WorldWideScience

Sample records for situation aware assessment

  1. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Teles, Ariel; Rocha, Artur; José da Silva E Silva, Francisco; Correia Lopes, João; O'Sullivan, Donal; Van de Ven, Pepijn; Endler, Markus

    2017-01-10

    Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan , a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster , an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient's daily routine (e.g., "studying", "at work", "working out"). MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  2. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Soares Teles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan, a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster, an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient’s daily routine (e.g., “studying”, “at work”, “working out”. MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  3. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  4. Constructible Assessment for Situation Awareness in a Distributed C2 Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seet, Alfred W; Teh, Cheryl A; Soo, John K; Teo, Leonghwee

    2004-01-01

    .... This method is an adaptation of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) by M. R. Endsley (1995) that takes into account specific constraints for use in a field exercise, such as minimizing the level of intrusiveness...

  5. Situation Aware Assessment of Regulating Power Need and Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    power plants, but have the capability to provide a number of ancillary services. It is envisioned that wind power may at times provide a certain share of system stabilization, but it must also be seen that this contribution is limited to only a part of the required functions and that it fluctuates...... with the available wind. The approach proposed in this paper uses a functional classification to sort out the control requirements of a power system with a high share of fluctuating renewable and distributed energy sources and aims to combine it with a structured quantitative assessment.......Distributed generation and renewable energy sources are both, new disturbance and new regulation resource. Which it is, depends to a large extend on the facilitation of control capabilities, that for example modern wind turbines can provide. Most renewable energy sources are quite unlike classical...

  6. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  7. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  8. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  9. Satellite-Based Assessment of Rainfall-Triggered Landslide Hazard for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Determining the time, location, and severity of natural disaster impacts is fundamental to formulating mitigation strategies, appropriate and timely responses, and robust recovery plans. A Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness (LHASA) model was developed to indicate potential landslide activity in near real-time. LHASA combines satellite-based precipitation estimates with a landslide susceptibility map derived from information on slope, geology, road networks, fault zones, and forest loss. Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission are used to identify rainfall conditions from the past 7 days. When rainfall is considered to be extreme and susceptibility values are moderate to very high, a "nowcast" is issued to indicate the times and places where landslides are more probable. When LHASA nowcasts were evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog, the probability of detection (POD) ranged from 8% to 60%, depending on the evaluation period, precipitation product used, and the size of the spatial and temporal window considered around each landslide point. Applications of the LHASA system are also discussed, including how LHASA is used to estimate long-term trends in potential landslide activity at a nearly global scale and how it can be used as a tool to support disaster risk assessment. LHASA is intended to provide situational awareness of landslide hazards in near real-time, providing a flexible, open-source framework that can be adapted to other spatial and temporal scales based on data availability.

  10. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  11. Assessment of situational awareness: team resources brought in action to enhance patient safety at the ICU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Situational Awareness (SA) relates to the team’s ability to perceive and anticipate threats in the care for patients. The present paper describes the development of a questionnaire that measures this SA gradient in the context of healthcare. The Resulting questionnaire (SafeTeam) consists

  12. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  13. Use of human patient simulation and the situation awareness global assessment technique in practical trauma skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael P; Pace, David E; Hapgood, Joanne; Boone, Darrell C

    2006-11-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is defined as the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. This construct is vital to decision making in intense, dynamic environments. It has been used in aviation as it relates to pilot performance, but has not been applied to medical education. The most widely used objective tool for measuring trainee SA is the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). The purpose of this study was to design and validate SAGAT for assessment of practical trauma skills, and to compare SAGAT results to traditional checklist style scoring. Using the Human Patient Simulator, we designed SAGAT for practical trauma skills assessment based on Advanced Trauma Life Support objectives. Sixteen subjects (four staff surgeons, four senior residents, four junior residents, and four medical students) participated in three scenarios each. They were assessed using SAGAT and traditional checklist assessment. A questionnaire was used to assess possible confounding factors in attaining SA and overall trainee satisfaction. SAGAT was found to show significant difference (analysis of variance; p level of training lending statistical support to construct validity. SAGAT was likewise found to display reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.767), and significant scoring correlation with traditional checklist performance measures (Pearson's coefficient 0.806). The questionnaire revealed no confounding factors and universal satisfaction with the human patient simulator and SAGAT. SAGAT is a valid, reliable assessment tool for trauma trainees in the dynamic clinical environment created by human patient simulation. Information provided by SAGAT could provide specific feedback, direct individualized teaching, and support curriculum change. Introduction of SAGAT could improve the current assessment model for practical trauma education.

  14. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    reactors, this study applied the NASA-TLX instrument for assessing mental workload. For the assessment of situation awareness (SA), the present research used the situational awareness rating technique (SART). In support of summarizing the results of user interface evaluation along multiple dimensions (e.g., workload, SA), we propose advantages for the CPs compared to the paper-based procedures.

  15. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih-Wei, E-mail: yangcw@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    status and progress through the procedure. Based on a human factors experiment in which each participant monitored and controlled multiple simulated reactors, this study applied the NASA-TLX instrument for assessing mental workload. For the assessment of situation awareness (SA), the present research used the situational awareness rating technique (SART). In support of summarizing the results of user interface evaluation along multiple dimensions (e.g., workload, SA), we propose advantages for the CPs compared to the paper-based procedures.

  16. Situation awareness system for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  17. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  18. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  19. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  20. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  1. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  2. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  3. Assessment for Operator Confidence in Automated Space Situational Awareness and Satellite Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, J.; Voshell, M.; Sliva, A.

    2016-09-01

    The United States is highly dependent on space resources to support military, government, commercial, and research activities. Satellites operate at great distances, observation capacity is limited, and operator actions and observations can be significantly delayed. Safe operations require support systems that provide situational understanding, enhance decision making, and facilitate collaboration between human operators and system automation both in-the-loop, and on-the-loop. Joint cognitive systems engineering (JCSE) provides a rich set of methods for analyzing and informing the design of complex systems that include both human decision-makers and autonomous elements as coordinating teammates. While, JCSE-based systems can enhance a system analysts' understanding of both existing and new system processes, JCSE activities typically occur outside of traditional systems engineering (SE) methods, providing sparse guidance about how systems should be implemented. In contrast, the Joint Director's Laboratory (JDL) information fusion model and extensions, such as the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture, provide the means to divide and conquer such engineering and implementation complexity, but are loosely coupled to specialized organizational contexts and needs. We previously describe how Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) extend the DNN to integrate JCSE analysis and design with the practicalities of system engineering and implementation using the DNN. Insights from Rasmussen's JCSE Decision Ladders align system implementation with organizational structures and processes. In the current work, we present a novel approach to assessing system performance based on patterns occurring in operational decisions that are documented by JCSE processes as traces in a decision ladder. In this way, system assessment is closely tied not just to system design, but the design of the joint cognitive system that includes human operators, decision-makers, information systems, and

  4. Big data for space situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  5. Continuous measures of situation awareness and workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Skraaning, Gyrd jr.; Sverrbo, Mona; Dalen, Joergen; Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle

    1998-03-01

    This report presents methods for continuous measures for Situation Awareness and Workload. The objective has been to identify, develop and test the new measures, and compare them to instruments that require interruptions of scenarios. The new measures are: (1) the Visual Indicator of Situation Awareness (VISA); where Situation Awareness is scored from predefined areas of visual interest critical for solving scenarios. Visual monitoring of areas was recorded by eye-movement tracking. (2) Workload scores reflected by Extended Dwell Time (EDT) and the operator Activity Level. EDT was calculated from eye-movement data files, and the activity level was estimated from simulator logs. Using experimental data from the 1996 CASH NRC Alarm study and the 1997 Human Error Analysis Project/ Human-Centred Automation study, the new measurement techniques have been tested and evaluated on a preliminary basis. The results showed promising relationships between the new continuous measures of situation awareness and workload, and established instruments based upon scenario interruptions. (author)

  6. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  7. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  8. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  9. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . The feedback loops and delays in the Command and Control system also contribute to the complex dynamic behavior. This paper will build on existing situation awareness models to develop a System Dynamics model to support a qualitative investigation through...

  10. Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Missen, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Bucknall, Tracey; Cant, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Nursing work often occurs in complex and potentially hazardous settings. Awareness of patient and practice environments is an imperative for nurses in practice. To explore nursing students' situation awareness while engaging in simulated patient deterioration scenarios. The educational process of FIRST(2)ACT was the model for the nurse intervention. Situation awareness was measured quantitatively using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment tool. Four domains were measured: physiological perception (patient parameters), global perception (surroundings), comprehension (interpretation of information), and projection (forecasting outcomes). Clinical laboratories at each of three participating universities. Ninety-seven nursing students from three Australian universities. Between March and July 2012, students participated in three video-recorded simulation events, in which a trained actor played patient roles and groups of three students worked as teams. To measure situation awareness, following the simulation each team leader was taken to a separate room and asked to report on a question set regarding the patient's vital signs, bedside setting and medical diagnosis. Overall, situation awareness was low (41%). Of the four domains, physiological perceptions scored the lowest (26%) and projection the highest (59%). Final year nursing students may not have well developed situation awareness skills, especially when dealing with these types of scenarios. Education providers need to consider ways to assist students to fully develop this attribute. Findings suggest that this is an aspect of undergraduate nursing education that requires significant consideration by curriculum developers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Working Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development

  12. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    . The foundation for this framework is previous research in situation awareness and virtual reality, combined with our analysis of interviews with and observations of collaborating scientists. The framework suggests that situation awareness is comprised of contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information. Research in virtual reality systems suggests control, sensory, distraction and realism attributes of technology contribute to a sense of presence [Presence 7 (1998) 225]. We suggest that consideration of these attributes with respect to contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information provides insights to guide design decisions. We used the framework when designing a scientific collaboratory system. Results from a controlled experimental evaluation of the collaboratory system help illustrate the framework's utility....

  13. Women's Drinking Decisions in Heterosocial Situations: Development and Validation of Scenarios to Assess Influence of Attraction and Risk-Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A; Loomis, Randi B; Heaton, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    These three related studies created a set of ecologically valid scenarios for assessing relative associations of both attraction and sexual coercion risk-recognition in college women's heterosocial situational drinking decisions. The first study constructed nine scenarios using input from heterosexual drinking women in the age cohort (18-30) most likely to experience alcohol-related sexual coercion. In the second study, 50 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) assessed the salience of three important dimensions (attraction, risk, and realism) in these scenarios. The third study was a factor analysis (and a follow-up confirmatory factor analysis) of the elements of coercion-risk as perceived by the target group with two female samples recruited 1 year apart (Sample 1: N = 157, ages 18-29); Sample 2: N = 157, ages 18-30). Results confirmed that the scenarios could be a useful vehicle for assessing how women balance out risk and attraction to make in-the moment heterosocial drinking decisions. The factor analysis showed participants perceived two types of situations, based on whether the male character was "Familiar" or "Just Met" and perceived themselves as happier and more excited with Familiar males. However, in contrast to HIV risk studies, Familiar males were perceived as higher risk for unwanted sex. Future research will use the six scenarios that emerged from the factor analysis to study how attraction and risk perception differentially affect young adult women's social drinking decisions.

  14. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  15. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  16. Integrity of a common operating picture in military situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of qualification of a common operating picture (COP) directly impacts the situational awareness of military Command and Control (C2). Since a commander is reliant on situational awareness information in order to make decisions regarding...

  17. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  18. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  19. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  20. Improving situation awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usbeck, Kyle; Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Gronosky, Andrew; Sterling, Joshua; Kohler, Ralph; Hanlon, Kelly; Scally, Andrew; Newkirk, Richard; Canestrare, David

    2015-05-01

    To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information. A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video. This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.

  1. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  2. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  3. Measuring situation awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, PM; Stanton, NA; Walker, GH; Jenkins, DP; Ladva, D; Rafferty, L; Young, MS

    2008-01-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is a distinct critical commodity for teams working in complex industrial systems and its measurement is a key provision in system, procedural and training design efforts. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare three different SA measures (a freeze probe recall approach, a post trial subjective rating approach and a critical incident interview technique) when used to assess participant SA during a military planning task. The results indi...

  4. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed.

  5. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  6. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2013-09-01

    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  7. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  8. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. A development of a quantitative situation awareness measurement tool: Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed quantitative situation awareness (SA) evaluation technique. • We developed a computer based SA evaluation tool for NPPs training environment. • We introduced three rules and components to express more human-like results. • We conducted three sets of training with real plant operators. • Results showed that the tool could reasonably represent operator’s SA. - Abstract: Operator performance measures are used for multiple purposes, such as control room design, human system interface (HSI) evaluation, training, and so on. Performance measures are often focused on results; however, especially for a training purpose – at least in a nuclear industry, more detailed descriptions about processes are required. Situation awareness (SA) measurements have directly/indirectly played as a complimentary measure and provided descriptive insights on how to improve performance of operators for the next training. Unfortunately, most of the well-developed SA measurement techniques, such as Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) need an expert opinion which sometimes troubles easy spread of measurement’s application or usage. A quantitative SA measurement tool named Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE) is introduced to resolve some of these concerns. CoRSAGE is based on production rules to represent a human operator’s cognitive process of problem solving, and Bayesian inference to quantify it. Petri Net concept is also used for graphical expressions of SA flow. Three components – inference transition, volatile/non-volatile memory tokens – were newly developed to achieve required functions. Training data of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario for an emergency condition and an earthquake scenario for an abnormal condition by real plant operators were used to validate the tool. The validation result showed that CoRSAGE performed a reasonable match to other performance

  10. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...... for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many...... the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible...

  11. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  12. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  13. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  14. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  15. Multisensor Fusion for Intrusion Detection and Situational Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstensen, Christoffer V

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime damage costs the world several trillion dollars annually. And al-though technical solutions to protect organizations from hackers are being con-tinuously developed, criminals learn fast to circumvent them. The question is,therefore, how to create leverage to protect an organization by improving in-trusion detection and situational awareness? This thesis seeks to contribute tothe prior art in intrusion detection and situational awareness by using a multi-sensor data fusion...

  16. Learning game for training child bicyclists' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Esko; Sahlberg, Heidi; Rovamo, Emilia; Summala, Heikki

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8-9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the

  17. Perspective information in the cockpit to improve situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Three simulator experiments were carried out to quantify the potential benefits of perspective visual displays in the cockpit for situational awareness support of the pilot, in local guidance and global awareness tasks. In the first experiment, the application of an egocentric perspective display

  18. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  19. Modeling Cyber Situational Awareness Through Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    following table: Table 3.10: Example Vulnerable Hosts for Criticality Assessment Experiment Example Id OS Applications/Services Version 1 Mac OS X VLC ...linux.org/. [4] Blasch, E., I. Kadar, J. Salerno, M. Kokar, S. Das, G. Powell, D. Corkill, and E. Ruspini. “Issues and challenges of knowledge representation...Holsopple. “Issues and challenges in higher level fusion: Threat/impact assessment and intent modeling (a panel summary)”. Information Fusion (FUSION

  20. Towards ontology-driven situation-aware disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, numerous ICT applications with mechanisms to detect situations have been developed to support disaster management (DM), which is a field of a great societal and economic importance. Those applications are termed situation-aware (SA) because they try, in near real-time, to

  1. Modelling of Situation Awareness with Perception, Attention, and Prior and Retrospective Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Human awareness under different circumstances is complex and non-trivial to understand. Nevertheless, due to the importance of awareness for safety and efficiency in many domains (e.g.; the aviation domain), it is necessary to study the processes behind situation awareness, to eliminate possible

  2. A Simulation and Modeling Framework for Space Situational Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and initial demonstration of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness enterprise, for quantitatively assessing the benefit of specific sensor systems, technologies and data analysis techniques. The framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient, physics-based simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The details of the modeling and simulation framework are described, including hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, radar cross section calculations, optical brightness calculations, generic radar system models, generic optical system models, specific Space Surveillance Network models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, and visualization tools. The use of this integrated simulation and modeling framework on a specific scenario involving space debris is demonstrated

  3. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  4. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  5. Building shared situational awareness in surgery through distributed dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie BM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brigid M Gillespie,1 Karleen Gwinner,2 Nicole Fairweather,3 Wendy Chaboyer41NHMRC Research Centre for Clinical Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalised Patients (NCREN and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, 2Griffith Centre for Cultural Research, Griffith University, Queensland, 3Department of Anaesthesiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Queensland, Australia, 4Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalized Patients (NCREN Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice INHMRC Centre of Research Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Failure to convey time-critical information to team members during surgery diminishes members' perception of the dynamic information relevant to their task, and compromises shared situational awareness. This research reports the dialog around clinical decisions made by team members in the time-pressured and high-risk context of surgery, and the impact of these communications on shared situational awareness.Methods: Fieldwork methods were used to capture the dynamic integration of individual and situational elements in surgery that provided the backdrop for clinical decisions. Nineteen semistructured interviews were performed with 24 participants from anesthesia, surgery, and nursing in the operating rooms of a large metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis was used.Results: The domain "coordinating decisions in surgery" was generated from textual data. Within this domain, three themes illustrated the dialog of clinical decisions, ie, synchronizing and strategizing actions, sharing local knowledge, and planning contingency decisions based on priority.Conclusion: Strategies used to convey decisions that enhanced shared situational awareness included the use of "self-talk", closed-loop communications, and

  6. Uncertainty Reasoning for Service-Based Situational Awareness Information on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate situational assessment is key to any decision maker and especially crucial in military command and control, air traffic control, and complex system decision making. Endsley described three dependent levels of situational awareness, (1) perception, (2) understanding, and (3) projection. This research was focused on Endsley's…

  7. Situation awareness and workload in complex tactical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides an example of a method to get insight into workload changes over time, executed tasks and situation awareness (SA) in complex task environments. The method is applied to measure the workload of a helicopter crew. The method has three components: 1) task analysis, 2) video

  8. Modelling situation awareness relations in a multiagent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus that situation awareness (SA) plays a key role in agent-based modelling of complex sociotechnical systems. However in the social sciences and human factors literature there are different views on what SA is and how it could be modelled. More specifically, one school of

  9. Designing for Situation Awareness : the World behind the Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Borst, C.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the design of human-machine interfaces and automation, an important question is how to obtain and validate a design that is capable of supporting the operator’s understanding and situation awareness of the process under control. Whereas many research efforts address the question of ‘what is the

  10. Situation Awareness in Sea Kayaking: Towards a Practical Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart; Varley, Peter; Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2017-01-01

    Ever-changing weather and sea conditions constitute environmental hazards that sea kayakers must pay attention to and act upon to stay safe. The aim of this study was to propose a tool to aid sea kayakers' situation awareness (SA). We developed a checklist guided by theory on the concept of SA and expert problem detection, judgement and…

  11. Space Situational Awareness Data Processing Scalability Utilizing Google Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, D.; Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.; Flores, F.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a fundamental and critical component of current space operations. The term SSA encompasses the awareness, understanding and predictability of all objects in space. As the population of orbital space objects and debris increases, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows and prompts the need for accurate and timely process measures. The SSA mission continually evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis demanding the need for higher processing capabilities. By conventional methods, meeting these demands requires the integration of new hardware to keep pace with the growing complexity of maneuver planning algorithms. SpaceNav has implemented a highly scalable architecture that will track satellites and debris by utilizing powerful virtual machines on the Google Cloud Platform. SpaceNav algorithms for processing CDMs outpace conventional means. A robust processing environment for tracking data, collision avoidance maneuvers and various other aspects of SSA can be created and deleted on demand. Migrating SpaceNav tools and algorithms into the Google Cloud Platform will be discussed and the trials and tribulations involved. Information will be shared on how and why certain cloud products were used as well as integration techniques that were implemented. Key items to be presented are: 1.Scientific algorithms and SpaceNav tools integrated into a scalable architecture a) Maneuver Planning b) Parallel Processing c) Monte Carlo Simulations d) Optimization Algorithms e) SW Application Development/Integration into the Google Cloud Platform 2. Compute Engine Processing a) Application Engine Automated Processing b) Performance testing and Performance Scalability c) Cloud MySQL databases and Database Scalability d) Cloud Data Storage e) Redundancy and Availability

  12. Can teamwork and situational awareness (SA) in ED resuscitations be improved with a technological cognitive aid? Design and a pilot study of a team situation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parush, A; Mastoras, G; Bhandari, A; Momtahan, K; Day, K; Weitzman, B; Sohmer, B; Cwinn, A; Hamstra, S J; Calder, L

    2017-12-01

    Effective teamwork in ED resuscitations, including information sharing and situational awareness, could be degraded. Technological cognitive aids can facilitate effective teamwork. This study focused on the design of an ED situation display and pilot test its influence on teamwork and situational awareness during simulated resuscitation scenarios. The display design consisted of a central area showing the critical dynamic parameters of the interventions with an events time-line below it. Static information was placed at the sides of the display. We pilot tested whether the situation display could lead to higher scores on the Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS), improved scores on a context-specific Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) tool, and team communication patterns that reflect teamwork and situational awareness. Resuscitation teamwork, as measured by the CTS, was overall better with the presence of the situation display as compared with no situation display. Team members discussed interventions more with the situation display compared with not having the situation display. Situational awareness was better with the situation display only in the trauma scenario. The situation display could be more effective for certain ED team members and in certain cases. Overall, this pilot study implies that a situation display could facilitate better teamwork and team communication in the resuscitation event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncertainty and Risk Management in Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason; Ou, Xinming; Rajagopalan, Raj

    Handling cyber threats unavoidably needs to deal with both uncertain and imprecise information. What we can observe as potential malicious activities can seldom give us 100% confidence on important questions we care about, e.g. what machines are compromised and what damage has been incurred. In security planning, we need information on how likely a vulnerability can lead to a successful compromise to better balance security and functionality, performance, and ease of use. These information are at best qualitative and are often vague and imprecise. In cyber situational awareness, we have to rely on such imperfect information to detect real attacks and to prevent an attack from happening through appropriate risk management. This chapter surveys existing technologies in handling uncertainty and risk management in cyber situational awareness.

  14. Cognitive Task Analysis Based Training for Cyber Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Huang , Zequn; Shen , Chien-Chung; Doshi , Sheetal; Thomas , Nimmi; Duong , Ha

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Innovative Methods; International audience; Cyber attacks have been increasing significantly in both number and complexity, prompting the need for better training of cyber defense analysts. To conduct effective training for cyber situation awareness, it becomes essential to design realistic training scenarios. In this paper, we present a Cognitive Task Analysis based approach to address this training need. The technique of Cognitive Task Analysis is to capture and represent knowledge ...

  15. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  16. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  17. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  18. Simulation-based evaluation of an in-vehicle smart situation awareness enhancement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriades, Andreas; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2018-07-01

    Situation awareness (SA) constitutes a critical factor in road safety, strongly related to accidents. This paper describes the evaluation of a proposed SA enhancement system (SAES) that exploits augmented reality through a head-up display (HUD). Two SAES designs were evaluation (information rich vs. minimal information) using a custom-made simulator and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique with performance and EEG measures. The paper describes the process of assessing the SA of drivers using the SAES, through a series of experiments with participants in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment. The effectiveness of the SAES was tested in a within-group research design. The results showed that the information rich (radar-style display) was superior to the minimal (arrow hazard indicator) design and that both SAES improved drivers' SA and performance compared to the control (no HUD) design. Practitioner Summary: Even though driver situation awareness is considered as one of the leading causes of road accidents, little has been done to enhance it. The current study demonstrates the positive effect of a proposed situation awareness enhancement system on driver situation awareness, through an experiment using virtual prototyping in a simulator.

  19. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  20. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

    2013-01-01

    The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

  1. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, D O D; Shah, A; Sediono, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process

  2. Ego-location and situational awareness in semistructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Stevens, Mark R.; Stube, Brian; McBride, Jonah

    2003-09-01

    The success of any potential application for mobile robots depends largely on the specific environment where the application takes place. Practical applications are rarely found in highly structured environments, but unstructured environments (such as natural terrain) pose major challenges to any mobile robot. We believe that semi-structured environments-such as parking lots-provide a good opportunity for successful mobile robot applications. Parking lots tend to be flat and smooth, and cars can be uniquely identified by their license plates. Our scenario is a parking lot where only known vehicles are supposed to park. The robot looks for vehicles that do not belong in the parking lot. It checks both license plates and vehicle types, in case the plate is stolen from an approved vehicle. It operates autonomously, but reports back to a guard who verifies its performance. Our interest is in developing the robot's vision system, which we call Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME). In this paper, we present initial results from the development of two SESAME subsystems, the ego-location and license plate detection systems. While their ultimate goals are obviously quite different, our design demonstrates that by sharing intermediate results, both tasks can be significantly simplified. The inspiration for this design approach comes from the basic tenets of Situational Awareness (SA), where the benefits of holistic perception are clearly demonstrated over the more typical designs that attempt to solve each sensing/perception problem in isolation.

  3. Modeling Learner Situation Awareness in Collaborative Mobile Web 2.0 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…

  4. On detection and visualization techniques for cyber security situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Shixiao; Shen, Dan; Blowers, Misty; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe; Zhang, Hanlin; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Networking technologies are exponentially increasing to meet worldwide communication requirements. The rapid growth of network technologies and perversity of communications pose serious security issues. In this paper, we aim to developing an integrated network defense system with situation awareness capabilities to present the useful information for human analysts. In particular, we implement a prototypical system that includes both the distributed passive and active network sensors and traffic visualization features, such as 1D, 2D and 3D based network traffic displays. To effectively detect attacks, we also implement algorithms to transform real-world data of IP addresses into images and study the pattern of attacks and use both the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based scheme and the statistical based scheme to detect attacks. Through an extensive simulation study, our data validate the effectiveness of our implemented defense system.

  5. Towards Incidence Management in 5G Based on Situational Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their components, which raises important challenges related to safety. In order to contribute to their resolution, this paper proposes a novel architecture for incident management on 5G. The approach combines the conventional risk management schemes with the Endsley Situational Awareness model, thus improving effectiveness in different aspects, among them the ability to adapt to complex and dynamical monitoring environments, and countermeasure tracking or the role of context when decision-making. The proposal takes into account all layers for information processing in 5G mobile networks, ranging from infrastructure to the actuators responsible for deploying corrective measures.

  6. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  7. High Performance Computing Software Applications for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, C.; Schumacher, P.; Matson, C.; Chun, F.; Duncan, B.; Borelli, K.; Desonia, R.; Gusciora, G.; Roe, K.

    The High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA) has completed its first full year of applications development. The emphasis of our work in this first year was in improving space surveillance sensor models and image enhancement software. These applications are the Space Surveillance Network Analysis Model (SSNAM), the Air Force Space Fence simulation (SimFence), and physically constrained iterative de-convolution (PCID) image enhancement software tool. Specifically, we have demonstrated order of magnitude speed-up in those codes running on the latest Cray XD-1 Linux supercomputer (Hoku) at the Maui High Performance Computing Center. The software applications improvements that HSAI-SSA has made, has had significant impact to the warfighter and has fundamentally changed the role of high performance computing in SSA.

  8. Situation awareness of active distribution network: roadmap, technologies, and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of local generation and demand response, the active distribution network (ADN), which aggregates and manages miscellaneous distributed resources, has moved from theory to practice. Secure and optimal operations now require an advanced situation awareness (SA) system so...... in the project of developing an SA system as the basic component of a practical active distribution management system (ADMS) deployed in Beijing, China, is presented. This paper reviews the ADN’s development roadmap by illustrating the changes that are made in elements, topology, structure, and control scheme....... Taking into consideration these hardware changes, a systematic framework is proposed for the main components and the functional hierarchy of an SA system for the ADN. The SA system’s implementation bottlenecks are also presented, including, but not limited to issues in big data platform, distribution...

  9. Describing Older Adults' Awareness of Fall Risk Using Situation Awareness Research Techniques: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Jo; Hall, Beth

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate efficacy of techniques adapted from situation awareness research for describing how older adults perceive and understand fall risk factors in the context of daily routine. Eleven older adults watched a video of an older woman performing daily activities. Thirteen intrinsic, extrinsic, and behavioral fall risks were embedded throughout the scenario. The video was periodically frozen/blanked from view while participants answered questions about their understanding of the situation and associated story elements. Participants perceived a variety of fall risk factors but did not necessarily interpret them as indicating fall risk. Many fall risks held non-fall meaning for participants (e.g., newspapers on the floor meant the woman liked to read). Although four participants readily identified a fall risk situation, seven did not until they were explicitly asked to consider safety. Study techniques were effective for describing situation awareness of fall risk and several suggestions for improvement are described. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):161-166.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  11. Modeling of Communication in a Computational Situation Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, or situation awareness, because failures of situation assessment may result in wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. Quantitative or prescriptive models to predict operator's situation assessment in a situation, the results of situation assessment, provide many benefits such as HSI design solutions, human performance data, and human reliability. Unfortunately, a few computational situation assessment models for NPP operators have been proposed and those insufficiently embed human cognitive characteristics. Thus we proposed a new computational situation assessment model of nuclear power plant operators. The proposed model incorporating significant cognitive factors uses a Bayesian belief network (BBN) as model architecture. It is believed that communication between nuclear power plant operators affects operators' situation assessment and its result, situation awareness. We tried to verify that the proposed model represent the effects of communication on situation assessment. As the result, the proposed model succeeded in representing the operators' behavior and this paper shows the details

  12. CubeSat Integration into the Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.

    2013-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of

  13. Can We Measure Operating Team's Situation Awareness with Verbal Protocols?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Today's systems are complex, focused on not just physical tasks, but on elaborate perceptual and cognitive tasks as well. Hence, humans in many complex and dynamic systems are required to act as effective and timely decision makers. Situation Awareness (SA), which is used within human factor research to explain to what extent operators of safety critical and complex real systems know what is going on the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor for effective decision making and performance. Thus, the need for operators to maintain SA in complex and dynamic environments is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. In terms of understanding SA, much effort has been devoted to the development of a measurement method of SA. Thus far, however, various studies have been limited to addressing the SA of individual operators. However, many complex systems are operated by teams. It is typical of complex systems that they require more than one operator. The purpose of this study is to develop team SA measurement method using verbal protocol data

  14. Prediction of situational awareness in F-15 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, T R; Perry, D C; Ree, M J

    1996-01-01

    Situational awareness (SA) is a skill often deemed essential to pilot performance in both combat and noncombat flying. A study was conducted to determine if SA in U.S. Air Force F-15 pilots could be predicted. The participants were 171 active duty F-15 A/C pilots who completed a test battery representative of various psychological constructs proposed or demonstrated to be valid for the prediction of performance in a wide variety of military and civilian jobs. These predictors encompassed measures of cognitive ability, psychomotor ability, and personality. Supervisor and peer ratings of SA were collected. Supervisors and peers showed substantial agreement on the SA ratings of the pilots. The first unrotated principle component extracted from the supervisor and peer ratings accounted for 92.5% of the variability of ratings. The unrotated first principal component served as the SA criterion. Flying experience measured in number of F-15 hours was the best predictor of SA. After controlling for the effects of F-15 flying hours, the measures of general cognitive ability based on working memory, spatial reasoning, and divided attention were found to be predictive of SA. Psychomotor and personality measures were not predictive. With additional F-15 flying hours it is expected that pilots would improve their ratings of SA.

  15. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  16. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  17. Tag-n-Track system for situation awareness for MOUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Manoj; Germano, Thomas E.; Zhao, Tao; Fontana, Robert; Bushika, Martin

    2006-05-01

    In order to train war fighters for urban warfare, live exercises are held at various Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities. Commanders need to have situation awareness (SA) of the entire mock battlefield, and also the individual actions of the various war fighters. The commanders must be able to provide instant feedback and play through different actions and 'what-if' scenarios with the war fighters. The war fighters in their turn should be able to review their actions and rehearse different maneuvers. In this paper, we describe the technologies behind a prototype training system, which tracks war fighters around an urban site using a combination of ultra-wideband (UWB) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and smart video based tracking. The system is able to: (1) Tag each individual with an unique ID using an RFID system, (2) Track and locate individuals within the domain of interest, (3) Associate IDs with visual appearance derived from live videos, (4) Visualize movement and actions of individuals within the context of a 3D model, and (5) Store and review activities with (x,y,ID) information associated with each individual. Dynamic acquisition and recording of the precise location of individual troops and units during training greatly aids the analysis of the training sessions allowing improved review, critique and instruction.

