepts, methods, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhauser, Roy; Reichert, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on intelligent process-aware information systems and presents chapters on specific facets and approaches applicable to such systems. Further, it highlights novel advances and developments in various aspects of intelligent process-aware information systems and business process management systems. Intelligence capabilities are increasingly being integrated into or created in many of today’s software products and services. Process-aware information systems provide critical computing infrastructure to support the various processes involved in the creation and delivery of business products and services. Yet the integration of intelligence capabilities into process-aware information systems is a non-trivial yet necessary evolution of these complex systems. The book’s individual chapters address adaptive process management, case management processes, autonomically-capable processes, process-oriented information logistics, process recommendations, reasoning over ...

  3. Testing the idea of privileged awareness of self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske

    2016-03-01

    Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Seeking Health Information Online: The Moderating Effects of Problematic Situations on User Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Xia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates how online user intention in searching health information is affected by problematic situations. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, and Sense-making theory, we propose two dimensions of problematic situations: urgency and severity of health issues being searched online. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey among 214 Wuhan University students and analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and subjective norm can influence user intention to seek health information online. The urgency of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between perceived ease of use and user intention and the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. The severity of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. Research limitations: The respondents of the survey are limited to students in one Chinese university, so whether this study’s results can be applied to another population or not remains to be verified. In addition, only two dimensions of problematic situations are considered in this study. Practical implications: The paper puts forward the moderating effect of problematic situations and verifies it, which is the compensation for online health information-seeking behavior research. Besides, our analyses have implications for professional design of health care systems and related consumer information searches, and improve their performance. Originality/value: Previous work has reported the effects of problematic situation on user intention to seek health information online, ignoring its influence on other factors. This empirical study extends that work to identify the influence of problematic situation when seeking intention-behavior data in two dimensions, urgency and

  5. Real World Awareness in Distributed Organizations: A View on Informal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Sultanow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographically distributed development has consistently had to deal with the challenge of intense awareness extensively more than locally concentrated development. Awareness marks the state of being informed incorporated with an understanding of project-related activities, states or relationships of each individual employee within a given group as a whole. In multifarious offices, where social interaction is necessary in order to distribute and locate information together with experts, awareness becomes a concurrent process which amplifies the exigency of easy routes for staff to be able to access this information, deferred or decentralized, in a formalized and problem-oriented way. Although the subject of Awareness has immensely increased in importance, there is extensive disagreement about how this transparency can be conceptually and technically implemented [1]. This paper introduces a model in order to visualize and navigate this information in three tiers using semantic networks, GIS and Web3D.

  6. Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol.8 (1)2008 Awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    It examined the level of awareness, access and usage of E – journal resources among the students; and ... Lecturers are to emphasize and popularize information technology and its usage by talking about it ..... outsourcing, are in hot demand.

  7. Group Awareness and Self-Presentation in Computer-Supported Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    A common challenge in many situations of computer-supported collaborative learning is increasing the willingness of those involved to share their knowledge with other group members. As a prototypical situation of computer-supported information exchange, a shared-database setting was chosen for the current study. This information-exchange situation…

  8. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  9. The emergent relevance of care staff decision-making and situation awareness to mobility care in nursing homes: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janice; Sims, Jane; Haines, Terry P

    2014-12-01

    To explore mobility care as provided by care staff in nursing homes. Care staff regularly assist residents with their mobility. Nurses are increasingly reliant on such staff to provide safe and quality mobility care. However, the nature of care staff decision-making when providing assistance has not been fully addressed in the literature. A focused ethnography. The study was conducted in four nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia. Non-participant observations of residents and staff in 2011. Focus groups with 18 nurses, care and lifestyle staff were conducted at three facilities in 2012. Thematic analysis was employed for focus groups and content analysis for observation data. Cognitive Continuum Theory and the notion of 'situation awareness' assisted data interpretation. Decision-making during mobility care emerged as a major theme. Using Cognitive Continuum Theory as a guide, nursing home staff's decision-making was described as ranging from system-aided, through resident- and peer-aided, to reflective and intuitive. Staff seemed aware of the need for resident-aided decision-making consistent with person-centred care. Habitual mobility care based on shared mental models occurred. It was noted that levels of situation awareness may vary among staff. Care staff may benefit from support via collaborative and reflective practice to develop decision-making skills, situation awareness and person-centred mobility care. Further research is required to explore the connection between staff's skills in mobility care and their decision-making competence as well as how these factors link to quality mobility care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  11. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.

  12. Using 3D and information visualisation to improve perception and facilitate situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available environment simulations. The library makes use of open source building blocks and is itself moving towards a Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL). Online or offline simulation traces are used to populate a virtual environment similar to Google Earth with 3D...

  13. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  14. Process-aware information systems : lessons to be learned from process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Jensen, K.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A Process-Aware Information System (PAIS) is a software system that manages and executes operational processes involving people, applications, and/or information sources on the basis of process models. Example PAISs are workflow management systems, case-handling systems, enterprise information

  15. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  16. An empirical test of social information processing theory and emotions in violent situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra N. Bowen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the decisionmaking process in highriskforviolence situations. Methods formallegal sociological method of hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results criminological research has favored the rational choice perspective in studying offender decision making. However this theoretical approach does not take into account the complex interplay of situational cognitive emotional and person factors that likely influence criminal decision making. To that end the current study examines decision making in highriskforviolence situations focusing on social information processing and emotional state variables. The current study utilizes a sample of 236 newly incarcerated jailed inmates who provide personal level data and situational reports of violent and avoided violence situations n 466. Scientific novelty the findings for the first time show that several situational social information processing and emotion variables such as intent interpretation goal and response generation are significant predictors of the escalation of violence hence increasing the probability of committing a crime. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activities when considering the issues of identifying and eliminating the reasons and conditions of crime committing as well as with influencing the individuals in order to prevent crimes or antisocial behavior.

  17. Information Retrieval for Education: Making Search Engines Language Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Niels; Meurers, Detmar

    2010-01-01

    Search engines have been a major factor in making the web the successful and widely used information source it is today. Generally speaking, they make it possible to retrieve web pages on a topic specified by the keywords entered by the user. Yet web searching currently does not take into account which of the search results are comprehensible for…

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  19. Information technology for nuclear education and public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refre, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The information age is ushered in by breakthroughs in information technologies. Among these are the interactive multimedia and the internet. These technologies find very good use as tools in teaching whether in the classroom or in distant education. They have been found very effective tools in teaching science and technology in all levels, from the very basic to the more advanced topics. In the Philippine educational setting, the teaching of science and technology is not only hampered by the lack of teachers but also of the lack of laboratory facilities, equipment and materials. A solution is, therefore, being proposed by the author: make use of interactive multimedia and the internet in those areas lacking the needed physical and human resources. As an initial undertaking in this direction, the author has embarked in developing interactive multimedia pieces of nuclear science and technology. These are very much needed in the Philippine secondary education. This subject matter is barely touched, if not at all, by the science or physics teachers due to the insufficient knowledge on the subject matter, also by the lack of experiment materials/equipment to demonstrate concepts. Using interactive multimedia, the science and physics teachers are going to be empowered to teach nuclear science and technology even if they themselves did not have the oppurtunity to learn them during their student days. Having access to the internet, these teachers do not have to attend expensive seminars at places far from their stations to update themselves on the subject matter; they are going to 'get information at their fingertips' in no time at all and at practically no cost. (author)

  20. On the new situation to descend a basic level technology library information service work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    With information technology fast developing. library can give readers modernization service. The results of information technology revolution can be used in library. Information materials can be supplied by acoustic image and researching in internet. In this document, we analysis the characteristics, present situations and developments of grass-roots libraries. Discuss the questions in grass-roots science-technology library in nuclear industry, improving the grass-roots equipments, developing various data library, and how to improve the quality of information service in grass-roots library. (author)

  1. Study on operator’s SA reliability in digital NPPs. Part 1: The analysis method of operator’s errors of situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Li; Dai, Li-cao; Li, Xiao-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of ESA is established from an organization perspective, and it is new perspective. • The detailed classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model. It is useful to identify the cause chain and root causes of organization causing ESA. • The analysis method of ESA is also constructed to guide the investigation of ESA event. A case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) is a key element that impacts operator’s decision-making and performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The subsequent complex cognitive activities cannot be correctly completed due to errors of situation awareness (ESA), which will lead to disastrous consequences. In order to investigate and analyze operator’s ESA in the digitized main control room (DMCR) of a nuclear power plant, the model of ESA is established, the classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model, and the analysis method of ESA is also constructed on the basis of the observation of simulator and operator surveys. Finally, a case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. It provides a theoretical and practical support for the operator’s SAE analysis in a digitized main control room of a nuclear power plant.

