WorldWideScience

Sample records for situ vitrification tests

  1. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  3. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  4. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Technical baseline description for in situ vitrification laboratory test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, K.V.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Watson, L.R.

    1991-09-01

    IN situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as possible waste treatment technology. ISV was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington, as a thermal treatment process to treat contaminated soils in place. The process, which electrically melts and dissolves soils and associated inorganic materials, simultaneously destroys and/or removes organic contaminants while incorporating inorganic contaminants into a stable, glass-like residual product. This Technical Baseline Description has been prepared to provide high level descriptions of the design of the Laboratory Test model, including all design modifications and safety improvements made to data. Furthermore, the Technical Baseline Description provides a basic overview of the interface documents for configuration management, program management interfaces, safety, quality, and security requirements. 8 figs

  6. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

  7. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables.

  8. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Modeling in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Test plan for In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test No. 6, EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., Job Number 318230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The objectives of the test included the effects of in situ vitrification on containerized sludge contained in a simulated randomly-disposed array. From this arrangement, the test results obtained the following data applicable to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Large Field Testing: canister burst pressure and temperature, canister depressurization rate, melt encapsulation rate of the canister and the hood area plenum temperatures, pressures, compositional analyses, and flows as affected by gas releases. 10 figs., 1 tab

  11. In situ vitrification: Application to buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification field tests were conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification is a technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form and is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate buried waste structures found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests were designed as part of a treatability study to provide essential information on field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes, and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology provided valuable operational control for successfully processing the high metal content waste. The results indicate that in situ vitrification is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste

  13. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in July and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 8 refs., 91 figs., 13 tabs

  14. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4, ES-INEL-5, ES-INEL-6, and ES-INEL-7 Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-10-01

    The In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Tests ES-4, ES-5, ES-6, and ES-7 Product Characterization Test Plan describes the methods and procedures to be used or the physical and chemical characterization of the solid product(s) resulting from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory engineering scale in situ vitrification tests ES-4, ES-5, ES-6, and ES-7. The goals of this Test Plan are to insure that the product characterization results are sufficient to meet the data needs of the In Situ Vitrification Program and are technically and legally defensible. Important issues addressed by the test plan include sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, laboratory analysis, sample control and document management, equipment, data reporting and validation, quality assurance, specific routine procedures to assess data representativeness, safety and training program, and data management. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Off-gas treatment and characterization for a radioactive in situ vitrification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Effluents released to the off gas during the in situ vitrification (ISV) of a test site have been characterized. The site consisted of a 19 L waste package of soil containing 600 nCi/g transuranic and 30,000 nCi/g mixed fission products surrounded by uncontaminated soil. Radioactive isotopes present in the package were 241 Am, /sup 238/239/Pu, 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 90 Sr, and 60 Co. The ISV process melted the waste package and surrounding soil and immobilized the radionuclides in place, producing a durable, 8.6 metric ton glass and crystalline monolith. The test successfully demonstrated that the process provides containment of radioactive material. No release to the environment was detected during processing or cooldown. Due to the high temperatures during processing, some gases were released into the off-gas hood that was placed over the test site. The hood was maintained at a light negative pressure to contain any volatile or entrained material during processing. Gases passed from the hood to an off-gas treatment system where they were treated using a venturi-ejector scrubber, a tandem nozzle gas cleaner scrubber followed by a condenser, heater, and two stages of HEPA filters. The off-gas treatment system is located in the semi-trailer to allow transport of the process to other potential test sites. Retention of all radionuclides by the vitrified zone was greater than 99%. Soil-to-off-gas decontamination factors (DFs) for transuranic elements averaged greater than 4000 and for fission products, DFs ranged from 130 for 137 Cs to 3100 for 90 Sr

  16. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  17. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  20. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV [in situ vitrification] tests on simulated wastes in INEL [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting a treatability study on ISV for application to the mixed waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area (SDA). The crucible melt tests were performed to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives and metal oxidation techniques on soil melting temperatures, melt viscosities, metals versus electrode oxidation potentials, and metals incorporation in the glass. The bench-scale ISV tests were performed to supplement the existing ISV data base with information on certain hazardous materials that have not been adequately evaluated in previous ISV tests. These materials included five EP toxicity metals, various volatile organic materials fixed in a cementitious matrix [including carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE)], and asbestos. In addition, the bench-scale test were used to evaluated the effect of the proposed chemical additive on ISV processing performance and product quality. 8 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  2. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

  3. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  4. Implementation of in situ vitrification for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Roberts, J.S.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1993-08-01

    Geosafe Corporation will be implementing the in situ vitrification (ISV) technology commercially at a Superfund site in Michigan. In preparation for the Michigan site, Geosafe Corporation performed two operational acceptance tests (OATs) at the Geosafe Test Site in Richland, Washington. The objectives were to test the performance of the equipment and to train operating personnel. In addition, Geosafe cooperated with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development in a full-scale field data collection effort to obtain data characterizing the dynamic conditions in the soil created by the advancing ISV melt. This full-scale information provides empirical data to support the current understanding of the ISV technology for contaminated soil applications and provides verification of the accuracy of computational modeling tools being used to evaluate the applicability of the ISV technology to different soil sites

  5. Characterization of vitrified soil produced by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Lokken, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive or other hazardous wastes buried at waste disposal sites may require further stabilization to secure the isolation of these wastes from the environment. One method of waste stabilization being developed is in situ vitrification. This process involves the in-place melting of buried wastes and the surrounding soil to produce a glass and crystalline waste form. Engineering-scale and pilot-scale demonstrations of this concept with soil contaminated with nonradioactive, hazardous species (Cs, Sr, Ru, Pb, Cd, etc.) were performed. These demonstrations provided information on species migration, crystalline-phase formation, and waste form durability. In addition to the nonradioactive tests, a crucible-scale melt of soil spiked with radioactive uranium, plutonium, and cesium was leach tested. The results show that hazardous waste components are retained in the product. The durability of the waste form in both the vitreous and the crystalline phases is similar to that of Pyrex glass

  6. In-situ vitrification of radioactively contaminated soils: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology that has been developed from its conceptual phase through selected field-scale application tests during the last six years. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soils and waste inclusions into a durable glass and crystalline waste form by in-place melting. Electrodes are inserted into the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to melt it. After cooling, the process fixes (TRU) and fission product radionuclides making them relatively nonleachable, resistant to intrusion, and nondispersible when intentionally disturbed. Another application considered for isolation of radioactively contaminated soils, but not yet developed, is the generation of impermeable barrier walls to prevent ground water seepage into a site. The barrier technique could also be used over the surface of an existing disposal site to deter plant and animal intrusion. The development units have been extensively tested with many types of soils and waste inclusions such as concrete, buried metals, sealed containers, organic chemicals with high boiling points such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and inorganic chemicals, including toxic heavy metals, nitrates, and sulfates. Nitrates and organics are destroyed, while heavy metals and fluorides are retained to a high percentage within the molten soil during processing. At $200 to $300/m 3 for radioactive waste, the process is economically competitive with many alternative remediation processes. The ISV process has been developed to the point where it is ready for large-scale field testing at an actual TRU-contaminated soil site. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  7. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  8. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T.; Dunbar, N.W.; Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D.

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were 137 Cs and 90 Sr, with lesser amounts of 6O Co, 241 Am, and 239,240 Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the 137 Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of 90 Sr, 241 Am, or 239,240 Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500 degrees C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms

  9. Subsidence above in situ vitrification: Evaluation for Hanford applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W.S.; Plum, R.L.; Luey, J.

    1995-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is evaluating methods to extend the applicability of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. One method being evaluated is the initiation of the ISV process in the soil subsurface rather than the traditional start from the surface. The subsurface initiation approach will permit extension of the ISV treatment depth beyond that currently demonstrated and allow selective treatment of contamination in a geologic formation. A potential issue associated with the initiation of the ISV process in the soil subsurface is the degree of subsidence and its effect on the ISV process. The reduction in soil porosity caused by the vitrification process will result in a volume decrease for the vitrified soils. Typical volume reduction observed for ISV melts initiated at the surface are on the order of 20% to 30% of the melt thickness. Movement of in-situ materials into the void space created during an ISV application in the soil subsurface could result in surface settlements that affect the ISV process and the processing equipment. Golder Associates, Inc., of Redmond, Washington investigated the potential for subsidence events during application of ISV in the soil subsurface. Prediction of soil subsidence above an ISV melt required the following analyses: the effect of porosity reduction during ISV, failure of fused materials surrounding the ISV melt, bulking of disturbed materials above the melt, and propagation of strains to the surface

  10. Modeling requirements for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Mecham, D.C.; Hagrman, D.L.; Johnson, R.W.; Murray, P.E.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.; Weaver, R.A.; Argyle, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    This document outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to (1) help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclide and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, (2) help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and (3) help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results therefrom

  11. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  12. In situ vitrification of buried waste: Containment issues and suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.

    1992-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing a remedial action technology for buried waste through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment process originally developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize soils contaminated with transuranic waste. ISV tests with buried waste forms have demonstrated that the processing of buried waste is more dynamic than the processing of soils. This paper will focus on the issue of containment of the gases released during the processing of buried waste and on engineered suppression systems to alleviate transient events associated with dynamic off-gassing from the ISV melt

  13. In situ vitrification: Demonstrated capabilities and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale demonstration of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed in April 1990 on the 116-B-6A Crib in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The 116-B-6A Crib is a radioactive mixed waste site and was selected to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to soils contaminated with mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Results from the demonstration show that the ISV process is a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils. The demonstration of the ISV process on an actual contaminated soil site followed research and development efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last 10 years. PNL's research has led to the development of the ISV process as a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils and the creation of a commercial supplier of ISV services, Geosafe Corporation. Development efforts for ISV applications other than treatment of contaminated soils, by PNL and in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), show the ISV process has potential applicability for remediating buried waste sites, remediating underground storage tanks, and enabling the placement of subsurface vitrified barriers and engineered structures. This paper discusses the results from the April 1990 large-scale demonstration and provides a general overview of the current capabilities of the ISV process for contaminated soils. In addition, this paper outlines some of the technical issues associated with other ISV applications and provides a qualitative discussion of the level of effort needed to resolve these technical issues

  14. Integration of pneumatic fracturing and in situ vitrification in the soil subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Seiler, D.K.; Schuring, J.R.