  18. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  19. From situation modelling to a distributed rule-based platform for situation awareness : an ontological framework for disaster management applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João

    2015-01-01

    Situation-aware (SA) applications are particularly useful for disaster management. The complex nature of emergency scenarios presents challenges to the development of collaborative and distributed SA solutions. These challenges concern the whole lifecycle, from specification to implementation

  20. Performance Analysis of Sensor Systems for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jang-Hyun; Chung, Taejin; Park, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hocheol; Yun, Ami; Lee, Yonghui

    2017-12-01

    With increased human activity in space, the risk of re-entry and collision between space objects is constantly increasing. Hence, the need for space situational awareness (SSA) programs has been acknowledged by many experienced space agencies. Optical and radar sensors, which enable the surveillance and tracking of space objects, are the most important technical components of SSA systems. In particular, combinations of radar systems and optical sensor networks play an outstanding role in SSA programs. At present, Korea operates the optical wide field patrol network (OWL-Net), the only optical system for tracking space objects. However, due to their dependence on weather conditions and observation time, it is not reasonable to use optical systems alone for SSA initiatives, as they have limited operational availability. Therefore, the strategies for developing radar systems should be considered for an efficient SSA system using currently available technology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a radar system in detecting and tracking space objects. With the radar system investigated, the minimum sensitivity is defined as detection of a 1-m2 radar cross section (RCS) at an altitude of 2,000 km, with operating frequencies in the L, S, C, X or Ku-band. The results of power budget analysis showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000 km, which includes the low earth orbit (LEO) environment, can be achieved with a transmission power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, a pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3 dB, at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. We defined the key parameters of the radar following a performance analysis of the system. This research can thus provide guidelines for the conceptual design of radar systems for national SSA initiatives.

  1. Effects of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Navigation Cues on Navigation Performance, Situation Awareness, and Mental Workload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Bradley M

    2007-01-01

    .... Results from both experiments indicate that augmented visual displays reduced time to complete navigation, maintained situation awareness, and drastically reduced mental workload in comparison...

  2. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Jorge, J

    2008-01-01

    Modern collaborative environments often provide an overwhelming amount of visual information on multiple displays. The multitude of personal and shared interaction devices leads to lack of awareness of team members on ongoing activities, and awareness of who is in control of shared artefacts. This

  3. Evaluating Options for Civil Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B.; Carioscia, S. A.

    In recent years, the number of active satellites and human-made orbital space debris has increased dramatically. An expansion of activities in space, as is currently being proposed by many commercial and international entities, is expected to further exacerbate this challenge. The 18th Space Control Squadron under the Department of Defense (DOD) United States Strategic Command provides space situational awareness (SSA) services to users outside the national security community at no cost. International and commercial users demand better SSA service than is currently feasible, and the demand comes at a time when DOD is under pressure to better prepare for and respond to growing space-based threats to national security. Concerned about the possibility of overextending across conflicting missions in a fiscally constrained environment, some DOD officials have publicly noted a desire to move SSA services not related to national security out of DOD purview. Responding to a request from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), researchers at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) identified and evaluated potential approaches for providing SSA services for civil and commercial operations in space. In this paper, we summarize the report [1] and present the pros and cons of four approaches to the provision of civil SSA services in the United States: (1) maintaining status quo through continued provision by DOD; (2) provision by a civil government entity; (3) industry self-provision; and (4) provision by an international organization. Within the second approach, assuming the provision of SSA by a civil agency, STPI further identified and discussed four options: (1) civil agency service capability embedded within DOD; (2) independent civil service capability, using DOD software and systems; (3) independent civil service capability, using commercial software and systems; and (4) the government certifies non

  4. Distributed sensor management for space situational awareness via a negotiation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is critical to many space missions serving weather analysis, communications, and navigation. However, the number of sensors used in space situational awareness is limited which hinders collision avoidance prediction, debris assessment, and efficient routing. Hence, it is critical to use such sensor resources efficiently. In addition, it is desired to develop the SSA sensor management algorithm in a distributed manner. In this paper, a distributed sensor management approach using the negotiation game (NG-DSM) is proposed for the SSA. Specifically, the proposed negotiation game is played by each sensor and its neighboring sensors. The bargaining strategies are developed for each sensor based on negotiating for accurately tracking desired targets (e.g., satellite, debris, etc.) . The proposed NG-DSM method is tested in a scenario which includes eight space objects and three different sensor modalities which include a space based optical sensor, a ground radar, or a ground Electro-Optic sensor. The geometric relation between the sensor, the Sun, and the space object is also considered. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NG-DSM sensor management methods, which facilitates an application of multiple-sensor multiple-target tracking for space situational awareness.

  5. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauben, L S G L; Dekker-van Doorn, C M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; Goossens, R H M; Huijsman, R; Klein, J; Lange, J F

    2011-04-01

    To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Questionnaire design. Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists. All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT. Ratings for 'communication' were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for 'teamwork' differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within 'situation awareness' significant differences were mainly observed for 'gathering information' between surgeons and other team members (P communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.

  6. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  7. Situation awareness and documentation of changes that affect patient outcomes in progress notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    To report on registered nurses' situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making when recording changes in patients' conditions. Progress notes are important to communicate patients' progress and detail changes in patients' conditions. However, documentation is often poorly completed. There is little work that examines nurses' decision-making during documentation. This study focused on describing situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making during documentation. This study used Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) work on situation awareness to guide and conceptualise information. The study was situated in a naturalistic paradigm to provide an interpretation of nurses' decision-making. Think-aloud research methods and semi-structured interviews were employed to illuminate decision-making processes. Audio recordings and interview texts were individually examined for evidence of cues, informed by Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) descriptions of situation awareness. As patients' conditions changed, nurses used complex mental models and pattern-matching of information, drawing on all 3 levels of situation awareness during documentation. Level 1 situation awareness provided context, level 2 situation awareness signified a change in condition and its significance for the patient, and level 3 situation awareness was evident when nurses thought aloud about what this information indicated. Three themes associated with changes in patients' conditions emerged: deterioration in condition, not responding to prescribed treatments as expected and issues related to professional practice that impacted on patients' conditions. Nurses used a complex mental model for decision-making, drawing on 3 levels of situation awareness. Hamm's cognitive continuum theory, when related to situation awareness, is a useful decision-making theory to provide a

  8. An Integrated Agent Model Addressing Situation Awareness and Functional State in Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; van Lambalgen, R.M.; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated agent model is introduced addressing mutually interacting Situation Awareness and Functional State dynamics in decision making. This shows how a human's functional state, more specific a human's exhaustion and power, can influence a human's situation awareness, and in

  9. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  10. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M. [AREVA NP Inc., 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  11. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  12. A Korean Space Situational Awareness Program : OWL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Im, H.; Park, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are going to present a brief introduction to the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network, one of Korean space situational awareness facilities. Primary objectives of the OWL network are 1) to obtain orbital information of Korean domestic LEOs using optical method, 2) to monitor GEO-belt over territory of Korea, and 3) to alleviate collisional risks posed to Korean satellites from space debris. For these purposes, we are planning to build a global network of telescopes which consists of five small wide-field telescopes and one 2m class telescope. The network of small telescopes will be dedicated mainly to the observation of domestic LEOs, but many slots will be open to other scientific programs such as GRB follow-up observations. Main targets of 2m telescope not only include artificial objects such as GEO debris and LEO debris with low inclination and high eccentricity, but also natural objects such as near Earth asteroids. We expect to monitor space objects down to 10cm in size in GEO using the 2m telescope system. Main research topics include size distribution and evolution of space debris. We also expect to utilize this facility for physical characterization and population study of near Earth asteroids. The aperture size of the small telescope system is 0.5m with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.75 deg x 1.75 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its plate scale is 1.3 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel is employed to maximize astrometric solutions in a single CCD frame, and a de-rotator is used to compensate field rotation of the alt-az type mount. We have designed a compact end unit in which three rotating parts (chopper wheel, filter wheel, de-rotator) and a CCD camera are integrated, and dedicated telescope/site control boards for the OWL network. The design of 2m class telescope is still under discussion yet is expected to be fixed in the first half of 2013 at the latest. The OWL network will be operated in a fully

  13. Simulation Development for Dynamic Situation Awareness and Prediction II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Kevin C

    2006-01-01

    ... within the simulation environment. These simulations provide feedback to prototype C4ISR systems in the form of mission status reports, sensor tracks, and other ISR mission results reports, which can be used to maintain situation...

  14. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Crisis Information-Sharing Strategy in Support of Situational Awareness, Understanding Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructure, Regional Resilience, Preparedness, Risk Assessment/mitigation, Decision-Making and Everyday Operational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Morentz, J.; Beilin, P.

    2017-12-01

    The principal function of the California Earthquake Clearinghouse is to provide State and Federal disaster response managers, and the scientific and engineering communities, with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The overarching problem highlighted in discussions with Clearinghouse partners is the confusion and frustration of many of the Operational Area representatives, and some regional utilities throughout the state on what software applications they should be using and maintaining to meet State, Federal, and Local, requirements, and for what purposes, and how to deal with the limitations of these applications. This problem is getting in the way of making meaningful progress on developing multi-application interoperability and the necessary supporting cross-sector information-sharing procedures and dialogue on essential common operational information that entities need to share for different all hazards missions and related operational activities associated with continuity, security, and resilience. The XchangeCore based system the Clearinghouse is evolving helps deal with this problem, and does not compound it by introducing yet another end-user application; there is no end-user interface with which one views XchangeCore, all viewing of data provided through XchangeCore occurs in and on existing, third-party operational applications. The Clearinghouse efforts with XchangeCore are compatible with FEMA, which is currently using XchangeCore-provided data for regional and National Business Emergency Operations Center (source of business information sharing during emergencies) response. Also important, and should be emphasized, is that information-sharing is not just for response, but for preparedness, risk assessment/mitigation decision-making, and everyday operational needs for situational awareness. In other words, the benefits of the Clearinghouse

  15. Unmanned Tactical Autonomous Control and Collaboration Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    They can assume, but ultimately they have to hope that the agent is later able to recall their thoughts in order to complete the picture of SA...environmental data with long term memory “schemata,” and the application of those schemata to the situation until the agent achieves a level of SA. Here, 8...schemata” is the term used for knowledge that is stored in long-term memory . He saw the usefulness and application of those schemata as inversely

  16. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  17. A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.

  18. An approach to electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control for situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author provides insight on the role of modern electronic warfare technology for the purposes of electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control, which plays a crucial role in situational awareness required for peacekeeping...

  19. Increasing Situational Awareness by Combining Realistic and Non-Realistic Rendering Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Valerie A; Normoyle, Aline; Flo, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... Although this improved visual realism can lead to a better sense of immersion and a more faithful reproduction of the natural world, it does not necessarily promote increased awareness of an evolving situation...

  20. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  1. Situation awareness and complexity: the role of wearable technologies in sports science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Situation Awareness is a key concept in activities in which cognitive and physical tasks are being performed in a complex system consisting of multiple humans and artifacts, under quickly changing conditions. The spread, in sports, of wearable technologies that can record and return in real time a wide variety of data related to the athlete and to the context provides a great opportunity to increase the level of Situation Awareness. Often, however, we are dealing with heterogeneous devices th...

  2. Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    1 DM-0001694 Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness Benghazi Case Study Jeff Boleng, PhD Marc Novakouski Gene...command and control element at the CIA compound that would have been monitoring OSINT and other sources of intelligence before the attack and... Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brett; Cooper,Simon; Quested,Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Brett Williams,1 Andrew Quested,1 Simon Cooper21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Berwick, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing ...

  4. External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    The 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane season was one of the most costly and deadly in US history. Hurricane Rita stressed hospitals and led to multiple, simultaneous evacuations. This study systematically identified community factors associated with patient movement out of seven hospitals evacuated during Hurricane Rita. This study represents the second of two systematic, observational, and retrospective investigations of seven acute care hospitals that reported off-site evacuations due to Hurricane Rita. Participants from each hospital included decision makers that comprised the Incident Management Team (IMT). Investigators applied a standardized interview process designed to assess evacuation factors related to external situational awareness of community activities during facility evacuation due to hurricanes. The measured outcomes were responses to 95 questions within six sections of the survey instrument. Investigators identified two factors that significantly impacted hospital IMT decision making: (1) incident characteristics affecting a facility's internal resources and challenges; and (2) incident characteristics affecting a facility's external evacuation activities. This article summarizes the latter and reports the following critical decision making points: (1) Emergency Operations Plans (EOP) were activated an average of 85 hours (3 days, 13 hours) prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall; (2) the decision to evacuate the hospital was made an average of 30 hours (1 day, 6 hours) from activation of the EOP; and (3) the implementation of the evacuation process took an average of 22 hours. Coordination of patient evacuations was most complicated by transportation deficits (the most significant of the 11 identified problem areas) and a lack of situational awareness of community response activities. All evacuation activities and subsequent evacuation times were negatively impacted by an overall lack of understanding on the part of hospital staff and the IMT regarding how to

  5. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information.

  6. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information

  7. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD 20855 UNITED STATES steinberg@cubrc.org A model is presented for situation and threat assessment...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Subject Matter Expert (SME) Calspan-UB Research Center ( CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD...1 A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment Alan Steinberg CUBRC , Inc. steinberg@cubrc.org November, 2005 2 Objectives • Advance the state-of

  8. Developing situation-aware applications for disaster management with a distributed rule-based platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Moreira, Joao; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance interoperability and productivity in the develop-ment of situation-aware applications for disaster management, proper mecha-nisms and guidelines are required. They must address the lack of semantics in modelling emergency situations. In addition, the ever changing and

  9. 1st workshop on situational awareness in semi-Automated vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, R.; Baumann, M.; Politis, I.; Borojeni, S.S.; Alvarez, I.; Mirnig, A.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; Tscheligi, M.; Chuang, L.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will focus on the problem of occupant and vehicle situational awareness with respect to automated vehicles when the driver must take over control. It will explore the future of fully automated and mixed traffic situations where vehicles are assumed to be operating at level 3 or above.

  10. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  11. A Quantitative Team Situation Awareness Measurement Method Considering Technical and Nontechnical Skills of Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Yim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human capabilities, such as technical/nontechnical skills, have begun to be recognized as crucial factors for nuclear safety. One of the most common ways to improve human capabilities in general is training. The nuclear industry has constantly developed and used training as a tool to increase plant efficiency and safety. An integrated training framework was suggested for one of those efforts, especially during simulation training sessions of nuclear power plant operation teams. The developed training evaluation methods are based on measuring the levels of situation awareness of teams in terms of the level of shared confidence and consensus as well as the accuracy of team situation awareness. Verification of the developed methods was conducted by analyzing the training data of real nuclear power plant operation teams. The teams that achieved higher level of shared confidence showed better performance in solving problem situations when coupled with high consensus index values. The accuracy of nuclear power plant operation teams' situation awareness was approximately the same or showed a similar trend as that of senior reactor operators' situation awareness calculated by a situation awareness accuracy index (SAAI. Teams that had higher SAAI values performed better and faster than those that had lower SAAI values.

  12. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  13. Comparison between Simulation-based Training and Lecture-based Education in Teaching Situation Awareness. A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dym, Andrew A; Venegas-Borsellino, Carla; Bangar, Maneesha; Kazzi, Massoud; Lisenenkov, Dmitry; Qadir, Nida; Keene, Adam; Eisen, Lewis Ari

    2017-04-01

    Situation awareness has been defined as the perception of the elements in the environment within volumes of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. Intensivists often make time-sensitive critical decisions, and loss of situation awareness can lead to errors. It has been shown that simulation-based training is superior to lecture-based training for some critical scenarios. Because the methods of training to improve situation awareness have not been well studied in the medical field, we compared the impact of simulation vs. lecture training using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) score. To identify an effective method for teaching situation awareness. We randomly assigned 17 critical care fellows to simulation vs. lecture training. Training consisted of eight cases on airway management, including topics such as elevated intracranial pressure, difficult airway, arrhythmia, and shock. During the testing scenario, at random times between 4 and 6 minutes into the simulation, the scenario was frozen, and the screens were blanked. Respondents then completed the 28 questions on the SAGAT scale. Sample items were categorized as Perception, Projection, and Comprehension of the situation. Results were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Eight fellows from the simulation group and nine from the lecture group underwent simulation testing. Sixty-four SAGAT scores were recorded for the simulation group and 48 scores were recorded for the lecture group. The mean simulation vs. lecture group SAGAT score was 64.3 ± 10.1 (SD) vs. 59.7 ± 10.8 (SD) (P = 0.02). There was also a difference in the median Perception ability between the simulation vs. lecture groups (61.1 vs. 55.5, P = 0.01). There was no difference in the median Projection and Comprehension scores between the two groups (50.0 vs. 50.0, P = 0.92, and 83.3 vs. 83.3, P = 0.27). We found a significant, albeit

  14. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes development and validation of a new self-report instrument, the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, designed to assess adolescent and adult readers' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic materials. After a brief review of the literature, the development and validation…

  15. An ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction and process and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Masataka; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Toshiyuki; Monta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of an experiment to investigate the effect of an ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction of process. We developed an ecological interface and an conventional interface for the simulator SCARLETT of a virtual plant that have two process control modes (automatic process control mode and manual process control mode). The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how interface and process control mode have any effects on situation awareness of human operator during malfunction of process, whether there are any interaction between interface and process control mode. We have been conducted this experiment now. (author)

  16. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Quested, Andrew; Cooper, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events.

  17. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  18. A multi-sensor fusion framework for improving situational awareness in demanding maritime training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Real offshore operational scenarios can involve a considerable amount of risk. Sophisticated training programmes involving specially designed simulator environments constitute a promising approach for improving an individual's perception and assessment of dangerous situations in real applications. One of the world's most advanced providers of simulators for such demanding offshore operations is the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). However, even though the OSC provides powerful simulation tools, techniques for visualising operational procedures that can be used to further improve Situational awareness (SA), are still lacking. Providing the OSC with an integrated multi-sensor fusion framework is the goal of this work. The proposed framework is designed to improve planning, execution and assessment of demanding maritime operations by adopting newly-designed risk-evaluation tools. Different information from the simulator scene and from the real world can be collected, such as audio, video, bio-metric data from eye-trackers, other sensor data and annotations. This integration is the base for research on novel SA assessment methodologies. This will serve the industry for the purpose of improving operational effectiveness and safety through the use of simulators. In this work, a training methodology based on the concept of briefing/debriefing is adopted based on previous literature. By using this methodology borrowed from similarly demanding applications, the efficiency of the proposed framework is validated in a conceptual case study. In particular, the training procedure, which was previously performed by Statoil and partners, for the world's first sub-sea gas compression plant, in Aasgard, Norway, is considered and reviewed highlighting the potentials of the proposed framework. - Highlights: • A framework for improving SA in demanding maritime training is proposed. • The proposed framework is integrated with the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). • This

  19. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, H.E.; van Emmerik, M.L.; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2017-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  20. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    David Myers1 Timothy Gowen2 Angus Rupert3 Ben Lawson3 Justin Dailey3,4 1Chesapeake Technology International 2Naval Aviation Center for... Angus Rupert of the USAARL. The algorithm is described in “Configuration Parameters for the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS)” dated July 2010

  1. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  2. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  3. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, H.E.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kerstholt, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  4. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation. PMID:28749407

  5. Lessons learned from creating a mobile version of an educational board game to increase situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Lukosch, Heide; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an iterative design process for a serious game, which aims to raise situational awareness among different stakeholders in a logistics value chain by introducing multi-user role-playing games. It does so in several phases: After introducing the field of logistics as a problem

  6. Introduction: Situation Awareness, Systems of Systems, and Maritime Safety and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    This book presents and discusses various challenges and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for attaining situation awareness, with applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. This chapter introduces the book, describes the Dutch research project Poseidon from which it

  7. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2017-07-27

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  8. A structured approach to increase situational awareness in low voltage distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Broersma, T.; Morren, J.; Kruizinga, B.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.; Baldinger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Wear and tear, electrification and aging of (low voltage) distribution grids require maintenance in order to assure continuous provision of electricity. Situational awareness is required to find out when parts of the grid need maintenance and which parts should be prioritized. The paper proposes a

  9. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  10. Investigating the Effect of Situational Awareness on Persistence of Doctoral Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harleman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the effect of heightened situational awareness (SA) on persistence of doctoral distance learners. Factors in the distance learners' micro-environment, vis-à-vis Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecology theory of human development, were the focus. Study participants included new doctoral candidates continuing…

  11. Metacognitive monitoring and control in visual change detection: Implications for situation awareness and cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Ken I.; Morris, Adam P.; Best, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP). In Experiment 1, observers failed to detect some changes to the display, indicating imperfect SA, but JOPs were reasonably well calibrated to objective performance. Experiment 2 examined JOLs and JOPs in two task contexts: with study-time limits imposed by the task or with self-pacing to meet specified performance targets. JOPs were well calibrated in both conditions as were JOLs for high performance targets. In summary, observers had limited SA, but good insight about their performance and learning for high performance targets and allocated study time appropriately. PMID:28915244

  12. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  13. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  14. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M.; Falk, R.; Johansson, J.; Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S.

    2006-04-01

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  15. The influence of situation awareness training on nurses' confidence about patient safety skills: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Norman; Gluyas, Heather; Andrus, Prue; Williams, Anne; Hopkins, Martin; Walters, Jennifer; Sandy, Martinique; Morrison, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Several studies report that patient safety skills, especially non-technical skills, receive scant attention in nursing curricula. Hence, there is a compelling reason to incorporate material that enhances non-technical skills, such as situation awareness, in nursing curricula in order to assist in the reduction of healthcare related adverse events. The objectives of this study were to: 1) understand final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills; and 2) examine the impact of situation awareness training on final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample comprising final year nursing students at a Western Australia university. Self-reported confidence in patient safety skills was assessed with the Health Professional in Patient Safety Survey before and after the delivery of a situation awareness educational intervention. Pre/post educational intervention differences were examined by repeated measures ANOVA. No significant differences in confidence about patient safety skills were identified within settings (class/clinical). However, confidence in patient safety skills significantly decreased between settings i.e. nursing students lost confidence after clinical placements. The educational intervention delivered in this study did not seem to improve confidence in patient safety skills, but substantial ceiling effects may have confounded the identification of such improvement. Further studies are required to establish whether the findings of this study can be generalised to other university nursing cohorts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  17. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  18. The RF Probe: providing space situational awareness through broad-spectrum detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenick, Raymond; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Partch, Russell

    2004-09-01

    AeroAstro's patented RF Probe is a system designed to address the needs of spacecraft developers and operators interested in measuring and analyzing near-field RF emissions emanating from a nearby spacecraft of interest. The RF Probe consists of an intelligent spectrum analyzer with digital signal processing capabilities combined with a calibrated, wide-bandwidth antenna and RF front end that covers the 50 kHz to 18 GHz spectrum. It is capable of acquiring signal level and signal vector information, classifying signals, assessing the quality of a satellite"s transponders, and characterizing near-field electromagnetic emissions. The RF Probe is intended for either incorporation as part of a suite of spacecraft sensors, or as a stand-alone sensor on spacecraft or other platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The RF Probe was initially conceived as a tool to detect and aid in diagnosis of malfunctions in a spacecraft of interest. However, the utility of the RF Probe goes far beyond this initial concept, spanning a wide range of military applications. Most importantly, the RF Probe can provide space situational awareness for critical on-orbit assets by detecting externally induced RF fields, aiding in protection against potentially devastating attacks.

  19. Measuring Situation Awareness of Operating Team in Different Main Control Room Environments of Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woo Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.

  20. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Synchrophasor Measurements for Improving Situational Awareness of the Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Mutule, A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper focuses on the application of synchrophasor measurements that present unprecedented benefits compared to SCADA systems in order to facilitate the successful transformation of the Nordic-Baltic-and-European electric power system to operate with large amounts of renewable energy sources and improve situational awareness of the power system. The article describes new functionalities of visualisation tools to estimate a grid inertia level in real time with monitoring results between Nordic and Baltic power systems.

  2. Automating Information Assurance for Cyber Situational Awareness within a Smart Cloud System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    monitoring and protection of data such as Transport Layer Security ( TLS ), Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ), and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) protocols...and usage of data loss prevention software. Protocols such as TLS , SSL , and IPsec encrypt data packets for secure transportation and decryption by...Representational State Transfer RSS rich site summary SA situational awareness SAF Singapore Armed Forces SoS system of systems SSL secure sockets layer S

  3. Procedure automation: the effect of automated procedure execution on situation awareness and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Svengren, Haakan; Heimdal, Jan O.; Nilsen, Svein; Hulsund, John-Einar; Bisio, Rossella; Debroise, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    As advised by the procedure workshop convened in Halden in 2000, the Halden Project conducted an experiment on the effect of automation of Computerised Procedure Systems (CPS) on situation awareness and human performance. The expected outcome of the study was to provide input for guidance on CPS design, and to support the Halden Project's ongoing research on human reliability analysis. The experiment was performed in HAMMLAB using the HAMBO BWR simulator and the COPMA-III CPS. Eight crews of operators from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated. Three research questions were investigated: 1) Does procedure automation create Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) performance problems? 2) Does procedure automation affect situation awareness? 3) Does procedure automation affect crew performance? The independent variable, 'procedure configuration', had four levels: paper procedures, manual CPS, automation with breaks, and full automation. The results showed that the operators experienced OOTL problems in full automation, but that situation awareness and crew performance (response time) were not affected. One possible explanation for this is that the operators monitored the automated procedure execution conscientiously, something which may have prevented the OOTL problems from having negative effects on situation awareness and crew performance. In a debriefing session, the operators clearly expressed their dislike for the full automation condition, but that automation with breaks could be suitable for some tasks. The main reason why the operators did not like the full automation was that they did not feel being in control. A qualitative analysis addressing factors contributing to response time delays revealed that OOTL problems did not seem to cause delays, but that some delays could be explained by the operators having problems with the freeze function of the CPS. Also other factors such as teamwork and operator tendencies were of importance. Several design implications were drawn

  4. Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking it to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Power Journal | 52 Baird The Importance of Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking It to the Next Level FeatureSpace Focus junction ...Communications (BMC3) infrastructure. We must build a new space superiority enterprise around SSA sensors that utilize com- mon data models to...vehicle, a modified version of China’s DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile, and launcher system en- gaged the satellite at a closing velocity of

  5. Development of a Vision-Based Situational Awareness Capability for Unmanned Surface Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    camera), which is similar to the movement of the ship in the electro-optics (EO) video imagery. An image of the model representing the ship with a...with both color video imagery and infrared video imagery, and the results obtained from processing the images demonstrated the viability of using this...situational awareness capability, which is required to achieve autonomous navigation. The algorithm was tested with both color video imagery and infrared

  6. Anomaly-based online intrusion detection system as a sensor for cyber security situational awareness system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Almost all the organisations and even individuals rely on complex structures of data networks and networked computer systems. That complex data ensemble, the cyber domain, provides great opportunities, but at the same time it offers many possible attack vectors that can be abused for cyber vandalism, cyber crime, cyber espionage or cyber terrorism. Those threats produce requirements for cyber security situational awareness and intrusion detection capability. This dissertation conc...

  7. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Twitter and other social media platforms to provide situational awareness during an incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Ed

    2011-10-01

    The recent use of social media by protesters in Iran, Egypt, Yemen and elsewhere has focused new attention on this communications medium. Government agencies and businesses, as well, are using social media to push information to their stakeholders. Those who are on the front lines of this information revolution, however, realise that social media is most effective when the communication is two-way. Unlike other media, social media allows information sharing. This, in turn, provides emergency managers with new situational-awareness resources when trying to mitigate an incident. As Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Administrator Craig Fugate told Information Week on January 19th, 2011: 'We can adjust much quicker if we can figure out how to have (a) two-way conversation and if we can look at the public as a resource. The public is putting out better situational awareness than many of our own agencies can.' This paper provides examples of how social media can be used as a situational-awareness resource and specific 'tools' that can be used to assist with this task.

  9. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  10. A neuroergonomic quasi-experiment: Predictors of situation awareness and display usability while performing complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is the ability and capacity to perceive information and act on it acceptably. Head Up Display (HUD) versus Head Down Display (HDD) manipulation induced variation in task difficulty. HUD and HDD cockpit displays or display designs promoted or impaired SA. The quantitative research presented in this paper examines basic neurocognitive factors in order to identify their specific contributions to the formation of SA, while studying display usability and the effects on SA. Visual attentiveness (Va), perceptiveness (Vp), and spatial working memory (Vswm) were assessed as predictors of SA under varying task difficulty. The study participants were 19 tactical airlift pilots, selected from the Ohio Air National Guard. Neurocognitive tests were administered to the participants prior to flight. In-flight SA was objectively and subjectively assessed for 24 flights. At the completion of this field experiment, the data were analyzed and the tests were statistically significant for the three predictor visual abilities Vp, Va, and Vswm as task difficulty was varied, F(3,11) = 8.125, p = .008. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual abilities together predicted a majority of the variance in SA, R2 = 0.753, p = .008. As validated and verified by ECG and EEG data, the HUD yielded a full ability and capacity to anticipate and accommodate trends were as the HDD yielded a saturated ability to anticipate and accommodate trends. Post-hoc tests revealed a Cohen's f2 = 3.05 yielding statistical power to be 0.98. This work results in a significant contribution to the field by providing an improved understanding of SA and path to safer travel for society worldwide. PA 88ABW-2015-1282.

  11. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  12. Threat evaluation for impact assessment in situation analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean; Paradis, Stephane; Allouche, Mohamad

    2002-07-01

    Situation analysis is defined as a process, the examination of a situation, its elements, and their relations, to provide and maintain a product, i.e., a state of situation awareness, for the decision maker. Data fusion is a key enabler to meeting the demanding requirements of military situation analysis support systems. According to the data fusion model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories' Data Fusion Group, impact assessment estimates the effects on situations of planned or estimated/predicted actions by the participants, including interactions between action plans of multiple players. In this framework, the appraisal of actual or potential threats is a necessary capability for impact assessment. This paper reviews and discusses in details the fundamental concepts of threat analysis. In particular, threat analysis generally attempts to compute some threat value, for the individual tracks, that estimates the degree of severity with which engagement events will potentially occur. Presenting relevant tracks to the decision maker in some threat list, sorted from the most threatening to the least, is clearly in-line with the cognitive demands associated with threat evaluation. A key parameter in many threat value evaluation techniques is the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Along this line of thought, threatening tracks are often prioritized based upon which ones will reach their CPA first. Hence, the Time-to-CPA (TCPA), i.e., the time it will take for a track to reach its CPA, is also a key factor. Unfortunately, a typical assumption for the computation of the CPA/TCPA parameters is that the track velocity will remain constant. When a track is maneuvering, the CPA/TCPA values will change accordingly. These changes will in turn impact the threat value computations and, ultimately, the resulting threat list. This is clearly undesirable from a command decision-making perspective. In this regard, the paper briefly discusses threat value stabilization

  13. Development of the Huddle Observation Tool for structured case management discussions to improve situation awareness on inpatient clinical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Hayes, Jacqueline; Sharples, Evelyn; Gondek, Dawid; Stapley, Emily; Sevdalis, Nick; Lachman, Peter; Deighton, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    'Situation Awareness For Everyone' (SAFE) was a 3-year project which aimed to improve situation awareness in clinical teams in order to detect potential deterioration and other potential risks to children on hospital wards. The key intervention was the 'huddle', a structured case management discussion which is central to facilitating situation awareness. This study aimed to develop an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. A cross-sectional observational design was used to psychometrically develop the 'Huddle Observation Tool' (HOT) over three phases using standardised psychometric methodology. Huddles were observed across four NHS paediatric wards participating in SAFE by five researchers; two wards within specialist children hospitals and two within district general hospitals, with location, number of beds and length of stay considered to make the sample as heterogeneous as possible. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient. Inter - rater reliability was acceptable for the collaborative culture (weighted kappa=0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.42), environment items (weighted kappa=0.78, 95% CI 0.52 to 1) and total score (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95). It was lower for the structure and risk management items, suggesting that these were more variable in how observers rated them. However, agreement on the global score for huddles was acceptable. We developed an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. Future research should examine whether observational evaluations of huddles are associated with other indicators of safety on clinical wards (eg, safety climate and incidents of patient harm), and whether scores on the HOT are associated with improved situation awareness and reductions in deterioration and adverse

  14. Effects of Information Availability on Command-and-Control Decision Making: Performance, Trust, and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Laura R; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Onal, Emrah; Yu, Michael S; Schaffer, James; O'Donovan, John; Höllerer, Tobias; Buchler, Norbou; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how increases in task-relevant information affect human decision-making performance, situation awareness (SA), and trust in a simulated command-and-control (C2) environment. Increased information is often associated with an improvement of SA and decision-making performance in networked organizations. However, previous research suggests that increasing information without considering the task relevance and the presentation can impair performance. We used a simulated C2 task across two experiments. Experiment 1 varied the information volume provided to individual participants and measured the speed and accuracy of decision making for task performance. Experiment 2 varied information volume and information reliability provided to two participants acting in different roles and assessed decision-making performance, SA, and trust between the paired participants. In both experiments, increased task-relevant information volume did not improve task performance. In Experiment 2, increased task-relevant information volume reduced self-reported SA and trust, and incorrect source reliability information led to poorer task performance and SA. These results indicate that increasing the volume of information, even when it is accurate and task relevant, is not necessarily beneficial to decision-making performance. Moreover, it may even be detrimental to SA and trust among team members. Given the high volume of available and shared information and the safety-critical and time-sensitive nature of many decisions, these results have implications for training and system design in C2 domains. To avoid decrements to SA, interpersonal trust, and decision-making performance, information presentation within C2 systems must reflect human cognitive processing limits and capabilities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  16. WENESSA, Wide Eye-Narrow Eye Space Simulation fo Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarait, O.; Payne, D. M.; LeVan, P. D.; Luu, K. K.; Spillar, E.; Freiwald, W.; Hamada, K.; Houchard, J.