  2. Women's Drinking Decisions in Heterosocial Situations: Development and Validation of Scenarios to Assess Influence of Attraction and Risk-Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A; Loomis, Randi B; Heaton, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    These three related studies created a set of ecologically valid scenarios for assessing relative associations of both attraction and sexual coercion risk-recognition in college women's heterosocial situational drinking decisions. The first study constructed nine scenarios using input from heterosexual drinking women in the age cohort (18-30) most likely to experience alcohol-related sexual coercion. In the second study, 50 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) assessed the salience of three important dimensions (attraction, risk, and realism) in these scenarios. The third study was a factor analysis (and a follow-up confirmatory factor analysis) of the elements of coercion-risk as perceived by the target group with two female samples recruited 1 year apart (Sample 1: N = 157, ages 18-29); Sample 2: N = 157, ages 18-30). Results confirmed that the scenarios could be a useful vehicle for assessing how women balance out risk and attraction to make in-the moment heterosocial drinking decisions. The factor analysis showed participants perceived two types of situations, based on whether the male character was "Familiar" or "Just Met" and perceived themselves as happier and more excited with Familiar males. However, in contrast to HIV risk studies, Familiar males were perceived as higher risk for unwanted sex. Future research will use the six scenarios that emerged from the factor analysis to study how attraction and risk perception differentially affect young adult women's social drinking decisions.

  3. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  4. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  5. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  6. Analysis of current situation of information disclosure of listed companies on GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirong Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the afternoon on October 23th, 2009, GEM was officially launched in our country. Due to the lack of experience in the market supervision, information disclosure violations frequently occurred. In April 2015, Shenzhen Stock Exchange puts forward morning information disclosure system to strengthen the reform of information disclosure system. Therefore, this paper deeply focuses on the current situation of information disclosure violations on GEM for the purpose of attracting more attention to the problems. Through studying the information disclosure violations of the listed companies on GEM from 2011 to September 30th, 2015, this paper divides the violations into the following four types: false record, misleading statement, material misstatement and delayed disclosure. On the other hand, we find that these types of violations are concurrent. From this discussion, we may safely draw the conclusion that the information disclosure of listed companies on GEM has the problem of untruthfulness, incorrectness, incompleteness and delay.

  7. Cogito ergo video: Task-relevant information is involuntarily boosted into awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Surya; Brascamp, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Paffen, Chris L E

    2015-01-01

    Only part of the visual information that impinges on our retinae reaches visual awareness. In a series of three experiments, we investigated how the task relevance of incoming visual information affects its access to visual awareness. On each trial, participants were instructed to memorize one of two presented hues, drawn from different color categories (e.g., red and green), for later recall. During the retention interval, participants were presented with a differently colored grating in each eye such as to elicit binocular rivalry. A grating matched either the task-relevant (memorized) color category or the task-irrelevant (nonmemorized) color category. We found that the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-relevant color category tended to dominate awareness over the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-irrelevant color category. This effect of task relevance persisted when participants reported the orientation of the rivalrous stimuli, even though in this case color information was completely irrelevant for the task of reporting perceptual dominance during rivalry. When participants memorized the shape of a colored stimulus, however, its color category did not affect predominance of rivalrous stimuli during retention. Taken together, these results indicate that the selection of task-relevant information is under volitional control but that visual input that matches this information is boosted into awareness irrespective of whether this is useful for the observer.

  8. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere M; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-08-13

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores ( p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers' knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers' knowledge may decrease risky practices.

  9. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  10. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar eAyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  11. A Focused Crawler for Borderlands Situation Information with Geographical Properties of Place Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Place name is an important ingredient of borderlands situation information and plays a significant role in collecting them from the Internet with focused crawlers. However, current focused crawlers treat place name in the same way as any other common keyword, which has no geographical properties. This may reduce the effectiveness of focused crawlers. To solve the problem, this paper firstly discusses the importance of place name in focused crawlers in terms of location and spatial relation, and, then, proposes the two-tuple-based topic representation method to express place name and common keyword, respectively. Afterwards, spatial relations between place names are introduced to calculate the relevance of given topics and webpages, which can make the calculation process more accurately. On the basis of the above, a focused crawler prototype for borderlands situation information collection is designed and implemented. The crawling speed and F-Score are adopted to evaluate its efficiency and effectiveness. Experimental results indicate that the efficiency of our proposed focused crawler is consistent with the polite access interval and it could meet the daily demand of borderlands situation information collection. Additionally, the F-Score value of our proposed focused crawler increases by around 7%, which means that our proposed focused crawler is more effective than the traditional best-first focused crawler.

  12. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  13. Gender difference towards information and communication technology awareness in Indian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Chaman; Dahiya, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication technology is major backbone of Indian education system. To support E-learning in Universities, information and communication technology (ICT) plays a momentous job. Several experts discussed about ICT awareness among students, teachers, and research scholars to take it into their learning and teaching methodology. Many of Universities either government or private are supporting the utilization of various ICT tools in teaching and learning practice. There is wide need to determine educator's behaviour towards ICT adoption to promote and enhance their learning skills. Students and faculty must confess that ICT awareness is key rod to access the technological services. This paper focuses on ICT awareness among students and faculty residing in Indian Universities. The concerned paper is describing the attitude of students and faculty towards ICT awareness in relation to their gender using statistical tools. More than nine hundred samples have been gathered from six Indian universities. The findings of this paper will help to Indian Universities administration to get aware about current scenario of ICT involvement in education system therein.

  14. Turning on the light of public information: the work of the US Committee for Energy Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    The work of the US Committee for Energy Awareness (USCEA) in promoting the public acceptance of nuclear power is described. Details of the public education programme are given and include television and printed messages, advertising, a range of public information programmes and public opinion research polls before and afterwards. (U.K.)

  15. Exploring the Listening Process to Inform the Development of Strategy Awareness-Raising Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria; Guisado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale qualitative study aimed at exploring the listening process in a group of Spanish beginners in a UK higher education context. The specific aim of the study was to inform the development of materials for listening strategy awareness-raising activities. The exploration was focused on identifying (a) strategies…

  16. Evaluation of context-aware recommendation systems for information re-finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappelli, M.; Verberne, S.; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we evaluate context-aware recommendation systems for information re-finding by knowledge workers. We identify 4 criteria that are relevant for evaluating the quality of knowledge worker support: context relevance, document relevance, prediction of user action, and diversity of the

  17. Using a Corpus-Informed Pedagogical Intervention to Develop Language Awareness toward Appropriate Lexicogrammatical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julieta; Yuldashev, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The corpus-informed pedagogical intervention described in this article was developed for an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) course designed for prospective International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) and implemented over the course of two class periods. Its primary goal was to offer students opportunities to gain language awareness of…

  18. Change Support in Process-Aware Information Systems - A Pattern-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Barbara; Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In today's dynamic business world the economic success of an enterprise increasingly depends on its ability to react to changes in its environment in a quick and flexible way. Process-aware information systems (PAIS) offer promising perspectives in this respect and are increasingly employed for

  19. A Study of Security Awareness Information Delivery within the Defense Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasley, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to limited resources and inconsistent guidance from the U.S. Federal Government, Department of Defense, and multiple environments within the intelligence community, the defense intelligence agencies each developed their own methods to deliver security awareness information. These multiple delivery methods may be providing different levels of…

  20. ROME4U - A service-oriented process-aware information system for mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, A.; Mecella, M.; Leoni, de M.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, process-aware information systems (PAISs) are widely used for the management of ‘administrative’ processes characterized by clear and well-defined structures. Besides those scenarios, PAISs can be used also in mobile and pervasive scenarios, where process participants can be only equipped

  1. Process-aware information system development for the healthcare domain : consistency, reliability and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.S.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Russell, N.C.; Bakker, P.J.M.; Moleman, A.J.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal support for complex healthcare processes cannot be provided by a single out-of-the-box Process-Aware Information System and necessitates the construction of customized applications based on these systems. In order to allow for the seamless integration of the new technology into the existing

  2. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere M; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated

  3. Parental Internet Use and Health Information Seeking Behavior Comparing Elective and Emergency Pediatric Surgical Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Kien Yee; Sivasegaran, Daveraj; Choo, Candy Suet Cheng; Nah, Shireen Anne

    2018-02-01

     This study evaluates usage patterns of online health information in parents with children undergoing elective or emergency surgical procedures.  We prospectively surveyed parents of children admitted to our institution for common emergency (appendicectomy, abscess drainage, gonadal torsion) or elective (herniotomy, orchidopexy) operations between March and September 2016. Each completed an anonymized modification of a previously published survey comprising 19 questions on demographic data, Internet usage, and review of Internet resources. Chi-square tests were used for categorical data with p  information in elective ( n  = 27; 54%) and emergency groups ( n  = 24;70.6%) than general practitioners or other health care workers. When condition-specific online information was sought, more than 95% felt that the information concurred with the doctor's. Most common reasons were for more information on the condition ( n  = 56; 90.3%) and on medical treatment ( n  = 52; 83.9%). Eighteen (18/62; 29%) parents reported excessively technical information. No significant difference in behavior was found comparing elective and emergency groups.  Approximately one quarter of parents do not access condition-specific online medical information despite high Internet penetration rates. More than half depend on friends and family for additional information, reflecting societal and cultural norms in our population. Surgeons must incorporate awareness of these behaviors during counselling. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effect of information, education and communication intervention on awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students

    OpenAIRE

    Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. Objectives: To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. Material and Methods: The final year students o...