    1995-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating ways to increase the applicability of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process at hazardous and radioactive waste sites. One innovation is the placement of a conductive material that will facilitate initiating the ISV process at a target depth. A series of laboratory tests performed at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) assessed the feasibility of pneumatic fracturing (PF) in the highly permeable soils of the Hanford Site. The NJIT tests included an analysis of Hanford soils, a series of PF injection tests, and a parametric analysis to determine how soil properties affect the PF process. Results suggest that the PF process can be applied to Hanford soils and that dry medium (e.g., conductive material such as graphite flake) can be injected into the fracture. This paper describes the laboratory testing performed at NJIT, its results, and the application of those results to plans for a field demonstration at Hanford

  15. Support for the in situ vitrification treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: FY 1988 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this project is to determine if in situ vitrification (ISV) is a viable, long-term confinement technology for previously buried solid transuranic and mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The RWMC is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable glass and crystalline form. During processing, heavy metals or other inorganic constituents are retained and immobilized in the glass structure, and organic constituents are typically destroyed or removed for capture by an off-gas treatment system. The primary FY 1988 activities included engineering-scale feasibility tests on INEL soils containing a high metals loading. Results of engineering-scale testing indicate that wastes with a high metals content can be successfully processed by ISV. The process successfully vitrified soils containing localized metal concentrations as high as 42 wt % without requiring special methods to prevent electrical shorting within the melt zone. Vitrification of this localized concentration resulted in a 15.9 wt % metals content in the entire ISV test block. This ISV metals limit is related to the quantity of metal that accumulates at the bottom of the molten glass zone. Intermediate pilot-scale testing is recommended to determine metals content scale-up parameters in order to project metals content limits for large-scale ISV operation at INEL

  16. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications

  17. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  18. In situ vitrification of buried waste: Containment issues and suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing a remedial action technology for buried waste through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment process originally developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize soils contaminated with transuranic waste. ISV tests with buried waste forms have demonstrated that the processing of buried waste is more dynamic than the processing of soils. This paper will focus on the issue of containment of the gases released during the processing of buried waste and on engineered suppression systems to alleviate transient events associated with dynamic off-gassing from the ISV melt. (author)

  19. The in-situ vitrification of subsurface containment barriers: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1990-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an environmental engineering process in which soil or soil/waste mixtures are melted through the direct application of electrical current and subsequently cooled to a glassy solid. The technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the 1980s and has been tested on transuranic, mixed-hazardous, and PCB/organic waste similar to that found at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other facilities nationwide. PNL is conducting a wide range of field tests, expanding the scientific basis of ISV, and assessing its extension into new applications. One such project is ISV--Selective Barriers, an investigation into the construction and performance of ISV--generated, vertical and/or horizontal subsurface barriers to ground-water flow and biogenic intrusion. In some situations, it may be impractical or unnecessary to either excavate or vitrify an entire waste site. Vitrified barriers could minimize the diffusive or fluid transport of hazardous components with either a ground-water diversion wall or an in situ, ''box-like'' structure. During the first year of this project, engineering-scale tests are being conducted between graphite electrodes within a 1.8-m-diameter, 2.4-m-high test cell. Several methods are being tested, including passive metal electrodes, electrode feeding systems, fluxed soil, and fluxed boreholes. In addition, basic data have been collected on the thermal and material properties of ISV melt and solidified glass. 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Progress of the Hanford Bulk Vitrification Project ICVTM Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.; Woolery, D.W.; Dysland, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, the Bulk Vitrification Project was initiated with the intent to engineer, construct and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford tank 241-S-109. The project, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., and performed by AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AMEC), will develop and operate a full-scale demonstration facility to exhibit the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process under actual operating conditions. Since project initiation, testing has been undertaken using crucible-scale, 1/6 linear (engineering) scale, and full-scale vitrification equipment. Crucible-scale testing, coupled with engineering-scale testing, helps establish process limitations of selected glass formulations. Full-scale testing provides critical design verification of the In Container Vitrification (ICV) TM process both prior to and during operation of the demonstration facility. Beginning in late 2004, several full-scale tests have been performed at AMEC's test site, located adjacent to the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in Richland, WA. Early testing involved verification of melt startup methodology, followed by subsequent full-melt testing to validate critical design parameters and demonstrate the 'Bottom-Up, Feed While Melt' process. As testing has progressed, design improvements have been identified and incorporated into each successive test. Full scale testing at AMEC's test site is currently scheduled to complete in 2006, with continued full-scale operational testing at the demonstration facility on the Hanford Site starting in 2007. Additional engineering scale testing will validate recommended glass formulations that have been provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This testing is expected to continue through 2006. This paper discusses the progress of the full-scale and engineering scale testing performed to date. Crucible-scale testing, a critical step in developing

  1. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Carter, J.G.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils

  2. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Carter, J.G.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils.

  3. In situ vitrification demonstration for the stabilization of buried wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.; Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology for the stabilization of radioactively contaminated soil sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed during July 1987. This demonstration is the first application of the ISV process not performed at the Hanford Site, where the technology was developed and patented by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The joint ORNL-PNL pilot-scale demonstration was performed on a 3/8-scale trench (2 m deep x 1 m wide x 10 m long) that was constructed to simulate a typical seepage trench used for liquid low-level radioactive waste disposal at ORNL from 1951 to 1966. In the ISV process, electrodes are inserted around a volume of contaminated soil, power is applied to the electrodes, and the entire mass is melted from the surface of the soil down through the contaminated zone, thus making a glassy-to-microcrystalline waste form that incorporates the contaminants. Gases produced during the melting are collected, treated, monitored, and released through an off-gas process trailer. In the ORNL demonstration, a 25-t mass of melted rock approximately 1.2 m thick x 2.1 m wide x 4.9 m long was formed during 110 h of operation that consumed approximately 29 MWh of power. Data obtained on the operational performance of the test and waste-form durability will be used to assess the feasibility of applying the ISV technology to an actual waste trench

  4. In situ vitrification demonstration for the stabilization of buried wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.; Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology for the stabilization of radioactively contaminated soil sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed during July 1987. This demonstration is the first application of the ISV process not performed at the Hanford Site, where the technology was developed. The joint ORNL-PNL pilot-scale demonstration was performed on a 3/8-scale trench (2 m deep x 1 m wide x 10 m long) that was constructed to simulate a typical seepage trench used for liquid low-level radioactive waste disposal at ORNL from 1951 to 1966. In the ISV process, electrodes are inserted around a volume of contaminated soil, power is applied to the electrodes, and the entire mass is melted from the surface of the soil down through the contaminated zone, thus making a glassy-to-microcrystalline waste form that incorporates the contaminants. Gases produced during the melting are collected, treated, monitored, and released through an off-gas process trailer. In the ORNL demonstration, a 25-t mass of melted rock approximately 1.2 m thick x 2.1 m wide x 4.9 m long was formed during 110 h of operation that consumed approximately 29 MWh of power. Data obtained on the operational performance of the test and waste-form durability will be used to assess the feasibility of applying the ISV technology to an actual waste trench

  5. Development of in situ vitrification for remediation of ORNL contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixier, J.S.; Spalding, B.P.

    1994-08-01

    A full-scale field treatability study of in situ vitrification (ISV) is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the remediation of radioactive liquid waste seepage pits and trenches that received over one million curies of mixed fission products (mostly 137 Cs and 90 Sr) during the 1950s and 1960s. The treatability study is being conducted on a portion of the original seepage pit and will support an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) for closure of one or more of the seven seepage pits and trenches in early fiscal year (FY) 1996. Mr treatability study will establish ft technical performance of ISV for remediation of the contaminated soil sites. Melt operations at ORNL are expected to begin in early FY 1994. This paper presents the latest accomplishments of the project in preparation for the field testing. Discussion centers on the results of a parametric crucible melt study, a description of the site characterization efforts, and the salient features of a new hood design

  6. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV [In Situ Vitrification] confinement hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundy, R.F.; Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment

  9. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-12-22

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment.

  10. In situ vitrification of Oak Ridge National Laboratory soil and limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Bates, S.O.; Maupin, G.D.

    1987-03-01

    Process feasibility studies were successfully performed on two different developmental scales to determine the technical application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intermediate-level waste. In the laboratory, testing was performed on crucibles containing quantities of 50% ORNL soil and 50% ORNL limestone. In the engineering-scale testing, a 1/12-scaled simulation of ORNL Trench 7 was constructed and vitrified, resulting in waste product soil and limestone concentrations of 68% and 32%, respectively. Results from the two scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level waste sites may be successfully processed by ISV; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because /sup 137/Cs is the major component of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., off gas at the ground surface relative to the waste inventory) of 10/sup 4/ are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. These values were realized during the engineering-scale test for both cesium and strontium. The vitrified material effectively contained 99.996% of the cesium and strontium placed in the engineering-scale test. This is equivalent to decontamination factors of greater than 10/sup 4/. Volume reduction for the engineering-scale test was 60%. No migration of the cesium to the uncontaminated surrounding soil was detected. These favorable results indicate that, once verified in a pilot-scale test, an adequately designed ISV system could be produced to treat the ORNL seepage pits and trenches without excessive activity accumulation in the off-gas treatment system.

  11. Vitrification with DAP 213 and cryotop of ex situ and in situ feline cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A E; Kozel, A C; Luvoni, G C

    2012-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare cryotolerance, in terms of viability and resumption of meiosis after warming and culture (24 and 48 h), of ex situ (isolated) and in situ (enclosed in the ovarian tissue) feline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) vitrified with DAP 213 (2 m DMSO, 1 m acetamide, 3 m propylene glycol) in cryotubes or Cryotop method. Ovaries were harvested from 49 pubertal queens. Of each pair of ovaries, one was dissected to release COCs randomly divided into three groups: fresh COCs (control), ex situ COCs vitrified with DAP 213 and Cryotop. The cortex of the other ovary was sectioned into small fragments (approximately 1.5 mm(3)) and randomly assigned to be vitrified by DAP 213 or Cryotop. After warming, ex situ and in situ (retrieved form vitrified ovarian tissue) COCs were matured in vitro. Viability of oocytes was highly preserved after warming and culture in all treatments. Proportions of oocytes surrounded by complete layers of viable cumulus cells were remarkably decreased (p 0.05) and ex situ and in situ oocytes vitrified with DAP 213 showed similar rates of resumption of meiosis. These findings demonstrated that DAP 213 and Cryotop preserve the viability of ex situ and in situ oocytes, but cumulus cells are highly susceptible to vitrification. However, the capability to resume meiosis evidences that feline immature oocytes vitrified as isolated or enclosed in the ovarian cortex have comparable cryotolerance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  13. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes

  14. Description and capabilities of the large-scale in situ vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging thermal treatment process known as in situ vitrification is being developed to immobilize selected portions of radioactively contaminated soils. The process is a permanent remedial action that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides and heavy metals into a glass and crystalline form. The process's flexibility in design and broad capabilities make it potentially adaptable to mixed and chemical wastes, as well. The process consists of an electrical power system for vitrifying contaminated soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. The process is mounted in three transportable trailers that can be easily moved from site to site. The process is capable of treating contaminated soils at least 13 m deep. The system components are designed to accommodate waste inclusions in the soil such as metals, combustibles, and large voids. Selectively applied to the more troublesome radioactively contaminated soils, in situ vitrification provides a potentially useful and permanent tool for remedial action.