    In an effort to achieve timelier indications of anomalous object behaviors in geosynchronous earth orbit, a Planning Capability Concept (PCC) for a “Wide Eye-Narrow Eye” (WE-NE) telescope network has been established. The PCC addresses the problem of providing continuous and operationally robust, layered and cost-effective, Space Situational Awareness (SSA) that is focused on monitoring deep space for anomalous behaviors. It does this by first detecting the anomalies with wide field of regard systems, and then providing reliable handovers for detailed observational follow-up by another optical asset. WENESSA will explore the added value of such a system to the existing Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The study will assess and quantify the degree to which the PCC completely fulfills, or improves or augments, these deep space knowledge deficiencies relative to current operational systems. In order to improve organic simulation capabilities, we will explore options for the federation of diverse community simulation approaches, while evaluating the efficiencies offered by a network of small and larger aperture, ground-based telescopes. Existing Space Modeling and Simulation (M&S) tools designed for evaluating WENESSA-like problems will be taken into consideration as we proceed in defining and developing the tools needed to perform this study, leading to the creation of a unified Space M&S environment for the rapid assessment of new capabilities. The primary goal of this effort is to perform a utility assessment of the WE-NE concept. The assessment will explore the mission utility of various WE-NE concepts in discovering deep space anomalies in concert with the SSN. The secondary goal is to generate an enduring modeling and simulation environment to explore the utility of future proposed concepts and supporting technologies. Ultimately, our validated simulation framework would support the inclusion of other ground- and space-based SSA assets through integrated

  17. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  18. Optimal SSN Tasking to Enhance Real-time Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J., III; Hussein, I.; Gerber, J.; Sivilli, R.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is currently constrained by an overwhelming number of resident space objects (RSOs) that need to be tracked and the amount of data these observations produce. The Joint Centralized Autonomous Tasking System (JCATS) is an autonomous, net-centric tool that approaches these SSA concerns from an agile, information-based stance. Finite set statistics and stochastic optimization are used to maintain an RSO catalog and develop sensor tasking schedules based on operator configured, state information-gain metrics to determine observation priorities. This improves the efficiency of sensors to target objects as awareness changes and new information is needed, not at predefined frequencies solely. A net-centric, service-oriented architecture (SOA) allows for JCATS integration into existing SSA systems. Testing has shown operationally-relevant performance improvements and scalability across multiple types of scenarios and against current sensor tasking tools.

  19. Measuring situation awareness of operation teams in NPPs using a verbal protocol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ar ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for measuring team situation awareness is developed. ► Verbal protocol analysis is adopted in this method. ► This method resolves uncertainties from conventional methods. ► This method can be used in evaluating the human–system interfaces. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community given that need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Although complex and dynamic environments such as that of a main control room (MCR) in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are operated by operation teams, and while team situation awareness (TSA) is also cited as an important factor, research is limited to individual SA. However, understanding TSA can provide a window onto the characteristics of team acquisition as well as the performance of a complex skill. Therefore, such knowledge can be valuable in diagnosing team performance successes and failures. Moreover, training and design interventions can target the cognitive underpinnings of team performance, with implications for the design of technological aids to improve team performance. Despite these advantages and the importance of understanding TSA, measures and methods targeting TSA are sparse and fail to address it properly. In this study, an objective TSA measurement method is developed in an effort to understand TSA. First, key considerations for developing a method are derived. Based on these considerations, the proposed method is developed while mainly focusing on the creation of logical connections between team communications and TSA. A speech act coding scheme is also implemented to analyze team communications. The TSA measurement method developed in this study provides a measure for each level of TSA. It was revealed from a preliminary study that this TSA measurement method is feasible for measuring TSA to a fair extent. Useful insight into TSA is also derived.

  20. Data-Centric Situational Awareness and Management in Intelligent Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxiao

    The rapid development of technology and society has made the current power system a much more complicated system than ever. The request for big data based situation awareness and management becomes urgent today. In this dissertation, to respond to the grand challenge, two data-centric power system situation awareness and management approaches are proposed to address the security problems in the transmission/distribution grids and social benefits augmentation problem at the distribution-customer lever, respectively. To address the security problem in the transmission/distribution grids utilizing big data, the first approach provides a fault analysis solution based on characterization and analytics of the synchrophasor measurements. Specically, the optimal synchrophasor measurement devices selection algorithm (OSMDSA) and matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) based spatial-temporal synchrophasor data characterization method was developed to reduce data volume while preserving comprehensive information for the big data analyses. And the weighted Granger causality (WGC) method was investigated to conduct fault impact causal analysis during system disturbance for fault localization. Numerical results and comparison with other methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this analytic approach. As more social effects are becoming important considerations in power system management, the goal of situation awareness should be expanded to also include achievements in social benefits. The second approach investigates the concept and application of social energy upon the University of Denver campus grid to provide management improvement solutions for optimizing social cost. Social element--human working productivity cost, and economic element--electricity consumption cost, are both considered in the evaluation of overall social cost. Moreover, power system simulation, numerical experiments for smart building modeling, distribution level real-time pricing and social

  1. Load Situation Awareness Design for Integration in Multi-Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have been penetrating in power system at a staggering pace in recent years. Their intermittent nature is, however, posing great threat to system operation. Recently, active load management has been suggested as a tool to counteract these side effects. In multi......-energy system, thermal load management will benefit not only electric network but also district heating network. Electric heater will be the main focus of this paper as a common thermal load. A situation awareness framework for its integration into electric and district heating network will be proposed...

  2. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... communicating over a network protocol (UDP) enabling distribution on several hardware devices. The modules are: Graphical user interface, head tracking server, truck tracking, and binaural synthesis module. The function of the individual modules as well as overall topology of the system will be presented...

  3. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  4. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent

  5. Situational awareness for unmanned ground vehicles in semi-structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.

    2002-07-01

    Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.

  6. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent.

  7. Affordable multisensor digital video architecture for 360° situational awareness displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Steven P.; Khan, Dina A.; Marecki, Alexander L.; Berman, David A.; Carberry, Dana

    2011-06-01

    One of the major challenges facing today's military ground combat vehicle operations is the ability to achieve and maintain full-spectrum situational awareness while under armor (i.e. closed hatch). Thus, the ability to perform basic tasks such as driving, maintaining local situational awareness, surveillance, and targeting will require a high-density array of real time information be processed, distributed, and presented to the vehicle operators and crew in near real time (i.e. low latency). Advances in display and sensor technologies are providing never before seen opportunities to supply large amounts of high fidelity imagery and video to the vehicle operators and crew in real time. To fully realize the advantages of these emerging display and sensor technologies, an underlying digital architecture must be developed that is capable of processing these large amounts of video and data from separate sensor systems and distributing it simultaneously within the vehicle to multiple vehicle operators and crew. This paper will examine the systems and software engineering efforts required to overcome these challenges and will address development of an affordable, integrated digital video architecture. The approaches evaluated will enable both current and future ground combat vehicle systems the flexibility to readily adopt emerging display and sensor technologies, while optimizing the Warfighter Machine Interface (WMI), minimizing lifecycle costs, and improve the survivability of the vehicle crew working in closed-hatch systems during complex ground combat operations.

  8. A computational approach to achieve situational awareness from limited observations of a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Jason

    At the start of the 21st century, the topic of complexity remains a formidable challenge in engineering, science and other aspects of our world. It seems that when disaster strikes it is because some complex and unforeseen interaction causes the unfortunate outcome. Why did the financial system of the world meltdown in 2008--2009? Why are global temperatures on the rise? These questions and other ones like them are difficult to answer because they pertain to contexts that require lengthy descriptions. In other words, these contexts are complex. But we as human beings are able to observe and recognize this thing we call 'complexity'. Furthermore, we recognize that there are certain elements of a context that form a system of complex interactions---i.e., a complex system. Many researchers have even noted similarities between seemingly disparate complex systems. Do sub-atomic systems bear resemblance to weather patterns? Or do human-based economic systems bear resemblance to macroscopic flows? Where do we draw the line in their resemblance? These are the kinds of questions that are asked in complex systems research. And the ability to recognize complexity is not only limited to analytic research. Rather, there are many known examples of humans who, not only observe and recognize but also, operate complex systems. How do they do it? Is there something superhuman about these people or is there something common to human anatomy that makes it possible to fly a plane? Or to drive a bus? Or to operate a nuclear power plant? Or to play Chopin's etudes on the piano? In each of these examples, a human being operates a complex system of machinery, whether it is a plane, a bus, a nuclear power plant or a piano. What is the common thread running through these abilities? The study of situational awareness (SA) examines how people do these types of remarkable feats. It is not a bottom-up science though because it relies on finding general principles running through a host of varied

  9. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  10. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  11. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  12. USING AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSING TO INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IN CIVIL PROTECTION AND HUMANITARIAN RELIEF – THE IMPORTANCE OF USER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Römer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR’s 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management and product dissemination (editable web services. Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user’s requirements.

  13. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  14. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  15. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  16. Empirical research on an ecological interface design for improving situation awareness of operators in an advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Suh, Sang Moon; Jang, Gwi Sook; Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An EID prototype for monitoring primary side of nuclear power plant is proposed. ► The effectiveness of the prototype is validated using a partial scoped dynamic mockup in terms of situation awareness. ► The validation is based on comparison of a mimic display with an EID plus mimics. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to validate whether an ecological interface design (EID) improves operators’ situation awareness in an advanced control room of a nuclear power plant (NPP). EID is defined as an approach to interface design that was introduced specifically for complex socio-technical, real-time, and dynamic systems. The EID technology has not yet been adapted to the nuclear power industry due to lack of empirical studies. Especially in a situational awareness aspect, many researchers have predicted that the EID will support operators to detect unanticipated events. Just a few studies, however, unveiled the positive effect of the EID display on human performance using a full scoped simulator. In this study, to investigate whether an EID improves operators’ situational awareness, we developed an EID prototype for nuclear power operations and a partial scoped dynamic mockup to validate the effectiveness of the EID prototype. Three experienced operators were involved as subjects in our study and they were fully well trained for using the EID prototype. We compared two types of situations in terms of situation awareness. One is mimic based information display and the other is a mimic plus EID based information display. The result of our study revealed that a mimic plus EID based information display is more effective than a mimic based information display in terms of situation awareness. This study is significant in that the EID as an emerging technology is adoptable to a digitalized control room in an aspect of improving operators’ situation awareness.

  17. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  18. A collaborative game to study presence and situational awareness in a physical and an augmented reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    While augmented reality research has grown into a mature field over the last years, the aspects of situational awareness and presence of augmented reality (AR) are still quite open research topics. This paper introduces a collaborative game to explore the different perception of situational

  19. Empirical verification for application of Bayesian inference in situation awareness evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Situation awareness (SA) of human operators is significantly important for safe operation in nuclear power plants (NPPs). • SA of human operators was empirically estimated using Bayesian inference. • In this empirical study, the effect of attention and working memory to SA was considered. • Complexcity of the given task and design of human machine interface (HMI) considerably affect SA of human operators. - Abstract: Bayesian methodology has been widely used in various research fields. According to current research, malfunctions of nuclear power plants can be detected using this Bayesian inference, which consistently piles up newly incoming data and updates the estimation. However, these studies have been based on the assumption that people work like computers—perfectly—a supposition that may cause a problem in real world applications. Studies in cognitive psychology indicate that when the amount of information to be processed becomes larger, people cannot save the whole set of data in their heads due to limited attention and limited memory capacity, also known as working memory. The purpose of the current research is to consider how actual human aware the situation contrasts with our expectations, and how such disparity affects the results of conventional Bayesian inference, if at all. We compared situation awareness (SA) of ideal operators with SA of human operators, and for the human operator we used both text-based human machine interface (HMI) and infographic-based HMI to further compare two existing human operators. In addition, two different scenarios were selected how scenario complexity affects SA of human operators. As a results, when a malfunction occurred, the ideal operator found the malfunction nearly 100% probability of the time using Bayesian inference. In contrast, out of forty-six human operators, only 69.57% found the correct malfunction with simple scenario and 58.70% with complex scenario in the text-based HMI. In

  20. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  1. Progress with situation assessment and risk prediction in advanced driver assistance systems : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendon-Velez, E.; Horváth, I.; Opiyo, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of automotive safety, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are receiving growing attention. Effective ADAS requires awareness of the actual driving situation, a reliable assessment of the risks, and making rapid decisions on assisting actions. This paper reviews the current

  2. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  3. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  4. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  5. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  6. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  7. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  8. Measuring situational awareness and resolving inherent high-level fusion obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie

    2006-04-01

    Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.

  9. The importance of shared mental models and shared situation awareness for transforming robots from tools to teammates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.

  10. Analysis of Pilot Feedback Regarding the Use of State Awareness Technologies During Complex Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emory; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi; Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Etherington, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A flight simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate flight deck systems that (1) predict aircraft energy state and/or autoflight configuration, (2) present the current state and expected future state of automated systems, and/or (3) show the state of flight-critical data systems in use by automated systems and primary flight instruments. Four new technology concepts were evaluated vis-à-vis current state-of-the-art flight deck systems and indicators. This human-in-the-loop study was conducted using commercial airline crews. Scenarios spanned a range of complex conditions and several emulated causal factors and complexity in recent accidents involving loss of state awareness by pilots (e.g. energy state, automation state, and/or system state). Data were collected via questionnaires administered after each flight, audio/video recordings, physiological data, head and eye tracking data, pilot control inputs, and researcher observations. This paper strictly focuses on findings derived from the questionnaire responses. It includes analysis of pilot subjective measures of complexity, decision making, workload, situation awareness, usability, and acceptability.

  11. A Simulation-based Approach to Measuring Team Situational Awareness in Emergency Medicine: A Multicenter, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Dixon, Aurora J; Webb, Jessica M; Brolliar, Sarah; Golden, Simon J; Jones, Kerin A; Shah, Sachita; Grand, James A; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2018-02-01

    Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA, but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine (EM) teams. We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement. Interprofessional emergency medical teams, consisting of EM resident physicians, nurses, and medical students, were recruited from the University of Washington (Seattle, WA) and Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). Each team completed a simulated emergency resuscitation scenario. Immediately following the simulation, team members completed a TSA measure, a team perception of shared understanding measure, and a team leader effectiveness measure. Subject matter expert reviews and pilot testing of the TSA measure provided evidence of content and response process validity. Simulations were recorded and independently coded for team performance using a previously validated measure. The relationships between the TSA measure and other variables (team clinical performance, team perception of shared understanding, team leader effectiveness, and team experience) were explored. The TSA agreement metric was indexed by averaging the pairwise agreement for each dyad on a team and then averaging across dyads to yield agreement at the team level. For the team perception of shared understanding and team leadership effectiveness measures, individual team member scores were aggregated within a team to create a single team score. We computed descriptive statistics for all outcomes. We calculated Pearson's product-moment correlations to determine bivariate correlations between outcome variables with two-tailed significance testing (p teams (n = 41

  12. VIRTUAL REALITY FOR MANAGEMENT OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DURING GLOBAL MASS GATHERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karsakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a training technology for staff of mass events for development of action skills in large gatherings of people, including crowd dynamic management and actions in extreme situations caused by the panic. The technology is based on the multi-agent model of crowd dynamic with dynamically re-computable navigation fields. We implemented the software system that provides a collaborative and distributed process of training activities in the virtual reality environment. The following characteristics of the developed software system available from experimental studies were analyzed: computational intensity of simulations, scalability of rendering system and reactivity of the final system when rendering computationally intensive scenes. The proposed models and infrastructure for training through collaborative immersion in the virtual reality can improve situational awareness of events staff prior to the event. The developed technology is a unique tool for improving the quality and safety of disposable and unique events involving the broad masses of people, including unfunded by retrospective experience mass gatherings. Developed technology was tested within the Kumbh Mela festival in Ujjain, India.

  13. Effective Cyber Situation Awareness (CSA) Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    activity/scenario. y. Save Wireshark Captures. z. Save SNORT logs. aa. Save MySQL databases. 4. After the completion of the scenario, the reversion...line or from custom Java code. • Cisco ASA Parser: Builds normalized vendor-neutral firewall rule specifications from Cisco ASA and PIX firewall...The Service tool lets analysts build Cauldron models from either the command line or from custom Java code. Functionally, it corresponds to the

  14. Introducing RiskSOAP to communicate the distributed situation awareness of a system about safety issues: an application to a robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the RiskSOAP ('RiskSOAP' is the abbreviation for Risk SituatiOn Awareness Provision.) indicator to measure the capability of a complex socio-technical system to provide its agents with situation awareness (SA) about the presence of its threats and vulnerabilities and enables analysts to assess distributed SA. The RiskSOAP methodology adopts a comparative approach between two design versions of a system differing in the elements and characteristics that can enhance or cause the degradation of the awareness provision capability. The methodology uniquely combines three methods: (1) the STPA hazard analysis, (2) the EWaSAP early warning sign identification approach, and (3) a dissimilarity measure for calculating the distance between binary sets. In this paper, the RiskSOAP methodology was applied to a robotic system and the findings show that the indicator is an objective measure for the system's capability to provide its agents with SA about its threats and vulnerabilities. Practitioner Summary: This paper suggests a novel methodology for assessing distributed situation awareness (DSA) regarding safety issues. Given that systems consist of specifications and components possible to be mapped, the risk SA provision capability (RiskSOAP) methodology demonstrates the feasibility of measuring to what extent systems' elements contribute to the emergence of DSA.

  15. The Global Muon Detector Network -GMDN and the space situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Munakata, Kazuoki; Dal Lago, Alisson; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Echer, Ezequiel; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; Rigozo, Nivaor R.; Petry, Adriano; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Ramos Vieira, Lucas; Kemmerich, Níkolas; Kato, Chihiro; Fushishita, Akira; Fujii, Zenjirou; Bieber, John W.; Evenson, Paul; Kuwabara, Takao; Duldig, Marcus L.; Humble, John E.; Chilingarian, Ashot; Sabbah, Ismail; Jansen, Frank

    Space weather forecasting is a very important tool for the space situational awareness to the space objects, the space environment and related threats and risks for manned and non-manned spacecrafts. The global network of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN) can be considered as one example of an important emerging Space Situational Awareness program around the world, since its requirements needs global technical, scientific and logistic collab-oration between several countries in different continents. ICMEs accompanied by a strong shock often forms a high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) depleted region behind the shock known as a Forbush decrease. The ICME arrival also causes a systematic variation in the GCR streaming (i.e. the directional anisotropy of intensity). The magnitude of the streaming is small (about 1 % or less), but its variation is relevant. Some particles from this suppressed density region traveling with about the speed of light leak into the upstream region, much faster than the approaching shock, creating the possibility of being observed at the earth, by a global net-work of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN), as precursory loss-cone anisotropy. Loss-cones are typically visible 4-8 hours ahead of shock arrival for shocks associated with ma-jor geomagnetic storms. A multi-directional muon detector for detection of GCR was installed in 2001, through an international cooperation between Brazil, Japan and USA, and has been in operation since then at the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, (29.4° S, 53.8° W, 480m a.s.l), Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, in southern Brazil. The detector's capability and sensitivity were upgraded in 2005. The observations conducted by this detector are used for forecasting the arrival of the geomagnetic storm and their interplanetary coronal mass ejec-tion (ICME) drivers in the near-earth geospace. The detector measures high-energy GCRs by detecting secondary muons produced from the

  16. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  17. The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study is being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. In this part of the experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels. Qualitative (questionnaires) and quantitative (pilot performance and physiological) data were collected during

  18. Unified Lambert Tool for Massively Parallel Applications in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn M.; Read, Julie; Hernandez, Kevin; Probe, Austin; Junkins, John L.

    2018-03-01

    Awareness computer cluster at the LASR Lab, Texas A&M University. We demonstrate the power of our tool by solving a highly parallel example problem, that is the generation of extremal field maps for optimal spacecraft rendezvous (and eventual orbit debris removal). In addition we demonstrate the need for including perturbative effects in simulations for satellite tracking or data association. The unified Lambert tool is ideal for but not limited to space situational awareness applications.

  19. Real-time Social Media Data Analytics for Situational Awareness of the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Chinthavali, S.; Lee, S.; Shankar, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing frequency of extreme events due to climate change, wide area situational awareness (SA) of the electric grid has become a primary need for federal agencies like DOE,FEMA etc. for emergency preparedness and recovery purposes. While several sensor feeds from Genscape, GridEye, PMUs provide a comprehensive view of the transmission grid, national-scale situational awareness tools are still relying on utility websites for outage information at a distribution level. The inconsistency and the variety in outage website's data formats makes this approach unreliable and also incurs huge software maintenance costs. Social media has emerged as a great medium for the utilities to share outage information with their customers. Despite their potential usefulness, extracting relevant data from these social media data-streams is challenging due to the inherent noise and irrelevant information such as tips to customers during storms, marketing, etc. In this study, we implement a practical and novel machine learning based data-analytics pipeline (Fig 1) for SA, which extracts real-time tweets from around 300 utility companies, processes these tweets using keyword filtering and Naïve-Bayes text classifier trained using supervised learning techniques to detect only relevant tweets. We validated the results by comparing it with the results identified by a human analyst for a period of 48 hours, and it showed around 98.3% accuracy. In addition to the tweets posted by utility companies, millions of twitter users, who are considered as human "social sensors", report power outages online. Therefore, we use Twitter Streaming API to extract real-time tweets containing keywords such as "power outage", "blackout", and "power cuts". An advanced natural language processing technique is proposed to identify the geo-locations associated with this power outage data. The detected tweets are visualized as a color-coded state and a county US map based on the number of outage tweets

  20. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%.

  1. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%

  2. Fuzzy assessment of health information system users' security awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Özlem Müge; Chouseinoglou, Oumout

    2013-12-01

    Health information systems (HIS) are a specific area of information systems (IS), where critical patient data is stored and quality health service is only realized with the correct use and efficient dissemination of this data to health workers. Therefore, a balance needs to be established between the levels of security and flow of information on HIS. Instead of implementing higher levels and further mechanisms of control to increase the security of HIS, it is preferable to deal with the arguably weakest link on HIS chain with respect to security: HIS users. In order to provide solutions and approaches for transforming users to the first line of defense in HIS but also to employ capable and appropriate candidates from the pool of newly graduated students, it is important to assess and evaluate the security awareness levels and characteristics of these existing and future users. This study aims to provide a new perspective to understand the phenomenon of security awareness of HIS users with the use of fuzzy analysis, and to assess the present situation of current and future HIS users of a leading medical and educational institution of Turkey, with respect to their security characteristics based on four different security scales. The results of the fuzzy analysis, the guide on how to implement this fuzzy analysis to any health institution and how to read and interpret these results, together with the possible implications of these results to the organization are provided.

  3. Predictive analytics as an essential mechanism for situational awareness at the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The workflow management process should be under the control of the certain service that is able to forecast the processing time dynamically according to the status of the processing environment and workflow itself, and to react immediately on any abnormal behaviour of the execution process. Such situational awareness analytic service would provide the possibility to monitor the execution process, to detect the source of any malfunction, and to optimize the management process. The stated service for the second generation of the ATLAS Production System (ProdSys2, an automated scheduling system) is based on predictive analytics approach to estimate the duration of the data processings (in terms of ProdSys2, it is task and chain of tasks) with later usage in decision making processes. Machine learning ensemble methods are chosen to estimate completion time (i.e., “Time To Complete”, TTC) for every (production) task and chain of tasks, thus “abnormal” task processing times would warn about possible failure...

  4. Approaches at KAIST NICIE Lab to quantifying situation awareness in nuclear power plant MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong-Hyun; Yim, Ho-Bin; Kim, Man-Cheol; Ha, Jun-Su; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community. But, techniques to measure SA have normally used expert judgment or a self-rating method so far. One of the problems of these techniques is inconsistency of results. So, empirical and analytical studies on an objective and quantitative SA measurement methods have been carried out at Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Lab (NICIE Lab) in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Empirical studies are based on physical and cognitive human behaviors, whereas analytical studies are mainly based on Bayesian inference. Eye movement signals and verbal protocol analysis were used for empirical approaches to obtain objective measures. FIR and SAE measures showed feasibility of an eye-tracking method for robust application. TSA score based on a verbal protocol analysis also showed its possibility of team SA (TSA) quantification. Bayesian inference was used for analytical approaches of SA quantification. The analytical quantification method was further expanded to consider some of the important human properties, and a SA modelling tool called ‘CoRSAGE, ver01” was developed. (author)

  5. Enhanced situation awareness and decision making for an intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.J.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Learning Automata based intelligent reconfigurable controller has been adapted for use as a reactor power controller to achieve improved reactor temperature performance. The intelligent reconfigurable controller is capable of enforcing either a classical or an optimal reactor power controller based on control performance feedback. Four control performance evaluation measures: dynamically estimated average quadratic temperature error, power, rod reactivity and rod reactivity rate were developed to provide feedback to the control decision component of the intelligent reconfigurable controller. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network controllers have been studied for inclusion in the bank of controllers that form the intermediate level of an enhanced intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller (IRRPC). The increased number of alternatives available to the supervisory level of the IRRPC requires enhanced situation awareness. Additional performance measures have been designed and a method for synthesizing them into a single indication of the overall performance of the currently enforced reactor power controller has been conceptualized. Modification of the reward/penalty scheme implemented in the existing IRRPC to increase the quality of the supervisory level decision process has been studied. The logogen model of human memory (Morton, 1969) and individual controller design information could be used to allocate reward to the most appropriate controller. Methods for allocating supervisory level attention were also studied with the goal of maximizing learning rate

  6. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  7. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  8. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  9. Augmented Reality Tool for the Situational Awareness Improvement of UAV Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Susana; Cuevas, Carlos; Gallego, Guillermo; García, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being extensively used nowadays. Therefore, pilots of traditional aerial platforms should adapt their skills to operate them from a Ground Control Station (GCS). Common GCSs provide information in separate screens: one presents the video stream while the other displays information about the mission plan and information coming from other sensors. To avoid the burden of fusing information displayed in the two screens, an Augmented Reality (AR) tool is proposed in this paper. The AR system has two functionalities for Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE) UAVs: route orientation and target identification. Route orientation allows the operator to identify the upcoming waypoints and the path that the UAV is going to follow. Target identification allows a fast target localization, even in the presence of occlusions. The AR tool is implemented following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standards so that it can be used in different GCSs. The experiments show how the AR tool improves significantly the situational awareness of the UAV operators. PMID:28178189

  10. Benefits of Applying Predictive Intelligence to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B.; Mann, B.; Millard, C.

    Recent events have heightened the interest in providing improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to the warfighter using novel techniques that are affordable and effective. The current Space Surveillance Network (SSN) detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting earth and provides information on Resident Space Objects (RSO) as well as new foreign launch (NFL) satellites. The reactive nature of the SSN provides little to no warning on changes to the expected states of these RSOs or NFLs. This paper will detail the use of the historical data collected on RSOs to characterize what their steady state is, proactively help identify when changes or anomalies have occurred using a pattern-of-like activity based intelligence approach, and apply dynamic, adaptive mission planning to the observables that lead up to a NFL. Multiple hypotheses will be carried along with the intent or the changes to the steady state to assist the SSN in tasking the various sensors in the network to collect the relevant data needed to help prune the number of hypotheses by assigning likelihood to each of those activities. Depending on the hypothesis and thresholds set, these likelihoods will then be used in turn to alert the SSN operator with changes to the steady state, prioritize additional data collections, and provide a watch list of likely next activities.

  11. Crew Situation Awareness, Diagnoses, and Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Process Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Kaarstad, Magnhild

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project to identify issues in crew performance in complex simulated nuclear power plant scenarios. Eight crews of operators participated in five scenarios, administered over a two or three-day period. Scenarios required either rule-based or knowledge-based problem solving. Several performance parameters were collected, including Situation Awareness (SA), objective performance, rated crew performance, and crew diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in performance measures in knowledge-based and rule-based scenarios. Preliminary data analysis revealed a significant difference in crew SA between the two scenario types: crews in the rule-based scenarios had significantly higher SA then crews in the knowledge-based scenarios. Further investigations were initiated to determine if crews performed differently, in terms of objective performance, rated crew performance, and diagnoses, between the scenario types. Correlations between the various crew performance measurements were calculated to reveal insights into the nature of SA, performance, and diagnoses. The insights into crew performance can be used to design more effective interfaces and operator performance aids, thus contributing to enhanced crew performance and improved plant safety. (authors)

  12. Perceived learning outcome: the relationship between experience, realism and situation awareness during simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Navigation errors are a frequent cause of serious accidents and work-related injuries among seafarers. The present study investigated the effects of experience, perceived realism, and situation awareness (SA) on the perceived learning outcome of simulator-based navigation training. Thirty-two Norwegian Navy officer cadets were assigned to a low and a high mental workload conditions based on previous educational and navigational experience. In the low mental workload condition, experience (negatively associated), perceived realism, and subjective SA explained almost half of the total variance in perceived learning outcome. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that only subjective SA made a unique contribution to the learning outcome. In the high mental workload condition, perceived realism and subjective SA together explained almost half of the variance in perceived learning outcome. Furthermore, both perceived realism and subjective SA were shown to make an independent contribution to perceived learning outcomes. The results of this study show that in order to enhance the learning outcomes from simulator training it is necessary to design training procedures and scenarios that enable students to achieve functional fidelity and to generate and maintain SA during training. This can further improve safety and reduce the risk of maritime disasters.

  13. Enhancing situational awareness by means of visualization and information integration of sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for information integration and sharing architecture, which is able to receive data simultaneously from multiple different sensor networks. Creating a Common Operational Picture (COP) object along with the base map of the building plays a key role in the research. The object is combined with desired map sources and then shared to the mobile devices worn by soldiers in the field. The sensor networks we used focus on location techniques indoors, and a simple set of symbols is created to present the information, as an addition to NATO APP6B symbols. A core element in this research is the MUSAS (Mobile Urban Situational Awareness System), a demonstration environment that implements central functionalities. Information integration of the system is handled by the Internet Connection Engine (Ice) middleware, as well as the server, which hosts COP information and maps. The entire system is closed, such that it does not need any external service, and the information transfer with the mobile devices is organized by a tactical 5 GHz WLAN solution. The demonstration environment is implemented using only commercial off-theshelf (COTS) products. We have presented a field experiment event in which the system was able to integrate and share real time information of a blue force tracking system, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) based intrusion detection system, and a robot using simultaneous location and mapping technology (SLAM), where all the inputs were based on real activities. The event was held in a training area on urban area warfare.