  5. Ophthalmologists' awareness of informed consent and their compliance to its requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar; Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Saeedbakhsh, Saeed; Isfahani, Mahtab Kasaei

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare providers' awareness of laws governing medical documents and patients' health-related information is essential in securing the patients' rights. Given the existing legal problems in documentation of medical record of Consent and Acquittal, we decided to perform an investigation examining the levels of ophthalmologists' awareness of legal requirements for medical record of consent and acquittal and how they complied with such requirements at Feiz Teaching Hospital, Isfahan in the year 2011. This research is an applied, descriptive-analytic one. The research population for awareness measurement includes attending ophthalmologists at Feiz Hospital. Filled-in consent record forms recorded in medical document were used to examine the levels of compliance with legal requirements governing medical record of consent and acquittal. Sampling among the attending ophthalmologists was performed using consensus which included 14 ophthalmologists. The files were samples using the statistical formula, resulting in a sample of 303 files. Data collection tools included a questionnaire and a check list. The questionnaire's reliability was estimated through Cronbach's alpha calculation (0.8); and the check list was completed through a survey among professors of Health Information Technology Management department. In a first step, investigators handed a questionnaire containing 12 items to the ophthalmologists in order to assess their levels of awareness from legal Aspects of medical Informed consent and acquittal, and received the completed questionnaire after answering their possible queries on the issue. In the next step the researchers went to the hospital and evaluated the levels of compliance with legal aspects of medical informed consent and acquittal within the files using a check list and by direct observation. Analytic statistics and SPSS software were used to analyze the data; and Pearson test was applied to evaluate the assumed relationship. The findings were

  6. The Markov multi-phase transferable belief model: A data fusion theory for enhancing cyber situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. eXfiltration Advanced Persistent Threats (XAPTs) increasingly account for incidents concerned with critical information exfiltration from High Valued Targets (HVT's) by terrorists, cyber criminals or enemy states. Existing Cyber Defence frameworks and data fusion models do not adequately address (i) the multi-stage nature of XAPTs and (ii) the uncertainty and conflicting...

  7. Impressions of Milgram's obedient teachers: situational cues inform inferences about motives and traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D; Monroe, Andrew E; Pryor, John B

    2008-07-01

    The research investigated impressions formed of a "teacher" who obeyed an experimenter by delivering painful electric shocks to an innocent person (S. Milgram, 1963, 1974). Three findings emerged across different methodologies and different levels of experimenter-induced coercion. First, contrary to conventional wisdom, perceivers both recognized and appreciated situational forces, such as the experimenter's orders that prompted the aggression. Second, perceivers' explanations of the teacher's behavior focused on the motive of obedience (i.e., wanting to appease the experimenter) rather than on hurtful (or evil) motivation. Despite this overall pattern, perceptions of hurtful versus helpful motivation varied as a function of information regarding the level of coercion applied by the experimenter. Finally, theoretically important relationships were revealed among perceptions of situations, motives, and traits. In particular, situational cues (such as aspects of the experimenter's behavior) signaled the nature of the teacher's motives, which in turn informed inferences of the teacher's traits. Overall, the findings pose problems for the lay dispositionism perspective but fit well with multiple inference models of dispositional inference.

  8. The impact of multiple information on coupled awareness-epidemic dynamics in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaohui; Yan, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    Growing interest has emerged in the study of the interplay between awareness and epidemics in multiplex networks. However, previous studies on this issue usually assume that all aware individuals take the same level of precautions, ignoring individual heterogeneity. In this paper, we investigate the coupled awareness-epidemic dynamics in multiplex networks considering individual heterogeneity. Here, the precaution levels are heterogeneous and depend on three types of information: contact information and local and global prevalence information. The results show that contact-based precautions can decrease the epidemic prevalence and augment the epidemic threshold, but prevalence-based precautions, regardless of local or global information, can only decrease the epidemic prevalence. Moreover, unlike previous studies in single-layer networks, we do not find a greater impact of local prevalence information on the epidemic prevalence compared to global prevalence information. In addition, we find that the altruistic behaviors of infected individuals can effectively suppress epidemic spreading, especially when the level of contact-based precaution is high.

  9. The Importance of Situational Awareness: A Qualitative Study of Family Members' and Nurses' Perspectives on Teaching During Family-Centered Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy; Meyer, Rebecca; Kind, Terry; Bhansali, Priti

    2015-10-01

    Family-centered rounds (FCR) has become a leading model for pediatric inpatient rounding. During FCR, faculty must balance trainees' educational needs with patient care priorities. Investigators have examined trainees' views on effective teaching during FCR, but none have evaluated what family members and nurses consider to be effective teaching behaviors of attending physicians. The authors sought to explore family members' and nurses' perspectives on effective teaching behaviors during FCR. The authors conducted (2012-2013) a qualitative study of families and nurses at an academic children's hospital where FCR is the standard model for inpatient rounds. Nurses and families familiar with FCR participated in separate focus groups. The authors reviewed focus group transcripts using techniques of qualitative content analysis; they generated codes and developed categories, supported by illustrative quotations. Fifteen nurses and 13 family members participated in the focus groups. The unifying theme was that situational awareness on behalf of the attending physician is essential for FCR to be educational for all participants. The authors identified four categories of awareness-(1) cognitive factors, (2) logistics and time management, (3) physical environment, (4) emotional state-and developed a set of effective teaching strategies based on participants' comments. The findings of this study support previous work identifying effective FCR teaching strategies, but this study is the first to include the perspectives of families and nurses. The inclusion of these participants provides a framework for faculty development and training to improve the educational value of FCR.

  10. Risk information for public consumption: Print media coverage of two risky situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.; Dunwoody, S.; Tankard, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines (1) the extent to which newspaper and magazine coverage of two risky situations included the kinds of cognitive information about risks that would help readers make risk judgments and (2) the extent to which the scientific sophistication of the audience would influence such inclusion. The two situations were a nuclear power plant accident that released a small amount of radioactive steam into the atmosphere and a report in the New England Journal of Medicine about a potential relationship between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer. Stories about each topic in trade magazines, popular science magazines, general magazines, and both prestige and more typical daily newspapers were examined to determine the nature and extent of risk information included. The analysis found more detailed risk information in these stories than has been found in past studies, but it also suggested that sophistication of audience was not a good predictor of the presence/absence of such information. The most pronounced differences in communication strategies were found instead between topics, not across types of media. Closer examination of individual stories suggests that the variance may be attributable to differences in the way stories about the two incidents were framed by journalists

  11. Report on TENORM. National and international situation; Informe sobre TENORM. Situacion nacional e internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoba, Analia C; Gnoni, Gabriela

    2005-07-01

    In the present report, the situation of TENORM materials around the world is analyzed in order to plan future steps regarding this subject in our country. The different regulatory criteria adopted are presented and the national situation is analyzed from the legal point of view. The report is fundamentally focused on petroleum and gas industry, due to, as it was exposed in a preliminary report, this industry would have the most important TENORM content. (author) [Spanish] En el presente informe se analiza la situacion de los materiales TENORM en el mundo con el fin de delinear las acciones a seguir frente al tema en nuestro pais. Se presentan los distintos criterios regulatorios adoptados y se analiza la situacion nacional desde el punto de vista legal. El informe se enfoca fundamentalmente en la industria del gas y del petroleo, ya que de acuerdo a lo expuesto en un informe preliminar, esta industria seria la mas significativa desde el punto de vista de su contenido en TENORM. (autor)

  12. Family physicians' awareness and knowledge of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laedtke, Amanda L; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Vogel, Kristen J

    2012-04-01

    Historically, physicians have expressed concern about their patients' risk of genetic discrimination, which has acted as a barrier to uptake of genetic services. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is intended to protect patients against employer and health insurance discrimination. Physicians' awareness and knowledge of GINA has yet to be evaluated. In 2009, we mailed surveys to 1500 randomly selected members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Questions measured physicians' current knowledge of GINA and their level of concern for genetic discrimination. In total, 401 physicians completed the survey (response rate 26.9%). Approximately half (54.5%) of physicians had no awareness of GINA. Of physicians who reported basic knowledge of GINA, the majority were aware of the protections offered for group health insurance (92.7%), private health insurance (82.9%), and employment (70.7%). Fewer physicians were aware of GINA's limitations regarding life insurance (53.7%) and long-term care insurance (58.8%). Physicians demonstrated highest levels of concern for health insurance, life insurance, and long-term care insurance discrimination, with less concern for employer and family/social discrimination. Level of concern for the risk of genetic discrimination did not correlate significantly with awareness of GINA. Approximately 17 months after GINA was signed into federal law, physicians' knowledge remained limited regarding the existence of this legislation and relevant details. Physicians who are aware of GINA continue to have significant concerns regarding the risk of genetic discrimination. This study reveals the need to further educate physicians about the existence of GINA and the protections offered.