  15. Demonstration of plasma in-situ vitrification at the K-Reactor seepage basin (904-65G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundy, R.F.; Zionkowski, P.; Schumacher, R.F.; Herman, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center at SRS had begun investigating the possibility of utilizing a plasma torch for ''bottoms up'' in-situ vitrification and had funded pilot plant scale testing at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) and at Clemson University. By the spring of 1996, the GIT trials had indicated that the process was potentially viable for vitrification of SRS soils but that the process needed to be validated on a clean site at a near production scale, before deployment into a radioactive environment could be contemplated. Environmental Restoration Division organized this demonstration at a clean location adjacent to the 904-65G, K-Reactor Seepage basin with the objectives of: developing realistic cost/effectiveness data for evaluation of the process against other competing remediation technologies such as soil grouting; developing the engineering data necessary for possible subsequent full scale deployment at an SRS radiologically contaminated waste unit; and evaluating commercially available non-intrusive subsurface monitoring techniques as potential methods for regulatory compliance verification. This Interim Technical Report provides a preliminary description of the demonstration with conclusions and recommendations based on observations made during the period of the demonstration. A detailed engineering report will be compiled in the near future providing all the data pertaining to the demonstration, together with the cost comparisons, product quality determinations and engineering recommendations for future actions

  16. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. This document, Volume 1, identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues

  17. Evaluation of new concepts for in situ vitrification: Power system, melt insulation, and off-gas containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.; Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a highly leach-resistant material resembling natural obsidian. The ISV process was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to treat soils contaminated with transuranics. Since 1980, ISV has grown from a concept to an innovative technology through bench-, engineering-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests. Efforts by PNL have developed ISV into a technology considered available for limited deployment to remediate contaminated soil. The technology has been transferred to a licensee for commercial application. In September 1991, PNL conducted an operational acceptance test (OAT) of the modified engineering-scale unit. The OAT provided an opportunity to conduct proof-of-principle testing of new concepts for ISV technology. This additional testing was permitted since it was determined that testing of these new concepts would have no impact on the OAT objective. In discussing the proof-of-principle portion of the engineering-scale test, this report presents conclusions from this work and also describes the conceptual bases of the tested concepts, the engineering-scale test equipment and setup, and test results

  18. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor's facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility

  19. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  20. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively

  2. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3

  3. Resolution of regulatory issues facing the DOE in situ vitrification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corathers, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a technology for remediating soils, underground storage tank residuals, and buried materials that have been contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (i.e., wastes containing both radioactive and hazardous wastes) at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the DOE ISV technology development program (i.e., the ISV Integrated Program) is to ensure that ISV is a workable technology for environmental restoration applications for DOE and other agencies. A DOE complex-wide plan was prepared during Fiscal Year 1991 to coordinate all levels of activities associated with the deployment of ISV. As part of this plan, a programmatic regulatory strategy was developed which focused on the federal environmental, health, safety, and nuclear regulations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE regulations, believed to have the most significant near-term impact on the use of ISV as a remediation technology. The portion of the programmatic regulatory strategy addressing compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, is presented in this paper

  4. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided

  5. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

  6. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tank waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  8. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  9. Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic ion exchange medium that was designed to sorb Cs-137, Sr-90 and several other radionuclides. CST exhibits high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium from highly alkaline solutions containing large quantities of sodium. Through the Tanks Focus Area (TFA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was funded to demonstrate the effectiveness of CST as an ion exchange material using supernate from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). After processing the supernate through columns containing CST, the CST will be sluiced into drums and dewatered. Some of the CST will be shipped to the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to demonstrate vitrification of the cesium-loaded CST in the shielded cells facility of SRTC. Vitrification is considered to be the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for immobilization of high-level waste and is currently being investigated for the treatment of low-level/mixed wastes. Vitrification of cesium-loaded CST offers a number of benefits. Vitrification: (1) is less expensive than many of the technologies available; (2) offers a large volume reduction; (3) produces a waste form that is very durable; (4) is an established technology; (5) can be used for a wide variety of waste streams; and (6) produces a waste form that is resistant to radiation damage. Prior to a full-scale demonstration, a glass formulation that will produce a glass that is both processable and durable must be developed. Crucible studies using unloaded CST and reagent grade glass-forming chemicals (or frit) were performed. Initially, scoping studies were performed to determine the chemicals necessary to form a glass. A screening experiment was then performed to determine the quantity of chemicals required. Finally, tests were conducted to determine the waste loading to be used during processing in the melter

  10. Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1997-12-31

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic ion exchange medium that was designed to sorb Cs-137, Sr-90 and several other radionuclides. CST exhibits high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium from highly alkaline solutions containing large quantities of sodium. Through the Tanks Focus Area (TFA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was funded to demonstrate the effectiveness of CST as an ion exchange material using supernate from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). After processing the supernate through columns containing CST, the CST will be sluiced into drums and dewatered. Some of the CST will be shipped to the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to demonstrate vitrification of the cesium-loaded CST in the shielded cells facility of SRTC. Vitrification is considered to be the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for immobilization of high-level waste and is currently being investigated for the treatment of low-level/mixed wastes. Vitrification of cesium-loaded CST offers a number of benefits. Vitrification: (1) is less expensive than many of the technologies available; (2) offers a large volume reduction; (3) produces a waste form that is very durable; (4) is an established technology; (5) can be used for a wide variety of waste streams; and (6) produces a waste form that is resistant to radiation damage. Prior to a full-scale demonstration, a glass formulation that will produce a glass that is both processable and durable must be developed. Crucible studies using unloaded CST and reagent grade glass-forming chemicals (or frit) were performed. Initially, scoping studies were performed to determine the chemicals necessary to form a glass. A screening experiment was then performed to determine the quantity of chemicals required. Finally, tests were conducted to determine the waste loading to be used during processing in the melter.

  11. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  12. Worst-Case" Simulant for INTEC Soduim-Bearing Waste Vitrification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jerry Dale; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is developing technologies to process the radioactive liquid sodium-bearing waste from the waste tanks at INTEC to solidify the waste into a form suitable for disposition in a National high-level waste repository currently being considered at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The requirement is for a qualified glass waste form. Therefore, vitrification is being developed using laboratory, research-scale, and pilot scale melters. While some laboratory experiments can be done with actual waste, the larger scale and most laboratory experiments must be done on non-radioactive simulant waste solutions. Some tests have previously been done on simulants of a representative waste that has been concentrated and will remain unchanged in tank WM-180 until it is vitrified. However, there is a need to develop glass compositions that will accommodate all future wastes in the tanks. Estimates of those future waste compositions have been used along with current compositions to develop a “worst-case” waste composition and a simulant preparation recipe suitable for developing a bracketing glass formulation and for characterizing the flowpath and decontamination factors of pertinent off-gas constituents in the vitrification process. The considerations include development of criteria for a worst-case composition. In developing the criteria, the species that are known to affect vitrification and glass properties were considered. Specific components that may need to be characterized in the off-gas cleanup system were considered in relation to detection limits that would need to be exceeded in order to track those components. Chemical aspects of various constituent interactions that should be taken into account when a component may need to be increased in concentration from that in the actual waste for detection in experiments were evaluated. The worst-case waste simulant composition is comprised of the highest concentration of each

  13. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  16. Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations

  17. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  18. Noble-metal testing results for the West Valley vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowan, B.W.; Jain, V.

    1989-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the slurry-fed ceramic melter (SFCM) has been in test operation since December 1984 to vitrify simulated waste slurries. Over 4 yr, a moderate range of glass formulations, some containing RuO 2 , have been processed. Since these noble-metal oxides not only have a limited solubility in the melt, and are also electrically conductive, their accumulation in large amounts on the floor of the SFCM poses a potential electrical hazard to the joule-heated SFCM. The design of the WVDP melter cavity and electrode configuration is specifically intended to allow modest noble-metal accumulation without compromise to melter life or performance. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the amount of RuO 2 that has accumulated on the floor of the SFCM since initiation of the WVDP vitrification test program. The total amount of RuO 2 that has been processed in the SFCM to date is shown. This preliminary study indicates that the West Valley SFCM displays a good capability for sweeping insoluble noble metals through and for tolerating the remaining fraction on the floor without compromising melter life or performance over the course of the WVDP radioactive vitrification campaign

  19. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications

  20. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D F; Corbett, R A; Morrison, W S

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications.

  1. In-situ vitrification (ISV) organic-surrogate vapor emissions during a 1-ton pilot melt. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.N.; Wieser, R.F.; Fajer, R.W. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Pilot tests of a commercial soil vitrification process for entombing Animal/Chemical and Glass Hole area wastes were evaluated by incorporating perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) into aqueous and organic {open_quotes}wastes{close_quotes} within bottles of the type buried in typical Brookhaven-type holes. The objective was to add sufficient known PFT quantities of two or more types in the aqueous and organic phases while, at the same time, surrounding the test pit with known emission rate PFT sources, one type in the soil and another type in the air, such that monitoring of the air above ground and below ground would allow computation of the fugitive emission rates from the process as it occurred. Hood off-gas PFT concentrations were also to be monitored in order to verify the fraction present; claims have been made that greater than 99% of pit organics are destroyed during the melt. The output was to be the percentage escape (i.e., not captured by the hood) of pit aqueous and organic phases as the vitrification process proceeded. The actual melt commenced at 1350 on Monday 24 June 1996 and continued for just short of 48 hours. By the next day it was clear from the real-time PFT analyzer that above-ground fugitive emissions were not assessable because substantial PFT vapors were fumigating the area from the exhaust stack of the ISV hood`s soil vapor extraction (SVE) processing system. That sampling component was then switched to the stack to compare hood off-gas concentrations before and after the charcoal filtering.

  2. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Barnes, S.M.; Bindi, B.G.; Palmer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed

  3. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  4. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.