  14. Toma de conciencia de las situaciones y competencia deportiva. Situational awareness and sport competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De La Vega Marcos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el contexto de los deportes colectivos, los deportistas tienen que tener la capacidad de juego definida como un don muy complejo que consiste en saber utilizar las capacidades condicionales de coordinación, intelectuales y la habilidad técnica de manera que pueda resolver bien el objetivo de juego (Lorenzo, 2002. Este objetivo se debe plantear teniendo en cuenta el aspecto funcional bajo un enfoque constructivista. La conceptualización de una situación de juego colectivo 3x3 en baloncesto nos otorga la posibilidad de constatar con mayor claridad hasta qué punto los participantes son capaces de tomar conciencia de la acción por medio de la explicación verbal, el control necesario en la acción y la estrategia de actuación. Para ello hemos utilizado la entrevista clinica y el dibujo para describir cómo los jugadores elaboran y memorizan el conocimiento implicado en las acciones motrices (Gréhaigne y Godbout, 1995; Del Valle, 1999; Rychecki, 2001; De la Vega, 2002, ya que los jugadores en todo momento están llevando a cabo procesos cognitivos a la hora de analizar, planificar y evaluar el problema que se les plantea durante el desarrollo del partido o en el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la toma de conciencia explícita sobre la acción está en función del nivel de práctica que poseen los participantes y por otro, que las diferencias existentes entre los grupos no experto y expertos, se han constatado por las disimilitudes halladas entre el número de relaciones que los participantes han sido capaces de establecer entre los distintos elementos que conforman la tarea.AbstractIn the context of sports, player´s competence is defined as a very complex issue. The player needs conditional capacities of coordination, intellectual and the technical skill to solve well the game (Lorenzo, 2002. The functional constructivist rationale can solve this problem. The awareness of a situation of collective

  15. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. In P. Rooney (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning (pp. 8-9). Dublin, Ireland. Please see

  16. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. Presentation at the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning, Dublin, Ireland. Please see also

  17. An interorganizational IT infrastructure for self-organization in logistics : situation awareness and real-time chain composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.; Punter, L.M.; Bastiaansen, H.J.M.; Cornelisse, E.; Dalmolen, S.; Palaskas, Z.; Karakostas, B.; Gato, J.; Garcia, J.; Herrero, G.; Gonzalez-Rodrigues, M.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges for more sustainable, effective and efficient transport services in global logistics, a new IT-paradigm is needed to harvest the opportunities that capabilities for situation awareness and real-time chain composition provide. The iCargo project provides such an advanced,

  18. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  19. Using corporate governance to enhance 'long-term situation awareness' and assist in the avoidance of organisation-induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of how corporate governance can and should deal with the long-term understanding of systems health-what we may call 'long-term situation awareness' (i.e. which evolves and is coherent over time) for organisational systems (and their component sub systems) in the engineering domain. Many characteristics affect long-term situation awareness-the rate of change to processes, pressures for greater efficiency from existing resources, changes in personnel, cultural changes and changes to the operational environment of the organisational systems. Many disasters (e.g. Chernobyl, Flixborough, Piper Alpha) have a causal path that indicates a loss of group situation awareness, over a long period of time. The problem of the gradual, slow drift over many years towards unsafe conduct of company operations is discussed and examples of possible consequences provided. A 'parable' from the world of manufacturing is used to exemplify the problem. The paper goes on to discuss some ways by which this problem could be addressed and longer-term system situational awareness increased; essentially by good corporate governance, knowledge management and ownership of processes. Links are made to the literature on these topics, and a route map to help organisations to gain the benefits is offered.

  20. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  1. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  2. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  3. Spacio-temporal situation assessment for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anders Billesø; Risager, Claus; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2011-01-01

    chains are used to model the situation states and sequence, where stream clustering is used for state matching and dealing with noise. In experiments using simulated and real data, we show that we are able to learn a situation sequence for a mobile robot passing through a narrow passage. After learning......In this paper, we present a framework for situation modeling and assessment for mobile robot applications. We consider situations as data patterns that characterize unique circumstances for the robot, and represented not only by the data but also its temporal and spacial sequence. Dynamic Markov...

  4. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  5. Staff acceptance of video monitoring for coordination: a video system to support perioperative situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Peter; Dutton, Richard

    2009-08-01

    To understand staff acceptance of a remote video monitoring system for operating room (OR) coordination. Improved real-time remote visual access to OR may enhance situational awareness but also raises privacy concerns for patients and staff. Survey. A system was implemented in a six-room surgical suite to display OR monitoring video at an access restricted control desk area. Image quality was manipulated to improve staff acceptance. Two months after installation, interviews and a survey were conducted on staff acceptance of video monitoring. About half of all OR personnel responded (n = 63). Overall levels of concerns were low, with 53% rated no concerns and 42% little concern. Top two reported uses of the video were to see if cases are finished and to see if a room is ready. Viewing the video monitoring system as useful did not reduce levels of concern. Staff in supervisory positions perceived less concern about the system's impact on privacy than did those supervised (p < 0.03). Concerns for patient privacy correlated with concerns for staff privacy and performance monitoring. Technical means such as manipulating image quality helped staff acceptance. Manipulation of image quality resulted overall acceptance of monitoring video, with residual levels of concerns. OR nurses may express staff privacy concern in the form of concerns over patient privacy. This study provided suggestions for technological and implementation strategies of video monitoring for coordination use in OR. Deployment of communication technology and integration of clinical information will likely raise concerns over staff privacy and performance monitoring. The potential gain of increased information access may be offset by negative impact of a sense of loss of autonomy.

  6. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  7. Nurse-surgeon object transfer: video analysis of communication and situation awareness in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakangas, Terhi; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Bezemer, Jeff; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-09-01

    One of the most central collaborative tasks during surgical operations is the passing of objects, including instruments. Little is known about how nurses and surgeons achieve this. The aim of the present study was to explore what factors affect this routine-like task, resulting in fast or slow transfer of objects. A qualitative video study, informed by an observational ethnographic approach, was conducted in a major teaching hospital in the UK. A total of 20 general surgical operations were observed. In total, approximately 68 h of video data have been reviewed. A subsample of 225 min has been analysed in detail using interactional video-analysis developed within the social sciences. Two factors affecting object transfer were observed: (1) relative instrument trolley position and (2) alignment. The scrub nurse's instrument trolley position (close to vs. further back from the surgeon) and alignment (gaze direction) impacts on the communication with the surgeon, and consequently, on the speed of object transfer. When the scrub nurse was standing close to the surgeon, and "converged" to follow the surgeon's movements, the transfer occurred more seamlessly and faster (1.0 s). The smoothness of object transfer can be improved by adjusting the scrub nurse's instrument trolley position, enabling a better monitoring of surgeon's bodily conduct and affording early orientation (awareness) to an upcoming request (changing situation). Object transfer is facilitated by the surgeon's embodied practices, which can elicit the nurse's attention to the request and, as a response, maximise a faster object transfer. A simple intervention to highlight the significance of these factors could improve communication in the operating theatre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Fusion for High Level Situation Assessment and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, we developed algorithms for performing active information fusion to improve both fusion accuracy and efficiency so that decision making and situation assessment can be made in a timely and efficient manner...

  9. Assessment of radiation dose awareness among pediatricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Parnell-Parmley, June E.; Charkot, Ellen; BenDavid, Guila; Krajewski, Connie; Haidar, Salwa; Moineddin, Rahim

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing awareness among pediatric radiologists of the potential risks associated with ionizing radiation in medical imaging. However, it is not known whether there has been a corresponding increase in awareness among pediatricians. To establish the level of awareness among pediatricians of the recent publicity on radiation risks in children, knowledge of the relative doses of radiological investigations, current practice regarding parent/patient discussions, and the sources of educational input. Multiple-choice survey. Of 220 respondents, 105 (48%) were aware of the 2001 American Journal of Roentgenology articles on pediatric CT and radiation, though only 6% were correct in their estimate of the quoted lifetime excess cancer risk associated with radiation doses equivalent to pediatric CT. A sustained or transient increase in parent questioning regarding radiation doses had been noticed by 31%. When estimating the effective doses of various pediatric radiological investigations in chest radiograph (CXR) equivalents, 87% of all responses (and 94% of CT estimates) were underestimates. Only 15% of respondents were familiar with the ALARA principle. Only 14% of pediatricians recalled any relevant formal teaching during their specialty training. The survey response rate was 40%. Awareness of radiation protection issues among pediatricians is generally low, with widespread underestimation of relative doses and risks. (orig.)

  10. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems

  11. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  12. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  13. Rapid SAR and GPS Measurements and Models for Hazard Science and Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Liu, Z.; Moore, A. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Linick, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Polet, J.; Manipon, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), SAR-based change detection, and image pixel tracking have recently become critical additions to our toolset for understanding and mapping the damage caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods. Analyses of these data sets are still largely handcrafted following each event and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for response to natural disasters or for timely analysis of large data sets. The ARIA project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has been capturing the knowledge applied to these responses and building it into an automated infrastructure to generate imaging products in near real-time that can improve situational awareness for disaster response. In addition, the ARIA project is developing the capabilities to provide automated imaging and analysis capabilities necessary to keep up with the imminent increase in raw data from geodetic imaging missions planned for launch by NASA, as well as international space agencies. We will present the progress we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from Sentinel 1a/b as well as continuous GPS stations. Since the beginning of our project, our team has imaged events and generated response products for events around the world. These response products have enabled many conversations with those in the disaster response community

  14. A High Fidelity Approach to Data Simulation for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, S.; Ellis, H., Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is vital to maintaining our Space Superiority. A high fidelity, time-based simulation tool, PROXOR™ (Proximity Operations and Rendering), supports SSA by generating realistic mission scenarios including sensor frame data with corresponding truth. This is a unique and critical tool for supporting mission architecture studies, new capability (algorithm) development, current/future capability performance analysis, and mission performance prediction. PROXOR™ provides a flexible architecture for sensor and resident space object (RSO) orbital motion and attitude control that simulates SSA, rendezvous and proximity operations scenarios. The major elements of interest are based on the ability to accurately simulate all aspects of the RSO model, viewing geometry, imaging optics, sensor detector, and environmental conditions. These capabilities enhance the realism of mission scenario models and generated mission image data. As an input, PROXOR™ uses a library of 3-D satellite models containing 10+ satellites, including low-earth orbit (e.g., DMSP) and geostationary (e.g., Intelsat) spacecraft, where the spacecraft surface properties are those of actual materials and include Phong and Maxwell-Beard bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) coefficients for accurate radiometric modeling. We calculate the inertial attitude, the changing solar and Earth illumination angles of the satellite, and the viewing angles from the sensor as we propagate the RSO in its orbit. The synthetic satellite image is rendered at high resolution and aggregated to the focal plane resolution resulting in accurate radiometry even when the RSO is a point source. The sensor model includes optical effects from the imaging system [point spread function (PSF) includes aberrations, obscurations, support structures, defocus], detector effects (CCD blooming, left/right bias, fixed pattern noise, image persistence, shot noise, read noise, and quantization

  15. “ABC”—The Awareness-Body-Chart: A new tool assessing body awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian, Alexander; Macheiner, Tanja; Salchinger, Beate; Dalkner, Nina; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Birner, Armin; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Platzer, Martina; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Probst, Michel; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body awareness for health and well-being there is still a lack of valid assessment tools to scan proper body awareness. To respond to the limitations of questionnaires (reading/interpretation problems) the Awareness-Body-Chart (ABC) was designed to assess body awareness by colouring 51 regions according to their awareness. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the ABC. Methods In a questionnaire-study, 106 students in Graz (79 females, 27 males, age median 21 (IQR 20–23) years) filled in the ABC, furthermore a German body awareness questionnaire „KEKS”, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Factor structure, internal consistency, and retest reliability of the ABC were investigated. Correlations of the ABC with the KEKS and the Beck Depression Inventory II and comparisons of subgroups were conducted. Results Through factor analyses, 14 factors with clear assignments to body parts could be categorized: cranium, face, cervical/lumbar region, chest/abdomen, back, shoulder, upper arm, lower arm/elbow, hand, genital area, thigh/hip, knee, lower leg, and foot. The 14 body parts and the total score showed acceptable to high Cronbach’s alphas (α = .64 - .97). The test-retest reliability showed values between ρ = .71 and ρ = .96. The correlation of the ABC and KEKS (r = .66, p awareness-patterns of various subgroups. PMID:29036217

  16. A qualitative study examining the influences on situation awareness and the identification, mitigation and escalation of recognised patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick W; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    Situation awareness (SA)-the perception of data elements, comprehension of their meaning and projection of their status in the near future-has been associated with human performance in high-risk environments, including aviation and the operating room. The influences on SA in inpatient medicine are unknown. We conducted seven focus groups with nurses, respiratory therapists and resident physicians using a standardised semistructured focus group guide to promote discussion. Recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were qualitatively analysed by two independent reviewers to identify convergent and divergent themes. Three themes emerged: (1) team-based care, (2) availability of standardised data and (3) standardised processes and procedures. We categorised these into social, technological and organisational influences on SA. Subthemes that emerged from each focus group were shared language to describe at-risk patients, provider experience in critical care/deterioration and interdisciplinary huddles to identify and plan for at-risk patients. An objective early warning score, proactive assessment and planning, adequate clinician staffing and tools for entering, displaying and monitoring data trends were identified by six of seven groups. Our data better reflected the concepts of team SA and shared SA than individual SA. Team-based care and standardisation support SA and the identification and treatment of patient risk in the complex environment of inpatient care. These findings can be used to guide the development and implementation of targeted interventions such as huddles to proactively scan for risk and electronic health record displays of data trends.

  17. Emergent situation awareness of drivable routes for autonomous robots using temporal probalistic reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available of hidden paths embedded in the complex environments. Experimental evaluations of the ESA on real life and publicly available road frames outperform the classical statistical baseline methods in handling uncertainties over time. Our awareness results reveal...

  18. Modeling and analyses for an extended car-following model accounting for drivers' situation awareness from cyber physical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Sun, Dihua; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Senlin

    2018-07-01

    In fact, driving process is a typical cyber physical process which couples tightly the cyber factor of traffic information with the physical components of the vehicles. Meanwhile, the drivers have situation awareness in driving process, which is not only ascribed to the current traffic states, but also extrapolates the changing trend. In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to account for drivers' situation awareness. The stability criterion of the proposed model is derived via linear stability analysis. The results show that the stable region of proposed model will be enlarged on the phase diagram compared with previous models. By employing the reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equation is obtained. The kink-antikink soliton of mKdV equation reveals theoretically the evolution of traffic jams. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the analytical results. Two typical traffic Scenarios are investigated. The simulation results demonstrate that drivers' situation awareness plays a key role in traffic flow oscillations and the congestion transition.

  19. Chinese Students' Awareness of Relationship between Green Finance, Environmental Protection Education and Real Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…

  20. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  1. Geographical Education and the Environment: Assessment Situations from Cartographic Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gonzalez, Monica Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Even though the appearance and spread of new technologies offer considerable challenges in the design of far reaching and complex pre-test and assessment situations which are in keeping with the trends of teaching and learning, the thematic map is still an insuperable document to value either integral training or academic performance of future…

  2. Context recognition and situation assessment in autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavnai, Arie

    1993-05-01

    The capability to recognize the operating context and to assess the situation in real-time is needed, if a high functionality autonomous mobile robot has to react properly and effectively to continuously changing situations and events, either external or internal, while the robot is performing its assigned tasks. A new approach and architecture for context recognition and situation assessment module (CORSA) is presented in this paper. CORSA is a multi-level information processing module which consists of adaptive decision and classification algorithms. It performs dynamic mapping from the data space to the context space, and dynamically decides on the context class. Learning mechanism is employed to update the decision variables so as to minimize the probability of misclassification. CORSA is embedded within the Mission Manager module of the intelligent autonomous hyper-controller (IAHC) of the mobile robot. The information regarding operating context, events and situation is then communicated to other modules of the IAHC where it is used to: (a) select the appropriate action strategy; (b) support the processes to arbitration and conflict resolution between reflexive behaviors and reasoning-driven behaviors; (c) predict future events and situations; and (d) determine criteria and priorities for planning, replanning, and decision making.

  3. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  4. Multidisciplinary Cooperation in Crisis Management Teams: a Tool to Improve Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, L. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Theunissen, N.; Rijk, R. van; Huis in 't Veld, M.

    2011-01-01

    When a crisis occurs, people from different organizations, on different hierarchical levels have to deal with unexpected situations that require coordinated effort. The goal of this research is to improve multidisciplinary cooperation for crisis management teams. We developed a tool, the Multi-mono

  5. Use of Mobile Video to Enhance Situational Awareness in HA/DR Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    challenges . Although many definitions have been proposed so far, Mica R. Endsley describes “situational awareness” as: [T]he perception of the...Player, QuickTime, Flash Player, VLC Media Player, HTML 5 Video and DivX Web Player. This feature helps overcome a usual handicap that developers

  6. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  7. Emergent future situation awareness: a temporal probabilistic reasoning in the absence of domain experts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ). The treatment records from the behavior of a diabetes patient were captured electronically as MTS. It contains several treatment measurement codes such as 33 (regular insulin dose), 48 (unspecified blood glucose), etc. It is expected here to predict treatment... measurements required in future for the patient based on the historical behavioral patterns. For instance, equation (6) below is a situation which predicts how much of the minimum (about 7 units) measurement of regular insulin dose will be required...

  8. Resources and needs: assessment of the world water situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The global water situation is assessed. Movement and distribution of water in the hydrologic cycle is described. Methods of appraising surface water, precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater, and water quality are reviewed. The reliability of such appraisals depends greatly on the adequacy of national water observation networks. Global water supplies and quality of lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater are estimated. The effects of runoff, climate, and human activities on supplies are briefly discussed. The use and demand of water for domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydroelectric, transportation, and recreational needs are assessed. Methods of projecting water demand and quality are reviewed. Demand and supply relationships for various regions of the world are presented. Socioeconomic, financial, technical, administrative, legal, and environmental considerations of these relationships are examined. By using available technology and institutional devices, the world water situation can be improved. (1 diagram, 3 graphs, 8 tables)

  9. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  10. Situational Awareness: Deadly Bioconvergence at the Boundaries of Bodies and Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Suchman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay sets out an initial analytic framing for research in progress on the problem of ‘situational awareness’ within contemporary forms of (particularly U.S. warfare. My focus more specifically is on the logics, rhetorics and material practices of remotely-controlled weapon systems (particularly armed drones and weaponized robots. Drawing from reports in investigative journalism, military documents, and critical scholarship, I examine connections between the emphasis in military and security discourses on keeping ‘our’ bodies safe through so called network-centric warfare, and the project of cutting the networks that might bring our wars too close to home.

  11. Agent Services for Situation Aware Control of Power Systems With Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Electric Power system of Denmark exhibits some unique characteristics. An increasing part of the electricity is produced by distributed generators (DGs). Most of these DGs are connected to the network at the distribution level. At the same time the concept of vehicle to grid (V2G) is already...... in the process of realization. This situation has created an incentive in electric power industry to utilize modern information and communication technologies (ICT) for improving the distribution system automation. This paper describes our work on how significantly increased amount of distributed generation...... services. We present results from several experiments where agents offer and utilize services in order to achieve distributed and autonomous control for subgrid operation of a distribution system. Finally it is discussed how the service oriented architecture can be combined with knowledge based reasoning...

  12. [Analysis of the current situation the oral medical interns' awareness on occupation safety behavior in college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Song; Yu, Wang; Rongrong, He; Ying, Xu

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine the awareness oral medical interns about occupation safety protection of knowledge and to present a scientific basis for perfecting the occupation safety education system and standard protection behavior. A self-designed questionnaire that used a retrospective questionnaire survey on 425 stomatological interns, scoring, and statistical analysis of the survey were performed. The questionnaire included occupation safety prevention knowledge, behavior cognitive, and protective behavior, among others. The questionnaire recovery rate was 100%, and the average scores of the prevention knowledge and behavior cognitive were 4.55 ± 0.91 and 4.40 ± 1.05, respectively. More than 90% interns can conduct the conventional protection, and less than 40% can perform special protection. For the item "occupation safety protection knowledge", the scores of three grade III hospitals were higher than that of stomatological hospitals and second level of first-class hospitals; the difference was statistically significant (P safety protection knowledge, behavioral cognitive, and protection behavior. The average score was higher for than for boys in the three contents, and the average score of interns accepting pre-job training was higher than those rejected; the difference was statistically significant (P safety knowledge of oral medical interns is not sufficient, and the protective behavior is poor. Schools and hospitals should strengthen the intern occupation safety and protection education and improve the status of occupation safety behavior.

  13. Assessment of awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the level of awareness and knowledge of Hepatitis B infection in the selected area of Puchong, Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 400 subjects (> 12 yrs of age) using validated questionnaire which was distributed and completed by the respondent from January 2013 to ...

  14. Validating a Questionnaire Assessing Knowledge and Awareness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 2, 2015. Validating a Questionnaire Assessing Knowledge and Awareness of Emergen- cy Trolleys: Revisions Required to Account for Variances in a Low Resource. Setting. Charles Twagirayezu1, Stephanie Taylor1, Julie Pfeffer1. 1University Teaching ...

  15. Application of a computational situation assessment model to human system interface design and experimental validation of its effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Koh, Kwang-Yong; Seong, Poong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We validate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure thru an experiment. ► The proposed procedure addresses the salient coding of the key information. ► It was found that salience coding affects operators’ attention significantly. ► The first observation to the key information quickly guided to the correct situation awareness. ► It was validated the proposed procedure is effective for better situation awareness. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of human cognitive characteristics on situation awareness, a computational situation assessment model of nuclear power plant operators has been developed, as well as a procedure to apply the developed model to the design of human system interfaces (HSIs). The concept of the proposed procedure is to identify the key information source, which is expected to guarantee fast and accurate diagnosis when operators attend to it. The developed computational model is used to search the diagnostic paths and the key information source. In this study, an experiment with twelve trained participants was executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Eighteen scenarios covering various accidents were administered twice for each subject, and experimental data were collected and analyzed. As a result of the data analysis, it was validated that the salience level of information sources significantly influences the attention of operators, and the first observation of the key information sources leads operators to a quick and correct situation assessment. Therefore, we conclude that the proposed procedure for applying the developed model to HSI design is effective

  16. Evaluation of Cyber Sensors for Enhancing Situational Awareness in the ICS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    basis of this research was motivated by a paper entitled, “Quantitatively Assessing and Visualising Industrial System Attack Surfaces,” written by...capabilities; it comes with a single NIC and various I/O ports such as USB, HDMI, and audio out. For this research, a USB wifi dongle is used...Quantitatively Assessing and Visualising Industrial System Attack Surfaces”. University of Cambridge, Darwin College, 2011. [22] Martin-Garcia, L. and

  17. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  18. Embodied Interactions in Human-Machine Decision Making for Situation Awareness Enhancement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    scientific questions raised in the proposed work, as well as proposing new questions regarding fundamentals of modeling the operator’s attention...I ( | I), M l l i i score D P D P dI   (7) Where          1 1 1 Γ Γ | Γ Γ i iq rN ij ijk ijk i i j kij ij ijk N a s...work would include other physiological assessment techniques such as eye tracking and brain control interfaces (EEG) to assess attention and compare

  19. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S.G.L. Wauben; C.M. Dekker-van Doorn (Connie); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); R.H.M. Goossens (Richard); R. Huijsman (Robbert); J. Klein (Jan); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Design: Questionnaire design. Setting: Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Participants: Sixty-six

  20. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauben, L.S.G.L.; Dekker-van Doorn, C.M.; Van Wijngaarden, J.H.D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Huijsman, R.; Klein, J.; Lange, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess surgical team members’ differences in perception of non-technical skills. Design Questionnaire design. Setting Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Participants Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses,

  1. Situational awareness of hazards: Validation of multi-source radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2016-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific hazard data during disasters are increasingly common. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, and the resulting radioactive releases at the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, citizens monitored on-ground levels of radiation with innovative mobile devices built from off-the-shelf components. To date, the citizen-led SAFECAST project has recorded 50 million radiation measurements worldwide, with the majority of these measurements from Japan. The analysis of data which are multi-dimensional, not vetted, and provided from multiple devices presents big data challenges due to their volume, velocity, variety, and veracity. While the SAFECAST project produced massive open-source radiation measurements at specific coordinates and times, the reliability and validity of the overall data have not yet been assessed. The nuclear disaster provides a case for assessing the SAFECAST data with official aerial remote sensing radiation data jointly collected by the governments of the United States and Japan. A spatial and statistical assessment of SAFECAST requires several preprocessing steps. First, SAFECAST ionized radiation sensors collected data using different units of measure than the government data, and they had to be converted. Secondly, the normally occurring radiation and decay rates of Cesium from deposition surveys were used to properly compare measurements in space and time. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within overlapping extents at multiple spatial resolutions. Quantitative measures were used to assess the similarity and differences in the observed measurements. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations and statistically significant correlations. The results suggest that actionable scientific data for disasters and emergencies can be inferred from non-traditional and not vetted data generated through citizen science projects. This

  2. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  3. A System to Provide Real-Time Collaborative Situational Awareness by Web Enabling a Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangadan, Anand; Monacos, Steve; Burleigh, Scott; Joswig, Joseph; James, Mark; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture of both the PATS and SAP systems and how these two systems interoperate with each other forming a unified capability for deploying intelligence in hostile environments with the objective of providing actionable situational awareness of individuals. The SAP system works in concert with the UICDS information sharing middleware to provide data fusion from multiple sources. UICDS can then publish the sensor data using the OGC's Web Mapping Service, Web Feature Service, and Sensor Observation Service standards. The system described in the paper is able to integrate a spatially distributed sensor system, operating without the benefit of the Web infrastructure, with a remote monitoring and control system that is equipped to take advantage of SWE.

  4. A Framework for Achieving Situational Awareness during Crisis based on Twitter Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrea; Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Middleton, Stuart; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Decision Support Systems for Natural Crisis Management increasingly employ Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies for future collaborative decision making, including the use of social networks like Twitter. However, human sensor data is not readily accessible and interpretable, since the texts are unstructured, noisy and available in various languages. The present work focusses on the detection of crisis events in a multilingual setting as part of the FP7-funded EU project TRIDEC and is motivated by the goal to establish a Tsunami warning system for the Mediterranean. It is integrated into a dynamic spatial-temporal decision making component with a command and control unit's graphical user interface that presents all relevant information to the human operator to support critical decision-support. To this end, a tool for the interactive visualization of geospatial data is implemented: All tweets with an exact timestamp or geo-location are monitored on the map in real-time so that the operator on duty can get an overall picture of the situation. Apart from the human sensor data, the seismic sensor data will appear also on the same screen. Signs of abnormal activity from twitter usage in social networks as well as in sensor networks devices can then be used to trigger official warning alerts according to the CAP message standard. Whenever a certain threshold of relevant tweets in a HASC region (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Code) is exceeded, the twitter activity in this administrative region will be shown on a map. We believe that the following functionalities are crucial for monitoring crisis, making use of text mining and network analysis techniques: Focussed crawling, trustworthyness analysis geo-parsing, and multilingual tweet classification. In the first step, the Twitter Streaming API accesses the social data, using an adaptive keyword list (focussed crawling). Then, tweets are filtered and aggregated to form counts for a certain time-span (e.g., an interval of

  5. Awareness of deficits in traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional approach to assessing metacognitive knowledge and online-awareness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits.

  6. Ecological interface design for turbine secondary systems in a nuclear power plant : effects on operator situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into past accidents at nuclear power generating facilities such as that of Three Mile Island have identified human factors as one of the foremost critical aspects in plant safety. Errors resulting from limitations in human information processing are of particular concern for human-machine interfaces (HMI) in plant control rooms. This project examines the application of Ecological Interface Design (EID) in HMI information displays and the effects on operator situation awareness (SA) for turbine secondary systems based on the Swedish Forsmark 3 boiling-water reactor nuclear power plant. A work domain analysis was performed on the turbine secondary systems yielding part-whole decomposition and abstraction hierarchy models. Information display requirements were subsequently extracted from the models. The resulting EID information displays were implemented in a full-scope simulator and evaluated with six licensed operating crews from the Forsmark 3 plant. Three measures were used to examine SA: self-rated bias, Halden Open Probe Elicitation (HOPE), and Situation Awareness Control Room Inventory (SACRI). The data analysis revealed that operators achieved moderate to good SA; operators unfamiliar with EID information displays were able to develop and maintain comparable levels of SA to operators using traditional forms of single sensor-single indicator (SS-SI) information displays. With sufficient training and experience, operator SA is expected to benefit from the knowledge-based visual elements in the EID information displays. This project was researched in conjunction with the Cognitive Engineering Laboratory at the University of Toronto and the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. (author)

  7. New technologies for information retrieval to achieve situational awareness and higher patient safety in the surgical operating room: the MRI institutional approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Feussner, Hubertus

    2011-03-01

    Technical progress in the operating room (OR) increases constantly, but advanced techniques for error prevention are lacking. It has been the vision to create intelligent OR systems ("autopilot") that not only collect intraoperative data but also interpret whether the course of the operation is normal or deviating from the schedule ("situation awareness"), to recommend the adequate next steps of the intervention, and to identify imminent risky situations. Recently introduced technologies in health care for real-time data acquisition (bar code, radiofrequency identification [RFID], voice and emotion recognition) may have the potential to meet these demands. This report aims to identify, based on the authors' institutional experience and a review of the literature (MEDLINE search 2000-2010), which technologies are currently most promising for providing the required data and to describe their fields of application and potential limitations. Retrieval of information on the functional state of the peripheral devices in the OR is technically feasible by continuous sensor-based data acquisition and online analysis. Using bar code technologies, automatic instrument identification seems conceivable, with information given about the actual part of the procedure and indication of any change in the routine workflow. The dynamics of human activities also comprise key information. A promising technology for continuous personnel tracking is data acquisition with RFID. Emotional data capture and analysis in the OR are difficult. Although technically feasible, nonverbal emotion recognition is difficult to assess. In contrast, emotion recognition by speech seems to be a promising technology for further workflow prediction. The presented technologies are a first step to achieving an increased situational awareness in the OR. However, workflow definition in surgery is feasible only if the procedure is standardized, the peculiarities of the individual patient are taken into account

  8. Forecasted Flood Depth Grids Providing Early Situational Awareness to FEMA during the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Longenecker, H. E., III

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 hurricane season brought the unprecedented landfall of three Category 4 hurricanes (Harvey, Irma and Maria). FEMA is responsible for coordinating the federal response and recovery efforts for large disasters such as these. FEMA depends on timely and accurate depth grids to estimate hazard exposure, model damage assessments, plan flight paths for imagery acquisition, and prioritize response efforts. In order to produce riverine or coastal depth grids based on observed flooding, the methodology requires peak crest water levels at stream gauges, tide gauges, high water marks, and best-available elevation data. Because peak crest data isn't available until the apex of a flooding event and high water marks may take up to several weeks for field teams to collect for a large-scale flooding event, final observed depth grids are not available to FEMA until several days after a flood has begun to subside. Within the last decade NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) has implemented the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS), a web-based suite of accurate forecast products that provide hydrograph forecasts at over 3,500 stream gauge locations across the United States. These forecasts have been newly implemented into an automated depth grid script tool, using predicted instead of observed water levels, allowing FEMA access to flood hazard information up to 3 days prior to a flooding event. Water depths are calculated from the AHPS predicted flood stages and are interpolated at 100m spacing along NHD hydrolines within the basin of interest. A water surface elevation raster is generated from these water depths using an Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation. Then, elevation (USGS NED 30m) is subtracted from the water surface elevation raster so that the remaining values represent the depth of predicted flooding above the ground surface. This automated process requires minimal user input and produced forecasted depth grids that were comparable to post

  9. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  10. Situation Awareness Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    IntroductIon Pilots , automobile drivers, power plant workers, and supervisory control operators are required to allocate attention to multiple objects...restoring SA after SA has been reduced. A reduc- tion in SA can be caused by a loss of attention, interruptions, multitasking , operator overload, and so...the UAV to a different target, or the operator could add waypoints to the UAV’s trajectory, which effectively allowed the opera- tor to pilot the

  11. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The expert mind has its value: for example, Pasteur argued that “in the fields of observation chance favours only the prepared mind” 1. Garrett...and listen intently. Avoid lumping details together or attempting to normalize an unexpected event in order to preserve a preconceived expectation

  12. SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.N.; Follesoe, K.; Volden, F.S.; Torralba, B.

    1994-01-01

    Control room operator support systems and their interface designs have as one goal the enhancement of the operators' situation awareness of the dynamically changing process state. This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness within the Human Factors evaluation of control room operator-system interfaces. The technique, referred to as SACRI, has been evaluated in four simulator studies and the main findings from these studies are summarized in this paper. It is concluded that SACRI can be a useful supplement to operator performance measures currently existing for use within control room interface evaluations. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-Based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary...terms of specialized Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) elements to estimate the state of resident space objects in the geostationary regime. Justification...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0114 TR-2016-0114 SPECIALIZED FINITE SET STATISTICS (FISST)- BASED ESTIMATION METHODS TO ENHANCE SPACE SITUATIONAL

  14. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  15. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  16. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  17. The Relationship Between Maternal Awareness, Socioeconomic Situation of Families and Metabolic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Miletus in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, with potentially life-threatening sequels. However, good metabolic control can protect the patients against sequels. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between awareness of the mothers about this disease on improving diabetic children metabolic control and also, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic situations of families and control of diabetes in this group of patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study on 80 diabetic children and their mothers, who were registered in the diabetes association of Iran, for outpatient control of disease. Diabetes knowledge was measured by Michigan diabetes knowledge test and glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. To assess the socio-economic status of a diabetic child’s family, educational level, occupational and marital status of parents were asked and the socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated with Hollingshed four-factor index of SES. Results Mothers’ mean knowledge score was 17.72, children’s mean HbA1c was 7.77 and mean of SES was 27.89. There was no significant correlation between children’s HbA1c and mother’s SES. Also, there was an inverse linear relationship between mothers’ knowledge score and children’s HbA1c and there was a direct linear relationship between the mothers’ knowledge score and SES. Conclusions Finally, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the awareness of mothers of T1DM children has a good impact on blood sugar control, whereas the SES of families has no direct effect on blood sugar control. Additionally, SES can indirectly impact on the consciousness of mothers and lead to the reduction of HbA1c.