  13. Context-aware prioritization of information: an architecture for real-time in-vehicle information management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan; Cornelisse, Erik; Dalmolen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are the communication devices between in-vehicle applications and the driver. Frequently, independent HMIs are used for different applications which may cause information overload situations at the driver. Hence, a common HMI design that determines the application

  14. Awareness of diagnosis, and information-seeking behavior of hospitalized cancer patients in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokalaki, Eirini I; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Brokalaki, Hero

    2005-11-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the extent of disease-related knowledge and the need for further information of cancer patients in Greece. We evaluated 203 mentally competent adult cancer patients hospitalized in general and oncological hospitals in the city of Athens and its suburbs. Data were collected by means of semistructured interviews. Patients were evaluated as to whether they had awareness of their diagnosis. Those who did so (n = 83) were further questioned about additional disease-related information. The majority of patients (59%) claimed to have no knowledge of their diagnosis. Women (p = 0.004) as well as high school and university graduates (p = 0.024) showed significantly superior levels of information when compared to men and graduates of elementary schools, respectively. Age was also a factor that influenced the level of the awareness of the diagnosis and the request for additional information: patients who were informed about the diagnosis and patients who asked for more information were significantly younger than their counterparts who ignored the diagnosis (p family beliefs, "mind-set" difficulties, and organizational issues should not become barriers to the patients' right to be fully informed of their diagnoses and choices of potential therapies.

  15. The Relationship Between Maternal Awareness, Socioeconomic Situation of Families and Metabolic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Miletus in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, with potentially life-threatening sequels. However, good metabolic control can protect the patients against sequels. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between awareness of the mothers about this disease on improving diabetic children metabolic control and also, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic situations of families and control of diabetes in this group of patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study on 80 diabetic children and their mothers, who were registered in the diabetes association of Iran, for outpatient control of disease. Diabetes knowledge was measured by Michigan diabetes knowledge test and glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. To assess the socio-economic status of a diabetic child’s family, educational level, occupational and marital status of parents were asked and the socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated with Hollingshed four-factor index of SES. Results Mothers’ mean knowledge score was 17.72, children’s mean HbA1c was 7.77 and mean of SES was 27.89. There was no significant correlation between children’s HbA1c and mother’s SES. Also, there was an inverse linear relationship between mothers’ knowledge score and children’s HbA1c and there was a direct linear relationship between the mothers’ knowledge score and SES. Conclusions Finally, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the awareness of mothers of T1DM children has a good impact on blood sugar control, whereas the SES of families has no direct effect on blood sugar control. Additionally, SES can indirectly impact on the consciousness of mothers and lead to the reduction of HbA1c.

  16. CSIRT Requirements for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-25

    external or national or world level (meetings of international organizations in the lime - light or under scrutiny such as the World Bank, Olympics, etc...also strive to collect lessons learned and after-the-fact analysis so that a better understanding of what happened and how it could be stopped or...structured data for machine processing and near real-time updates. http://stix.mitre.org/ Dell SecureWorks Dell SecureWorks is a managed security

  17. Air Force Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    time sensitivity and CyberWorx capacity. One method, which maximizes solution agility and the educational benefit to warfighters and industry...how the Air Force might best exploit commercial, academic, and foreign SSA data to improve space outcomes. Question Background & Participants Modern ...in industry and even in their personal lives. CyberWorx was asked to address the challenges of incorporating non- traditional (open source, academic

  18. An Investigation on the Current Situation of Management Information Systems Discipline in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YARLIKAŞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of management information systems field by evaluating the theses conducted at universities in Turkey in the departments of management information systems and science of management information systems. First, this study aims to determine the distribution of the theses in terms of years, subjects and the research methods used. Another purpose of this study was to determine which of the related disciplines of management information systems are used most in the theses. In addition, as a result of the study, the compatibility degree between the theses written and the courses taught in the graduate programs of management information systems were determined. In this research, content analysis method is used. Through this method, each of the theses was evaluated with a 10-question ‘thesis evaluation question set' constructed towards the purpose of the study. Through this evaluation, the current situation of the field was determined. It was observed that the number of doctoral theses associated with the field was less. Using the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques most in the theses denoted that the interdisciplinary approaches were adopted in the theses associated with management information systems. It was observed that the literature analysis and survey techniques were the most studied research methods in the theses. Besides, statistical techniques were used highly in the theses. As a result of this study, it was concluded that out of the associated disciplines of management information systems, management science, computer science and statistics disciplines were more associated with the investigated theses. When the study results were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that significant progress was made in the discipline of management information systems compared to the early 2000s.

  19. Exploring Information Security Awareness Training to Reduce Unauthorized Disclosure of Information in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technological uses within public schools provide increased methods to collect and store non-public personal information (NPI) or personally identifiable information (PII) from both students and employees. Consequently, the sensitive information collected is susceptible to unauthorized disclosure, as various public school employees are…

  20. Report: Information Meeting / Awareness of Actors on the Chemical Information Exchange Network (CIEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senghor, Cheikh

    2015-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention, Senegal has established a Chemical Information Exchange Network. The overall objective of this meeting was to identify the various actors involved in the management of chemicals information and to study the modalities for the implementation of the chemical information exchange network in Senegal.

  1. Co-Designing Ambient Assisted Living (AAL Environments: Unravelling the Situated Context of Informal Dementia Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient assisted living (AAL aims to help older persons “age-in-place” and manage everyday activities using intelligent and pervasive computing technology. AAL research, however, has yet to explore how AAL might support or collaborate with informal care partners (ICPs, such as relatives and friends, who play important roles in the lives and care of persons with dementia (PwDs. In a multiphase codesign process with six (6 ICPs, we envisioned how AAL could be situated to complement their care. We used our codesigned “caregiver interface” artefacts as triggers to facilitate envisioning of AAL support and unpack the situated, idiosyncratic context within which AAL aims to assist. Our findings suggest that AAL should be designed to support ICPs in fashioning “do-it-yourself” solutions that complement tacitly improvised care strategies and enable them to try, observe, and adapt to solutions over time. In this way, an ICP could decide which activities to entrust to AAL support, when (i.e., scheduled or spontaneous and how a system should provide support (i.e., using personalized prompts based on care experience, and when adaptations to system support are needed (i.e., based alerting patterns and queried reports. Future longitudinal work employing participatory, design-oriented methods with care dyads is encouraged.

  2. A Big Data Approach for Situation-Aware estimation, correction and prediction of aerosol effects, based on MODIS Joint Atmosphere product (collection 6) time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Toshniwal, D.

    2017-12-01

    The MODIS Joint Atmosphere product, MODATML2 and MYDATML2 L2/3 provided by LAADS DAAC (Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System Distributed Active Archive Center) re-sampled from medium resolution MODIS Terra /Aqua Satellites data at 5km scale, contains Cloud Reflectance, Cloud Top Temperature, Water Vapor, Aerosol Optical Depth/Thickness, Humidity data. These re-sampled data, when used for deriving climatic effects of aerosols (particularly in case of cooling effect) still exposes limitations in presence of uncertainty measures in atmospheric artifacts such as aerosol, cloud, cirrus cloud etc. The effect of uncertainty measures in these artifacts imposes an important challenge for estimation of aerosol effects, adequately affecting precise regional weather modeling and predictions: Forecasting and recommendation applications developed largely depend on these short-term local conditions (e.g. City/Locality based recommendations to citizens/farmers based on local weather models). Our approach inculcates artificial intelligence technique for representing heterogeneous data(satellite data along with air quality data from local weather stations (i.e. in situ data)) to learn, correct and predict aerosol effects in the presence of cloud and other atmospheric artifacts, defusing Spatio-temporal correlations and regressions. The Big Data process pipeline consisting correlation and regression techniques developed on Apache Spark platform can easily scale for large data sets including many tiles (scenes) and over widened time-scale. Keywords: Climatic Effects of Aerosols, Situation-Aware, Big Data, Apache Spark, MODIS Terra /Aqua, Time Series

  3. A Quantitative Study on Japanese Internet User's Awareness to Information Security: Necessity and Importance of Education and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiko Takemura; Atsushi Umino

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine whether or not there Institute for Information and Communications Policy shows are differences of Japanese Internet users awareness to information security based on individual attributes by using analysis of variance based on non-parametric method. As a result, generally speaking, it is found that Japanese Internet users' awareness to information security is different by individual attributes. Especially, the authors verify that the users who received the in...

  4. Ethical aspects of radioactive waste management and public information. The Belgian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Belgium has a well-developed nuclear programme and has elaborated several research and nuclear fuel cycle facilities on its territory since the beginning of the nineteen fifties. About 60 per cent of the electricity produced is of nuclear origin. All these facilities produce waste. In 1980, waste management was entrusted by law to the ONDRAF. The Agency new controls all aspects of waste management and has indicated the direction for final disposal of waste. Both public information and the justification, from an ethical point of view, of the solutions proposed have become an essential topic in radioactive waste management. The situation as it exists today in Belgium is described in this paper. The paper indicates that all decision-making process now pass through an objective information phase, involving the public and the various decision makers. This is intended to provoke discussion and encourage the public to become more active and responsible, and should be based on new ethical concepts. We need to be sure that we put into place for the future, systems based on passive technology, full information and with sufficient financial provision for future needs. (authors)

  5. A dissociation between selective attention and conscious awareness in the representation of temporal order information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Martin; Grubert, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that attentional selection processes are highly sensitive to the temporal order of task-relevant visual events. When two successively presented colour-defined target stimuli are separated by a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of only 10 ms, the onset latencies of N2pc components to these stimuli (which reflect their attentional selection) precisely match their objective temporal separation. We tested whether such small onset differences are accessible to conscious awareness by instructing participants to report the category (letter or digit) of the first of two target-colour items that were separated by an SOA of 10, 20, or 30 ms. Performance was at chance level for the 10 ms SOA, demonstrating that temporal order information which is available to attentional control processes cannot be utilized for conscious temporal order judgments. These results provide new evidence that selective attention and conscious awareness are functionally separable, and support the hypothesis that attention and awareness operate at different stages of cognitive processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Check (HC was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013. Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019; however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p < 0.001; and consumed less saturated fat and carbohydrates, and more protein and fibre (p < 0.05. Approximately 15% of HC restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that “self-selected” into the program.