  5. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the treatability study of in situ vitrification of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) establishes the quality assurance procedures and requirements to be implemented for the control of quality-related activities for Phase 3 of the Treatability Study (TS) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) of Seepage Pit 1, ORNL Waste Area Grouping 7. This QAPjP supplements the Quality Assurance Plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program by providing information specific to the ISV-TS. Phase 3 of the TS involves the actual ISV melt operations and posttest monitoring of Pit 1 and vicinity. Previously, Phase 1 activities were completed, which involved determining the boundaries of Pit 1, using driven rods and pipes and mapping the distribution of radioactivity using logging tools within the pipes. Phase 2 involved sampling the contents, both liquid and solids, in and around seepage Pit 1 to determine their chemical and radionuclide composition and the spatial distribution of these attributes. A separate QAPjP was developed for each phase of the project. A readiness review of the Phase 3 activities presented QAPjP will be conducted prior to initiating field activities, and an Operational Acceptance, Test (OAT) will also be conducted with no contamination involved. After, the OAT is complete, the ISV process will be restarted, and the melt will be allowed to increase with depth and incorporate the radionuclide contamination at the bottom of Pit 1. Upon completion of melt 1, the equipment will be shut down and mobilized to an adjacent location at which melt 2 will commence

  8. Readiness review plan for the in situ vitrification demonstration of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    A treatability study is planned that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Seepage Pit I during the third quarter of fiscal year 1995. Before the treatability study can be initiated, the proposed activity must be subjected to an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). ORR is a structured methodology of determining readiness to proceed as outlined in Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration Waste Management Procedure ER/C-P1610, which provides Energy Systems organizations assurance that the work to be performed is consistent with management's expectations and that the subject activity is ready to proceed safely. The readiness review plan provides details of the review plan overview and the scope of work to be performed. The plan also identifies individuals and position responsibilities for implementing the activity. The management appointed Readiness Review Board (RRB) has been identified. A Field Readiness Review Team (FRT), a management appointed multidisciplinary group, has been established (1) to evaluate the ISV treatability study, (2) to identify and assemble supporting objective evidences of the readiness to proceed, and (3) to assist the team leader in presenting the evidences to the RRB. A major component of RRB is the formulation of readiness review criteria months before the operation. A comprehensive readiness review tree (a positive logic tree) is included, which identifies the activities required for the development of the readiness criteria. The readiness review tree serves as a tool to prevent the omission of an item that could affect system performance. All deficiencies identified in the review will be determined as prestart findings and must be resolved before the project is permitted to proceed. The final approval of the readiness to proceed will be the decision of RRB

  9. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of hign-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing

  10. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing

  11. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  12. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1994-07-01

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  15. Vitrification of reactor wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. des Procedes de Retraitement; Sussmilch, J. [Nuclear Research Institut, Rez (Czech Republic)

    1993-12-31

    The vitrification of low and intermediate level wastes from the NPP operation has been studied in the frame of a Franco-Czech agreement. The laboratory experiments concentrated on a search for a suitable borosilicate glass matrix which could incorporate relatively high quantities of boron and sodium, main components of liquid wastes from the WWER reactor type NPPs. A relatively wide area of waste compositions has been studied and properties of glasses suitable for the technology and waste disposal were measured. Great attention has been paid to the chemical stability (leachability), other properties like thermal dependence of viscosity and electrical conductivity of melts, and the microstructure of the final solidification product have also been evaluated. The feasibility of the vitrification process has been proved during pilot plant tests which were accomplished at the French establishment in Marcoule. The results of tests were promising. (authors). 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Vitrification of reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1993-01-01

    The vitrification of low and intermediate level wastes from the NPP operation has been studied in the frame of a Franco-Czech agreement. The laboratory experiments concentrated on a search for a suitable borosilicate glass matrix which could incorporate relatively high quantities of boron and sodium, main components of liquid wastes from the WWER reactor type NPPs. A relatively wide area of waste compositions has been studied and properties of glasses suitable for the technology and waste disposal were measured. Great attention has been paid to the chemical stability (leachability), other properties like thermal dependence of viscosity and electrical conductivity of melts, and the microstructure of the final solidification product have also been evaluated. The feasibility of the vitrification process has been proved during pilot plant tests which were accomplished at the French establishment in Marcoule. The results of tests were promising. (authors). 4 tabs., 7 figs

  17. The KS-KT-100 plant for two-stage vitrification of radioactive waste: results of tests with simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, V.I.; Dobrygin, P.G.; Dolgov, V.V.; Sergeev, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union has developed a two-stage process for phosphate vitrification of liquid radioactive waste involving the use, at the initial stage, of calcination in the pseudo-liquefied layer, followed by melting of the calcinate in a ceramic crucible (second stage). On the basis of the laboratory studies and bench tests using experimental equipment, the authors have developed and tried out an enlarged plant - the KS-KT-100. The plant includes units for preparing the solution, evaporation, calcination, melting and gas purification. The initial solution containing 240 g/litre of aluminium nitrate, 125 g/litre of sodium nitrate, 120 to 130 g/litre of orthophosphoric acid, and 90 to 150 g/litre of industrial molasses simulated fluxed nitrate waste. The tests have shown that the various units operate satisfactorily. The authors have determined the technological parameters for evaporation, calcination of the solution and melting of the calcinate. The presence of molasses in the solution (150 g/litre) makes it possible to decompose and distil 40% of the nitrate ion during evaporation. The calcination temperature is 350 to 400 0 C, and the fluidization rate 1.5 m/s. The capacity of the plant for the initial solution is 100 litres/h, for the evaporated solution 65 litres/h, and for the glass 20 kg/h. The efficiency of the gas purification system ranges between 10 7 and 10 9 . The test results show the feasibility of the two-stage method of vitrification in actual practice. (author)

  18. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D'Amico, N.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D'Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace

  19. Technical evaluation summary of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 PM, about 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (1600 C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci 137 Cs) at an ORNL site. This was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification to convert porous, leachable soil into an impermeable waste form. Analyses revealed that 0.13 μCi of 137 Cs could have been released and would have delivered a hypothetical, unmeasurable dose of 0.02 μrem to the nearest private residence outside the Oak Ridge Reservation. The expelled glass particles, having a uniform specific activity of 1.2E-08 Ci/g, contained no smearable or transferrable activity. Thus, the overall environmental impact was insignificant. Fire damage was completely limited to the off-gas hood. Techniques were identified to minimize the probability of future melt expulsions

  20. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above)

  1. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  2. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste

  4. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  5. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  6. Radioactive wastes vitrification; Vitrification des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advocat, Th. [CEA Valrho, Lab. d' Etude de Base sur les Verres, 30 - Marcoule (France); Dussossoy, J.L. [CEA Valrho, Matrices de Confinement Vitreuses, 30 - Marcoule (France); Petitjean, V. [Areva NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2008-07-15

    Borosilicate glass is capable to solidify the liquid wastes and to confine the radionuclides present in fission product solutions, not by coating, but thanks to the existence of chemical bonds with the glass oxides. Glass materials have a large chemical flexibility in comparison with crystal structures. In parallel to the studies of nuclear glass formulation, a continuous vitrification process has been developed in France which allows to generate glass in a highly radioactive environment. The first demonstration of the feasibility of this process was done at Marcoule in 1969 with the vitrification pilot system PIVER. The industrial vitrification facility of Marcoule started in 1978 for the confinement of spent fuel reprocessing wastes. This process was implemented at the R7 and T7 facilities of La Hague in 1989 and 1992, respectively. The process used today at La Hague comprises two steps: a calcination of fission products liquid solutions at 400 deg. C and a melting at 1100 deg. C in a crucible heated by magnetic induction. The molten mixture of glass and fission products is cast and solidified in 400 kg containers. Other vitrification processes have been developed like the cold crucible vitrification process and the vitrification in electrode heated ceramic melter. This article presents: 1 - the formulation of nuclear glasses: constraints, choice of vitreous systems, chemical reactivity between the waste and the vitrification catalyst, some basic properties of nuclear glasses, confining properties, perspectives of evolution of glass compositions; 2 - vitrification processes: vitrification with induction-heated metal crucible, with cold crucible, with electrode-heated ceramic melters; 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Development of Plasma Vitrification Technology for Contaminated Soil at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, A.L.; Marra, J.C.; Rogers, V.; Schumacher, R.F.; Etheridge, J.; Kirkland, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development is developing treatment technologies for a wide variety of materials containing mixed low-level waste, i.e., having low levels of radioactivity along with hazardous constituents. Vitrification is a promising treatment technology for many of these wastes, including contaminated soil such as that found at the Savannah River Site. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of both ex-situ and in-situ vitrification of contaminated soil by means of a plasma torch. A mixture of 89 percent as-excavated Savannah River Site sandy clay loam with 11 percent lime addition was tested. Vitrification of a mixture of this feed, in a 10 in. diameter crucible with a non-transferred arc plasma torch at a nominal 160 kW, was successful. The process produced homogeneous glass (albeit with local compositional variations), surrounded by a skull of incompletely reacted feed. Characterization of the resultant product durability using the Product Consistency Test showed elemental leaching well below the Environmental Assessment glass (which is often used as a minimum standard of glass acceptability in high-level waste glass assessment) for both the glass and the skull regions. Future tests should include doping the soil with hazardous constituents to enable further verification of the wasteform integrity via the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure. In-situ operation was mimicked in the test crucible by segregating the lime additive from the soil within the crucible. Making full use of the available torch maneuvering capabilities (which would likely exceed those of a torch used in-situ) failed to produce a homogeneous melt. Therefore, intimate mechanical mixture of the additive with the soil appears crucial to the success of SRS soil vitrification, and must be included in design considerations for in-situ operation

  8. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated

  9. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste vitrification system development and testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the fiscal year (FY) 1995 recommended high-level waste melter system development and testing (D and T) requirements. The first phase of melter system testing (FY 1995) will focus on the feasibility of high-temperature operation of recommended high-level waste melter systems. These test requirements will be used to establish the basis for defining detailed testing work scope, cost, and schedules. This document includes a brief summary of the recommended technologies and technical issues associated with each technology. In addition, this document presents the key D and T activities and engineering evaluations to be performed for a particular technology or general melter system support feature. The strategy for testing in Phase 1 (FY 1995) is to pursue testing of the recommended high-temperature technologies, namely the high-temperature, ceramic-lined, joule-heated melter, referred to as the HTCM, and the high-frequency, cold-wall, induction-heated melter, referred to as the cold-crucible melter (CCM). This document provides a detailed description of the FY 1995 D and T needs and requirements relative to each of the high-temperature technologies

  10. Vitrification and Product Testing of AW-101 and AN-107 Pretreated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2000-10-31

    The primary objective for vitrifying the LAW samples is to generate glass products for subsequent product testing. The work presented in this report is divided into 6 work elements: 1) Glass Fabrication, 2) Chemical Composition, 3) Radiochemical Composition, 4) Crystalline and Non-crystalline Phase Determination, and 5) Release Rate (Modified PCT). These work elements will help demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the product requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. VOA, SVOA, dioxins, furans, PCBs, and total cyanide analyses will be reported in as separate document (WTP-RPT-005).