  18. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology - Toward an International Information System for Space Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R.

    2016-09-01

    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding our knowledge of near-Earth space. To facilitate data-sharing interoperability among distinct orbital debris and space object catalogs, and SSA information systems, I proposed ontology in (Rovetto, 2015) and (Rovetto and Kelso, 2016). I continue this effort toward formal representations and models of the overall domain that may serve to improve peaceful SSA and increase our scientific knowledge. This paper explains the project concept introduced in those publications, summarizing efforts to date as well as the research field of ontology development and engineering. I describe concepts for an ontological framework for the orbital space environment, near-Earth space environment and SSA domain. An ontological framework is conceived as a part of a potential international information system. The purpose of such a system is to consolidate, analyze and reason over various sources and types of orbital and SSA data toward the mutually beneficial goals of safer space navigation and scientific research. Recent internationals findings on the limitations of orbital data, in addition to existing publications on collaborative SSA, demonstrate both the overlap with this project and the need for datasharing and integration.

  19. Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Victor Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design.

  20. Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA applications: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Machorrinho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the available evidence on different applications of MAIA. Methods: This research followed three sequenced moments, done by two independent re- searchers. Included only published adult population studies (18-65 years old, which used complete MAIA survey, not only for translation and validation purposes. Data were extracted to predefined tables, showed as a flowchart from PRISMA Statement. Levels of evidence and methodological quality was also assessed. Results: From 66 original studies obtained only 7 were included for analysis. 5 was observational studies, while 2 were experimental and from all, 4 have a strong methodological quality. MAIA was used in both health and clinical samples, at 7 countries from 2 continents. Mostly it was used for interoceptive awareness assessment, as a global concept but also for is subdimensions analysis. Conclusion: We suggest more studies with larger and more heterogeneous samples. Weconcluded that MAIA, when compared with previous questionnaires for interoception assessment, allowed for a more complete and specialized evaluation, but some authors still suggest it can be more complex than it is now. We explore some recommendations for future clinical and scientific applications of MAIA.

  1. Consciência situacional, tomada de decisão e modos de controle cognitivo em ambientes complexos Situation awareness, decision making, and cognitive control in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Henriqson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a consciência situacional, os processos de tomada de decisão naturalística e os modos de controle cognitivo utilizados por pilotos de aeronaves em um experimento em simulador de voo. Dessa forma, diferentes situações foram propostas durante a simulação objetivando o estudo da consciência situacional e tomada de decisão dos tripulantes. As ações dos participantes foram investigadas e classificadas de acordo com o modelo de controle cognitivo proposto. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de complexidade contextual afetam a gestão da dificuldade, influenciando a consciência situacional, a tomada de decisão e os modos de controle cognitivo dos pilotos.This work aims to analyze situation awareness, natural decision-making processes and cognitive control modes used by airplane pilots in a flight simulator experiment. In this way, different situations during flight simulation were considered in order to study the crew's situation awareness and natural decision-making. The participants' actions were investigated and classified according to the cognitive control model proposed. Results suggest that context complexity factors affect difficulty management, influencing situation awareness, decision-making and pilots' cognitive control modes.

  2. Assessment of Anomalous Erotic Preferences in Situational Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Kurt

    1976-01-01

    Sometimes the main reason for situational impotence is a gross anomaly in a patient's erotic preferences. An overview on nonverbal diagnostic methods is presented, and one of them, the phallometric test, is described in more detail, including a discussion of its limitations. (Author)

  3. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  4. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  5. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  6. The effects of shared situational awareness on functional and hospital outcomes of hospitalized older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joo H Lee,1 Sun J Kim,2,3 Julia Lam,4 Sulgi Kim,5 Shunichi Nakagawa,6 Ji W Yoo7,8 1Department of Media and Communication, Hanyang University College of Social Sciences, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Public Health, 3Institute of Health Services Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 4University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; 7Center for Senior Health and Longevity, Aurora Health Care, 8Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Milwaukee, WI, USA Background: Functional decline of hospitalized older adults is common and triggers health care expenditures. Physical therapy can retard the functional decline that occurs during hospitalization. This study aims to examine whether shared situational awareness (SSA intervention may enhance the benefits of physical therapy for hospitalized older persons with a common diagnosis, heart failure. Method: An SSA intervention that involved daily multidisciplinary meetings was applied to the care of functionally declining older adults admitted to the medicine floor for heart failure. Covariates were matched between the intervention group (n=473 and control group (n=475. Both intervention and control groups received physical therapy for ≥0.5 hours per day. The following three outcomes were compared between groups: 1 disability, 2 transition to skilled nursing facility (SNF, post-acute care setting, and 3 30-day readmission rate. Results: Disability was lower in the intervention group (28% than in the control group (37% (relative risk [RR] =0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35–0.97; P=0.026, and transition to SNF was lower in the intervention group (22% than in the control group (30% (RR =0.77; 95% CI, 0.39

  7. The perfect storm of information: combining traditional and non-traditional data sources for public health situational awareness during hurricane response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly J; Olsen, Jennifer M; Harris, Sara; Mekaru, Sumiko; Livinski, Alicia A; Brownstein, John S

    2013-12-16

    Hurricane Isaac made landfall in southeastern Louisiana in late August 2012, resulting in extensive storm surge and inland flooding. As the lead federal agency responsible for medical and public health response and recovery coordination, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) must have situational awareness to prepare for and address state and local requests for assistance following hurricanes. Both traditional and non-traditional data have been used to improve situational awareness in fields like disease surveillance and seismology. This study investigated whether non-traditional data (i.e., tweets and news reports) fill a void in traditional data reporting during hurricane response, as well as whether non-traditional data improve the timeliness for reporting identified HHS Essential Elements of Information (EEI). HHS EEIs provided the information collection guidance, and when the information indicated there was a potential public health threat, an event was identified and categorized within the larger scope of overall Hurricane Issac situational awareness. Tweets, news reports, press releases, and federal situation reports during Hurricane Isaac response were analyzed for information about EEIs. Data that pertained to the same EEI were linked together and given a unique event identification number to enable more detailed analysis of source content. Reports of sixteen unique events were examined for types of data sources reporting on the event and timeliness of the reports. Of these sixteen unique events identified, six were reported by only a single data source, four were reported by two data sources, four were reported by three data sources, and two were reported by four or more data sources. For five of the events where news tweets were one of multiple sources of information about an event, the tweet occurred prior to the news report, press release, local government\\emergency management tweet, and federal situation report. In all circumstances where

  8. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  9. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  10. Enhancing Cyber Security for SME organizations through self-assessments : How self-assessment raises awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hassinen, Tarmo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis primarily studied the importance of self-assessment in increasing business organizations’ cyber security awareness of their ICT environment. The secondary studied item was the relevance of self-assessment in detecting new business potential while understanding ICT environment changes. The self-assessment is based on FINCS, the Finnish basic level cyber security certificate launched in December 2016. FINCSC consists of physical and management security, ICT service and system securi...

  11. A computational model for evaluating the effects of attention, memory, and mental models on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Seong, Poong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this paper, we propose a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. As this proposed model provides quantitative results of situation assessment and diagnostic performance, we expect that this model can be used in the design and evaluation of human system interfaces as well as the prediction of situation awareness errors in the human reliability analysis.

  12. A computational model for evaluating the effects of attention, memory, and mental models on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul [Instrumentation and Control/Human Factors Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr; Seong, Poong-Hyun [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this paper, we propose a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. As this proposed model provides quantitative results of situation assessment and diagnostic performance, we expect that this model can be used in the design and evaluation of human system interfaces as well as the prediction of situation awareness errors in the human reliability analysis.

  13. Reactor Safety Assessment System--A situation assessment aid for USNRC emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is intended for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system uses plant parameter data and status information from the power plant. It has a rule base that uses the parametric values, the known operator actions, and the time sequence information in the data to generate situation assessment conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS rules currently cover one specific reactor type and use setpoints specific to one power plant

  14. Reactor Safety Assessment System: a situation assessment aid for USNRC emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RSAS is intended for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system uses plant parameter data and status information from the power plant. It has a rule base which uses the parametric values, the known operator actions and the time sequence information in the data to generate situation assessment conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS rules currently cover one specific reactor type and use setpoints specific to one power plant. 5 figs

  15. The emergent relevance of care staff decision-making and situation awareness to mobility care in nursing homes: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janice; Sims, Jane; Haines, Terry P

    2014-12-01

    To explore mobility care as provided by care staff in nursing homes. Care staff regularly assist residents with their mobility. Nurses are increasingly reliant on such staff to provide safe and quality mobility care. However, the nature of care staff decision-making when providing assistance has not been fully addressed in the literature. A focused ethnography. The study was conducted in four nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia. Non-participant observations of residents and staff in 2011. Focus groups with 18 nurses, care and lifestyle staff were conducted at three facilities in 2012. Thematic analysis was employed for focus groups and content analysis for observation data. Cognitive Continuum Theory and the notion of 'situation awareness' assisted data interpretation. Decision-making during mobility care emerged as a major theme. Using Cognitive Continuum Theory as a guide, nursing home staff's decision-making was described as ranging from system-aided, through resident- and peer-aided, to reflective and intuitive. Staff seemed aware of the need for resident-aided decision-making consistent with person-centred care. Habitual mobility care based on shared mental models occurred. It was noted that levels of situation awareness may vary among staff. Care staff may benefit from support via collaborative and reflective practice to develop decision-making skills, situation awareness and person-centred mobility care. Further research is required to explore the connection between staff's skills in mobility care and their decision-making competence as well as how these factors link to quality mobility care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  17. A computational model for evaluating the effects of cognitive factors on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul

    2010-02-01

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this thesis, a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network is proposed. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. It is assumed that both the salience level and the information value of information sources are the most significant factors that decide which information sources operators heed. The perception index (PI) is defined as the geometric mean of the salience level and the information value of information sources in this study. The attention allocation rule in the proposed model is defined to direct the operator's attention to the information source with the largest PI value at that moment. There are two approaches for incorporating a mental model of nuclear power plant operators into a Bayesian network: the deterministic rules and the probabilistic rules. The proposed model adopted the probabilistic rules because the deterministic rules are a special case of the probabilistic rules and the probabilistic rules can describe various skill levels of operators. Two working memory decay mechanisms have been suggested: a power law and an exponential law. The proposed model assumes that the situation awareness stored in the working memory decays exponentially because the exponential decay formulas are more popular and require just one

  18. A computational model for evaluating the effects of cognitive factors on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul

    2010-02-15

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this thesis, a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network is proposed. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. It is assumed that both the salience level and the information value of information sources are the most significant factors that decide which information sources operators heed. The perception index (PI) is defined as the geometric mean of the salience level and the information value of information sources in this study. The attention allocation rule in the proposed model is defined to direct the operator's attention to the information source with the largest PI value at that moment. There are two approaches for incorporating a mental model of nuclear power plant operators into a Bayesian network: the deterministic rules and the probabilistic rules. The proposed model adopted the probabilistic rules because the deterministic rules are a special case of the probabilistic rules and the probabilistic rules can describe various skill levels of operators. Two working memory decay mechanisms have been suggested: a power law and an exponential law. The proposed model assumes that the situation awareness stored in the working memory decays exponentially because the exponential decay formulas are more popular and require

  19. Assessment of awareness on food borne zoonosis and its relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of inspected animal products is found statistically different (P<0.05) among ... The importance of veterinary public health in the overall public health ... the awareness of the public using the appropriate communication media, and to ...

  20. THE ASSESSMENT OF CYBERBULLYING: THE PRESENT SITUATION AND FUTURE CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lucas-Molina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a significant increase in the interest of the educational and scientific community on cyberbullying, a new form of peer abuse and intimidation. Despite the widespread proliferation of studies and assessment tools on the phenomenon, there are still major conceptual and methodological gaps. This paper offers a comprehensive and updated review of the results of research on the definition of the construct, its prevalence and its impact on the people involved. Finally, it focuses specifically on the assessment of the construct and provides a brief review of the general and psychometric characteristics of the instruments used in some of the most relevant national and international studies conducted on the subject. This work places special emphasis on the present and future challenges and concludes with a number of general recommendations intended to guide the correct selection and/or construction of assessment instruments in this field of study.

  1. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  2. Optimization of automation: II. Estimation method of ostracism rate based on the loss of situation awareness of human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Man Cheol; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the relationship between Out-of-the-Loop and the loss of human operators’ situation awareness. • We propose an ostracism rate estimation method by only considering the negative effects of automation. • The ostracism rate reflects how much automation interrupts human operators to receive information. • The higher the ostracism rate is, the lower the accuracy of human operators’ SA will be. - Abstract: With the introduction of automation in various industries including the nuclear field, its side effect, referred to as the Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL) problem, has emerged as a critical issue that needs to be addressed. Many studies have been attempted to analyze and solve the OOTL problem, but this issue still needs a clear solution to provide criteria for introducing automation. Therefore, a quantitative estimation method for identifying negative effects of automation is proposed in this paper. The representative aspect of the OOTL problem in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that human operators in automated operations are given less information than human operators in manual operations. In other words, human operators have less opportunity to obtain needed information as automation is introduced. From this point of view, the degree of difficulty in obtaining information from automated systems is defined as the Level of Ostracism (LOO). Using the LOO and information theory, we propose the ostracism rate, which is a new estimation method that expresses how much automation interrupts human operators’ situation awareness. We applied production rules to describe the human operators’ thinking processes, Bayesian inference to describe the production rules mathematically, and information theory to calculate the amount of information that human operators receive through observations. The validity of the suggested method was proven by conducting an experiment. The results show that the ostracism rate was significantly related to the accuracy

  3. Assessing climate change awareness influence on Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine El Sakka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change (CCH is one of the important issues raised globally lately. heat, humidity pollution could harm children, cause diseases and death,85 % of the world’s youth live in the de-veloping countries, and Egypt as one of the developing countries its children face a great risk spe-cially with the presence of weak climate change awareness impact. Our research will investigate Egypt climate change awareness (CCA problem and how it affects Egyptian children, we will try to explore children problems (CHP, due to limited climate change awareness and conclude by emphasizing the importance of having appropriate solution; in term of avoiding negative climate change impact (CCHI on children in the future.

  4. Natural gas vehicles: Technical assessment and overview of world situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating commercialization prospects for natural gas fuelled vehicles, this paper compares the performance and emission quality of these innovative vehicles with those using conventional fuels - gasoline and diesel fuels. Assessments are made of the state-of-the-art of current technology relative to fuel storage, air/fuel mixture preparation, in cylinder combustion processes and pollution control. The analysis evidences that while natural gas is an excellent fuel for spark ignition engines, in transport applications its use is hampered by large storage volume requirements and weight. Moreover, the air/fuel mixture preparation, combustion process and exhaust-gas cleaning require a greater research and development effort to make this alternative fuel economically and environmentally competitive with conventional fuels

  5. Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge of Hepatitis B among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge and awareness of the subjects among various age groups (p < 0.05), ethnic groups (p <. 0.005) and ... education and frequent vaccination programs on Hepatitis B among the public; especially in Puchong, ... prevention of this disease is essential to improve ..... in Malaysia, sexual transmission of the virus can.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AWARENESS IN CONSUMERS’ BUYING DECISION AND PERCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Brand awareness, as one of the fundamental dimensions of brand equity, is often considered to be a prerequisite of consumers’ buying decision, as it represents the main factor for including a brand in the consideration set. Brand awareness can also influence consumers’ perceived risk assessment and their confidence in the purchase decision, due to familiarity with the brand and its characteristics. On the other hand, brand awareness can be depicted into at least two facets – unaided (brand re...

  7. Evolving PBPK applications in regulatory risk assessment: current situation and future goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation includes current applications of PBPK modeling in regulatory risk assessment and discussions on conflicts between assuring consistency with experimental data in current situation and the desire for animal-free model development.

  8. Assessing physician leadership styles: application of the situational leadership model to transitions in patient acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Alexander; Peyre, Sarah E; Pozner, Charles N; Thorndike, Mary; Hicks, Gloria; Dellaripa, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    The situational leadership model suggests that an effective leader adapts leadership style depending on the followers' level of competency. We assessed the applicability and reliability of the situational leadership model when observing residents in simulated hospital floor-based scenarios. Resident teams engaged in clinical simulated scenarios. Video recordings were divided into clips based on Emergency Severity Index v4 acuity scores. Situational leadership styles were identified in clips by two physicians. Interrater reliability was determined through descriptive statistical data analysis. There were 114 participants recorded in 20 sessions, and 109 clips were reviewed and scored. There was a high level of interrater reliability (weighted kappa r = .81) supporting situational leadership model's applicability to medical teams. A suggestive correlation was found between frequency of changes in leadership style and the ability to effectively lead a medical team. The situational leadership model represents a unique tool to assess medical leadership performance in the context of acuity changes.

  9. Accident assessment under emergency situation in Daya Bay nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ling; Chen Degan; Lin Shumou; Fu Guohui

    2004-01-01

    The accident assessment under emergency situation includes the accident status evaluation and its consequence estimation. This paper introduces evaluation methods for accident status and its assistant computer system (SESAME-GNP) utilized during the emergency situation in Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) in detail. At the same time, an improved accident consequence estimation system in GNPS (RACAS-GNP) is briefly described. With the improvement of the accident assessment systems, the capability of emergency response in GNPS is strengthened

  10. Study on operator’s SA reliability in digital NPPs. Part 1: The analysis method of operator’s errors of situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Li; Dai, Li-cao; Li, Xiao-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of ESA is established from an organization perspective, and it is new perspective. • The detailed classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model. It is useful to identify the cause chain and root causes of organization causing ESA. • The analysis method of ESA is also constructed to guide the investigation of ESA event. A case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) is a key element that impacts operator’s decision-making and performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The subsequent complex cognitive activities cannot be correctly completed due to errors of situation awareness (ESA), which will lead to disastrous consequences. In order to investigate and analyze operator’s ESA in the digitized main control room (DMCR) of a nuclear power plant, the model of ESA is established, the classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model, and the analysis method of ESA is also constructed on the basis of the observation of simulator and operator surveys. Finally, a case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. It provides a theoretical and practical support for the operator’s SAE analysis in a digitized main control room of a nuclear power plant.

  11. Assessing the awareness mechanisms of a collaborative programming support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje/enseñanza de la programación puede beneficiarse de los principios del Aprendizaje Colaborativo soportado por Computador (CSCL. Con el objetivo de soportar tareas de programación cola borativa distribuida síncrona se creó el sistema COLLECE. A dif erencia de otros sistemas con objetivos similares, COLLECE incorpora una g ran cantidad de elementos de soporte al awareness. En este artí culo se describe un estudio empírico en el que se evalua la utilidad de algunos de los mecanismos de awareness incluídos en este sistema. Una d e las principales aportaciones de este trabajo es la combinación de varias técnic as de evaluación de sistemas interactivos (cuestionarios, testi ng en laboratorio, evaluación heurística, logging automático y técnicas de seguimi ento ocular. El uso conjunto de todas estas técnicas (algunas objetivas y otras subjetivas permite realizar un análisis más completo del siste ma objeto de estudio y, en particular, de su soporte al awareness.

  12. Measuring Adolescent Self-Awareness and Accuracy Using a Performance-Based Assessment and Parental Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zlotnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to assess awareness of performance and performance accuracy for a task that requires executive functions (EF, among healthy adolescents and to compare their performance to their parent’s ratings.MethodParticipants: 109 healthy adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.86 years completed the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA. The discrepancy between self-estimated and actual performance was used to measure the level of awareness. The participants were divided into high and low accuracy groups according to the WCPA accuracy median score. The participants were also divided into high and low awareness groups. A comparison was conducted between groups using WCPA performance and parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF.ResultsHigher awareness was associated with better EF performance. Participants with high accuracy scores were more likely to show high awareness of performance as compared to participants with low accuracy scores. The high accuracy group had better parental ratings of EF, higher efficiency, followed more rules, and were more aware of their WCPA performance.ConclusionOur results highlight the important contribution that self-awareness of performance may have on the individual’s function. Assessing the level of awareness and providing metacognitive training techniques for those adolescents who are less aware, could support their performance.

  13. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  14. An Assessment of Alternative Synthetic Aperture Radar Display Formats: Orientation and Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuperman, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    ...) display of SAR overlaid on corresponding DTM data. Eight imagery analysts (IAs), assigned to the Israeli Ground Corps Command Imagery Analysis Unit and to the Israel Air Force, and two weapon system officers (WSOs...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AWARENESS IN CONSUMERS’ BUYING DECISION AND PERCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, as one of the fundamental dimensions of brand equity, isoften considered to be a prerequisite of consumers’ buying decision, as itrepresents the main factor for including a brand in the consideration set.Brand awareness can also influence consumers’ perceived risk assessmentand their confidence in the purchase decision, due to familiarity with thebrand and its characteristics. On the other hand, brand awareness can bedepicted into at least two facets – unaided (brand recall and aided (brandrecognition – each of the two facets having its more or less effectiveinfluence on buying decision and perceived risk assessment. This paper triesto reveal, on one hand, the importance of unaided brand awareness when itcomes to consumers’ buying decision and, on the other hand, the importanceof aided brand awareness when assessing the perceived risk associated withthe purchase. The analysis is conducted in a comparative manner,considering the case of durable versus non-durable products, and with focuson urban Romanian consumers.

  16. A New Method for Rating Hazard from Intense Sounds: Implications for Hearing Protection, Speech Intelligibility, and Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, G. R

    2005-01-01

    The auditory hazard assessment algorithm for the human (AHAAH), developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, is theoretically based and has been demonstrated to rate hazard from intense sounds much more accurately than existing methods...

  17. Assessing air quality index awareness and use in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbet, Timothy C; Gladson, Laura A; Cromar, Kevin R

    2018-04-23

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area has an expansive urban population and a long history of air quality management challenges. Poor air quality has been associated with adverse pulmonary and cardiac health effects, particularly among susceptible populations with underlying disease. In addition to reducing pollution concentrations, risk communication efforts that inform behavior modification have the potential to reduce public health burdens associated with air pollution. This study investigates the utilization of Mexico's IMECA risk communication index to inform air pollution avoidance behavior among the general population living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Individuals were selected via probability sampling and surveyed by phone about their air quality index knowledge, pollution concerns, and individual behaviors. The results indicated reasonably high awareness of the air quality index (53% of respondents), with greater awareness in urban areas, among older and more educated individuals, and for those who received air quality information from a healthcare provider. Additionally, behavior modification was less influenced by index reports as it was by personal perceptions of air quality, and there was no difference in behavior modification among susceptible and non-susceptible groups. Taken together, these results suggest there are opportunities to improve the public health impact of risk communication through an increased focus on susceptible populations and greater encouragement of public action in response to local air quality indices.

  18. Towards a social and context-aware multi-sensor fall detection and risk assessment platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backere, F; Ongenae, F; Van den Abeele, F; Nelis, J; Bonte, P; Clement, E; Philpott, M; Hoebeke, J; Verstichel, S; Ackaert, A; De Turck, F

    2015-09-01

    For elderly people fall incidents are life-changing events that lead to degradation or even loss of autonomy. Current fall detection systems are not integrated and often associated with undetected falls and/or false alarms. In this paper, a social- and context-aware multi-sensor platform is presented, which integrates information gathered by a plethora of fall detection systems and sensors at the home of the elderly, by using a cloud-based solution, making use of an ontology. Within the ontology, both static and dynamic information is captured to model the situation of a specific patient and his/her (in)formal caregivers. This integrated contextual information allows to automatically and continuously assess the fall risk of the elderly, to more accurately detect falls and identify false alarms and to automatically notify the appropriate caregiver, e.g., based on location or their current task. The main advantage of the proposed platform is that multiple fall detection systems and sensors can be integrated, as they can be easily plugged in, this can be done based on the specific needs of the patient. The combination of several systems and sensors leads to a more reliable system, with better accuracy. The proof of concept was tested with the use of the visualizer, which enables a better way to analyze the data flow within the back-end and with the use of the portable testbed, which is equipped with several different sensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding of a Key Aspect of Situation Awareness: A Research and Development Agenda to Refine the Model of Spatial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-10

    motion perception estimates differ due to individual differences, e.g., in somatogravic/ inversion illusions and recovery time from SD back to normal...settings (E.g.,  An important measure that should be preserved  Recommend expanded use of intuitive devices that simultaneously capture multiple...studies with multiple, complementary measures (not necessarily assessed simultaneously in the same trial), be cautious concerning the most problematic

  20. The Importance of Situational Awareness: A Qualitative Study of Family Members' and Nurses' Perspectives on Teaching During Family-Centered Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy; Meyer, Rebecca; Kind, Terry; Bhansali, Priti

    2015-10-01

    Family-centered rounds (FCR) has become a leading model for pediatric inpatient rounding. During FCR, faculty must balance trainees' educational needs with patient care priorities. Investigators have examined trainees' views on effective teaching during FCR, but none have evaluated what family members and nurses consider to be effective teaching behaviors of attending physicians. The authors sought to explore family members' and nurses' perspectives on effective teaching behaviors during FCR. The authors conducted (2012-2013) a qualitative study of families and nurses at an academic children's hospital where FCR is the standard model for inpatient rounds. Nurses and families familiar with FCR participated in separate focus groups. The authors reviewed focus group transcripts using techniques of qualitative content analysis; they generated codes and developed categories, supported by illustrative quotations. Fifteen nurses and 13 family members participated in the focus groups. The unifying theme was that situational awareness on behalf of the attending physician is essential for FCR to be educational for all participants. The authors identified four categories of awareness-(1) cognitive factors, (2) logistics and time management, (3) physical environment, (4) emotional state-and developed a set of effective teaching strategies based on participants' comments. The findings of this study support previous work identifying effective FCR teaching strategies, but this study is the first to include the perspectives of families and nurses. The inclusion of these participants provides a framework for faculty development and training to improve the educational value of FCR.

  1. Validation of a measurement tool to assess awareness of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Burgess, Caroline; Kapari, Marcia; Thurnham, Angela; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-05-01

    Until now, there has been no universally accepted and validated measure of breast cancer awareness. This study aimed to validate the new Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (BCAM) which assesses, using a self-complete questionnaire, knowledge of breast cancer symptoms and age-related risk, and frequency of breast checking. We measured the psychometric properties of the BCAM in 1035 women attending the NHS Breast Screening Programme: acceptability was assessed using a feedback questionnaire (n=292); sensitivity to change after an intervention promoting breast cancer awareness (n=576), and test-retest reliability (n=167). We also assessed readability, and construct validity using the 'known-groups' method. The readability of the BCAM was high. Over 90% of women found it acceptable. The BCAM was sensitive to change: there was an increase in the proportion of women obtaining the full score for breast cancer awareness one month after receiving the intervention promoting breast cancer awareness; this was greater among those who received a more intensive version (less intensive version (booklet): 9.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.1%; more intensive version (interaction with health professional plus booklet): 30%, 95% CI: 23.4-36.6%). Test-retest reliability of the BCAM was moderate to good for most items. Cancer experts had higher levels of cancer awareness than non-medical academics (50% versus 6%, p=0.001), indicating good construct validity. The BCAM is a valid and robust measure of breast cancer awareness suitable for use in surveys of breast cancer awareness in the general population and to evaluate the impact of awareness-raising interventions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Security Situation Assessment of All-Optical Network Based on Evidential Reasoning Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Nan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the security situations of the all-optical network (AON, which is more vulnerable to hacker attacks and faults than other networks in some cases. A new approach of the security situation assessment to the all-optical network is developed in this paper. In the new assessment approach, the evidential reasoning (ER rule is used to integrate various evidences of the security factors including the optical faults and the special attacks in the AON. Furthermore, a new quantification method of the security situation is also proposed. A case study of an all-optical network is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and the practicability of the new proposed approach.

  3. The current legal situation relating to food irradiation as assessed by the Land Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frede, W.

    1994-01-01

    Discussed is the current legal situation of food irradiation procedures as assessed by the Government of Northrhine-Westfalia. The topics highest on the agenda are the unrestrained exchange of merchandise within the Internal Market and the problems arising from deviating legal stipulations in the individual EU member states. (vhe) [de

  4. Assessing V and V Processes for Automation with Respect to Vulnerabilities to Loss of Airplane State Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Stephen; Wilkinson, Chris; Hamblin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Automation has contributed substantially to the sustained improvement of aviation safety by minimizing the physical workload of the pilot and increasing operational efficiency. Nevertheless, in complex and highly automated aircraft, automation also has unintended consequences. As systems become more complex and the authority and autonomy (A&A) of the automation increases, human operators become relegated to the role of a system supervisor or administrator, a passive role not conducive to maintaining engagement and airplane state awareness (ASA). The consequence is that flight crews can often come to over rely on the automation, become less engaged in the human-machine interaction, and lose awareness of the automation mode under which the aircraft is operating. Likewise, the complexity of the system and automation modes may lead to poor understanding of the interaction between a mode of automation and a particular system configuration or phase of flight. These and other examples of mode confusion often lead to mismanaging the aircraftâ€"TM"s energy state or the aircraft deviating from the intended flight path. This report examines methods for assessing whether, and how, operational constructs properly assign authority and autonomy in a safe and coordinated manner, with particular emphasis on assuring adequate airplane state awareness by the flight crew and air traffic controllers in off-nominal and/or complex situations.

  5. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Koshmak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.

  6. Revolutionize Situational Awareness in Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-05

    This report describes an integrated system that provides real-time actionable information to first responders. LANL will integrate three technologies to form an advanced predictive real-time sensor network including compact chemical and wind sensor sin low cost rugged package for outdoor installation; flexible robust communication architecture linking sensors in near-real time to globally accessible servers; and the QUIC code which predicts contamination transport and dispersal in urban environments in near real time.

  7. CSIRT Requirements for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-25

    external or national or world level (meetings of international organizations in the lime - light or under scrutiny such as the World Bank, Olympics, etc...also strive to collect lessons learned and after-the-fact analysis so that a better understanding of what happened and how it could be stopped or...structured data for machine processing and near real-time updates. http://stix.mitre.org/ Dell SecureWorks Dell SecureWorks is a managed security

  8. Air Force Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    time sensitivity and CyberWorx capacity. One method, which maximizes solution agility and the educational benefit to warfighters and industry...how the Air Force might best exploit commercial, academic, and foreign SSA data to improve space outcomes. Question Background & Participants Modern ...in industry and even in their personal lives. CyberWorx was asked to address the challenges of incorporating non- traditional (open source, academic

  9. Situational awareness and information flow in prehospital emergency medical care from the perspective of paramedic field supervisors: a scenario-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norri-Sederholm, Teija; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kurola, Jouni; Saranto, Kaija

    2015-01-16

    , police, and rescue services during the multi-authority incidents. This study provides knowledge about the critical information categories when receiving and sharing the information to obtain and maintain situational awareness. However, further research is needed to examine more the information flow in prehospital emergency care to enable a better understanding of required communication in situational awareness formation.