  7. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; Lillico, Heather G; Vanderlee, Lana; Hammond, David

    2016-12-01

    Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019); however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that "self-selected" into the program.

  8. An investigation into users' information security awareness on social networks in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius O. Okesola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social networks (SNs offer new and exciting opportunities for interaction among people, cutting across different stratum of the society and providing a ubiquitous mechanism that supports a wide variety of activities. They are at the same time being exploited by criminals to fraudulently obtain information from unsuspecting users. Unfortunately, the seamless communication and semblance of safety assumed by most users make them oblivious to the potential online dangers. Objective: Using quantitative methods on selected social sites, this study empirically examined the information security awareness of SN users in south western Nigeria. Method: A self-designed research instrument was administered for data collection while descriptive and inferential statistics were employed using chi-square, cross-tabulation and t-test for data analysis and result interpretation. Result: Findings from the analysed data suggest that the risk perception vary among male and female SN users and that the general perception of risks regarding SN usage is also very low. Conclusion: Adequate security awareness coupled with detailed legal measures are required to keep SNs secured. However, an individual is duly responsible for the habit of ignoring potential risks posed by the networks.

  9. Information-Dispersion-Entropy-Based Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes in Soft Decision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  10. A socially situated approach to inform ways to improve health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Christine; Johnson, Sally

    2014-02-01

    Mainstream health psychology supports neoliberal notions of health promotion in which self-management is central. The emphasis is on models that explain behaviour as individually driven and cognitively motivated, with health beliefs framed as the favoured mechanisms to target in order to bring about change to improve health. Utilising understandings exemplified in critical health psychology, we take a more socially situated approach, focusing on practicing health, the rhetoric of modernisation in UK health care and moves toward democratisation. While recognising that within these new ways of working there are opportunities for empowerment and user-led health care, there are other implications. How these changes link to simplistic cognitive behavioural ideologies of health promotion and rational decision-making is explored. Utilising two different empirical studies, this article highlights how self-management and expected compliance with governmental authority in relation to health practices position not only communities that experience multiple disadvantage but also more seemingly privileged social actors. The article presents a challenge to self-management and informed choice, in which the importance of navigational networks is evident. Because health care can become remote and inaccessible to certain sections of the community, yet pervasive and deterministic for others, we need multiple levels of analysis and different forms of action. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  12. Developing a secured social networking site using information security awareness techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius O. Okesola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since social network sites (SNS became a global phenomenon in almost every industry, security has become a major concern to many SNS stakeholders. Several security techniques have been invented towards addressing SNS security, but information security awareness (ISA remains a critical point. Whilst very few users have used social circles and applications because of a lack of users’ awareness, the majority have found it difficult to determine the basis of categorising friends in a meaningful way for privacy and security policies settings. This has confirmed that technical control is just part of the security solutions and not necessarily a total solution. Changing human behaviour on SNSs is essential; hence the need for a privately enhanced ISA SNS. Objective: This article presented sOcialistOnline – a newly developed SNS, duly secured and platform independent with various ISA techniques fully implemented. Method: Following a detailed literature review of the related works, the SNS was developed on the basis of Object Oriented Programming (OOP approach, using PhP as the coding language with the MySQL database engine at the back end. Result: This study addressed the SNS requirements of privacy, security and services, and attributed them as the basis of architectural design for sOcialistOnline. SNS users are more aware of potential risk and the possible consequences of unsecured behaviours. Conclusion: ISA is focussed on the users who are often the greatest security risk on SNSs, regardless of technical securities implemented. Therefore SNSs are required to incorporate effective ISA into their platform and ensure users are motivated to embrace it.

  13. HPV vaccine awareness and the association of trust in cancer information from physicians among males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dexter L; Hernandez, Natalie D; Rollins, Latrice; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin

    2017-05-09

    Black and Hispanic men are diagnosed with more HPV-related cancers and at later stages compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Physician communication with men about HPV vaccination may be beneficial to increasing HPV vaccinations and decreasing HPV transmission. The purpose of this study was to examine HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men by race, and the association between trust in cancer information from physicians and ever hearing about HPV and the HPV vaccine. U.S. adult males (age 18+) were identified from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (n=1203). Binomial logistic regression models assessed the influences of race/ethnicity and trust of cancer information from physicians on men having heard of HPV and the HPV vaccination. Approximately 50% of the sample had never heard of HPV and 53% had never heard of the vaccine. Black men were less likely to know that HPV is sexually transmitted compared to White and Hispanic men (pcancer information compared to White and Black men (pawareness about HPV among men. Furthermore, statistically significant racial/ethnic differences were found in HPV vaccine knowledge and trust in receiving cancer information from physicians. Future interventions should include community-based approaches and improved physicians' HPV-related communication to increase knowledge and uptake of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Genetic Literacy Awareness and Knowledge Gaps in the US Population: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Ratcliff, Chelsea L; Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg-Worisek, Alexandra J

    2018-05-31

    Public understanding of the role of genetics in disease risk is key to appropriate disease prevention and detection. This study assessed the current extent of awareness and use of genetic testing in the US population. Additionally, the study identified characteristics of subgroups more likely to be at risk for low genetic literacy. The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey, including measures of genetic testing awareness, genetic testing applications and genetic testing usage. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between sociodemographics, genetic testing awareness, and genetic testing use. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were aware of genetic tests. Testing awareness differed by age, household income, and race/ethnicity. Most participants had heard of using tests to determine personal disease risk (82.58%) or inherited disease risk in children (81.41%), but less were familiar with determining treatment (38.29%) or drug efficacy (40.76%). Among those with genetic testing awareness, actual testing uptake was low. A large portion of the general public lacks genetic testing awareness and may benefit from educational campaigns. As precision medicine expands, increasing public awareness about genetic testing applications for disease prevention and treatment will be important to support population health. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Effectiveness of Information Technology Simulation and Security Awareness Training on U.S Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Stanley K.

    2017-01-01

    In today's dynamic military environment, information technology plays a crucial role in the support of mission preparedness and operational readiness. This research examined the effectiveness of information technology security simulation and awareness training on U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan. Also, the study analyzed whether…

  16. Consumer value of context aware and location based mobile services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Henny; Haaker, Timber; Teerling, Marije; Kleijnen, M.H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Context aware services have the ability to utilize information about the user's context to adapt services to the user's current situation and needs. In this paper we consider users' perceptions of the added value of location awareness and presence information in mobile services. We use an

  17. The Situational Leadership Approach Effects on Employee Motivation in Multi-Generational Information Technology Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Thaddaeus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…

  18. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  19. Information Mining Technologies to Enable Discovery of Actionable Intelligence to Facilitate Maritime Situational Awareness: I-MINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    website). Data mining tools are in-house code developed in Python, C++ and Java . • NGA The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) performs data...as PostgreSQL (with PostGIS), MySQL , Microsoft SQL Server, SQLite, etc. using the appropriate JDBC driver. 14 The documentation and ease to learn are...written in Java that is able to perform various types of regressions, classi- fications, and other data mining tasks. There is also a commercial version

  20. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  1. Effect of information, education and communication intervention on awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings

  2. [Present situation of awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Pdating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.

  3. Examining the Security Awareness, Information Privacy, and the Security Behaviors of Home Computer Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on computer systems continue to be a problem. The majority of the attacks target home computer users. To help mitigate the attacks some companies provide security awareness training to their employees. However, not all people work for a company that provides security awareness training and typically, home computer users do not have the…

  4. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition.

  5. Defining information security education, training, and awareness needs using electronic meeting space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Corey D.; Frost, James; Wingert, Nathan; Maconachy, W. V.

    1999-01-01

    The United States is at target. For those of us who grew up curing the cold war this is not news; however, the threat is different than it has been in the past. Now it may be another super power or it may be a teenage child with a personal computer. Both government and civilian entities are potential targets. The national information infrastructure (NII) is the real target. The determined hacker can bring down not only government systems, but the power-grid, the financial system, or the air traffic control system as well. All organizations must be aware of the threat and be prepared to react appropriately. Of course, the federal government has begun to protect their critical systems. However, many American corporations have not yet fully protected their systems. Since there is a common threat, common standards for countermeasures are applicable. This paper reports on the use of an electronic meeting room technology by government, industry, and academia to establish a national training standard. If you are a CIO or advise one about security matters, these standards are important.