  11. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method

  12. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  13. Engineering report of plasma vitrification of Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of vendor-derived testing and technology applicability to full scale glass production from Hanford tank wastes using plasma vitrification. The subject vendor testing and concept was applied in support of the Hanford LLW Vitrification Program, Tank Waste Remediation System

  14. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  15. Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of DWPF HLW sludge coupled with crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Workman, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    An alternative to the In Tank Precipitation and sodium titanate processes at the Savannah River Site is the removal of cesium, strontium, and plutonium from the tank supernate by ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate (CST). This inorganic material has been shown to effectively and selectively sorb these elements from supernate. The loaded CST could then be immobilized with High-Level Waste (HLW) sludge during vitrification. Initial efforts on the development of a glass formulation for a coupled waste stream indicate that reasonable loadings of both sludge and CST can be achieved in glass

  16. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  17. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  18. Vitrification melter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed to identify the most promising vitrification melter technologies that the Department of Energy (EM-50) might pursue with available funding. The primary focus was on plasma arc systems and graphite arc melters. The study was also intended to assist EM-50 in evaluating competing technologies, formulating effective technology strategy, developing focused technology development projects, and directing the work of contractors involved in vitrification melter development

  19. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  20. Cryogenic in situ microcompression testing of Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Eilenberg, A.; Shapiro, A.A.; Hosemann, P.; Minor, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at −142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity, while at −142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (1 0 0) orientation and a non-symmetric (4 5 ¯ 1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations

  1. Solidification and vitrification life-cycle economics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method, whereas vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ex situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450,000 m 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper s a detailed study done to: compare the economics of the solidification and vitrification processes; determine if the stigma assigned to vitrification is warranted; determine if investing millions of dollars into vitrification development, along with solidification development, at Fernald is warranted. Common parameters were determined and detailed life-cycle cost estimates were made. Incorporating the unit costs into a computer spreadsheet allowed 'what if' scenarios to be performed. Some scenarios investigated included variation of: remediation times, amount of wastes treated, treatment efficiencies, electrical and material costs and escalation

  2. In situ buffer material test, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, Masahiro; Muraoka, Susumu; Shimooka, Kenji; Araki, Kunio; Okamoto, Masamichi.

    1987-10-01

    Buffer materials would be placed between a package and wall rock in a disposal pit in a deep geological formation in the concept for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. A bentonite powder produced in our country was compacted in a test hole in-situ into 1.27 kg/cm 3 at 380 m below surface and heated with a electric heater about 882 hours. The value of obtained thermal conductivity of the buffer material was slightly larger than those of the laboratory data. The results of the measurements of the moisture of the buffer material using a Neutron Moisture Meter revealed that the buffer material was dried during the heating and groundwater penetrated from fractures of the wall rock into the buffer material after heating was stopped. (author)

  3. Choosing solidification or vitrification for low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450 000m 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes how Fernald is choosing between solidification and vitrification as the primary waste treatment method

  4. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  5. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  6. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  7. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  8. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  9. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YANG, J.S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses

  10. Operability test report for the in SITU vapor sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This report documents the successful completion of testing for the In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system. The report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-196, Rev OA), data sheets, exception resolutions, and a test report summary. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, `Engineering Practice Guidelines,` Appendix L, `Operability Test Procedures and Reports.`

  11. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  12. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  13. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine

  14. Vitrification publication bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager

  15. Vitrification publication bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  16. Highly efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Masashige; Vajta, Gábor; Kato, Osamu; Leibo, Stanley P

    2005-09-01

    Two experiments were performed to develop a method to cryopreserve MII human oocytes. In the first experiment, three vitrification methods were compared using bovine MII oocytes with regard to their developmental competence after cryopreservation: (i) vitrification within 0.25-ml plastic straws followed by in-straw dilution after warming (ISD method); (ii) vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS method); and (iii) vitrification in plastic handle (Cryotop method). In the second experiment, the Cryotop method, which had yielded the best results, was used to vitrify human oocytes. Out of 64 vitrified oocytes, 58 (91%) exhibited normal morphology after warming. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 52 became fertilized, and 32 (50%) developed to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Analysis by fluorescence in-situ hybridization of five blastocysts showed that all were normal diploid embryos. Twenty-nine embryo transfers with a mean number of 2.2 embryos per transfer on days 2 and 5 resulted in 12 initial pregnancies, seven healthy babies and three ongoing pregnancies. The results suggest that vitrification using the Cryotop is the most efficient method for human oocyte cryopreservation.

  17. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  18. In situ viscometer instrument acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed by the software ATP) of the viscometer instrument. This document and the ATP satisfy the requirements in EP-4.1, ''Design Verification Requirements.'' The selected mode of design verification is qualification testing. The testing described in this document verifies that the mechanical and electrical features are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service

  19. In Situ Radiography During Tensile Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory system for testing specimens of metal-, ceramic-, and intermetallic-matrix composite materials incorporates both electromechanical tensile-testing subsystem and either of two imaging subsystems that take x-ray photographs of specimens before, during, and after tensile tests. Used to test specimens of reaction-bonded silicon nitride reinforced with silicon carbide fibers (SiC/RBSN) considered for high-temperature service in advanced aircraft turbine engines. Provides data on effects of preexisting flaws (e.g., high-density impurities and local variations of density) on fracture behavior. Accumulated internal damage monitored during loading. X-ray source illuminates specimen in load frame while specimen is pulled. X-ray images on film correlated with stress-vs.-strain data from tensile test.

  20. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  1. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  2. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  3. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  4. Boom clay rheology laboratory and in situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.; Bazargan, B.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of Boom clay is characterized by the importance of time dependent effects. Laboratory tests intended to study this behaviour are performed. Viscoplastic solutions are used to model the clay behaviour, 11 parameters entered in the model. The first results of research conducted about the in situ creep behaviour of clays are described. Field tests and laboratory experiment are compared

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    The reference Hanford plan for disposal of defense high-level waste is based on waste immobilization in glass by the vitrification process and temporary vitrified waste storage at the Hanford Site until final disposal in a geologic repository. A companion document to the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the Draft, Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP), which provides a description of the technology that must be developed to meet the reference waste management plan. One of the issues in the HWMTP is DST-6, Immobilization (Glass). The HWMTP includes all expense funding needed to complete the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project. A preliminary HWVP Technology Plan was prepared in 1985 as a supporting document to the HWMTP to provide a more detailed description of the technology needed to construct and operate a vitrification facility. The plan was updated and issued in 1986, and revised in 1987. This document is an annual update of the plan. The HWVP Technology Plan is limited in scope to technology that requires development or confirmation testing. Other expense-funded activities are not included. The relationship between the HWVP Technology Plan and other waste management issues addressed in the HWMTP is described in section 1.6 of this plan. 6 refs., 4 figs., 34 tabs

  6. Vitrification and Product Testing of C-104 and AZ-102 Pretreated Sludge Mixed with Flowsheet Quantities of Secondary Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Bates, Derrick J.; Goles, Ronald W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Lettau, Ralph C.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) has acquired Hanford tank waste treatment services at a demonstration scale. The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) team is responsible for producing an immobilized (vitrified) high-level waste (IHLW) waste form. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, hereafter referred to as PNNL, has been contracted to produce and test a vitrified IHLW waste form from two Envelope D high-level waste (HLW) samples previously supplied to the RPP-WTP project by DOE.

  7. Radiation testing of composite materials, in situ versus ex situ effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, R. M.; Thomasson, J. F.; Beggs, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of post irradiation test environments on tensile properties of representative advanced composite materials (T300/5208, T300/934, C6000/P1700) was investigated. Four ply (+ or - 45 deg/+ or - 45 deg) laminate tensile specimens were exposed in vacuum up to a bulk dose of 1 x 10 to the 10th power rads using a mono-energetic fluence of 700 keV electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator. Post irradiation testing was performed while specimens were being irradiated (in situ data), in vacuum after cessation of irradiation (in vacuo data), and after exposure to air (ex situ data). Room temperature and elevated temperature effects were evaluated. The radiation induced changes to the tensile properties were small. Since the absolute changes in tensile properties were small, the existance of a post irradiation test environment effect was indeterminate.

  8. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO x is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992

  9. In-situ vitrification of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Brouns, R.A.; Bonner, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried radioactive waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized. (author)

  10. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.; Lucerna, J.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development

  12. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lucerna, J. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Plodinec, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development.

  13. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project

  14. Vitrification chemistry and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vitrification of nuclear waste offers unique challenges to the glass technologist. The waste contains 50 or 60 elements, and often varies widely in composition. Most of these elements are seldom encountered in processing commercial glasses. The melter to vitrify the waste must be able to tolerate these variations in composition, while producing a durable glass. This glass must be produced without releasing hazardous radionuclides to the environment during any step of the vitrification process. Construction of a facility to convert the nearly 30 million gallons of high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant into borosilicate glass began in late 1983. In developing the vitrification process, the Savannah River Laboratory has had to overcome all of these challenges to the glass technologist. Advances in understanding in three areas have been crucial to our success: oxidation-reduction phenomena during glass melting; the reaction between glass and natural wastes; and the causes of foaming during glass melting

  15. IFMIF - Design Study for in Situ Creep Fatigue Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Simakov, St.; Stratmanns, E.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2006-01-01

    While the high flux volume (20-50 dpa/fpy) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is dedicated to the irradiation of ∼ 1100 qualified specimens that will be post irradiation examined after disassembling in dedicated Hot Cells, various in situ experiments are foreseen in the medium flux volume (1-20 dpa/fpy). Of specific importance for structural lifetime assessments of fusion power reactors are instrumented in situ creep-fatigue experiments, as they can simulate realistically a superposition of thermal fatigue or creep fatigue and irradiation with fusion relevant neutrons. Based on former experience with in situ fatigue tests under high energy light ion irradiation, a design study has been performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ creep fatigue tests in the IFMIF medium flux position. The vertically arranged test module for such experiments consists basically of a frame similar to a universal testing machine, but equipped with three pulling rods, driven by independent step motors, instrumentation systems and specimen cooling systems. Therefore, three creep fatigue specimens may be tested at one time in this apparatus. Each specimen is a hollow tube with coolant flow in the specimen interior to maintain individual specimen temperatures. The recently established IFMIF global 3D geometry model was used together the latest McDeLicious code for the neutral and charged particle transport calculations. These comprehensive neutronics calculations have been performed with a fine special resolution of 0.25 cm 3 , showing among others that the specimens will be irradiated with a homogeneous damage rate of up to 13(∼ 9%) dpa/fpy and a fusion relevant damage to helium ratio of 10-12 appm He/dpa. In addition, damage and gas production rates as well as the heat deposition in structural parts of the test module have been calculated. Despite of the vertical gradients in the nuclear heating, CFD code calculations with STAR-CD revealed very

  16. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  17. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation.