  10. Assessment of the Efficiency of Stroke Awareness Campaigns in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Béres-Molnár, Katalin Anna; Toldi, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    The critical period of stroke management lies between the disease onset and the time of the emergency call, relying on stroke-related knowledge of the population. Public campaigns play a role in spreading relevant health information. Due to the substantial expenses of these campaigns, the assessment of their efficiency is reasonable. We assessed the number of thrombolytic treatments performed in Hungary, subjected to national media coverage and in particular in Budapest, being the location of the Stroke Day campaign, in the period between 2008 and 2015. We compared the change in the daily mean number of thrombolytic treatments performed during the preceding and following day, week, and month. Data were also compared with annual means. No meaningful changes can be seen in the number of thrombolytic treatments on the days immediately following Stroke Days, and casual differences can be seen in the following week. The comparison of the numbers of thrombolytic treatments performed in the postcampaign months with the monthly means in the corresponding years revealed a positive effect in each year except for 2012, 2014, and 2015. Regarding the whole examined period, however, the effect is not statistically significant, neither for data obtained from Hungary nor from Budapest. Better outcomes were observed 1 month after a campaign than more immediately. This can be partly explained by ongoing media coverage in a given period rather than exposure of the public on a single Stroke Day. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Image Quality Assessment via Quality-aware Group Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglei Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Image quality assessment has been attracting growing attention at an accelerated pace over the past decade, in the fields of image processing, vision and machine learning. In particular, general purpose blind image quality assessment is technically challenging and lots of state-of-the-art approaches have been developed to solve this problem, most under the supervised learning framework where the human scored samples are needed for training a regression model. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised learning approach that work without the human label. In the off-line stage, our method trains a dictionary covering different levels of image quality patch atoms across the training samples without knowing the human score, where each atom is associated with a quality score induced from the reference image; at the on-line stage, given each image patch, our method performs group sparse coding to encode the sample, such that the sample quality can be estimated from the few labeled atoms whose encoding coefficients are nonzero. Experimental results on the public dataset show the promising performance of our approach and future research direction is also discussed.

  12. Use of Highways in the Sky and a virtual pad for landing Head Up Display symbology to enable improved helicopter pilots situation awareness and workload in degraded visual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Allison, Craig K

    2017-12-15

    Flight within degraded visual conditions is a great challenge to pilots of rotary-wing craft. Environmental cues typically used to guide interpretation of speed, location and approach can become obscured, forcing the pilots to rely on data available from in-cockpit instrumentation. To ease the task of flight during degraded visual conditions, pilots require easy access to flight critical information. The current study examined the effect of 'Highways in the Sky' symbology and a conformal virtual pad for landing presented using a Head Up Display (HUD) on pilots' workload and situation awareness for both clear and degraded conditions across a series of simulated rotary-wing approach and landings. Results suggest that access to the HUD lead to significant improvements to pilots' situation awareness, especially within degraded visual conditions. Importantly, access to the HUD facilitated pilot awareness in all conditions. Results are discussed in terms of future HUD development. Practitioner Summary: This paper explores the use of a novel Heads Up Display, to facilitate rotary-wing pilots' situation awareness and workload for simulated flights in both clear and degraded visual conditions. Results suggest that access to HUD facilitated pilots' situation awareness, especially when flying in degraded conditions.

  13. Quality of Care and Services of a Public Hospital: Awareness and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-ilah Aziane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give everyone access to quality care, this study attempts to make quality awareness, highlighting the importance of the implementation of the quality management system in health care facilities. The objective of our work is to make a quality awareness, to analyze the current situation and to provide recommendations. The analysis of the existing situation consists of identifying, describing, and analyzing the key processes implemented, listing the dysfunctions, classifying them, deciding on the corresponding actions and putting in place indicators and dashboards, which will help track improvements. The overall situation of the hospital regarding the requirements of ISO 9001 indicated a respect of about 28% of the requirements of the standard. The state of the premises of the establishment does not indicate a clear organization at the hospital. The hospital environment is a prerequisite to the establishment of a system of quality management that enables you to deploy a clear and shared policy to improve the quality of care and services.

  14. Assessment of Genetics Understanding. Under What Conditions Do Situational Features Have an Impact on Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiemann, Philipp; Nehm, Ross H.; Tornabene, Robyn E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how situational features of assessment tasks impact reasoning is important for many educational pursuits, notably the selection of curricular examples to illustrate phenomena, the design of formative and summative assessment items, and determination of whether instruction has fostered the development of abstract schemas divorced from particular instances. The goal of our study was to employ an experimental research design to quantify the degree to which situational features impact inferences about participants' understanding of Mendelian genetics. Two participant samples from different educational levels and cultural backgrounds (high school, n = 480; university, n = 444; Germany and USA) were used to test for context effects. A multi-matrix test design was employed, and item packets differing in situational features (e.g., plant, animal, human, fictitious) were randomly distributed to participants in the two samples. Rasch analyses of participant scores from both samples produced good item fit, person reliability, and item reliability and indicated that the university sample displayed stronger performance on the items compared to the high school sample. We found, surprisingly, that in both samples, no significant differences in performance occurred among the animal, plant, and human item contexts, or between the fictitious and "real" item contexts. In the university sample, we were also able to test for differences in performance between genders, among ethnic groups, and by prior biology coursework. None of these factors had a meaningful impact upon performance or context effects. Thus some, but not all, types of genetics problem solving or item formats are impacted by situational features.

  15. Situation-aware GeoVisualization considering applied logic and extensibility: a new architecture and mechanism for intelligent GeoWeb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelin; Gold, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging Virtual Globe technology which has been increasingly exhibiting powerful features and capabilities. However, the current technical architecture for geovisualization is still the traditional data- viewer mode, i.e. KML-Geobrowser. Current KML is basically an encoding format for wrapping static snapshots of information frozen at discrete time points, and a geobrowser is virtually a data renderer for geovisualization. In the real world spatial-temporal objects and elements possess specific semantics, applied logic and operational rules, naturally or socially, which need to be considered and to be executed when corresponding data is integrated or visualized in a visual geocontext. However, currently there is no a way to express and execute this kind of applied logic and control rules within the current geobrowsing architecture. This paper proposes a novel architecture by originating a new mechanism, DKML, and implementing a DKML-supporting prototype geobrowser. Embedded programming script within KML files can express applied logic, control conditions, situation-aware analysis utilities and special functionality, to achieve intelligent, controllable and applied logic-conformant geovisualization, and to flexibly extend and customize the DKMLsupporting geobrowser. Benefiting from the mechanism developed in this research, geobrowsers can truly evolve into powerful multi-purpose GeoWeb platforms with promising potential and prospects.

  16. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance

    2010-04-01

    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  17. A Big Data Approach for Situation-Aware estimation, correction and prediction of aerosol effects, based on MODIS Joint Atmosphere product (collection 6) time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Toshniwal, D.

    2017-12-01

    The MODIS Joint Atmosphere product, MODATML2 and MYDATML2 L2/3 provided by LAADS DAAC (Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System Distributed Active Archive Center) re-sampled from medium resolution MODIS Terra /Aqua Satellites data at 5km scale, contains Cloud Reflectance, Cloud Top Temperature, Water Vapor, Aerosol Optical Depth/Thickness, Humidity data. These re-sampled data, when used for deriving climatic effects of aerosols (particularly in case of cooling effect) still exposes limitations in presence of uncertainty measures in atmospheric artifacts such as aerosol, cloud, cirrus cloud etc. The effect of uncertainty measures in these artifacts imposes an important challenge for estimation of aerosol effects, adequately affecting precise regional weather modeling and predictions: Forecasting and recommendation applications developed largely depend on these short-term local conditions (e.g. City/Locality based recommendations to citizens/farmers based on local weather models). Our approach inculcates artificial intelligence technique for representing heterogeneous data(satellite data along with air quality data from local weather stations (i.e. in situ data)) to learn, correct and predict aerosol effects in the presence of cloud and other atmospheric artifacts, defusing Spatio-temporal correlations and regressions. The Big Data process pipeline consisting correlation and regression techniques developed on Apache Spark platform can easily scale for large data sets including many tiles (scenes) and over widened time-scale. Keywords: Climatic Effects of Aerosols, Situation-Aware, Big Data, Apache Spark, MODIS Terra /Aqua, Time Series

  18. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  19. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  20. THE PICNIC GAME: PRESENTATION OF A SITUATION OF OBSERVATION TO ASSESS FAMILY INTERACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Grimard, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present a situation of observation designed for the assessment of family interactions: The PicNic Game (PNG). In this situation, families are invited to play at having a picnic together. This can be done with any number of children, aged from a few weeks to adolescence. A companion assessment tool, the Revised-Picnic Assessment Scale (Re-PAS), allows evaluation of interactions in the family on several dimensions. This article presents the PNG and a preliminary study of the validation of the Re-PAS dimensions in a sample of families (N = 67) with 18-month-old infants and their siblings. The PNG was well-received by the families. Construct validity of the Re-PAS was tested, first against self-reported data by mothers and fathers regarding marital satisfaction, coparenting behavior, and division of household tasks, and then against observed maternal and paternal sensitivity and controlling behaviors assessed during free-play. Results show satisfactory preliminary reliability and validity. Two contrasting cases are presented to illustrate the different interactions highlighted in the PNG. This situation is useful for researchers and clinicians, particularly as a basis for video-feedback work with the family. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Machine-based Situation Assessment - Preliminary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    consumers . 5. In nature, food webs can be described using networks. 6. An organisation is a network of people. 7. In the social domain there are...examine 6 DSTO-TN-0836 the linguistic affinity between concepts [16, 14, 17]. For example, if Concept A is drink and Concept B is beverage , they...of convergence behaviour they exhibit. A further extension to the methodology described above for comparing the situation assessment with the

  2. Worldwide child and adolescent mental health begins with awareness: a preliminary assessment in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Christina W; Doan, Thao; Musa, George J; Jaliashvili, Tea; Duarte, Cristiane S; Ovuga, Emilio; Ismayilov, Fuad; Rohde, Luis A; Dmitrieva, Tatjana; Du, Yasong; Yeghiyan, Maruke; Din, Amira Seif El; Apter, Alan; Mandell, Donald J

    2008-06-01

    To temper untoward mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, the World Psychiatric Association's Presidential Global Child Mental Health Programme, in collaboration with the WHO and the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professionals, established a Child Mental Health Awareness Task Force headed by Sam Tyano. Its task was to develop methodologies to increase awareness among policy-makers, community leaders, health professionals, teachers, parents, and children. Based on a prior comprehensive international search for effective techniques for information dissemination, an awareness manual was written for use by health professionals in diverse communities so as to guide the design and implementation of location specific awareness campaigns. We assessed the children, parents and teachers both before and after the campaign to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and understanding of mental health. The school-based studies were conducted in selected communities in nine countries on five different continents distinguished by their different languages, cultures and their differing levels of economic development: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Russia, and Uganda. In the six sites that completed all assessments, indicators of positive change in awareness of child mental health were identified, and results demonstrated an increased willingness to discuss emotional problems freely. These data support the utility of collaborating with schools so as to foster better child mental health in such under-resourced communities.

  3. Shame as a Cultural Artifact: A Call for Self-Awareness and Reflexivity in Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    It has become common for assessors to face therapeutic impasses and dilemmas when practicing within the Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model. This is due to the explicit goal of producing therapeutic changes in clients. In this article the author discusses the importance of assessors being aware of how their clinical practices relate to their assessment outcomes. To enhance such awareness, the author reviews the characteristics of psychological assessment practices as derived from 3 paradigms developed almost 1.5 centuries ago in Europe by the forefathers of psychology as a scientific discipline. Current assessment practices are deeply ingrained in specific cultural, social, and political frameworks originating in these paradigms. Being aware of such a historical and cultural background might help the assessor avoid blindly reenacting the values, norms, and latent relational schemas implied by different assessment methods, and instead use assessment tools as potent aids in the service of clients' change. Finally, the author illustrates how the experience of clients' shame in psychological assessment might also be understood as a by-product of the specific cultural and historical background of certain common assessment practices.

  4. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  5. Oral Cancer Awareness in Sudan: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Treatment Seeking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Amel S; Satti, Asim; Sulieman, Ahmed M

    2017-06-25

    Objective: This study was aimed to assess oral cancer awareness among a selected Sudanese population and to evaluate their knowledge and treatment seeking behavior. Methods: A questionnaire- based survey was performed on the general population who attended the oral cancer awareness campaigns carried between 2015 and 2016 in different geographic areas of the Sudan. It was focusing on general awareness of oral cancer, oral cancer risk factors, oral cancer clinical signs/symptoms and treatment seeking behavior. Data were entered by Microsoft excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS (version 20) using chi square test with P value oral cancer and the media was the common source of information (75.7%). Of all participants only 45.3% mentioned that they don’t have enough knowledge on oral cancer. Some participants believe that oral cancer is treatable (66.5%) whilst 30.4% respond by I don’t know. More than 80% of the respondents were aware that smokeless tobacco (toombak) is a risk factor for oral cancer. While 60.1% were aware of alcohol as a risk factor and 66.2% were aware of smoking as a risk factor. When qui square test was done, smokers were found to be the least to seek help in comparison to non-smokers. The same result was obtained from alcohol consumers but it was different in snuff dippers, as the latter response was similar to that of the non-snuff dippers. Conclusion: This study revealed a level of around 66.6% of oral cancer awareness in different states of Sudan. Counseling sessions should be conducted when necessary with further investigations to find out the reasons behind the continued practice of high risk habits, despite knowledge. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Spent fuel repositories and environmental impact assessment; the legal situation i Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Finnish Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (468/94) builds on the EU Directive 85/337 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Act is supplemented by the Decree on Environmental Impact Assessment (792/88). The EIA Act is applicable to all nuclear facilities, spent fuel repositories included. In practice the new Act does not introduce any drastic changes to the legal situation, as far as nuclear facilities are concerned. The Finnish Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), which entered into force 1988, already contains most of the basic elements of the environmental impact assessment. In the article, the different steps in the Finnish EIA procedure is described

  7. Software Systems for Prediction and Immediate Assessment of Emergency Situations on Municipalities Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluyan, L. V.; Syutkina, E. V.; Guryev, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative analysis of key features of the software systems TOXI+Risk and ALOHA is presented. The authors made a comparison of domestic (TOXI+Risk) and foreign (ALOHA) software systems allowing to give the quantitative assessment of impact areas (pressure, thermal, toxic) in case of hypothetical emergencies in potentially hazardous objects of the oil, gas, chemical, petrochemical and oil-processing industry. Both software systems use different mathematical models for assessment of the release rate of a chemically hazardous substance from a storage tank and its evaporation. The comparison of the accuracy of definition of impact areas made by both software systems to verify the examples shows good convergence of both products. The analysis results showed that the ALOHA software can be actively used for forecasting and immediate assessment of emergency situations, assessment of damage as a result of emergencies on the territories of municipalities.

  8. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achrekar, Meera S; Murthy, Vedang; Kanan, Sadhana; Shetty, Rani; Nair, Mini; Khattry, Navin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form. Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM). Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1) and 16 th week (A2), post introduction of SIM. Nurse's opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Majority of nurses were females (65%) in the age group 21-30 years (80%). There was a significant association ( P = 0.019) between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement ( P = 0.043) seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20) and A2 (mean: 24.26) and also in "Situation" domain ( P = 0.045) as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient's allergies and relevant past history (7%) while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76%) of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53%) to document while recommendation was the difficult (53%) part. SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  9. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera S Achrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form. Methods: Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM. Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1 and 16 th week (A2, post introduction of SIM. Nurse′s opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Results : Majority of nurses were females (65% in the age group 21-30 years (80%. There was a significant association (P = 0.019 between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement (P = 0.043 seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20 and A2 (mean: 24.26 and also in "Situation" domain (P = 0.045 as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient′s allergies and relevant past history (7% while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76% of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53% to document while recommendation was the difficult (53% part. Conclusions: SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  10. Assessing socially situated participation: a way of integrating communication and social assessment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchan, J F

    2000-01-01

    We have long treated communication and social assessment as related but separate domains. Theorizing by George Herbert Mead on "the social self" offers an alternative to this conceptual separation and a means of evaluating children's social interaction, social participation, and communication simultaneously. This article describes Mead's thinking and presents a framework for assessing children's social reciprocity, interactive stances, and role participation as they participate in everyday life contexts.

  11. Development of a music therapy assessment tool for patients in low awareness states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    People in low awareness states following profound brain injury typically demonstrate subtle changes in functional behaviors which challenge the sensitivity of measurement tools. Failure to identify and measure changes in functioning can lead to misdiagnosis and withdrawal of treatment with this population. Thus, the development of tools which are sensitive to responsiveness is of central concern. As the auditory modality has been found to be particularly sensitive in identifying responses indicating awareness, a convincing case can be made for music therapy as a treatment medium. However, little has been recommended about protocols for intervention or tools for measuring patient responses within the music therapy setting. This paper presents the rationale for an assessment tool specifically designed to measure responses in the music therapy setting with patients who are diagnosed as minimally conscious or in a vegetative state. Developed over fourteen years as part of interdisciplinary assessment and treatment, the music therapy assessment tool for low awareness states (MATLAS) contains fourteen items which rate behavioral responses across a number of domains. The tool can provide important information for interdisciplinary assessment and treatment particularly in the auditory and communication domains. Recommendations are made for testing its reliability and validity through research.

  12. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, N A; Abdullah, M H R O; Said, M A; Ch'ng, P E

    2014-01-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia

  13. Assessment of physicians' awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batais, Mohammed Ali; Almigbal, Turky H; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altaradi, Hani B; AlHabib, Khalid F

    2017-01-01

    The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians. To assess physicians' awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2016 and May 2016 using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 294 physicians completed the survey (response rate 90.1%). Overall, 92.9% of the participants have poor knowledge of FH while only 7.1% have acceptable knowledge. The majority (68.7%) of physicians rated their familiarity with FH as average or above average, and these had higher mean knowledge scores than participants with self-reported below average familiarity (mean 3.4 versus 2.6) (P knowledge scores compared to those without FH patients in their care (3.5 versus 2.9) (P = 0.006). In addition, there were statistically significant differences between physicians' mean knowledge scores and their ages, levels of training, and years in practice. Moreover, a substantial deficit was identified in the awareness of various clinical algorithms to diagnose patients with FH, cascade screening, specialist lipid services, and the existence of statin alternatives, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. A substantial deficit was found in the awareness, knowledge, practice, and detection of FH among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Extensive educational programs are required to raise physician awareness and implement best practices; only then can the impact of these interventions on FH management and patient outcome be assessed.

  14. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COACHING USING SBAR (SITUATION, BACKGROUND, ASSESSMENT, RECOMMENDATION COMMUNICATION TOOL ON NURSING SHIFT HANDOVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitri Dyah Herawati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation method assists nurses in communicating information in nursing shift handover. Inaccurate shift handover can have a serious impact on patients due to poor communication. Optimal resource development can be done by coaching as the best guidance method from manager for directional discussion and guidance activity to learn to solve problem or do better job and build nursing leadership culture in clinical service. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of coaching method using SBAR communication tool on nursing shift handovers. Methods: This was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. Fifty-four nurses were selected using consecutive sampling, which 27 assigned in the experiment and control group. An observation checklist was developed by the researchers based on the theory of Lardner to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of coaching using SBAR on nursing shift handover. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon test were used for data analyses. Results: There was an increase in coaching ability of head nurses in the implementation of SBAR in nursing handover after 2-weeks and 4-weeks of coaching. And there was also a significant improvement of the use of SBAR on nursing shift handover in the experiment group (p <0.05 compared to the control group. Conclusion: coaching using SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation communication tool was effective on nursing shift handovers. There was a significant increase of the capability of head nurse and nursing shift handover after coaching intervention.

  16. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Assessing Awareness and Use of Evidence-Based Programs for Cancer Control in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, María E.; Rivera, Mirza; Díaz, Elba C.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Pattatucci, Angela; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Cancer Control Outreach Program (CCCOP) is a community-academic partnership aimed at developing and implementing a cancer control outreach, research, and training program in Puerto Rico. The CCCOP surveyed 56 partners to assess their awareness, training needs, and use of resources related to evidence-based programs (EBPs). Despite relatively high levels (70%) of confidence in adopting EBPs, there were low levels of awareness (37%) and use (25%) of existing EBPs resources. Respondents’ who had used EBPs resources were more likely to have positive beliefs about EBPs than nonusers (p<0.05). Training needs were high among respondents and no significant differences were found between those who had and had not used existing EBPs resources. These findings can guide the development of training tools and technical assistance to increase the use of EBPs for Latino audiences. PMID:22528632

  18. In multiple situational light settings, visual observation for skin colour assessment is comparable with colorimeter measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C Y; Wilkes, M; du Plessis, J L; Reeder, A I; Albers, P N

    2016-08-01

    Finding inexpensive and reliable techniques for assessing skin colour is important, given that it is related to several adverse human health outcomes. Visual observation is considered a subjective approach assessment and, even when made by trained assessor, concern has been raised about the need for controlled lighting in the study venue. The aim of this study is to determine whether visual skin colour assessments correlate with objective skin colour measurements in study venues with different lighting types and configurations. Two trained investigators, with confirmed visual acuity, visually classified the inner, upper arm skin colour of 556 adults using Munsell(®) colour classifications converted to Individual Typology Angle (°ITA) values based on published data. Skin colour at the same anatomic site was also measured using a colorimeter. Each participant was assessed in one of 10 different buildings, each with a different study day. Munsell(®) -derived °ITA values were compared to colorimeter °ITA values for the full sample and by building/day. We found a strong positive, monotonic correlation between Munsell(®) derived °ITA values and colorimeter °ITA values for all participants (Spearman ρ = 0.8585, P colorimeter °ITA values were compared for participants assessed in the same building for all 10 buildings (Spearman ρ values ranged from 0.797 to 0.934, all correlations were statistically significant at P < 0.001). It is possible to visually assess individual skin colour in multiple situational lighting settings and retrieve results that are comparable with objective measurements of skin colour. This was true for individuals of varying population groups and skin pigmentation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessment of the peste des petits ruminants world epizootic situation and estimate its spreading to Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayssal Bouchemla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study focuses on the spatial dynamic associated with the spreading of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR disease for the past decade (from the year 2007 to 2017, assesses the resulting situation in the world, and has an emphasis on Russian advantages been a PPR host. Materials and Methods: Outbreaks were confirmed and reported officially by the World Organization for Animal Health (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction were used. Data contain the account number of infected, dead, and all susceptible animals in focus of infection in the period of 2007-2017. Once conventional statistical population was defined, a model was installed. Geo-information system QuickMAP was used to clear up the map disease, and through the @Risk program, we got our forecasting value of future situations (by Monte Carlo method. Results: The spatial study of PPR's occurrence and its spread was mapping according to the incidence of cases and outbreaks. Clusters demonstrated risk levels in the world in the period from 2007 to 2017 year. Based on the epizootological analysis, an assessment of PPR risk and the probability movement of infection in Russia from nearby disadvantaged countries had been carried out. A statistically significant impact of the socioeconomic system on the stationarity index was found equal to 0.63. The PPR risk of spreading could not be ignored. Nevertheless, conducting effective large-scale vaccine companies in a complex of antiepizootic activities against PPR could reduce the risk of spread of the disease up to 91.8%. Conclusion: Despite all mentioned facts above, the PPR probability can only be reduced by coordinating work of border veterinary services, as in disadvantaged as in free from this disease country, that is, what makes an effective and complete eradication of the disease could be quite realistic.

  20. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  1. Assessing the viability of situationally driven segmentation opportunities in the health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1993-01-01

    The impact of situational factors has typically been investigated in the context of goods marketing. Very few studies have investigated the influence of situational factors on services marketing. This study demonstrates the importance of situational influence on services marketing by delineating a consumer-based, situationally characterized competitive market structure for health care services. The competitive structure of the health care market is delineated in terms of the similarity/substitutability of the three-factor, situational characterizations of ten health care alternatives. The general marketing implications of the market-structure delineation procedure and the health care-specific implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. [Present situation of awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Pdating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.

  3. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian

    2016-04-01

    Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site - values obtained using probabilistic hazard assessment approaches (Moldovan et al., 2008), the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies for dams situated in the Moldavian Platform, starting from Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be realized. The most vulnerable dams will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. GIS maps that clearly indicate areas that are potentially flooded are enough for these studies, thus giving information on the number of inhabitants and goods that may be destroyed. Geospatial servers included topography is sufficient to achieve them, all other further studies are not necessary for downstream risk assessment. The results will consist of local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The studies realized in this paper have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of an large earthquake occurrence, allowing further

  4. Teachers' Awareness and Usage of Non-Violent Strategies for the Maintenance of Discipline in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Situational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoechina, Gladys Oby; Oguegbu, Adaeze; Akachukwu, Esther; Nwasor, Victor Chekume

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine teachers' level of awareness and usage of non-violent strategies/interventions for the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Corporal punishment has become an unwritten sine qua non for the maintenance of school discipline--often the first thought that comes to the minds of…

  5. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs

  6. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H; Rising, A; Hjalmar, A; Lindholm, I; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  7. Comparative assessment of passive surveillance in disease-free and endemic situation: Example of Brucella melitensis surveillance in Switzerland and in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haracic Sabina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globalization and subsequent growth in international trade in animals and animal products has increased the importance of international disease reporting. Efficient and reliable surveillance systems are needed in order to document the disease status of a population at a given time. In this context, passive surveillance plays an important role in early warning systems. However, it is not yet routinely integrated in the assessment of disease surveillance systems because different factors like the disease awareness (DA of people reporting suspect cases influence the detection performance of passive surveillance. In this paper, we used scenario tree methodology in order to evaluate and compare the quality and benefit of abortion testing (ABT for Brucella melitensis (Bm between the disease free situation in Switzerland (CH and a hypothetical disease free situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH, taking into account DA levels assumed for the current endemic situation in BH. Results The structure and input parameters of the scenario tree were identical for CH and BH with the exception of population data in small ruminants and the DA in farmers and veterinarians. The sensitivity analysis of the stochastic scenario tree model showed that the small ruminant population structure and the DA of farmers were important influential parameters with regard to the unit sensitivity of ABT in both CH and BH. The DA of both farmers and veterinarians was assumed to be higher in BH than in CH due to the current endemic situation in BH. Although the same DA cannot necessarily be assumed for the modelled hypothetical disease free situation as for the actual endemic situation, it shows the importance of the higher vigilance of people reporting suspect cases on the probability that an average unit processed in the ABT-component would test positive. Conclusion The actual sensitivity of passive surveillance approaches heavily depends on the context in

  8. NASA and the National Climate Assessment: Promoting awareness of NASA Earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth science observations, models, analyses, and applications made significant contributions to numerous aspects of the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) report and are contributing to sustained climate assessment activities. The agency's goal in participating in the NCA was to ensure that NASA scientific resources were made available to understand the current state of climate change science and climate change impacts. By working with federal agency partners and stakeholder communities to develop and write the report, the agency was able to raise awareness of NASA climate science with audiences beyond the traditional NASA community. To support assessment activities within the NASA community, the agency sponsored two competitive programs that not only funded research and tools for current and future assessments, but also increased capacity within our community to conduct assessment-relevant science and to participate in writing assessments. Such activities fostered the ability of graduate students, post-docs, and senior researchers to learn about the science needs of climate assessors and end-users, which can guide future research activities. NASA also contributed to developing the Global Change Information System, which deploys information from the NCA to scientists, decision makers, and the public, and thus contributes to climate literacy. Finally, NASA satellite imagery and animations used in the Third NCA helped the pubic and decision makers visualize climate changes and were frequently used in social media to communicate report key findings. These resources are also key for developing educational materials that help teachers and students explore regional climate change impacts and opportunities for responses.

  9. REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA- SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela ROMIĆ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental approach of modern, open public administration is the inclusion of the public in government, in the process of adopting regulations relevant to the fulfillment of their rights. In the process of adjustment of Croatian legislation for the full membership in the European Union significant reforms of the legal system have been made , in aim of achieving this ideal . In order to actively involve public in the process of adopting regulations there has been accepted a set of regulations that makes it possible. This paper presents a brief overview of these regulations and those we will also serve as an introduction to the main theme of our work. The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation and possibilities for the participation of public in the process of adopting regulations and to identify deficiencies that have already appeared in the short-term practice. We have set operational objectives on which the research was conducted. The main objective of this study is to determine the method of implementation of obligations as prescribed, particularly obligations of public discussion, public announcement and accessibility of information. With the aim of making this paper, we reviewed websites of the 20 ministries. We did a questionnaire which identified the essential elements of the publication and implementation of public discussion in the process of Regulatory impact assessment. The results were compared with publicly available Plan of normative activities. In data processing, we used descriptive and comparative method, and other classic statistical methods.

  10. Emotional Intelligence as Assessed by Situational Judgment and Emotion Recognition Tests: Building the Nomological Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn MacCann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on emotion recognition ability (ERA suggests that the capacity to process emotional information may differ for disparate emotions. However, little research has examined whether this findings holds for emotional understanding and emotion management, as well as emotion recognition. Moreover, little research has examined whether the abilities to recognize emotions, understand emotions, and manage emotions form a distinct emotional intelligence (EI construct that is independent from traditional cognitive ability factors. The current study addressed these issues. Participants (N=118 completed two ERA measures, two situational judgment tests assessing emotional understanding and emotion management, and three cognitive ability tests. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of both the understanding and management item parcels showed that a three-factor model relating to fear, sadness, and anger content was a better fit than a one-factor model, supporting an emotion-specific view of EI. In addition, an EI factor composed of emotion recognition, emotional understanding, and emotion management was distinct from a cognitive ability factor composed of a matrices task, general knowledge test, and reading comprehension task. Results are discussed in terms of their potential implications for theory and practice, as well as the integration of EI research with known models of cognitive ability.

  11. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  13. The Assessment of Self-Efficacy Level According to University StudentsAND#8217; Smoking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ozlem Kilinc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT AIM: This essay is made with the aim of assessing of self-efficacy level according to university students’ smoking situation. METHOD: The study that is descriptive type was made in between September 2009-June 2010 in University of Bingol. Totally 920 students who attend Bingol Universty in 2009-2010 academic year consist of the universe of the study. The choice of sample wasn’t used in the study, the study completed with 765 students who were volunteer to join the study data was collected by using the form including socio-demographic data and self-efficacy scale. Evaluating data was made by descriptive tests in computer environment, t test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The rate of students’ smoking is 6,9 % among girls, 37,4 % among boys and it is totally 44,3 %. It was determined that place that they live, their fathers’ education of smoking students idea quit smoking effect their self-efficacy level. It was determined that family type, marital status, fathers’ education of non-smoking students effect their self-efficacy level. CONCLUSION: It is found that self-efficacy of non-smoking students is higher than the self-efficacy of smoking students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 255-264

  14. Assessment of radioecological situation of a site contaminated by technologically enhanced natural radioactivity in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactivity contamination originating from the coal fired power plant and its waste dumps located in a bay of the Adriatic which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including radioactivity is discussed. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustile ash and slag showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of Croatian Adriatic. There are two coal slag and ash piles, one of them was closed and covered by soil and the other is a still operating pile. The location of both piles presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone and, in the case of operating pile, are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposits and to assess the risk of increased radioactivity for the inhabitants of the nearby urban area, for the plant workers and general environment of the bay including the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic. (author)

  15. The structured communication tool SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation) improves communication in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M; Harrison, M C

    2014-12-01

    Effective communication, co-operation and teamwork have been identified as key determinants of patient safety. SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation) is a communication tool recommended by the World Health Organization and the UK National Health Service. SBAR is a structured method for communicating critical information that requires immediate attention and action, contributing to effective escalation of management and increased patient safety. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing use of SBAR in South Africa (SA). To determine the effectiveness of adopting the SBAR communication tool in an acute clinical setting in SA. In the first phase of this study, neonatal nurses and doctors at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, were gathered in a focus group and given a questionnaire asking about communication in the neonatal department. Neonatal nurses and doctors were then trained to use SBAR. A telephone audit demonstrated an increase in SBAR use by registrars from 29% to 70% when calling consultants for help. After training, the majority of staff agreed that SBAR had helped with communication, confidence, and quality of patient care. There was qualitative evidence that SBAR led to greater promptness in care of acutely ill patients. Adopting SBAR was associated with perceived improvement in communication between professionals and in the quality and safety of patient care. It is suggested that this simple tool be introduced to many other hospitals in SA.