  6. Teachers' Awareness and Usage of Non-Violent Strategies for the Maintenance of Discipline in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Situational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoechina, Gladys Oby; Oguegbu, Adaeze; Akachukwu, Esther; Nwasor, Victor Chekume

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine teachers' level of awareness and usage of non-violent strategies/interventions for the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Corporal punishment has become an unwritten sine qua non for the maintenance of school discipline--often the first thought that comes to the minds of…

  7. Information system for characterising emergency situations in H2O-H2S dual temperature isotopic exchange plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Anghel, Mihai; Pop, Floarea; Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Patrascu, Mihai; Watzlawek, Ervin; Cheresdi, Dorin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the frame of MENER project 'Information system for response in emergency situation', the National R and D Institute For Cryogenics And Isotopic Technologies - ICIT Rm. Valcea developed calculation programmes to characterise fourteen emergency situations. Emergency situations are presented when process fluids are discharged directly or not to environment. Release of hydrogen sulphide gas or water saturated with hydrogen sulphide into the water feed pipe, steam feed pipe, condense pipe, water distillation plant or waste treating plant represent emergency situations. The information system includes calculation programmes for process fluids break in automatic isolated enclosures, liquid, gas or liquefied gas discharge and atmospheric dispersion. The calculation programs allow including the human or not human intervention in starting the security systems (emergency stack, water inundation, liquid drainage). When the process fluids discharge directly to environment one presents on diagrams the discharge flow rates (local and/or stack), enclosure pressure and/or temperature and the atmospheric dispersion. When the process fluids discharge not directly to environment one presents on diagrams just the variation in time of local discharge flow. (authors)

  8. Quantitative assessment of information load on control room operator in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The information processing by the operator in reading-from-display mode is addressed with the following conclusions: 1) The information measure which is needed should be translatable into the time requirements and as such, should reflect the peculiarities associated with mental information processing abilities. 2) The Information Processing Unit (IPU) is introduced as a measure that reflects the peculiarities and, therefore, is better than the Information Entropy unit (H) for the problem under consideration. 3) All the messages that the operator might encounter are classified as belonging to one of three types, and the amount of processing information is quantified in the Information Processing Units (IPU). 4) A pilot study has been conducted to verify underlined assumptions and to evaluate the rate of information processing in reading-from-display mode

  9. Mobile agents in crisis situations - adapting information to user’s affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.; Evers, V.

    2010-01-01

    Emotion has been found to influence humans’ cognitive information processing and decision-making (Schwarz, 2000). A state of sadness, for example, is accompanied by substantive information processing, with greater attention to detail, whereas people in a happier state tend to process information

  10. Situating Information Literacy within the Curriculum: Using a Rubric to Shape a Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, Iris; Leebaw, Danya; Tompkins, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Rubrics are a rapidly growing subfield of information literacy assessment, providing a powerful tool for understanding student learning. This paper explores the role that the creation and application of an information literacy rubric can play in program development. Because of the Information Literacy in Student Writing assessment project at…

  11. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the

  12. Predictive information speeds up visual awareness in an individuation task by modulating threshold setting, not processing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Esther; Van Opstal, Filip; Verguts, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Theories on visual awareness claim that predicted stimuli reach awareness faster than unpredicted ones. In the current study, we disentangle whether prior information about the upcoming stimulus affects visual awareness of stimulus location (i.e., individuation) by modulating processing efficiency or threshold setting. Analogous research on stimulus identification revealed that prior information modulates threshold setting. However, as identification and individuation are two functionally and neurally distinct processes, the mechanisms underlying identification cannot simply be extrapolated directly to individuation. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate how individuation is influenced by prior information about the upcoming stimulus. To do so, a drift diffusion model was fitted to estimate the processing efficiency and threshold setting for predicted versus unpredicted stimuli in a cued individuation paradigm. Participants were asked to locate a picture, following a cue that was congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the picture's identity. Pictures were individuated faster in the congruent and neutral condition compared to the incongruent condition. In the diffusion model analysis, the processing efficiency was not significantly different across conditions. However, the threshold setting was significantly higher following an incongruent cue compared to both congruent and neutral cues. Our results indicate that predictive information about the upcoming stimulus influences visual awareness by shifting the threshold for individuation rather than by enhancing processing efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading on Informational Text Comprehension and Metacognitive Awareness of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Margaret Averill

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. This study tested the theories of metacognition and social cognition with a focus on self-regulation and self-efficacy. Participating students included a heterogeneous mix of regular…

  14. Awareness, adoption, and application of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Framework for Information Literacy in health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Stephanie J; Knapp, Maureen

    2017-10-01

    In early 2016, the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) officially adopted a conceptual Framework for Information Literacy (Framework) that was a significant shift away from the previous standards-based approach. This study sought to determine (1) if health sciences librarians are aware of the recent Framework for Information Literacy; (2) if they have used the Framework to change their instruction or communication with faculty, and if so, what changes have taken place; and (3) if certain librarian characteristics are associated with the likelihood of adopting the Framework. This study utilized a descriptive electronic survey. Half of all respondents were aware of and were using or had plans to use the Framework. Academic health sciences librarians and general academic librarians were more likely than hospital librarians to be aware of the Framework. Those using the Framework were mostly revising and creating content, revising their teaching approach, and learning more about the Framework. Framework users commented that it was influencing how they thought about and discussed information literacy with faculty and students. Most hospital librarians and half the academic health sciences librarians were not using and had no plans to use the Framework. Librarians with more than twenty years of experience were less likely to be aware of the Framework and more likely to have no plans to use it. Common reasons for not using the Framework were lack of awareness of a new version and lack of involvement in formal instruction. The results suggest that there is room to improve awareness and application of the Framework among health sciences librarians.

  15. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  16. The role of empathy in making availability judgments from video and silhouette awareness information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Baha, S.E.; Pijl, M.; Markopoulos, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports research concerning video media spaces for the home and specifically the extent to which different approaches for video obfuscation can balance conflicting requirements for awareness between connected individuals and privacy. Different filtering techniques were compared regarding

  17. Sources of training and of information for the teachers: the situation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, D.

    1994-01-01

    The best for an efficient communication is to stimulate the teachers' demand for information about nuclear energy. CEA, seen as the best information source for teachers, tries to apply this method (books, exhibitions, conferences, workshops). It is necessary to communicate following its legitimacy, to take into account the various sources of information, to communicate to these various sources and finally to help the citizen to detect the exaggerations of all kinds. In brief, inspire confidence

  18. 76 FR 32258 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... ``even more transparent, participatory, and collaborative'' and to release data ``proactively'' making it... disclosure of information it collects is an integral part of a constitutional democracy and informed public.... L. 110-175, Dec. 31, 2007; 5 U.S.C. 552 note), ``our constitutional democracy, our system of self...

  19. The Situation in the Sphere of Consortia and Licensing of Information Sources in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Pilar

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary reason for founding „consortia“ (open associations of information services in the Czech Republic seems to be the possibility of obtaining access to extensive and highly expensive information sources under more convenient conditions than if each of the participating institutions had to organise this access separately.Licensing the access to information sources within special purpose association of information services is a relatively recent innovation in the Czech republic practice. It has started at the end of the nineties (except for the CrossFire and Chemical Abstracts system users. Therefore, there has not been created any methodology of selecting „suitable“ members for forming a consortium nor for selection of partners, information source producers yet.

  20. Awareness, adoption, and application of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in health sciences libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Schulte

    2017-10-01

    Results: Half of all respondents were aware of and were using or had plans to use the Framework. Academic health sciences librarians and general academic librarians were more likely than hospital librarians to be aware of the Framework. Those using the Framework were mostly revising and creating content, revising their teaching approach, and learning more about the Framework. Framework users commented that it was influencing how they thought about and discussed information literacy with faculty and students. Most hospital librarians and half the academic health sciences librarians were not using and had no plans to use the Framework. Librarians with more than twenty years of experience were less likely to be aware of the Framework and more likely to have no plans to use it. Common reasons for not using the Framework were lack of awareness of a new version and lack of involvement in formal instruction. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is room to improve awareness and application of the Framework among health sciences librarians.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  1. Amanzi for Food: Working with Critical Realism to Inform a Situated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the study critically explores the emerging knowledge terrain to inform the ... early sociological work did not yet have an adequate ontological framing for differentiating ..... Here activity, concepts, space–time dimensioning and relations were all ...

  2. Informal Settlements, A minor field study on the situation in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Marina; Tibbelin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Informal settlements come in many forms and there are different expressions to describe them – illegal settlement or squatter settlement is some examples. Definitions of informal settlements emphasize lack of ownership or non-compliance with the authorities’ regulations. However they are tolerated to some degree by the authorities and are unlikely to be evicted or tested in court, which gives a sense of tenure security but no actual rights. This report aims to create a better understanding fo...