  18. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Vitrification of human ovarian tissue: effect of different solutions and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; David, Anu; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    To test the effect of different vitrification solutions and procedures on the morphology of human preantral follicles. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from nine women aged 22-35 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to [1] different vitrification solutions to test their toxicity or [2] different vitrification methods using plastic straws, medium droplets, or solid-surface vitrification before in vitro culture. Number of morphologically normal follicles after toxicity testing or vitrification with the different treatments determined by histologic analysis. In the toxicity tests, only VS3 showed similar results to fresh tissue before and after in vitro culture (fresh controls 1 and 2). In addition, this was the only solution able to completely vitrify. In all vitrification procedures, the percentage of normal follicles was lower than in controls. However, of the three protocols, the droplet method yielded a significantly higher proportion of normal follicles. Our experiments showed VS3 to have no deleterious effect on follicular morphology and to be able to completely vitrify, although vitrification procedures were found to affect human follicles. Nevertheless, the droplet method resulted in a higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  1. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  2. In situ precipitation and sorption of arsenic from groundwater: Laboratory and ex situ field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J.M.; Adu-Wusu, K.; Frampton, W.H.; Staib, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Permeable, reactive walls may provide long term, low-maintenance prevention of off-site migration of contaminated groundwater. Laboratory and ex situ field tests conducted on several arsenic-contaminated groundwaters indicate that both precipitation and sorption can remove arsenic to levels of less than 10 ppb. Precipitation has been induced by adjusting pH, adding selected cations, and/or reducing the oxidation-reduction potential. Adjusting pH or adding cations was most effective when there were high levels of other ionic species with which arsenic could coprecipitate. Reducing the oxidation-reduction potential was effective on a variety of groundwaters. Humate was an effective sorbent at low pH; aluminum and iron materials were effective over a large range of conditions. Long term performance of precipitation systems can be limited by formation of precipitate on reactive surfaces. Long term sorption can be reduced by competing ions, such as phosphate. Laboratory and ex situ field tests indicate that reactive walls may have lifetimes of decades or more

  3. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea Oocytes through Vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujune Tsai

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG, ethylene glycol (EG and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals.

  4. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States); Aurand, D.V. [Ecosystem Management and Associates, Purcellville, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea.

  5. In situ toxicity testing of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of in situ assays, which was initially proposed by Nebeker et al. (1984, is presently recognised as an effective tool to study the effects of contaminated sediments (Burton 1992. The placement of caged organisms to study short-term effects of exposure to contaminated environments has been employed for a number of aquatic species, both fish and invertebrate. This paper describes the application of this techniques to study the toxicity of Lake Orta sediments using both resident (Daphnia obtusa, D. longispina and non-resident (D. magna, Echinogammarus stammeri invertebrate species. In each of the selected stations, a group of four chambers, each containing 10 individuals, were deployed by scuba divers at 10 m depth and collected after 48 h. For each chamber, the surviving animals were counted, transferred to the laboratory and kept in Lake Orta water until their death. The number of neonates produced by each female in the laboratory was recorded daily in order to determine if the short exposure period could affect the reproductive behaviour of the animals. The technique and results reported here indicate the utility of in situ testing and suggest that, under certain conditions, this method of testing may yield results which are more representative of actual environmental conditions by avoiding the sample manipulation required for traditional laboratory toxicity tests.

  6. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification

  7. Final design and performance of in situ testing in Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes-Cantillana, J.L.; Garcia-SiNeriz, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is focused on the design, engineering, and construction aspects of the in situ test carried out at the Grimsel underground laboratory in Switzerland. This reproduces the AGP-granite concept of ENRESA for HLW repositories in crystalline rock. Two heaters, similar in dimensions and weight to the canisters in the reference concept, have been placed in a horizontal drift with a 2.28-m diameter, a total test length of 17.4 m, and backfilled with a total of 115.7 † of highly-compacted bentonite blocks. The backfilled area has been closed with a concrete plug which is 2.7 m thick. More than 600 sensors have been installed in the test to monitor different parameters such as temperature, pressures, humidity, etc., within both the buffer material and the host rock. The installation was completed and commissioned in February 1997, and then the heating phase, which will last for at least 3 years, was started. During this period, the test will basically be operated in an automatic mode, controlled and monitored from Spain via modem. The report is the Final Report from AITEMIN for Phase 4 of the project and includes a description of the test configuration and layout; the design, engineering, and manufacturing aspects of the different test components and equipment; the emplacement operation; and the as built information regarding the final position of the main components and the sensors. (Author)

  8. Vitrification of human germinal vesicle oocytes; before or after in vitro maturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Kasapi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of immature oocytes derived from stimulated cycles could be of great importance, particularly for urgent fertility preservation cases. The current study aimed to determine whether in vitro maturation (IVM was more successful before or after vitrification of these oocytes. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed in a private in vitro fertilization (IVF center. We collected 318 germinal vesicle (GV oocytes from 104 stimulated oocyte donation cycles. Oocytes were divided into two groups according to whether vitrification was applied at the GV stage (group 1 or in vitro matured to the metaphase II (MII stage and then vitrified (group 2. In the control group (group 3, oocytes were in vitro matured without vitrification. In all three groups, we assessed survival rate after warming, maturation rate, and MII-spindle/chromosome configurations. The chi-square test was used to compare rates between the three groups. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05 and we used Bonferroni criterion to assess statistical significance regarding the various pairs of groups. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in the survival rate after vitrification and warming of GV (93.5% and MII oocytes (90.8%. A significantly higher maturation rate occurred when IVM was performed before vitrification (82.9% compared to after vitrification (51%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of normal spindle/ chromosome configurations among warmed oocytes matured in vitro before (50.0% or after (41.2% vitrification. However, a higher incidence of normal spindle/chromosome configurations existed in the in vitro matured oocytes which were not subjected to vitrification (fresh oocytes, 77.9%. Conclusion In stimulated cycles, vitrification of in vitro matured MII oocytes rather than GV oocytes seems to be more efficient. This

  9. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  10. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  11. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  12. LFCM [liquid-fed ceramic melter] vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In-Situ Micromechanical Testing in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Amanda Sofia

    In order to design engineering applications that can withstand extreme environments, we must first understand the underlying deformation mechanisms that can hinder material performance. It is not enough to characterize the mechanical properties alone, we must also characterize the microstructural changes as well so that we can understand the origin of material degradation. This dissertation focuses on two different extreme environments. The first environment is the cryogenic environment, where we focus on the deformation behavior of solder below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The second environment is the irradiated environment, where we focus on the effects that ion beam irradiation has on both the mechanical properties and microstructure of 304 stainless steel. Both classes of materials and testing environments utilize novel in situ micromechanical testing techniques inside a scanning electron microscope which enhances our ability to link the observed deformation behavior with its associated mechanical response. Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the DBTT is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at -142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity while at -142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (100) orientation and a non-symmetric (45¯1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations. This approach was also extended to a more complex solder alloy that is commonly used in industry, Sn96. In the case of the solder alloy more complex geometries

  15. Remotisation aspects of vitrification facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunjman

    2012-01-01

    Activities such as handling of HLW for its transfer from the reprocessing facility, concentration in thermo-siphon evaporators, feeding the concentrate into the furnaces, decontamination of the gases emanating during evaporation and vitrification, handling of vitrified waste product (VWP) for its filling into the canisters, capping, decontamination and overpacking etc. are carried out remotely inside concrete shielded cells. Further, handling of VWP overpacks for its loading into the shielding casks for its transportation and emplacing the same into interim storage/disposal facilities, are also done remotely. Liquid sampling and handling of filters for cleaning of vessel off gases (VOG) are some of other major activities requiring remote handling. A new dimension in remote operations has been added while dismantling melter components and subsequently managing the secondary wastes generated at Trombay and Tarapur as well. Having equipped with rich experience and broad analysis of the operations involved in vitrification of HLW and handling the VWP, we can embark on design of the new facilities having much higher degree of automation and use of robots

  16. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  17. [Oocyte vitrification in an ART laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, P; Montjean, D; Tourame, P; Gervoise-Boyer, M

    2013-09-01

    Oocyte vitrification has been authorized in France after the modification of French bioethics law in July 2011. This evolution will bring a dramatic change in patients' management since, from 2011, infertile couples, oocyte donation and fertility preservation programs will benefit this technique in France. We have introduced oocyte vitrification in our ART laboratory through a validation of the method using Evidence-Based Medicine model: open system Cryotop, Ethylène-glycol 15% and DMSO 15%. Based on our 1-year experience, oocyte vitrification upgrades our daily practice while also minimizing embryo cryoconservation as recommended by the law. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitrification pilot plant experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgunduz, N.; Gimpel, R.F.; Paine, D.; Pierce, V.H.

    1997-01-01

    A one metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates containing high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1,150 to 1,350 C. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and path forward will be presented

  19. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  20. Fracture of metal foams : In-situ testing and numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; van Merkerk, R.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Schmidt, I

    This paper is on a combined experimental/modeling study on the tensile fracture of open-cell foams. In-situ tensile tests show that individual struts can fail in a brittle or ductile mode, presumably depending on the presence of casting defects. In-situ single strut tests were performed, enabling

  1. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  2. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  3. Radioactive waste vitrification offgas analysis proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.W.; Morrey, E.V.

    1993-11-01

    Further validation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed simulants will be performed by analyzing offgases during crucible melting of actual waste glasses and simulants. The existing method of vitrifying radioactive laboratory-scale samples will be modified to allow offgas analysis during preparation of glass for product testing. The analysis equipment will include two gas chromatographs (GC) with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and one NO/NO x analyzer. This equipment is part of the radioactive formating offgas system. The system will provide real-time analysis of H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and SO 2 . As with the prior melting method, the product glass will be compatible with durability testing, i.e., Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Material Characterization Center (MCC-1), and crystallinity analysis. Procedures have been included to ensure glass homogeneity and quenching. The radioactive glass will be adaptable to Fe +2 /ΣFe measurement procedures because the atmosphere above the melt can be controlled. The 325 A-hot cell facility is being established as the permanent location for radioactive offgas analysis during formating, and can be easily adapted to crucible melt tests. The total costs necessary to set up and perform offgas measurements on the first radioactive core sample is estimated at $115K. Costs for repeating the test on each additional core sample are estimated to be $60K. The schedule allows for performing the test on the next available core sample

  4. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Hamilton, D.W.; Holton, L.K.; Bailey, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs

  5. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...... of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our...... results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing....