  16. A comparison of two methods for assessing awareness of antitobacco television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxenberg, Michael G; Greenseid, Lija O; Depue, Jacob; Mowery, Andrea; Dreher, Marietta; Larsen, Lindsay S; Schillo, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This study uses an online survey panel to compare two approaches for assessing ad awareness. The first uses a screenshot of a television ad and the second shows participants a full-length video of the ad. We randomly assigned 1034 Minnesota respondents to view a screenshot or a streaming video from two antitobacco ads. The study used one ad from ClearWay Minnesota's ITALIC! We All Pay the Price campaign, and one from the Centers for Disease Control ITALIC! Tips campaign. The key measure used to assess ad awareness was aided ad recall. Multivariate analyses of recall with cessation behaviour and attitudinal beliefs assessed the validity of these approaches. The respondents who saw the video reported significantly higher recall than those who saw the screenshot. Associations of recall with cessation behaviour and attitudinal beliefs were stronger and in the anticipated direction using the screenshot method. Over 20% of the respondents assigned to the video group could not see the ad. People who were under 45 years old, had incomes greater than $35,000 and women were reportedly less able to access the video. The methodology used to assess recall matters. Campaigns may exaggerate the successes or failures of their media campaigns, depending on the approach they employ and how they compare it to other media campaign evaluations. When incorporating streaming video, researchers should consider accessibility and report possible response bias. Researchers should fully define the measures they use, specify any viewing accessibility issues, and make ad comparisons only when using comparable methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The cancer awareness assessment project: A small-scale survey across people with different levels of education in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshachalam, A; Chakravarthy, A R

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cancer awareness in respondents, their knowledge about the nature of cancer as a disease, its diagnosis and treatment, warning signs, environmental risk factors and conceptions of how risk factors work, as well as willingness to participate in screening programs if available. Cancer awareness is an increasingly important issue in light of increasing incidence and associated healthcare costs, as well as the presence of risk management strategies. In this study, 453 people, drawn from several educational institutes/workplaces, were surveyed with respect to cancer awareness. The test sample included pre university students, undergraduates, and postgraduate students/workers. We checked for variations in cancer awareness across multiple educational levels to determine whether there was variation in levels of cancer awareness across educational classes. We found that confidence in perception of cancer awareness, and awareness itself, was not very high, and only postgraduates had a nuanced appreciation of some of the complexities of cancer epidemiology, and even then only moderately. The conclusions of the study point towards the need for optimal policymaking in the development of cancer awareness in the population.

  18. Assessing Genetic Literacy Awareness and Knowledge Gaps in the US Population: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Ratcliff, Chelsea L; Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg-Worisek, Alexandra J

    2018-05-31

    Public understanding of the role of genetics in disease risk is key to appropriate disease prevention and detection. This study assessed the current extent of awareness and use of genetic testing in the US population. Additionally, the study identified characteristics of subgroups more likely to be at risk for low genetic literacy. The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey, including measures of genetic testing awareness, genetic testing applications and genetic testing usage. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between sociodemographics, genetic testing awareness, and genetic testing use. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were aware of genetic tests. Testing awareness differed by age, household income, and race/ethnicity. Most participants had heard of using tests to determine personal disease risk (82.58%) or inherited disease risk in children (81.41%), but less were familiar with determining treatment (38.29%) or drug efficacy (40.76%). Among those with genetic testing awareness, actual testing uptake was low. A large portion of the general public lacks genetic testing awareness and may benefit from educational campaigns. As precision medicine expands, increasing public awareness about genetic testing applications for disease prevention and treatment will be important to support population health. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  20. Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimos Aivazoglou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL.  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.

  1. The FAA Health Awareness Program: Results of the 1998 Customer Service Assessment Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ... (even if they did not realize that the event was HAP-sponsored). In terms of attendance, the most popular HAP information programs were health fairs, health awareness lectures, and stress management awareness programs...

  2. Astral V2.1: a new version to better assess post-accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmon, Ph.; Mourlon, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Should an important release of radionuclides occur in the environment, one would quickly have to assess radionuclide concentration in media and foodstuff, deduce the potential exposition of concerned populations to the radiations, predict the evolution of the situation and propose different scenarios of managing the contaminated zones. To achieve this, the ASTRAL code was created, which can be used by a relatively large group of people composing crisis centers or making predictive impact studies. The starting point of the assessments is the ground deposit of radionuclides: the atmospheric dispersion phase and the cloud exposure are not taken into account here. The calculations achieved concern time evolution of radionuclide concentration in compartments of the agricultural and forest food chain as well as assessment of doses due to external and internal exposure. These values are compared to regulation limits and/or intervention levels. Different simulations of contaminated zones management can be led by applying counter-measures, dispositions meant to reduce the accident impact on environment and populations. The seventy radionuclides taken into account in the present version are some of those met in case of accidents or during the exploitation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). They relate to 37 elements that are: Ag, Am, Ba, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, I, Ir, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pm, Pr, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Te, Y, Zn, Zr. On a temporal point of view, the predictions extend to 3 years after the deposition. The internet technology chosen for this version offer important advantages: the spreading and maintenance of the tool are very easy, the code may be installed on a portable computer, the access to results is much quicker, the interface is very user friendly, so that no training is needed to perform calculations. As for any radioecological tool, a large number of parameters intervene in the calculations. All parameters can be

  3. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  4. The impact of situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR) on safety attitudes in the obstetrics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wan-Hua; Peng, Fu-Shiang; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies evaluating the situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR) have been shown to increase effective nurse-physician communication and collaboration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the SBAR technique on safety attitudes in the obstetrics department. This study implemented the SBAR Collaborative Communication Education course and was conducted in a medical center from February 2012 to March 2015, which included an educational session on fetal heart rate monitoring, a case-based discussion, and a video demonstration on traditional and SBAR communication. The nurses in the obstetrics department were requested to report their clinical findings and recommendations using a novel SBAR list when abnormal fetal heart beat tracings occurred. All obstetric nurses were requested to complete the Chinese-version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire before and after the SBAR educational course. The primary outcome was to evaluate the effect of the SBAR technique on the safety attitudes of the obstetrics department. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the effect of the SBAR technique on the 5-minute Apgar score for neonates. Most values, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, and working conditions, significantly improved at both postintervention surveys compared with the preintervention survey. There were no significant differences in the number of the neonates with less than seven 5-minute Apgar scores between the pre- and postintervention periods. The SBAR technique, which uses a novel structured handover list, is a feasible tool for nurse-obstetrician communication, and it may improve most dimensions of safety attitudes in the obstetrics department. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Research on mobile advertising based on situational awareness%基于情景感知的移动广告研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玉金; 骆钰程

    2016-01-01

    This paper in the analysis based on the characteristics of the mobile advertising,from the user's point of view of through analyzing the situation of the mobile advertising were studied to mobile commerce mode study gives some reference.%本文在分析移动广告特性的基础上,从用户的角度出发,通过实证对情景化的移动广告进行了研究,希望能够为移动商务的模式研究给出一定的参考。

  6. STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE COMPLEX ON ECONOMIC SITUATION IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A. Malinovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing the impact of infrastructure investment on the economic situation of the region. It is suggested that economic and social effects of, as well as instant and deferred. Using regression analysis allowed us to estimate the nature of different types of effects that affect the economic system of the region.

  7. The Validity of Interpersonal Skills Assessment via Situational Judgment Tests for Predicting Academic Success and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides conceptual and empirical arguments why an assessment of applicants' procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior via a video-based situational judgment test might be valid for academic and postacademic success criteria. Four cohorts of medical students (N = 723) were followed from admission to employment. Procedural…

  8. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John D; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. (paper)

  9. GBI assessment checklist: Level of awareness of the contractors in the Malaysian construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhani, M. A.; Muksain, M. A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Malaysia has developed Green Building Index (GBI) as the green rating tool for buildings and townships to encourage sustainability in the construction industry. Understanding the roles and tasks of a contractor is essential in accomplishing the GBI assessment on a green building project. However, there are challenges in adapting the GBI. The objective of this paper is to identify the knowledge of contractor for each area of assessments in GBI’s checklist. Data were collected through the questionnaire surveys to the selected contractors, which were involved in GBI projects. The findings revealed that most of the respondents agreed and acknowledged the impact of each criterion in the assessment. Thus, it is highly recommended to educate and change the public perception on the awareness of the green building. Aside, more research and development (R&D) process should be encouraged to accelerate the GBI certificate implementation in the construction industry. In conclusion, proper education training, more legislative and financial framework are essential for the future of green building projects.

  10. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  11. Disease-related social situation in family of children with chronic kidney disease--parents` assessment. A multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna; Medyńska, Anna; Adamczyk, Piotr; Bałasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Grenda, Ryszard; Kluska-Jóźwiak, Agnieszka; Leszczyńska, Beata; Olszak-Szot, Ilona; Miklaszewska, Monika; Szczepańska, Maria; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Wasilewska, Anna; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Zajączkowska, Maria; Ziółkowska, Helena; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children burdens life of patients and their families. Little is known about parents` assessment of families' social situation. However, the knowledge of the details of a patient's and his family's life standards might influence modification and optimization of applied therapy. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to explore the selected elements of life situation of patients suffering with CKD as well as their parents, depending on the CKD stage and appropriate treatment. Cross-sectional national study was conducted. A total of 203 children with CKD and 388 their parent-proxies (196 women and 192 men) were enrolled into this study. Patient data and questionnaires filled by both parents, concerning social-demographic parameters and assessment of changes in families after CKD diagnosis in the child, were analysed. CKD children are being brought up in proper families whose financial situation is not good. Children need help in process of education. Perception of current situation differed between both parents in the change of the income source, taking care of CKD child, change in social relations and evaluating relations with medical staff. Parents do not obtain proper support from social workers. Families of CKD children require support in area of financial and educational help for school children. The discrepancies in evaluation of family situation between mothers and fathers of ill children might be the source of conflicts possibly resulting in worsening the outcome for CKD children.

  12. Awareness of disease in dementia: factor structure of the assessment scale of psychosocial impact of the diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Marcia C N; Mograbi, Daniel C; Santos, Raquel L; Sousa, Maria Fernanda B; Nogueira, Marcela L; Belfort, Tatiana; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Laks, Jerson

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing understanding of the conceptual complexity of awareness, there currently exists no instrument for assessing different domains of awareness in dementia. In the current study, the psychometric properties of a multidimensional awareness scale, the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), are explored in a sample of 201 people with dementia and their family caregivers. Cronbach's alpha was high (α = 0.87), indicating excellent internal consistency. The mean of corrected item-total correlation coefficients was moderate. ASPIDD presented a four-factor solution with a well-defined structure: awareness of activities of daily living, cognitive functioning and health condition, emotional state, and social functioning and relationships. Functional disability was positively correlated with total ASPIDD, unawareness of activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, and with emotional state. Caregiver burden was correlated with total ASPIDD scores and unawareness of cognitive functioning. The results suggest that ASPIDD is indeed a multidimensional scale, providing a reliable measure of awareness of disease in dementia. Further studies should explore the risk factors associated with different dimensions of awareness in dementia.

  13. A rapid situation assessment (RSA) study of alcohol and drug use in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Ghandour, Lilian A; Maalouf, Wadih E; Yamout, Karim; Salamoun, Mariana M

    2010-01-01

    Research on substance use and misuse in Lebanon is scarce and, when available, focuses on a specific substance or a limited segment of the population. The objective of this Rapid Situation Assessment (RAS) study was to survey the use of multiple substances in diverse segments of the Lebanese population. A multi-method and multi-sample survey was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data from the academic sector (high school and university students), substance users in treatment or under arrest (prison, detention), and non-institutionalized "street" users. Age of first use of substances started as early as 9 years in the youth sample. Moreover, 12% of the high school students reported smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day and 9% of the university students met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Cannabis represented the most commonly used illicit drug in both high school and university students, and tranquilizers were the most frequently misused medicinal substance. Heroin was responsible for 50% of the treatment admissions, followed by cocaine (20%), and alcohol (20%); heroin was also the most common substance of arrest. Recidivism was almost the rule for heroin users across all treatment settings. Unperceived need for treatment was the most common reason for not seeking treatment in non-institutionalized drug users (47.6%). Injecting drug use was a common behavior noted within substance using populations, in treatment and non-institutionalized (about 50% of them), with a high rate of needle sharing practices. About half of all patients in treatment had a history of police arrests, and about one-third of those in prison ever received prior treatment for substance use. The study points towards a growing trend for substance use problems in early adolescence that warrants close monitoring. Further investigation of these patterns is needed since the Lebanese population might have specific pathways of abuse. There is a need to bring together various

  14. ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS LEVEL OF OWN DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Andreeva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension (AH is the most frequent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality in all developed countries. Altough therapy with antihypertensive drugs significantly reduces this risk, patients with stable mild hypertension have poor compliance with the treatment. The reasons and levels of inadequacy of antihypertensive therapy in this group of patients are well-known.Aim. To evaluate the awareness level of own disease, adequacy of therapy only in those patients with stable mild arterial hypertension, who are complied with recommendations of physicians concerning AH treatment and changing of mode of life. It was also planned to reveal possible grounds for inadequate secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.Materials and methods. 76 patiens with stable mild arterial hypertension were included into study. They didn’t have any serious concomitant diseases and were complied with the recommendations of physicians concerning secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Questionnaire of State Research Center for Preventive Medicine “Assessment of awareness level of own disease in patients with stable arterial hypertension” was used in the study.Results. It was revealed, that the majority of patients, invoved in the study, were nonsmokers and regularly took antihypertensive drugs. 70% of questioned patients reached the target arterial blood pressure levels, while patients with arterial hypertension in general Russia population received regular and efficient treatment in less than 30-20%. Drugs treatment of questioned patients almost didn’t differ from that, which received patients in out-patient clinics of Moscow: in both cases ACE inhibitors were preferred. Only 29% of questioned patients knew their lipid levels in blood and none of the patients took drugs, reducing levels of lipids in blood. Half of the patients, that took part in our study, had increased level of body mass index.Conclusions. Inadequate

  15. Assessment of smoking patients awareness on the effects of smoking on the incidence of civilization diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Białkowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is known to affect the body adversely and to contribute significantly to the development of many diseases. It is necessary to carry out education programs, to develop healthy attitudes and to motivate smokers to start the fight against addiction. The aim is to show the patients’ point of view on the effects of tobacco smoking on health. It was also an attempt to assess patients’ knowledge about the effects of smoking and the incidence of civilization diseases. The authors analyze the health behaviours and habits of nicotine-dependent patients from data from patients hospitalized in the rehabilitation and internal diseases wards. Material and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in patients hospitalized at the University Hospital in Olsztyn and Healthcare Complex in Nidzica. The study included 50 smokers aged 21 to 80 years. The data was used to develop statistical methods: analysis of rho-Spearman correlation to examine relationships between variables, non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney U to detectsignificant differences between the compared groups and one-way analysis of variance to test differences between groups. Results: Prevalence of symptoms of the disease in patients is associated with an increased awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco. Knowledge of these risks among the respondents is independent of age and education. Educational activities conducted by therapists are indeed important for the patients’ health-related behaviors. Conclusions: Awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking is fixed and is not determined by the age of the smoker, education or the fact of suffering from a particular disease. Therapists who have frequent contact with the patients are able to affect their health behaviors. In connection with the manifestation of tolerance to the phenomenon of heavy smokers’ nicotine addiction, people from a particular physical neighborhood are more likely to adopt the habit. There are

  16. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and lack of willingness on the part of people to seek environmental health and safety information on the causes, effect and how to mitigate global warming on the other hand. This study focuses on assessment of knowledge and awareness of causes, effects and mitigating measures of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. In this descriptive survey, purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from among the inhabitants of this area. A questionnaire with reliability co-efficient (r of 0.78 was used for data collection. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical methods such as Chi-square, frequency count, simple percentage and pie chart were used for data analysis. Results showed that only 20% had 34.0% had negative attitude while 81 (40.5% were indifferent, all the three hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, it was deduced that respondents have significant knowledge of global warming. In recommendation, people’s environmental health seeking behaviour should be promoted through multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and the development of inclusive environmental health and safety intervention strategies.

  17. “We want to show our face, man”: hip hop helping to build identity, awareness and social participation of young people in a socialy vulnerable situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Castro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip Hop is considered an artistic movement of social protest, which forms a symbolic guiding system of cultural practices and youth attitudes, enabling citizenship and social recognition. This study aimed to describe and analyze the use of hip hop as a strategy for the construction of identity, awareness, participation and social inclusion of young people in the daily life of peripheral communities from the perspective of cultural rights. This is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data collection took place over a year using 10 semi-structured interviews and footage of artistic and cultural workshops in the occupational therapeutic context, working at the interface between the social, the cultural field and the field of non-formal education. The thematic content analysis created three themes: Identity Construction and rescue the life course; Hip Hop as an expression of social reality; Social inclusion and participation. This research suggests that Hip Hop can be a useful resource in socio-educational practices, enabling critical reflection of young people in social vulnerability on their contexts, the rescue of the life course, identity construction and social participation.

  18. Assessment of the Current Cultural Awareness and Training for the Air Force Contingency Contracting Officer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigorian, Reza A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the current cultural awareness of contracting officers and the effectiveness of cross-cultural training provided to contracting officers through the Defense Acquisition University (DAU...

  19. Assessment of epidemiologic situation in aero-ecological systems of north part of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The vast territories of Central Kazakhstan adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are intensively using for agriculture purposes. Radioecological situation of environmental objects in places of active land-using is characterizing by considerable accumulation of artificial radionuclides in local points. In 1965-1988 dynamics of accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 131 I, 144 Ce, 210 Po is considered. Most high concentration of these radionuclides corresponds to 1965, 1974, 1986-87 in all objects: soil, water, pasture plants. These processes are explained by emergency situation on STS and Chernobyl accident. In objects of veterinary supervision (meat, milk, bones) increasing of concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs established in 1965-1966, 1968, 1972-1974, 1986-1987. In present time significant territories of Semipalatinsk test site as well as territories of other sites are places for foodstuffs production. In this regard all agricultural zones Of Republic of Kazakhstan demand comprehensive research, exploitation of advanced methods of farms implementation improving environmental, epidemiologic and economical situation in regions

  20. Complex Situational Tasks in Assessment of Educational Outcomes in “Psychological Assessment of Students” Module of the Master’s Programme in School Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruschenko T.Y.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the content of midterm performance evaluation of graduate students within the “Psychological Assessment” module of the master’s programme in School Psychology and focuses on the logic of the module’s design in relation to the professional standard in Educational Psychology. Complex situational tasks are considered in the modular program as the main means of assessing educational outcomes. The content of these tasks is determined by a range of diagnostic situations and closely corresponds with the real-life practice of educational psychologists. Setting complex situational tasks is related to a number of components of the educational psychologist’s professional activity in the field of psychological assessment, such as: planning the sequence of professional actions; ensuring the methodological background for assessment; taking into account deontological aspects of communication with assessed individuals; carrying out professional actions; reflecting on the process and outcomes of assessment. The paper analyses the place and role of graduate students’ self-assessment in finding solutions to complex situational tasks and offers a description of one such task that can be used in midterm performance evaluation of graduate students.

  1. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  2. Assessing Impacts of Locally Designed Environmental Education Projects on Students' Environmental Attitudes, Awareness, and Intention to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brenda Gail

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether consistent effects on students' environmental attitudes, awareness, and behavioral intentions could be discerned in an initiative that supports environmental education (EE) designed at the classroom level. Students of grades four, five, and seven participated in an assessment at the beginning and end of the school…

  3. Assessment of patients' awareness and factors influencing patients' demands for sedation in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoo Kyeom; Montagnese, Thomas A; Harding, Jarrod; Aminoshariae, Anita; Mickel, Andre

    2015-02-01

    Endodontic therapy is perceived by many as a procedure to be feared. Many studies have reported that fear and anxiety are major deterrents to seeking dental care in general, but only a few deal with the use of sedation in endodontic therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess patients' awareness of and factors influencing the potential demand for sedation in endodontics. We hypothesized that there is an association between demographic factors and the demand for sedation in endodontics. A survey consisting of 24 questions was given to patients 18 years and older who presented to the graduate endodontic clinic. Results were collected and statistically analyzed. Thirty-six percent of patients reported that their perception of sedation was being put to sleep, and 27% perceived it as related to or reducing pain. Concerns associated with endodontic therapy were the fear of pain (35%), fear of needles (16%), difficulty getting numb (10%), and anxiety (7%). The 2 major demographic factors that influenced the demand for sedation were cost and the level of anxiety (P endodontic therapy if the option of sedation was available. The demand for sedation in endodontics is high. Patients' understanding of sedation varies. More patients would consider having endodontic procedures if sedation was available. The provision of sedation by endodontists could result in more patients accepting endodontic therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The concretization of the term sustainable spatial development for the assessment of child and juvenile awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Zupančič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article is targeted at the comprehensive co-shaping of the conditions required for the active education on the effective and concrete contributions to sustainable development, with the emphasis based on the built environment or architecture. It defines the role of education on the built environment or architecture within the concept of sustainable development, determines the grounds for adjusting the methods of delivering architectural contents and defines the educational contents along with their presentations with regards to the developmental abilities of the public, which is targeted. It presents the deliberation on objectifying the term sustainable spatial development, for the assessment of child and juvenile awareness of “sustainable architecture” topics as well as determining childcare workers and teachers adequate qualifications to provide the knowledge in the field of the built environment, in relation to sustainable environment. Concretisation signifies the selection and visualisation of actual topical occurrences in physical space for a specific targeted public (the article provides representative models. It also contributes to the development of “cultural” dimension of spatial development sustainability. The efforts made to strive towards the lifelong learning of architecture and its influence on our everyday lives and our future.

  5. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfert, K; Glaeser, H; Klener, V; Métivier, H; Richard, P; Riebold, W L; Vasa, I; Zimmermann, M

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Acces...

  6. Implementing integrated catchment management in the Limpopo River Basin Phase 1: Situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reaches of the main stem of the Limpopo River. Much of the surface water exploitation in the basin states relies on storage reservoirs built on tributary rivers. Surface water use is directed primarily to irrigated agriculture, afforestation... and the pool storages located in the A63E and A71L catchments. The riverine gallery forest (Figure 6) is an aquifer-dependent ecosystem situated on the same aquifer used by the Venetia Mine and recharged by the Limpopo River main stem. The isolated...

  7. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Srikrajang, Janthila; Promtingkran, Nongluk; Kreuangchai, Suchart; Tonpanya, Wilawan; Vivarakanon, Phatchanan; Jaiin, Puangpet; Praipaksin, Nara; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk. This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100-120) mmHg and 70 (range 60-80) mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.97) and those with primary school education were more likely to be aware of hypertension than those who did not have a primary school education (OR 6.5, CI 1.9-22.24). Overall, our survey showed that less than half of the Karen community had such knowledge and awareness. It is urgently necessary to promote knowledge, awareness, and health literacy among the ethnic Karen tribes to prevent hypertension and associated CVDs.

  8. Assessing Folic Acid Awareness and its Usage for the Prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal and Population health educational strategies and fortification of ... However, these serious birth defects are to a large extent preventable .... This relatively high-rate of awareness among the study population ..... developing economy.

  9. The FAA Health Awareness Program: Results of the 1998 Customer Service Assessment Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an agency-wide survey of employee health and wellness to determine workforce involvement in and satisfaction with the Federal Aviation Administration's Health Awareness Program (HAP...

  10. An audit about music therapy assessments and recommendations for adult patients suspected to be in a low awareness state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In neuro-rehabilitation, the role of music therapy is expanding to include assessment of patients with severely-altered states of consciousness. Diagnosis of these conditions is a complex task for all, and cases of misdiagnosis have been reported. Aggregated findings from 33 music therapy assessments of patients suspected of being in a low awareness state are described and discussed here. The Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Low Awareness States (MATLAS) was used during these assessments. All assessments were offered as part of a specialist multidisciplinary assessment package. A brief description of the patient group is supplied, along with details regarding the assessment tool and the recommendations that followed. In summary, a difference in the time it took to assess patients in vegetative state (VS) as compared to those in minimally conscious state (MCS) was found and, on average, the assessment of those in VS took less time to complete than for those in MCS. A greater range in session length was found for patients in VS, as compared to those in MCS. Generally after the assessments, patients in VS were likely to be admitted to a sensory regulation group administered by a music therapy assistant, supervised by a qualified music therapist, to enable the continued collection of behavioral responses to stimuli. Patients in MCS were admitted to a music therapy treatment program offered by a qualified music therapist. Ongoing work is recommended to advance the assessment and treatment of this patient population, and to consolidate the role of music therapy with this population.

  11. Assessment of Radiographers’ Awareness about Radiation Protection Principles in Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfaneh Kargar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted to evaluate the radiographers’ awareness of radiation protection principles in the radiology centers of the hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Materials and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 radiographers of three hospitals affiliated with Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The data were collected using a two-part questionnaire. The first part was related to the demographic information of the radiographers(i.e. age, gender, work experience, workplace, and passing related training courses. The second part consisted of questions related to the radiographers’ awareness in three fields of radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation. Results According to the results of the present study, the mean total scores of the radiographers’ awareness about the radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation was 18.41±1.14 out of 22. However, the radiographers’ awareness of the three investigated fields had no statistically significant relationships with the work experience (P=0.244 and gender (P=0.386. However, there was a significant relationship between the radiographers’ awareness about the radiation protection and their education level (P=0.034. Moreover, a significant association was found between the radiographers’ awareness and their workplace (P=0.009. Additionally, the participation in the radiation training courses was significantly correlated with the radiographers’ awareness regarding the radiation hazards (P=0.022. Conclusion According to the findings of the present study, the awareness level of the radiographers about the radiation protection principles was relatively good. However, it seems that the education level of the staff should be enhanced through holding regular short-term radiation training courses.

  12. Assessment of parental awareness of the shaken baby syndrome in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Amandeep K; Rai, Birendra; Sharif, Farhana; Vavasseur, Claudine

    2015-10-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) results in cerebral trauma. Creating awareness through education may improve parental response to a distressed infant. We aim to assess current parental understanding of SBS and identify knowledge gaps. A prospective assessment was carried out in two independent maternity hospitals (National Maternity Hospital (NMH) and Midland Regional Hospital (MRH)) over a 4-month period. Multi-dimensional questionnaires were distributed to parents (n = 233) and results were assessed anonymously. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS21 software. Two hundred thirty-three participants were included: n = 114 (NMH), n = 119 (MRH). Fifty-four percent (n = 62, NMH) and 50 % (n = 60, MRH) had never heard of SBS. Of those who had, media was the commonest source: 94 % (47/50) NMH; 86 % (47/59) MRH. Less than 1 % of participants obtained information through a health care provider. Nearly all respondents wanted further information, regardless of whether they had prior knowledge (100 % (NMH); 99.2 % (MRH)). Participants wanted information delivered via a midwife (51 % (58/114) NMH; 45 % (54/119) MRH), with reading material (61 % (69/114) NMH; 59 % (70/119) MRH), during pre-natal period (50 % (57/114) NMH; 65 % (77/119) MRH). Importantly, parents of Irish origin were more likely to have heard of SBS compared to those of non-Irish origin (p = 0.026 (NMH), p = 0.020 (MRH)). Half of all participants had no prior knowledge of SBS, with majority expressing interest in learning more. Therefore, a national "Don't Shake" campaign is evolving. • Studies have shown that educating parents regarding shaken baby syndrome (SBS) may result in a more safe and appropriate response to infant crying [ 3 ]. • In Ireland, there is no such education provided to parents in maternity hospitals. What is New: • Just over half of our participants had not heard of SBS, and we have identified parental perceptions of SBS, and parents preferred method of

  13. [Assessment of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" (Balapan Site, Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Umarov, M A; Sergeeva, I Iu; Sergeev, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results on estimation of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" based on large-scale cartographic studies (1:25000) of a test area (4 km2) are presented. Maximum gamma-irradiation doses were observed at bulk of ground surrounded a crater and at radioactive fall-outs extended to the North-East and to the SouthWest from the crater. Based on data on artificial radionuclide specific activity most part of soil samples were attributed to radioactive wastes according to IAEA (1996) and OSPORB (1999). Natural decrease of soil radioactivity up to safety level due to 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, 154Eu radioactive decay and 241Am accumulation-decay will not take place within the next 60 years at the studied area.

  14. Development of the assessment method for the idealized images of teams. Investigation on the teamwork in emergency response situation (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Since the occurrence of the Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and the nuclear disaster in 2011, the strengthening of emergency response training has been emphasized in Japanese electric industries. When disasters and accidents occur in a nuclear power plant, workers should collaborate with each other to mitigate possible hazards and to recovery from emergencies, as self-effort is not sufficient in these times. Effective teamwork is essential for the success of emergency response. However, the aspects of teamwork that are required in emergencies remain unclear. This study developed a questionnaire instrument to assess the idealized image of effective power plant operator teams in three different levels of emergencies. A pilot test of the instrument was conducted with 21 training instructors who are subject-matter experts in nuclear power plant operation. In the questionnaire, three hypothetical situations of differing emergency levels were presented: 'normal' (routine operation), 'abnormal' (trouble shooting and malfunction correction), 'emergency' (severe accident and disaster response). The idealized image of teams in each situation was also assessed in four aspects: 'decision-making', 'coordination', 'adaptation and adjustment', and 'command and control'. Questionnaire responses were summarized in a profile form to picture the idealized images, ant the profile scores in each situation were compared. Results suggested that, the idealized image of effective teams is different depending on the level of emergency. The Implications of results for training and future research directions are discussed. (author)

  15. A new measure for the assessment of visual awareness in individuals with tunnel vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaqr, Ali M; Dickinson, Chris M

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with a restricted peripheral visual field or tunnel vision (TV) have problems moving about and avoiding obstacles. Some individuals adapt better than others and some use assistive optical aids, so measurement of the visual field is not sufficient to describe their performance. In the present study, we developed a new clinical test called the 'Assessment of Visual Awareness (AVA)', which can be used to measure detection of peripheral targets. The participants were 20 patients with TV due to retinitis pigmentosa (PTV) and 50 normally sighted participants with simulated tunnel vision (STV) using goggles. In the AVA test, detection times were measured, when subjects searched for 24 individually presented, one degree targets, randomly positioned in a 60 degrees noise background. Head and eye movements were allowed and the presentation time was unlimited. The test validity was investigated by correlating the detection times with the 'percentage of preferred walking speed' (PPWS) and the 'number of collisions' on an indoor mobility course. In PTV and STV, the detection times had significant negative correlation with the field of view. The detection times had significant positive relations with target location. In the STV, the detection time was significantly negatively correlated with the PPWS and significantly positively correlated with the collisions score on the indoor mobility course. In the PTV, the relationship was not statistically significant. No significant difference in performance of STV was found when repeating the test one to two weeks later. The proposed AVA test was sensitive to the field of view and target location. The test is unique in design, quick, simple to deliver and both repeatable and valid. It could be a valuable tool to test different rehabilitation strategies in patients with TV. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  16. Situating Power Potentials and Dynamics of Learners and Tutors within Self-Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Many twenty-first century educational discourses focus on including and empowering independent learners. Within the context of five self-assessment models, this article evaluates how these practices relate to the realities of student involvement, empowerment and voice. A proposed new classification of these self-assessment models is presented and…

  17. Assessment of Jordanian Patient's Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Preferences towards CRC Screening: Are Jordanians Ready to Embrace CRC Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Suha; Barakat, Husam; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Bashaireh, Ibrahim; Batiha, Abdul-Moni'm

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC is increasingly becoming a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in Jordan. However the population's level of awareness about CRC, CRC screening test preferences and willingness to embrace screening are not known. The aim of this study was to assess the level of CRC awareness and screening preferences among Jordanian patients. A survey assessing the CRC knowledge levels was distributed among patients attending outpatient gastroenterology clinics in public hospitals throughout Jordan. A total of 800 surveys were distributed and of these 713 (89.1%) were returned. Only 22% of the participants correctly judged CRC among the choices provided as the commonest cause of cancer related deaths. The majority of participants (68.3%) underestimated their risk for CRC. Only 26.8% correctly judged their life time risk while 5% overestimated their risk. Two thirds of participants (66%) were willing to pay 500 Jordanian Dinars (equivalent to 706 US$) in order to get a prompt colonoscopy if recommended by their physician, while 25.5% reported that they would rather wait for 6 months in order to get a free colonoscopy. Although the participants tended to underestimate their risk for CRC, they were mostly aware of CRC as a major cause of mortality and were willing to embrace the concept of CRC screening and bear the related financial costs. These findings about CRC awareness and propensity for screening provide a good foundation as the Jordanian health system moves forward with initiatives to promote CRC screening and prevention.