  3. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  4. Information and communication. In the event of abnormal situations relating to nuclear power. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, S.; Wuensche, G.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident the need for better communication and cooperation between the countries of Nordic Europe (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in case of nuclear accidents became increasingly obvious. An initiative in this direction was taken by the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), a intergovernmental body responsible for cooperation in the Nuclear field, established by the Nordic Council. Thus, the Nordic Contact Forum became a reality. The Forum was created to serve as an informal network among nuclear experts, information officers and journalists in the Nordic countries. The network has been held together by a committee consisting of one representative from each country, as appointed by the Governments. The Nordic Contact Forum arranged the first of three seminars for representatives of public authorities, the nuclear industry, and journalists in 1988 in Vikersund, Norway. The Forum also has established a network among information officers for the exchange of information of public interest within the nuclear field. As a result of its work and agreement has been reached as to when and how this information is to be disseminated, and lists of contact points have been drawn up. This will make it easier to give the public in each of the Nordic countries better an, above all, better coordinated information. The existence of this network has had positive results. Thus, on several occasions false rumours of nuclear accidents, radioactive clouds, etc, have been neutralized before they have caused unnecessary public concern. (au)

  5. Enhancing Disaster Management Through Social Media Analytics To Develop Situation Awareness: What Can Be Learned From Twitter Messages About Hurricane Sandy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Twitter became an important channel to contribute and consume all kinds of information, especially in times of disasters, when people feel the need for fast, real-time flows of information. Given the wealth of information Twitter provides, that information can be used by practitioners...

  6. Predictors of total calories purchased at fast-food restaurants: restaurant characteristics, calorie awareness, and use of calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Ian; Lowenfels, Ann; Noble, Corina; Spicer, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To examine purchase patterns at fast-food restaurants and their relation to restaurant characteristics, customer characteristics, and use of calorie information. Cross-sectional survey. Fast-food restaurants in New York State. Adult fast-food restaurant customers (n = 1,094). Restaurant characteristics (fast-food chain type, presence of calorie labels, and poverty of location), participant characteristics (demographics, calorie knowledge, awareness, and use), and customer purchasing patterns (ordering low-calorie or no beverage, small or no fries, or restaurant and customer characteristics, fast-food chain customer age, sex, calorie use, and calorie awareness were independently associated with total calories purchased (all P < .05; model R2 = .19). When 3 purchasing patterns were added to the model, calorie use (P = .005), but not calorie awareness, remained associated with total calories purchased. The 3 purchase patterns collectively accounted for the majority of variance in calorie totals (Δ model R2 = .40). Promoting use of calorie information, purchase strategies, and calorie awareness represents complementary ways to support lower-calorie choices at fast-food chains. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. REALIZATION OF INFORMED CONSENT AS ONE OF PATIENT'S RIGHTS: CURRENT SITUATION IN AZERBAIJAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustamova, F A; Mammadov, V G; Munir, K M

    Azerbaijan is a country in which the law is based on democratic principles. The mentioned principles underlie the national health care law. Democratic values, such as respect for human rights and freedoms, human dignity, as well as universal bioethical principles that are widely implemented in the national law, create conditions for the implementation of the patient's rights. The basic law governing the doctor-patient relationship, Law on Protection of Health of Population in Azerbaijan, reflects the basic patients' rights and obligations of doctors and medical institutions. Informed consent, which is a key component of patient rights, is also reflected, however, to date, a significant drawback of the Azerbaijan medical legislation is described in the article in this field. For example, at the moment there is no single standardized informed consent form in the country's different medical institutions. Due to the absence of any legally approved standards for informed consent forms, public and private health care institutions individually develop such forms, which sometimes can differ significantly. At the moment, one of the important directions in the field of healthcare is its improvement in accordance with international standards. The research made it possible to make conclusions about the necessary measures to improve and unify the informed consent form. The authors also analyzed the main provisions of the medical law of Azerbaijan and identified the main trends of its further development.

  8. Probabilistic aspects of analysis and information operation of the system in situations of conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gluschenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of research of the parameters interaction structure and the conflict formation are considered in the stochastic systems by the general system theory. The mathematical aspects of relations conflict, promotion and indifference are analyzed. We consider the information approach for the analysis of the conflict.

  9. Spatial soil information in South Africa: Situational analysis, limitations and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Paterson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil information is vital for a range of purposes; however, soils vary greatly over short distances, making accurate soil data difficult to obtain. Soil surveys were first carried out in the 1920s, and the first national soil map was produced in 1940. Several regional studies were done in the 1960s, with the national Land Type Survey completed in 2002. Subsequently, the transfer of soil data to digital format has allowed a wide range of interpretations, but many data are still not freely available as they are held by a number of different bodies. The need for soil data is rapidly expanding to a range of fields, including health, food security, hydrological modelling and climate change. Fortunately, advances have been made in fields such as digital soil mapping, which enables the soil surveyors to address the need. The South African Soil Science fraternity will have to adapt to the changing environment in order to comply with the growing demands for data. At a recent Soil Information Workshop, soil scientists from government, academia and industry met to concentrate efforts in meeting the current and future soil data needs. The priorities identified included: interdisciplinary collaboration; expansion of the current national soil database with advanced data acquisition, manipulation, interpretation and countrywide dissemination facilities; and policy and human capital development in newly emerging soil science and environmental fields. It is hoped that soil information can play a critical role in the establishment of a national Natural Agricultural Information System.

  10. A Location Aware Middleware Framework for Collaborative Visual Information Discovery and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    scalable location-aware distributed indexing to enable the leveraging of collaborative effort for the construction and maintenance of world-scale visual... Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.1 Related Works...build an image-based database for road navigation, Google hires cars to drive and take pictures along roads . For this effort to have complete global

  11. Moral Deliberation and Environmental Awareness: Reviewing Deweyan-Informed Possibilities for Contemporary Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    The recent surge in interest in progressive education ideas has often been accompanied by an increased advocacy for learning outdoors, with experiential and holistic learning approaches considered the most beneficial method for cultivating personal and social development and raising awareness of contemporary environmental concerns. However,…

  12. Public library services in the information age: international overview and the situation in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Barber

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analizes public/popular library services in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas. The aim has been to relate the descriptive local data with the trends in developed countries after a selective study of the international literature. The results have shown that the studied units provide a basic service, misuse their alleged technological infrastructure and do not direct their resources to implement the services required by society in the information age.

  13. Research on mobile advertising based on situational awareness%基于情景感知的移动广告研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玉金; 骆钰程

    2016-01-01

    This paper in the analysis based on the characteristics of the mobile advertising,from the user's point of view of through analyzing the situation of the mobile advertising were studied to mobile commerce mode study gives some reference.%本文在分析移动广告特性的基础上,从用户的角度出发,通过实证对情景化的移动广告进行了研究,希望能够为移动商务的模式研究给出一定的参考。

  14. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Liao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain.Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons.Trust in formal (government/media information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36 and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25, which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively. Trust in informal (interpersonal information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21, which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42 but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44. Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16 which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36. Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy.Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  15. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin; Lam, Wing Tak; Ng, Man Wai; Fielding, Richard

    2010-10-12

    Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain. Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal) information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons. Trust in formal (government/media) information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36) and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25), which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively). Trust in informal (interpersonal) information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21), which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42) but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44). Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16) which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36). Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy. Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  16. Metrics for smart security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, William A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available informing the response teams for reparations. These capabilities are possible by collecting data from the environment and ensuring intelligence is developed to react automatically without human intervention. The concept of smart cities has also been.... The data would be transported to a centralized situational awareness capability for analyses and create the appropriate response in the form of remedial action. The use of threat intelligence feeds could automatically sense the existence of a new threat...

  17. Educating Junior Military Officers for the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayles, Andre

    1998-01-01

    .... Improved situational awareness is expected to be a product of the Information Revolution in which telecommunications, sensors, all sources of intelligence, and global positioning are integrated...

  18. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Information literacy instruction in special libraries: the situation in the year 2010 in comparison with the year 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Tarfila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was to explore if information literacy instruction of Slovenian special library users has been improved since the last study in the year 2002,and if so, in which directions.Methodology/approach: Web-based survey was used to collect data from special libraries;the results were then compared with the findings of the survey carried out in 2002.Results: The results show that information literacy instruction of special library users has remained more or less unchanged. In the 2010 survey included special librarians are aware of the importance of developing information literacy but they are restricted by work overload, lack of resources and time, or are unskilled to perform this activity.As compared to the year 2002, a noticeable change has been observed only in the higher level of co-operation between special libraries and departments of their parent organizations.Research limitation: The sample size of both studies was not even, for advanced understanding of some results additional research methods should be used.Originality/practical implications: The study should stimulate special libraries to make a step forward in developing user instruction. However, information literacy is a core skill of the active working population and the driving force of innovation and competitiveness of the parent organization.