  6. New permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification method for native human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, J; Medrano, L; Enciso, M; Sarasa, J; Romero, A; Fernández, M A; Gómez-Torres, M J

    2017-10-01

    Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features. New alternative methods such as vitrification have been established as a successful alternative in other reproductive cell types, but vitrification of spermatozoa is still a rather unexplored methodology, with limited studies showing its efficacy in male gametes. This study included 18 normozoospermic sperm samples from patients seeking ART treatment between 2014 and 2015. The effects of a new vitrification protocol on functional and structural sperm quality parameters in comparison to fresh and slow-frozen samples were assessed. All samples were divided into three aliquots: fresh (F), slow freezing-thawing (S) and vitrification-warming (V). Sperm concentration, motility, morphology, vitality, DNA fragmentation, cytoskeleton integrity and spontaneous acrosome reaction were assessed and compared between the groups. Results showed improved preservation of sperm features after vitrification compared to conventional freezing. Permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification presented a significantly higher percentage of live spermatozoa, than slow freezing, better preservation of acrosomes was achieved in vitrified samples and DNA fragmentation was reduced approximately one-third on average compared to slow freezing. Regarding tubulin assay, three different labelling patterns were observed. The frequency of these labelling patterns was similar in F and V groups but this was not the case of the S group. The multivariate analysis of all sperm quality parameters studied revealed

  7. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Conceptual Design and Experimental Plans for the In-situ Test of Engineered Barrier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Gi

    2009-12-01

    The overseas state-of-the-art of the in-situ test for the engineered barrier system was analyzed and the preliminary characterization of the fracture distribution in the test area of the KURT was carried out. Based upon these, the conceptual design of experimental apparatus for the in-situ test was completed and the detailed action plan was also established for its implementation

  9. Final Report Melter Tests With AZ-101 HLW Simulant Using A Duramelter 100 Vitrification System VSL-01R10N0-1, Rev. 1, 2/25/02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m 2 /d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  10. FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  11. In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed

  12. IN-SITU TEST OF PRESSURE PIPELINE VIBRATION BASED ON DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Huimin; Xu, Cundong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Rongrong; Jie, Junkun; Ding, Lianying

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline vibration of high frequency and large amplitude is an important factor that impacts the safe operation of pumping station and the efficiency of the pumps. Through conducting the vibration in-situ test of pipeline system in the pumping station, we can objectively analyze the mechanism of pipeline vibration and evaluate the stability of pipeline operation. By using DASP (data acquisition & signal processing) in the in-situ test on the 2# pipeline of the third pumping station in the gen...

  13. Establishing Relationships between Parameters of the Controlled Compaction Soil by Using Various In-Situ Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroslak, Mariusz

    2017-10-01

    The aim of research was evaluating reliable correlations between chosen soil parameters describing state of surface layers of soil. The paper presents site comparative tests based on the light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD), the static plate load tester (VSS), the dynamic probing light tester (DPL) and the bearing ratio tester (CBR in-situ) with relationships between soil state parameters. All featured in-situ tests were conducted based on Polish experiences and Standards used in engineering practice.

  14. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozudogru, E A; Kaya, E

    2012-01-01

    Thymus is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family, comprising more than 400 perennial aromatic thyme species, which are used extensively for medicinal and culinary purposes. The present study focused on the development of cryopreservation procedures for Thymus vulgaris and T. cariensis, the latter being an endemic and endangered species of Turkey. For cryopreservation of T. vulgaris shoot tips, PVS2-based one-step freezing methods, i.e., PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification, were compared. Cold hardening and sucrose preculture were also optimized before the cryopreservation trials. For T. cariensis, a droplet-vitrification method was applied to cold-hardened shoot tips, and after sucrose preculture. In all the methods tested, PVS2 was applied for up to 120 min. The best T. vulgaris cryopreservation was achieved with a droplet-vitrification method, that involved 2-weeks cold hardening of shoot cultures, 48 h preculture of shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets. After direct immersion in LN, thawing and plating, 80% of shoot-tips recovered. Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels.

  15. Final Report for Crucible -Scale Radioactive Vitrification and Product Test of Waste Envelope B (AZ-102) Low-Activity Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-technology demonstration for the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) was performed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). As part of this demonstration, treated AZ-102 Low-Activity Waste supernate was vitrified using a crucible-scale furnace. Initial glass samples were quench-cooled and characterized for metals and radionuclides. The glass was also durability tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Product Consistency Test (PCT) protocol. These tests used the AZ-102 glass formulation Low Activity Waste (LAW) B88 that targeted AZ-102 waste loading at 5 wt% Na2O. After these initial results were obtained with the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass, a prototypical container centerline cooling (CCC) program was supplied to SRTC by WTP. A portion of the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass was remelted and centerline cooled. Samples from the CCC low-activity AZ-102 glass waste form were durability tested using the PCT and characterized for crystalline phase identification.This final report documents the characterization and durability of this AZ-102 glass

  16. Tests of in situ formation scenarios for compact multiplanet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C., E-mail: kschlauf@mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Kepler has identified over 600 multiplanet systems, many of which have several planets with orbital distances smaller than that of Mercury. Because these systems may be difficult to explain in the paradigm of core accretion and disk migration, it has been suggested that they formed in situ within protoplanetary disks with high solid surface densities. The strong connection between giant planet occurrence and stellar metallicity is thought to be linked to enhanced solid surface densities in disks around metal-rich stars, so the presence of a giant planet can be a sign of planet formation in a high solid surface density disk. I formulate quantitative predictions for the frequency of long-period giant planets in these in situ models by translating the proposed increase in disk mass into an equivalent metallicity enhancement. I rederive the scaling of giant planet occurrence with metallicity as P{sub gp}=0.05{sub −0.02}{sup +0.02}×10{sup (2.1±0.4)[M/H]}=0.08{sub −0.03}{sup +0.02}×10{sup (2.3±0.4)[Fe/H]} and show that there is significant tension between the frequency of giant planets suggested by the minimum mass extrasolar nebula scenario and the observational upper limits. Consequently, high-mass disks alone cannot explain the observed properties of the close-in Kepler multiplanet systems and therefore migration is still important. More speculatively, I combine the metallicity scaling of giant planet occurrence with small planet occurrence rates to estimate the number of solar system analogs in the Galaxy. I find that in the Milky Way there are perhaps 4 × 10{sup 6} true solar system analogs with an FGK star hosting both a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone and a long-period giant planet companion.

  17. In-Situ Testing of the Thermal Diffusivity of Polysilicon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intuitive yet effective in-situ thermal diffusivity testing structure and testing method. The structure consists of two doubly clamped beams with the same width and thickness but different lengths. When the electric current is applied through two terminals of one beam, the beam serves as thermal resistor and the resistance R(t varies as temperature rises. A delicate thermodynamic model considering thermal convection, thermal radiation, and film-to-substrate heat conduction was established for the testing structure. The presented in-situ thermal diffusivity testing structure can be fabricated by various commonly used micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS fabrication methods, i.e., it requires no extra customized processes yet provides electrical input and output interfaces for in-situ testing. Meanwhile, the testing environment and equipment had no stringent restriction, measurements were carried out at normal temperatures and pressures, and the results are relatively accurate.

  18. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  19. In-situ failure test in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Johansson, E.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    2000-05-01

    A failure test suitable for execution in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto has been planned to study the failure of rock in-situ. The objectives of the in-situ failure test is to assess the applicability of numerical modelling codes and methods to the study of rock failure and associated crack propagation and to develop a novel technique to be used to determine the strength of rock in-situ. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary design of the failure test, assess the technical feasibility of the test and to give input information for further numerical modelling of the test. The design of the failure test is reported and results of preliminary modelling are given. The input information for future modelling includes a study of rock properties, fracture propagation in rock, in-situ stresses and the development of techniques for using the expanding agent to produce artificial stress field. The study showed that mechanical properties such as strength of gneissic tonalite, the main rock type in the Research Tunnel, depends highly on the orientation of schistocity. The in-situ failure test was shown to be technically feasible and a state of stress high enough to cause failure can be created artificially by using a proper expansive agent and design. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tim S.; Espersen, Maiken L. M.; Kofoed, Vibeke; Dabetic, Tanja; Høgdall, Estrid; Balslev, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing. PMID:24383005

  1. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials

  2. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  3. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  4. La Hague Continuous Improvement Program: Enhancement of the Vitrification Throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitjean, V.; De Vera, R.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Tronche, E.; Flament, T.; Pereira Mendes, F.; Prod'homme, A.

    2006-01-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for over 25 years by AREVA/COGEMA, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. At the 'La Hague' plant, in the 'R7' and 'T7' facilities, vitrified waste is obtained by first evaporating and calcining the nitric acid feed solution-containing fission products in calciners. The product-named calcinate- is then fed together with glass frit into induction-heated metallic melters to produce the so-called R7/T7 glass, well known for its excellent containment properties. Both facilities are equipped with three processing lines. In the near future the increase of the fuel burn-up will influence the amount of fission product solutions to be processed at R7/T7. As a consequence, in order to prepare these changes, it is necessary to feed the calciner at higher flow-rates. Consistent and medium-term R and D programs led by CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission, the AREVA/COGEMA's R and D and R and T provider), AREVA/COGEMA (Industrial Operator) and AREVA/SGN (AREVA/COGEMA's Engineering), and associated to the industrial feed back of AREVA/COGEMA operations, have allowed continuous improvement of the process since 1998: - The efficiency and limitation of the equipment have been studied and solutions for technological improvements have been proposed whenever necessary, - The increase of the feeding flow-rate has been implemented on the improved CEA test rig (so called PEV, Evolutional Prototype of Vitrification) and adapted by AREVA/SGN for the La Hague plant using their modeling studies; the results obtained during this test confirmed the technological and industrial feasibility of the improvements achieved, - After all necessary improved equipments have been implemented in R7/T7 facilities, and a specific campaign has been performed on the R7 facility by AREVA/COGEMA. The flow-rate to the

  5. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2013-01-01

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS

  6. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS.

  7. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  8. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  10. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites.