  18. Use of risk assessment in the nuclear industry with specific reference to the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Willers, A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of risk assessment in the nuclear industry began in the 1970s as a complementary approach to the deterministic methods used to assess the safety of nuclear facilities. As experience with the theory and application of probabilistic methods has grown, so too has its application. In the last decade, the use of probabilistic safety assessment has become commonplace for all phases of the life of a plant, including siting, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. In the particular case of operation of plant, the use of a 'living' safety case or probabilistic safety assessment, building upon operational experience, is becoming more widespread, both as an operational tool and as a basis for communication with the regulator. In the case of deciding upon a site for a proposed reactor, use is also being made of probabilistic methods in defining the effect of design parameters. Going hand in hand with this increased use of risk based methods has been the development of assessment criteria against which to judge the results being obtained from the risk analyses. This paper reviews the use of risk assessment in the light of the need for acceptability criteria and shows how these tools are applied in the Australian nuclear industry, with specific reference to the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) performed of HIFAR

  19. Radiation in complex exposure situations. Assessing health risks at low levels from concomitant exposures to radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from exposures to ionizing radiation are in general the result of complex multi-step reaction chains involving changes and responses on the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. In environmental low dose exposure situations ionizing radiation only contributes a small fraction to the life-long attack on DNA by other exogenous and endogenous genotoxins. Nevertheless, efforts to assess and quantify deleterious effects at low exposure levels are directed mainly towards radiation as a single isolated agent, and rarely towards the concomitant presence of other natural and anthropogenic toxicants. Only these combined exposures may lead to observable health risk effects. In addition they might differ from those expected from simple addition of the individual risks due to interaction. The existing data base on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. Therefore, any risk assessment will have to consider the question whether combined effects, i.e. interaction between two or more agents will influence the health outcome from specific exposure situations in such a way that predictions derived from simple standard exposure situations would have to be revised. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Agents will have to be grouped depending on their physical or chemical mode of action at the molecular and cellular level, to generalize and predict the outcome of combined exposures at low exposure levels and the possibility of interactions. (author)

  20. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Ho-kwan; Wong, Chun-Sing; Huang, Bingsheng; Yiu, Ka-ling; Wong, Wai-lam; Chu, Yin Ching Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P=0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information.

  1. Is sequence awareness mandatory for perceptual sequence learning: An assessment using a pure perceptual sequence learning design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné

    2018-02-01

    We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  3. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  4. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  5. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  6. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings...

  7. Supporting Situation Assessment through Attention Guidance: A Cost-Benefit and Depth of Processing Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horrey, William J; Wickens, Christopher D

    2001-01-01

    ...). For half the trials, an automated system guided their attention to high-threat units. On two trials a memory probe was administered to assess the depth of processing of information, and on the final trial an automation failure was presented...

  8. The Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Administration Task Load Index (NASA- TLX ), a validated research instrument [Human Performance Research Group 1988]. The participants were asked to rate their...analysis”, Human Factors 40(2): 254–276. 17 Human Performance Research Group (1988) NASA- TLX , NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. Jin, Y. and

  9. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.

    2012-09-01

    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  10. A Tactical Framework for Cyberspace Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Command & Control 1. VOIP Telephone 2. Internet Chat 3. Web App ( TBMCS ) 4. Email 5. Web App (PEX) 6. Database (CAMS) 7. Database (ARMS) 8...Database (LogMod) 9. Resource (WWW) 10. Application (PFPS) Mission Planning 1. Application (PFPS) 2. Email 3. Web App ( TBMCS ) 4. Internet Chat...1. Web App (PEX) 2. Database (ARMS) 3. Web App ( TBMCS ) 4. Email 5. Database (CAMS) 6. VOIP Telephone 7. Application (PFPS) 8. Internet Chat 9

  11. A Visual Language for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    semiotics?s=t. 46 John Baines, “Communication and Display: The Integration of Early Egyptian Art and Writing,” Antiquity 63, no. 240 (September 1989...semiotics web and information architecture meetup, New York Public Library, November 1, 2014), http://whysel.com/ portfolio/semiotics-and...tabular data that can be related to a specific place can be displayed by a GIS. The scales of various GIS maps can range from architectural to global

  12. Situation Awareness: Papers and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    training, twelve college- aged subjects flew three sessions (two or three blocks per session, six flights per block) of simulated air-to-ground attacks...either substantively discusses the potential usefulness of phisiological measures of SA or reviews an evaluation that used physiological measures to

  13. Maintaining Situational Awareness in Large, Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreno, Jose; Galdorisi, George; Goshorn, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    .... Another solution, gaining popularity in the business sector, is environmental scanning. Environmental scanning identifies, collects, translates and applies information about external events that influence an organization's strategic landscape...

  14. Measures of Situation Awareness: An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    occurrence from non- occurrence of the target event, referred to as sensitivity (Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). Because sensitivity declines if pilots are...Pollack and Norman, 1964; see also Craig, 1979; Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). Finally, avoidance failures were measured simply as the number of times...Wesley. Macmillan, N. A., & Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response bias: Characteristics of detection theory, threshold theory, and "non- parametric" indexes

  15. Global Situational Awareness with Free Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    also be use in a closed environment • It’s cool, and people like cool 14© 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Google Earth Demo attempted-recon Signature...multiple data sources • Snort (Snorby on Security Onion) • Nagios • SharePoint RSS • Flow • Others • Leverage standard data formats • Keyhole Markup Language

  16. Ecological Approach to Pilot Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Future air traffic concepts foresee that in unmanaged airspace, to reduce workload of air traffic controllers and the resulting constraints on capacity, the separation task will be delegated to the flight deck. Technology-driven pilot self-separation support systems have been developed that present

  17. Advanced Topics in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    identification, adaptive optics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF ABSTRACT OF PAGES Sudhakar Prasad... Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona (co-PI) " Dr. Stuart M. Jefferies, Professor, IfA, University of Hawaii (Co-PI) " Dr. Robert J. Plemmons...available at AMOS for conducting imaging and nonimaging research and data analysis; " transition advanced mathematical concepts and software resulting

  18. Improving Financial Awareness among College Students: Assessment of a Financial Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lance; Bliss, Donna L.; Goetz, Joseph W.; Moorman, Diann

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a financial management intervention on college students' financial behavior was examined. The intervention strategy, a form of expenditure tracking, focused on consciousness-raising and was implemented among 170 undergraduate students. Qualitative analysis of participants' self-reflection papers revealed that awareness of spending…

  19. Assessing tree care professionals' awareness and knowledge about the Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Hathaway; Cem M. Basman; Susan C. Barro

    2003-01-01

    The level of knowledge and awareness possessed by tree care professionals about the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is critical for the successful detection and eradication of this pest. A small sample of tree care professionals was surveyed about the ALB (from within the City of Chicago) in the summer of 2001. Results indicate that only 35 percent of survey respondents...

  20. Economic and energetic assessment for the situation in Japan after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos A, R.; Puente E, F., E-mail: rodrigo.ramos.aranda@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In March 11 2011, a 9.0 mega thrust earthquake originated off the coast of Japan; as of now it has been the strongest ever recorded in the island. It produced a tsunami with waves over 15 meters high. The dimensions of the tsunami exceeded even the most pessimist scenarios for which the country was prepared. This happened in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Where there were containment walls built to withstand waves of up to 10 meters of height; the backup generation system was flooded, this left the plant disconnected from the grid and led to 7 degree nuclear accident in the Ines scale. Following the accident, the Japanese government decided to turn off all of its nuclear reactors and reevaluate the sector safety regulations. This decision had valid reasons and was backed up by most of the general public. However, the not so apparent consequences of turning the nuclear switch from one day to another need to be understood. In order to replace the energy produced by the nuclear power plants liquid natural gas and coal was imported for electric power generation. As of to day this extra imports cost more Japan than 90 billion dollars per year. this huge energy bill has led the country to perceive 20 month of trade deficits. This in addition to an exponential increase in greenhouse gases emissions and electricity prices so high that have forced hundreds of businesses to close, has demonstrated the importance of the nuclear sector in Japan. This situation left the Japanese government with no other option and in February 2014 it announced that they will restart their nuclear reactors. It is still uncertain what role will nuclear energy have in Japan. The objective of the following document is to show an analysis of the economical consequences of the Fukushima accident. There are many reports that address the environmental impacts, lessons learned from the accident and the changes in the safety regulations. In the contrary, the present highlights the importance

  1. Economic and energetic assessment for the situation in Japan after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos A, R.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    In March 11 2011, a 9.0 mega thrust earthquake originated off the coast of Japan; as of now it has been the strongest ever recorded in the island. It produced a tsunami with waves over 15 meters high. The dimensions of the tsunami exceeded even the most pessimist scenarios for which the country was prepared. This happened in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Where there were containment walls built to withstand waves of up to 10 meters of height; the backup generation system was flooded, this left the plant disconnected from the grid and led to 7 degree nuclear accident in the Ines scale. Following the accident, the Japanese government decided to turn off all of its nuclear reactors and reevaluate the sector safety regulations. This decision had valid reasons and was backed up by most of the general public. However, the not so apparent consequences of turning the nuclear switch from one day to another need to be understood. In order to replace the energy produced by the nuclear power plants liquid natural gas and coal was imported for electric power generation. As of to day this extra imports cost more Japan than 90 billion dollars per year. this huge energy bill has led the country to perceive 20 month of trade deficits. This in addition to an exponential increase in greenhouse gases emissions and electricity prices so high that have forced hundreds of businesses to close, has demonstrated the importance of the nuclear sector in Japan. This situation left the Japanese government with no other option and in February 2014 it announced that they will restart their nuclear reactors. It is still uncertain what role will nuclear energy have in Japan. The objective of the following document is to show an analysis of the economical consequences of the Fukushima accident. There are many reports that address the environmental impacts, lessons learned from the accident and the changes in the safety regulations. In the contrary, the present highlights the importance

  2. Improving Situation Awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    sources, and various notification and communications mechanisms. This section will discuss each type of real-time SA data in depth. Blue force tracker (BFT...formats. The icons attached to these points can include much of the MIL- STD-2525B iconography, colored spot reports, or separately-loaded custom... laser range finders, notification devices (e.g., smart watches), external GPS, and more. Additional peripherals can be supported through ATAK’s plugin

  3. Twituational Awareness: Gaining Situational Awareness via Crowdsourced #Disaster Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    for assistance to restore electrical service, including Lisa Morales, who tweeted, “@capecodtimes please send them to Robbins Cir, Dennis. No septic... Tony Top, Charles Perez, Eric Chatelet, Nada Matta, Marc Lemercier, and Hichem Snoussi. “Multi-layer Crisis Mapping: A Social Media-Based Approach

  4. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  5. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez; Ignacio Pedrosa

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. F...

  6. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Uncertainty analysis in an accidental situation. Radionuclide transfer in environment and assessment of human exposure by food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, Mouhamadou Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Major nuclear accidents of Chernobyl (April, 1986) and Fukushima (March, 2011) have led to a huge environmental contamination with important amounts of radionuclides released in the atmosphere. Risk assessment, in case of nuclear emergency, is confronted to uncertainties on the transfer of radioactive substances in terrestrial ecosystems and to human population through the food chain, which could affect the reliability of decisions. The extent of the repercussions of Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents highlighted the difficulty of managing the consequences of such disasters and specifically to accommodate the different sources of uncertainty within decision-making processes. The objective of this research project is to develop a methodology to take into account uncertainties within environmental and food risk assessment models in order to improve decision support tools used for accidental situations. In this regard, different hierarchical Bayesian models aiming at capturing, within a unique modelling framework, uncertainty and variability about radioecological parameters of great important for accidental situation (dry and wet interception fractions and weathering loss parameter) were developed. Models parameters were estimated by Bayesian inference applied on databases obtained by an extended literature review. The impact on the risk assessment models of uncertainty and variability about these radioecological parameters was then assessed by stochastic simulations and sensitivity analyses applied on two case-studies: a hypothetical accident simulating a standardized deposition of radionuclides and the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant. The works developed in this project contribute to enhance knowledge on key processes governing environmental transfer of radionuclides and to improve the parameterization of the radioecological risk assessment models with respect to the research lines outlined by the scientific community in radioecology. (author)

  8. The assessment of dentistry status in districts with unfavourable ecological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopbaeva, M.T.; Gusev, B.I.; Ajdzhanov, M.M.; Sadykov, R.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of ecological influence on health level, including dentistry is extremely actual. In this connection the attempt of study of Semipalatinsk region population's mouth status was undertaken. For assessment of dentistry status have been 9779 inhabitants of Abaj, Beskargaj, Zhana-Semej, Borodulikhinskij districts and Semipalatinsk city were examined. The 3289 inhabitants of Kokpekty district according WHO recommendations with use methodic of definition of dentistry level of health were examined also. The insensitivity of paradonta diseases by CPITN indexes is given. Diseases of mouth mucous most diagnose are adduced

  9. Applying a multi-replication framework to support dynamic situation assessment and predictive capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Craig; McGraw, Robert M.; Steinman, Jeffrey S.

    2005-05-01

    Technological advances and emerging threats reduce the time between target detection and action to an order of a few minutes. To effectively assist with the decision-making process, C4I decision support tools must quickly and dynamically predict and assess alternative Courses Of Action (COAs) to assist Commanders in anticipating potential outcomes. These capabilities can be provided through the faster-than-real-time predictive simulation of plans that are continuously re-calibrating with the real-time picture. This capability allows decision-makers to assess the effects of re-tasking opportunities, providing the decision-maker with tremendous freedom to make time-critical, mid-course decisions. This paper presents an overview and demonstrates the use of a software infrastructure that supports DSAP capabilities. These DSAP capabilities are demonstrated through the use of a Multi-Replication Framework that supports (1) predictivie simulations using JSAF (Joint Semi-Automated Forces); (2) real-time simulation, also using JSAF, as a state estimation mechanism; and, (3) real-time C4I data updates through TBMCS (Theater Battle Management Core Systems). This infrastructure allows multiple replications of a simulation to be executed simultaneously over a grid faster-than-real-time, calibrated with live data feeds. A cost evaluator mechanism analyzes potential outcomes and prunes simulations that diverge from the real-time picture. In particular, this paper primarily serves to walk a user through the process for using the Multi-Replication Framework providing an enhanced decision aid.

  10. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  11. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfert, K.; Buecherl, A.; Glaeser, H.; Zimmermann, M.; Metivier, H.; Richard, P.; Vasa, I.; Klener, V.; Riebold, W.L.

    2003-03-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Accession Countries (CEEC) and from Norway and Switzerland, had responded and registered for participation. Finally, 218 organisations have participated in the exercise. In spite of all efforts undertaken, several known main European nuclear research actors from different European countries have not participated in the exercise. (orig.)

  12. Situation-assessment and decision-aid production-rule analysis system for nuclear plant monitoring and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC)

  13. Situation-Assessment And Decision-Aid Production-Rule Analysis System For Nuclear Plant Monitoring And Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-05-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC).

  14. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumie, Abera; Amera, Tadesse; Berhane, Kiros; Samet, Jonathan; Hundal, Nuvjote; G/Michael, Fitsum; Gilliland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid economic development has brought changes in workplaces in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. There is limited information on the gaps and needs of occupational health services in workplaces in Ethiopia. The present review article describes the existing profile of occupational safety and health services in Ethiopia and identifies the current gaps and needs in the services. Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to explore the status of occupational safety, health services and related morbidity. Local literature was consulted in order to describe the type and prevalence of work related hazards, patterns of industries and of workforce. Published articles were searched in Google, Google scholar, PUBMED, and HINARI databases. Relevant heads of stakeholder organizations and experts were interviewed to verify the gaps that were synthesized using desk review. Ethiopia is an agrarian country that is industrializing rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. An estimated work force of about two million is currently engaged in the public and private sectors. Males constitute the majority of this workforce. Most of the workforce has basic primary education. Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and dust of various types in manufacturing sectors and chemical exposures in the flower industry. Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another workplace hazard commonly observed in the country. A lack of information made assessing workplace exposures in detail difficult. The prevalence of noise exposure was found to be high with the potential to seriously impact hearing capacity. Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded international

  15. Participatory Multi-Criteria Assessment of Forest Planning Policies in Conflicting Situations: The Case of Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Acosta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest planning should involve the participation of stakeholder communities in the decision-making process. This participation can help avoid the possible rejection of new planning measures. In this paper, the decision-making process to implement regulations on the use of forest tracks on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain is analyzed. In recent years, the number of people using the island’s forest environments has notably increased, leading to conflicts between different users of the tracks; as a result, the Island Council of Tenerife is working on regulating these pathways. This paper describes the framing analysis, design, and implementation of a participatory multi-criteria approach to explore, together with stakeholders, the best policy alternatives related to forest planning and management issues of forest track use. To do this, a set of tools has been developed, consisting of institutional analysis, participatory methods, and multi-criteria assessment techniques.

  16. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S. N. A.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  17. Assessment of parental awareness about malocclusion in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, S Momeni; Oshagh, M; Pajuhi, N; Ghahremani, Y; Bushehri, Ghodsi S

    2011-07-01

    Information empowers people to take charge of their health. The aim of this study in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran was to evaluate parents' knowledge about dental malocclusion, referral routes and information sources. A random sample of 1000 7-9-year-old schoolchildren were given a questionnaire to complete at home. Questionnaires were completed by 795 parents. Knowledge about malocclusion was significantly greater in families with higher levels of education and income. Most respondents (83.5%) were aware of the importance of maintaining primary teeth to prevent malocclusion, and 25.1% thought that carious primary teeth must be extracted. Half of the parents (50.6%) did not know that spaces between primary teeth are normal. Only 28.8% of the children visited dentists for annual routine check-ups. Television (43.3%) was the most common source of dental information. The level of general public awareness about malocclusion needs to be improved.

  18. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 1: survey on the situation of the European textile and clothing sector and prospects for its future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2011-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  19. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.

  20. An audit to assess awareness and knowledge of nutrition in a UK spinal cord injuries centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S; Derry, F; Graham, A; Grimble, G; Forbes, A

    2012-06-01

    A single centre survey. To test: (i) awareness of nutrition screening tools and related care plans and; (ii) nutrition knowledge of doctors, nurses and dietitians working in spinal cord injuries (SCI) centres. The 14-item questionnaire was sent to 102 nurses, 17 doctors and 15 dietitians working in UK SCI centres during January-March 2010. Sixty-two (46.5%) questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis. The present audit demonstrated that awareness of the need for nutritional screening is good: 83% of staff reported that they are aware there is a nutrition screening tool. This audit also demonstrated areas of poor knowledge, such as calorie content of intravenous fluids, indicators of malnutrition, and choice of nutritional support in malnourished patients. All doctors, but only 38% of nurses, knew how to calculate body mass index. Surprisingly, nearly half (49%) of the participants thought that at least 20% weight loss was required to indicate malnutrition. This high-perceived cut-off point suggests that malnutrition is likely to continue to be undetected and unmanaged. The overall scores (median) showed clear differences in nutritional knowledge between groups (median: dietitians 92.8%; doctors 53.5%; nurses 35.7; Pnutrition. This study highlights the need for further education in SCI medicine in order to improve the efficacy of feeding and nutrition therapy for SCI patients.

  1. Assessment of awareness about epilepsy amongst students of the volgograd state medical university and estimation of epilepsy stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epilepsy remains one of the most stigmatized diseases; patients still experience multiple problems with education, employment, social functioning and family creation. Reducing the stigma will help to increase socialization of epileptic patients, hence, improving their quality of life.Objective: to assess the degree of awareness about epilepsy amongst junior and senior students of the Volgograd State Medical University (VolSMU and to estimate the level of stigmatization of epilepsy. Materials and methods. For the purpose of the study, we developed a questionnaire containing 12 questions. A total of 508 students of medical and pediatric faculties of the VolSMU participated in the anonymous survey. Statistical data analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Conclusions. Despite the increasing awareness about epilepsy and first aid for this category of patients, senior students of the VolSMU still have erroneous social stereotypes about patients with epilepsy. 

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE MANAGEMENT OF SHARPS INJURIES IN GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS: THE MALAYSIAN SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siti Haniza M.D PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of occupational hazards has been a priority and sharps injuries is a known potential risk to health care workers. With the known risks of potential infections, to the workers as well as the patients, our workers need protection from further danger. Objective: This study looked at the measures taken on managing the affected healthcare workers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire was sent to 55 hospital directors. They were required to inform on their management practices on sharps injuries. Results: The findings showed variations in the management of sharps injuries during and after office hours, variation in the site of keeping the records, person responsible and variation in the frequency of data analysis and presentation to hospital directors. Discussion: According to OSHA Act 1994, it is the responsibility of the employer to ensure safety, health and welfare of the employee. In management of sharps injury data from injury reporting should be compiled and assessed. Reporting feedback need to be encouraged with timely follow-up of all sharps injury cases. Reporting of sharps injuries is essential to ensure that all healthcare workers receive appropriate post-exposure medical treatment. Conclusion & Recommendation: A uniform management of sharps injuries protocol need to be established to improve reporting. An avenue to present sharps injuries data regularly is needed so as appropriate management of workers be ensured. Therefore adherence to the available guidelines need to be ensured. Key words: management, sharps injuries, healthcare workers

  3. [Assessment of resource situation of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of the Yangtze estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Gang; Zhao, Feng; Hou, Jun-li; Zhang, Long-zhen; Zhuang, Ping

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the resource status of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary, the growth and population parameters were studied by the length frequency distribution method based on the bottom trawl investigation data from 2012 to 2013. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated by using the ELEFAN module in FiSAT II software while the natural mortality rate (M) was estimated via Pauly's empirical equation. Besides, the Beverton-Holt dynamic model was developed to predict the variation trend of C. lucidus resource in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The results showed that in 2012-2013, a total of 4201 samples of C. lucidus with body lengths ranging from 18 to 155 mm were collected from the coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The growth parameter (K) and limit length (L.) were 1.1 and 162.75 mm while the total mortality rate (Z), the natural mortality rate (M) and the fishing mortality rate (F) were 4.040, 1.683 and 2.357, respectively. Moreover, the current exploitation (E) of C. lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary was 0.583 per year, which was larger than Fopt (0.5). Corresponding to the average stock of 576.02 t, the resource amount of C. lucidus reached up to 1.33 x 10(8) individuals. These indicated that C. lucidus has been overfished in Yangtze estuary area.

  4. Use of the cluster analysis for assessment of economic situation of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maršík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to discuss the disadvantages of enterprises in dry areas compared to enterprises farming in similar production area outside a rain shadow. The analysis was based on the sample of 45 enterprises; twelve of which farming in the area of a rain shadow. In the first step, enterprises were sorted by the cluster analysis into groups farming in the same area, at a similar altitude, with the same structure in a similar manner, and under comparable financial conditions – (such as debt ratio, liquidity and activity ratio. The results of this step showed a different method of farming within enterprises in disadvantaged areas. Such enterprises have created two distinct, separate clusters differing from the average in the use of fixed assets, technical equipment of labour, labour productivity and income structure. In the second step, the way how the return on assets of such enterprises is different from the average profitability of the enterprise was assessed. Testing differences in mean values of profitability was performed using the Student t–test. Due to the high variability of the Return on assets (ROA, the difference between standard and disadvantaged enterprises has not been proved.

  5. Assessing the effect of demographic factors on conflict situations in Ghana government hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Dwomoh, Gabriel; Kwarteng, Kofi; Frempong, Evelyn; Frempong, Regina Anima

    2014-01-01

       The   study   seeks   to   examine   the   influence   of   demographic   factors   on   conflict   in  Ghana  government  hospitals.    It  adopted  the  quantitative  approach  which  involves  the  use  of  questionnaires  and  interviews  coupled  with  statistical  analysis  to  assess  the   effect   of   demographic   factors   (age,   educational   level,   gender   and   number   of  years  on  the  job  of  employees)  and  conflict  occurrences  at  the  workplace.    The  use  ...

  6. Assessment of morbidity pattern, quality of life and awareness of government facilities among elderly population in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to assess the determinants of morbidity pattern, quality of life (QoL and awareness of elderly about various government schemes and social security legislations. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by house to house survey among participants aged 60 years and above using a structured interview schedule. The QoL was assessed using Kannada version of WHOQOL-BREF instrument following language validation. Results: Mean age of 206 participants was 69.6±6.7 years. Half of them were males and majority were graduates 54 (26.2%. Morbidity was present among 194 (94.2% participants (95% CI 89.5-98.9%, most common being hypertension 96 (46.6%. Morbid conditions were seen more among less educated (P = 0.007. Only 68 (33% were under medical insurance coverage, 17 (8.3% were under old age government pension and 74 (35.9% were under retirement pension scheme. Social relationships, psychological health and environmental domain scores were associated with socio-economic status. Social relationship domain score was significantly better among well educated participants and those without morbidities. Level of ambulation was significantly associated with QoL scores in all domains (P < 0.001. Majority of the participants 132 (64.1% had moderate level of awareness about government facilities for senior citizens. Awareness level was significantly better among males (P < 0.001, well educated (P < 0.001, better socio-economic status respondents (P < 0.001 and those currently working (P = 0.026. Conclusion: Health status of elderly needs improvement which would also improve their QoL. Awareness about various government schemes needs to be enhanced to improve its utilization. The results of this study are expected to help policy makers in planning comprehensive services for elderly residing in this area.

  7. ["Screening" in special situations. Assessing predictive genetic screening for hereditary breast and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Susanna; Wild, Claudia; Schamberger, Chantal

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this health technology assessment was to analyse the current scientific and genetic counselling on predictive genetic testing for hereditary breast and colorectal cancer. Predictive genetic testing will be available for several common diseases in the future and questions related to financial issues and quality standards will be raised. This report is based on a systematic/nonsystematic literature search in several databases (e.g. EmBase, Medline, Cochrane Library) and on a specific health technology assessment report (CCOHTA) and review (American Gastroenterological Ass.), respectively. Laboratory test methods, early detection methods and the benefit from prophylactic interventions were analysed and social consequences interpreted. Breast and colorectal cancer are counted among the most frequently cancer diseases. Most of them are based on random accumulation of risk factors, 5-10% show a familial determination. A hereditary modified gene is responsible for the increased cancer risk. In these families, high tumour frequency, young age at diagnosis and multiple primary tumours are remarkable. GENETIC DIAGNOSIS: Sequence analysis is the gold standard. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography is a quick alternative method. The identification of the responsible gene defect in an affected family member is important. If the test result is positive there is an uncertainty whether the disease will develop or not, when and in which degree, which is founded in the geno-/phenotype correlation. The individual risk estimation is based upon empirical evidence. The test results affect the whole family. Currently, primary prevention is possible for familial adenomatous polyposis (celecoxib, prophylactic colectomy) and for hereditary mamma carcinoma (prophylactic mastectomy). The so-called preventive medical check-ups are early detection examinations. The evidence about early detection methods for colorectal cancer is better than for breast cancer. Prophylactic

  8. An assessment of consumers’ subconscious responses to frontline employees’ attractiveness in a service failure and recovery situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Boshoff

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initial analyses of the impact of physical attractiveness in a business context have supported the ‘what is beautiful is good’ contention. However, in circumstances characterised by negative emotions, duress and stress, very little is known about how human beings respond at the subconscious level to the attractiveness of frontline service providers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumers who complain to a frontline service provider about a service failure respond differently at the subconscious level when the service provider involved in the service encounter is attractive compared with one who is less attractive. Method: Forty respondents were exposed to a video clip of a service failure and service recovery situation. While viewing the hypothetical scenario, two neuro-physiological measurements were used to collect data at the subconscious level, namely galvanic skin response (GSR and electroencephalography (EEG. Results: The results suggest that, at the subconscious level, customers respond differently to the service recovery efforts depending on the attractiveness of the frontline service provider who attempts to rectify the service failure. Conclusion: The results seem to suggest that the physical attractiveness of a frontline service provider moderates (or softens the negative emotions that a complaining customer might experience during a service failure and complaint situation – consistent with the ‘what is beautiful is good’ contention.

  9. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Assessing self-efficacy and college readiness level among new undergraduate students in computer science using metacognitive awareness inventory (MAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Wan Nor Afiqah Wan; Abdullah, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    This preliminary study was conducted to address the issue of academic planning skills among new university student. Due to lack of proper measurement mechanism for awareness and readiness among students, this study proposes Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) to assess the connection between student self-efficacy and college readiness. Qualitative and quantitative approach were used by provide an online self-assessment for new student of Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering (FSKKP) and analyse the data respectively. The possible relationships between MAI and College Readiness Item (CRI) in self-assessment has been evaluated. The sample size of 368 respondents from UMP are responding to the online self-assessment. The initial finding shows most student (71%) of the respondent lack of skills in planning. We manage to use Pearson Product-moment correlation coefficient to find the significant relationship between MAI and CRI. Thus, we found that College Readiness provide sufficient evidence that there is a significant correlation with most of MAI items. The findings also indicated not much difference was found between gender in terms of self-efficacy level. This paper suggests the MAI and CRI is a reliable and valid scale to respond the planning skills issues among new university students.

  11. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their

  12. Helping and hurting others: Person and situation effects on aggressive and prosocial behavior as assessed by the Tangram task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Barlett, Christopher P; Anderson, Craig A; Hawkins, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory-based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Additionally, motivation items in all studies indicate that tangram choices are indeed associated with intent of helping and hurting. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task relative to established measures of helpful and hurtful behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:133-146, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  14. Assessing resident awareness on e-waste management in Bangalore, India: a preliminary case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-04-01

    The generation of e-waste has increased significantly in India, and the informal recycling of e-waste has adverse effects on environment and public health. In this article, the E-waste management is evaluated in accordance from the resident's awareness perspective in Bangalore city, India. The survey data revealed that about 58% male and 42% female responded and 35% of the participants belong to age range between 18 and 25 years. About 60% of respondent's education level was either graduate or post graduate, 27% high school to higher school, 10% higher educated (> post graduate), and 3% primary to middle. Only 30% of the respondents were confident with e-waste rules and regulation, while 39% of the respondents were of very little information. Indian e-waste management has been improving for the last few years and it continues to develop. Therefore, the findings can be valuable for better understanding the resident's awareness for e-waste management and also need to promote the environmentally sound management of e-waste in Bangalore, India.

  15. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Bahruddin, N A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bradley, D A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques. (paper)

  16. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaido T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Nikaido,1 Shingo Fukuma,2,3 Takafumi Wakita,4 Miho Sekiguchi,1 Shoji Yabuki,1 Yoshihiro Onishi,5 Shunichi Fukuhara,2,3 Shin-ichi Konno1 On behalf of the profile scoring system for multilateral assessment of social factors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain study group 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, 3Center for Innovative Research for Communities and Clinical Excellence (CIRC2LE, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 4Department of Sociology, Kansai University, Osaka, 5Institute for Health Outcomes and Process Evaluation Research (iHope International, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was

  17. Psychometric Evaluation and Norms for the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) in a Clinical Eating Disorders Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Berner, Laura A; Jones, Michelle D; Reilly, Erin E; Cusack, Anne; Anderson, Leslie K; Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E

    2017-09-01

    Altered interoceptive awareness (IA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders; however, few comprehensive self-report measures of IA exist in eating disorders. The present study sought to validate the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), originally developed to assess IA in individuals practicing mind-body therapies, in an eating disorder sample. Adult and adolescent patients (n = 376) completed assessments upon admission to a partial hospital programme. Analyses examined the factor structure of the MAIA, scale means, scale-scale correlations, internal consistency and construct validity. Analyses also examined associations between MAIA subscales and eating disorder symptoms. Results supported the original eight-factor structure of the MAIA. Internal consistency was acceptable, and the scales converged with associated measures. Importantly, Not Distracting, Self-regulation, Body Listening and Trusting were most strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results support use of the MAIA among eating disorders and provide further support for the relevance of IA in eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Texas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Bowmer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was formed in 1981 to address the Texas low-level radioactive waste problem consistent with the direction of P.L. 96-573. The Authority has completed technical tasks, including source term evaluations, preliminary conceptua