  20. Leveraging Social Networking Technologies: An Analysis of the Knowledge Flows Facilitated by Social Media and the Potential Improvements in Situational Awareness, Readiness, and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    and Alberts , Garstka, & Stein (1999), in Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority, that data and information are...professionally enhancing issues to those in the military profession (Dixon, 2007; Dixon, Allen, Burgess, Kilner, & Schweitzer , 2005; Small Wars...Journal, 2009). These sites are a popular medium for officers and enlisted to share knowledge and seek mentorship (Long & Schweitzer , 2004). Senior

  1. Expanding health insurance scheme in the informal sector in Nigeria: awareness as a potential demand-side tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, David Ayobami; Akanbi, Saidat Abisola; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Bello, Segun

    2017-01-01

    The implementation and expansion of a health insurance scheme in the informal sector, particularly in developing countries, is a challenge. With the aid of an innovative Information-Education and Communication model, titled 'Understanding the concept of health insurance: An innovative social marketing tool', an assessment of the awareness and perception of the scheme among market women was carried out. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey, carried out among market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 351 women were interviewed using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was used to test associations between selected variables of interest. Logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of awareness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). A model controlling for participants' enrolment status was built and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) reported. Level of statistical significance was set at p market women aged 18 years and above participated in the study, a response rate of 98.0%. Respondents' educational status was the only predictor significantly associated with awareness of the NHIS. Respondents with post-primary education had 10 times the odds of being aware of the NHIS than respondents with no education or only primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 10.3; 95% CI = 4.1-26.0). Innovative models to enable potential beneficiaries, especially among the informal sector, to better comprehend and accept the concept of prepayment methods of financing healthcare costs is important in efforts to implement and expand a social health insurance scheme.

  2. A telephone survey of cancer awareness among frontline staff: informing training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N; Hart, A; Nuttall, K; Simpson, K; Turnill, N; Grant-Pearce, C; Damms, P; Allen, V; Slade, K; Dey, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown limited awareness about cancer risk factors among hospital-based staff. Less is known about general cancer awareness among community frontline National Health Service and social care staff. Methods: A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone survey of 4664 frontline community-based health and social care staff in North West England. Results: A total of 671 out of 4664 (14.4%) potentially eligible subjects agreed to take part. Over 92% of staff recognised most warning signs, except an unexplained pain (88.8%, n=596), cough or hoarseness (86.9%, n=583) and a sore that does not heal (77.3%, n=519). The bowel cancer-screening programme was recognised by 61.8% (n=415) of staff. Most staff agreed that smoking and passive smoking ‘increased the chance of getting cancer.' Fewer agreed about getting sunburnt more than once as a child (78.0%, n=523), being overweight (73.5%, n=493), drinking more than one unit of alcohol per day (50.2%, n=337) or doing less than 30 min of moderate physical exercise five times a week (41.1%, n=276). Conclusion: Cancer awareness is generally good among frontline staff, but important gaps exist, which might be improved by targeted education and training and through developing clearer messages about cancer risk factors. PMID:21750554

  3. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  4. “We want to show our face, man”: hip hop helping to build identity, awareness and social participation of young people in a socialy vulnerable situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Castro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip Hop is considered an artistic movement of social protest, which forms a symbolic guiding system of cultural practices and youth attitudes, enabling citizenship and social recognition. This study aimed to describe and analyze the use of hip hop as a strategy for the construction of identity, awareness, participation and social inclusion of young people in the daily life of peripheral communities from the perspective of cultural rights. This is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data collection took place over a year using 10 semi-structured interviews and footage of artistic and cultural workshops in the occupational therapeutic context, working at the interface between the social, the cultural field and the field of non-formal education. The thematic content analysis created three themes: Identity Construction and rescue the life course; Hip Hop as an expression of social reality; Social inclusion and participation. This research suggests that Hip Hop can be a useful resource in socio-educational practices, enabling critical reflection of young people in social vulnerability on their contexts, the rescue of the life course, identity construction and social participation.

  5. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  6. SECURITY AWARENESS – MAJOR PIECE IN THE PUZZLE OF INFORMATION SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUS PETRESCU; NICOLETA SÎRBU; ANCA-GABRIELA PETRESCU; MIOARA BRABOVEANU

    2011-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  7. Information Technology: DoD FY 2004 Implementation of the Federal Information Security Management Act for Information Technology Training and Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Sarah; Mitchell, James; Palmer, Kevin A; Riggins, Liyang; Truex, Kathryn; Williams, Zac

    2004-01-01

    ...). Specifically, we evaluated whether all agency employees, including contractors, received IT security training and awareness and whether employees with significant IT security responsibilities...

  8. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  9. A Quantitative Study on the Relationship of Information Security Policy Awareness, Enforcement, and Maintenance to Information Security Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Today's organizations rely heavily on information technology to conduct their daily activities. Therefore, their information security systems are an area of heightened security concern. As a result, organizations implement information security programs to address and mitigate that concern. However, even with the emphasis on information security,…

  10. Modern day addictions: The role of temptations in a reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model of information system use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir eTurel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a behavioral tripartite model developed in the field of addiction, and applied here to understanding general and impulsive information technology use. It suggests that technology use is driven by two information-processing brain systems: reflective and impulsive, and that their effects on use are modulated by interoceptive awareness processes. The resultant reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model is tested in two behavioral studies. Both studies employ SEM techniques to time-lagged self-report data from n1=300 and n2=369 social networking site users. Study 1 demonstrated that temptations augment the effect of habit on technology use, and reduce the effect of satisfaction on use. Study 2 showed that temptations strengthen the effect of habit on impulsive technology use, and weaken the effect of behavioral expectations on impulsive technology use. Hence, the results consistently support the notion that information technology users’ behaviors are influenced by reflective and impulsive information processing systems; and that the equilibrium of these systems is determined, at least in part, by one’s temptations. These results can serve as a basis for understanding the etiology of modern day addictions.

  11. Exploring Effects of Organizational Culture upon Implementation of Information Security Awareness and Training Programs within the Defense Industry Located in the Tennessee Valley Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robert Luther

    2017-01-01

    Data breaches due to social engineering attacks and employee negligence are on the rise. The only known defense against social engineering attacks and employee negligence is information security awareness and training. However, implementation of awareness and training programs within organizations are lagging in priority. This research used the…

  12. Cost of Achieving Squad Overmatch by Training Resilience and Situational Awareness Skills that Optimize Human Performance and Discourage PTS and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Integrated Laser Engagement System MOS Military Occupational Specialty MRT Master Resilience Trainer MOUT Military Operations on Urban Terrain MSEL...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1

  13. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-01-01

    As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs) into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT) is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assis...

  14. Development of an Information Security Awareness Training Program for the Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alageel, Sami

    2003-01-01

    The Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF) are vulnerable to the same kinds of threats to its information infrastructure as the rest of the industrialized nations, As an officer in the RSNF, I am familiar with the special information...

  15. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  16. Life-cycle support for staff assignment rules in process-aware information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle-Ma, S.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Process mining has been proposed as a tool for analyzing business processes based on events logs. Today, most information systems are logging events in some log and thus provide detailed information about the processes they are supporting. This information can be used for two forms of process

  17. Minatom of Russia Situation and Crisis Center and the Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berchik, V.P.; Kasumova, L.A.; Babcock, R.A.; Heinberg, C.L.; Tynan, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Under the Situation and Crisis Center (SCC) management, the Information Analytical Center (IAC) of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) of Russia was created to oversee the operation of the Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS). During 2000, the FIS achieved an important milestone in its development: the basic functions of the information system were implemented. This includes placing into operation the collecting and processing of nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A) information from the enterprises reporting to the FIS. The FIS began working with 14 Russian enterprises to develop and implement full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). In 2001, the system will expand to include enterprise-level inventory information for all enterprises using nuclear materials in Russia. For this reason, at the end of 2000 through the beginning of 2001, five separate training sessions were held for over 100 enterprise personnel responsible for preparation and transfer of the reports to the FIS. Through the assistance of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program, information systems for the accounting of nuclear materials are being installed at Russia enterprises. In creating the program for modernization of the Russian Federation State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear material, the SCC conducted a survey of the enterprises to determine the readiness of their internal MC and A systems for reporting to the FIS. Based on the information from the survey and the results of the projects on creation of local information systems at Russian enterprises, the analysis of information and the technical aspects of MC and A systems identified deficiencies that were analyzed and recommendations for eliminating these deficiencies were proposed. The concentration of analytical and administrative

  18. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  19. Unsolicited information letters to increase awareness of Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer: reactions and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Lautrup, Charlotte Kvist; Lindberg, Lars Joachim; Ladelund, Steen; Nilbert, Mef

    2018-04-12

    Dissemination of information on a genetically increased risk should according to guidelines primarily be family-mediated. Incomplete and incorrect information spread has, however, been documented and implies missed possibilities for prevention. In Denmark, the national HNPCC register has been granted an exception to send unsolicited letters with information on hereditary colorectal cancer and an invitation to genetic counseling to members of families with familial and hereditary colorectal cancer. To evaluate this approach, we investigated reactions and attitudes to unsolicited letters in 708 members of families with genetic predisposition and in 1600 individuals from the general population. Support for information letters was expressed by 78% of the family members and by 82% of the general population. Regarding route of information, 90% of family members preferred a letter to no information, 66% preferred information from the hospital rather than from family members and 40% preferred to obtain information from a close family member. Our results suggest that use of unsolicited information letters from the health care system may be a feasible and highly acceptable strategy to disseminate information to families at high risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. Information Technology (IT) Ethics: Training and Awareness Materials for the Department of the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    people in DoD. Although every effort is taken to prevent it, the fact remains that computers and information technology create ethical issues that...illegal activity of this type takes place. 3. Collection, Stewardship, and Use of Information In this era of computer networks and the Internet ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) ETHICS