  11. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites

  12. Large-scale in situ heater tests for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Wilder, D.G.; Nitao, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analyses indicate that the ambient hydrological system will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. In situ heater tests are required to provide an understanding of coupled geomechanical-hydrothermal-geochemical behavior in the engineered and natural barriers under repository thermal loading conditions. In situ heater tests have been included in the Site Characterization Plan in response to regulatory requirements for site characterization and to support the validation of process models required to assess the total systems performance at the site. Because of limited time, some of the in situ tests will have to be accelerated relative to actual thermal loading conditions. We examine the trade-offs between the limited test duration and generating hydrothermal conditions applicable to repository performance during the entire thermal loading cycle, including heating (boiling and dry-out) and cooldown (re-wetting). For in situ heater tests to be applicable to actual repository conditions, a minimum heater test duration of 6-7 yr (including 4 yr of full-power heating) is required

  13. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  14. A novel and compact nanoindentation device for in situ nanoindentation tests inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanomechanical tests provide a unique insight into mechanical behaviors of materials, such as fracture onset and crack propagation, shear band formation and so on. This paper presents a novel in situ nanoindentation device with dimensions of 103mm×74mm×60mm. Integrating the stepper motor, the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge, the device can realize coarse adjustment of the specimen and precision loading and unloading of the indenter automatically. A novel indenter holder was designed to guarantee that the indenter penetrates into and withdraws from the specimen surface vertically. Closed-loop control of the indentation process was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator and to enrich the loading modes. The in situ indentation test of Indium Phosphide (InP inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM was carried out and the experimental result indicates the feasibility of the developed device.

  15. In situ corrosion tests on HLW glass as part of a larger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Iseghem, P. [Waste and Disposal Research Unit, SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-07-01

    In-situ corrosion tests were performed on various candidate high-level waste glasses in the underground laboratory in clay underneath SCK x CEN. The tests exposed the glass samples directly to the Boom clay rock, for maximum durations of 7.5 years. We succeeded to interpret the corrosion data at 90 deg C in terms of dissolution mechanisms, and we concluded that the glass composition has a determining effect on the corrosion stability. The data from our in-situ tests were of high relevance for estimating the long-term behaviour of the glasses. The long-term in-situ tests provide corrosion data which show different trends than other corrosion tests, e.g. shorter duration tests in Boom clay, or tests in deionized water. The initial dissolution rate using MCC1 test at 90 deg C is about the same for the three glasses discussed, but the longest duration in Boom clay at 90 deg C shows a difference in mass loss of about 25 times. We finally present some ideas on how the corrosion tests can meet the needs, such as the modelling of the glass corrosion or providing input in the performance assessment. (author)

  16. In situ corrosion tests on HLW glass as part of a larger approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Iseghem, P.

    1997-01-01

    In-situ corrosion tests were performed on various candidate high-level waste glasses in the underground laboratory in clay underneath SCK x CEN. The tests exposed the glass samples directly to the Boom clay rock, for maximum durations of 7.5 years. We succeeded to interpret the corrosion data at 90 deg C in terms of dissolution mechanisms, and we concluded that the glass composition has a determining effect on the corrosion stability. The data from our in-situ tests were of high relevance for estimating the long-term behaviour of the glasses. The long-term in-situ tests provide corrosion data which show different trends than other corrosion tests, e.g. shorter duration tests in Boom clay, or tests in deionized water. The initial dissolution rate using MCC1 test at 90 deg C is about the same for the three glasses discussed, but the longest duration in Boom clay at 90 deg C shows a difference in mass loss of about 25 times. We finally present some ideas on how the corrosion tests can meet the needs, such as the modelling of the glass corrosion or providing input in the performance assessment. (author)

  17. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Derek G; Liu, Jun; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  18. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Pyne

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  19. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  20. Quantitative in situ TEM tensile testing of an individual nickel nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yang; Peng Cheng; Ganesan, Yogeeswaran; Lou Jun; Huang Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the usage of a novel micro-mechanical device (MMD) to perform quantitative in situ tensile tests on individual metallic nanowires inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our preliminary experiment on a 360 nm diameter nickel nanowire showed that the sample fractured at an engineering stress of ∼ 1.2 GPa and an engineering strain of ∼ 4%, which is consistent with earlier experiments performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). With in situ high resolution TEM imaging and diffraction capabilities, this novel experimental set-up could provide unique opportunities to reveal the underlying deformation and damage mechanisms for metals at the nanoscale.

  1. Actual point about fission products vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.

    1982-05-01

    The main characteristics concerning the continuous vitrification process for the confinement of fission product solutions operated at AVM are summarized. The general principle of a vitrification plant is described. The AVM plant efficiency as also its conception of consumable parts interchangeability are satisfying. The evolution of the process and its application developped in two ways: a more spaced installation conception and the improvement of the weak points remarked at AVM, as also the capacity of output. Two industrial units are designed at La Hague. The future evolution of the process aims at manufacturing glass at higher temperatures about 1400 degrees Celsius. Some problems remain to be resolved for the using of ceramic melters associated with a calcination unit. The studies provide for a satisfying behaviour for the material to long-term. The risks of damage by crystallisation, leaching and effects of alpha emission are analysed [fr

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents engineering drawings of the vitrification plant at Hanford Reservation. Individual sections in the report cover piping and instrumentation, process flow schemes, and material balance tables

  3. Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varago, F C; Moutacas, V S; Carvalho, B C; Serapião, R V; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, F Z; Camargo, L S; Henry, M; Lagares, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Cryopreservation of Endothelial Cells in Various Cryoprotective Agents and Media - Vitrification versus Slow Freezing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5 has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA, namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY, and two media, namely Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium Ham's F-12 (DMEMand K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP, which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany. To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5% and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%. The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34% and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%.

  5. India gets set at Tarapur [vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshank, Andrew.

    1987-01-01

    A vitrification plant has been built and commissioned at Tarapur to immobilise high level radioactive waste arising from the reprocessing plant. The plant employs a semi-continuous pot-glass process, involving calcination followed by melting in the processing vessel and subsequent casting of the glass in a storage container. Prior to disposal the waste is stored in an air-cooled vault with a convective air-circulation system. (author)

  6. A Multiscale Material Testing System for In Situ Optical and Electron Microscopes and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Cui, Zhiguo; Fang, Huajun; Li, Xide

    2017-08-04

    We report a novel material testing system (MTS) that uses hierarchical designs for in-situ mechanical characterization of multiscale materials. This MTS is adaptable for use in optical microscopes (OMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The system consists of a microscale material testing module (m-MTM) and a nanoscale material testing module (n-MTM). The MTS can measure mechanical properties of materials with characteristic lengths ranging from millimeters to tens of nanometers, while load capacity can vary from several hundred micronewtons to several nanonewtons. The m-MTM is integrated using piezoelectric motors and piezoelectric stacks/tubes to form coarse and fine testing modules, with specimen length from millimeters to several micrometers, and displacement distances of 12 mm with 0.2 µm resolution for coarse level and 8 µm with 1 nm resolution for fine level. The n-MTM is fabricated using microelectromechanical system technology to form active and passive components and realizes material testing for specimen lengths ranging from several hundred micrometers to tens of nanometers. The system's capabilities are demonstrated by in-situ OM and SEM testing of the system's performance and mechanical properties measurements of carbon fibers and metallic microwires. In-situ multiscale deformation tests of Bacillus subtilis filaments are also presented.

  7. Small-scale in-situ burn tests to develop operational proficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A small-scale hands-on in-situ burning experiment was conducted to prepare members of a response community in the event of an actual full scale in-situ burn. Two different styles of fire booms were deployed in open water and exposed to multiple test tank burns. Residual burned crude oil was recovered and the booms decontaminated. The experiments showed that all the methods used to gauge the depth of oil contained in the booms created an element of doubt in their accuracy. The main lessons learned pertained to pre-combustion volume estimation, oil slick ignition, and residue recovery. It was concluded that in-situ burning was a potential technique in oil spill response, but some refinement is still needed to be done with the oil retention booms. The operational costs associated with the experiment were minimal, given the nature of the project. 1 tab

  8. Effect of Vitrification on Sperm Parameters and Apoptosis in Fertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Today, cryopreservation of the human sperm is a common technique for treating infertility. It has been indicated that cryopreservation by different methods decrease the sperm motility and viability in fertile men, but still effect of freezing of the sperm by vitrification method have not been evaluated on sperm parameters and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification of sperm of fertile men on different sperm parameters (motility, morphology, viability and count and apoptosis after thawing. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Yazd Infertility Research and Clinical Center in 2009, seventeen semen samples were collected by masturbation from people who came to this centre. Semen analysis was performed according to WHO standards. Smear was provided from these samples and fixed for TUNEL staining. Some samples were directly cryopreserved by cryoloope in liquid nitrogen and stored at least for Seven days. After thawing, samples were evaluated for sperm parameters. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using paired T-test and Willcoxon statistical test. Results: The progressive movement of sperm was significantly decreased by vitrification. Also significant decrease in viability and morphology of the sperm and increase in the rate of apoptosis was observed after vitrification. The amount of apoptosis had negatively correlated with normal parameters of spermatozoa (especially progressive motility and viability. Conclusion: These results indicated that vitrification is harmful for sperm parameters and of apoptosis rate in fertile men. However, the apoptosis rate was lower compared to other freezing methods.

  9. UBC®Rapid Test for detection of carcinoma in situ for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Weiß, Sarah; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Barski, Dimitri; Otto, Thomas; Gerullis, Holger

    2017-05-01

    UBC ® Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC ® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls. The cut-off value was defined at 10.0 µg/L. Urine samples were analysed by the UBC ® Rapid Test point-of-care system (concile Omega 100 POC reader). Pathological levels of UBC Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (p Rapid Test using the optimal threshold obtained by receiveroperated curve analysis was 0.75. Pathological values of UBC ® Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with high-grade bladder cancer in comparison to low-grade tumours and the healthy control group. UBC ® Rapid Test has potential to be more sensitive and specific urinary protein biomarker for accurate detection of high-grade patients and could be added especially in the diagnostics for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours of urinary bladder cancer.

  10. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  11. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-01-01

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations

  12. Vitrification: a solution for the wastes of wastes; La vitrification: ca chauffe pour les ultimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, B. [Europlasma, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France)

    1997-07-01

    The incineration of wastes generates other wastes (fly ashes) that concentrate a large amount of polluting substances (heavy metals, salts..). French law requires a stabilization of this kind of wastes before their storage. Today vitrification can be considered as an alternative to the stabilization and storage way, the vitrified products could be seen as an interesting material in the building industry or in road works. A few years ago the municipality of Bordeaux decided to launch a demonstration program and a REFIOM (fly ashes) vitrification unit has been operating since 1997. (A.C.)

  13. Commercial versus in-situ usability testing of healthcare information systems: towards "public" usability testing in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kannry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The need for improved usability in healthcare IT has been widely recognized. In addition, methods from usability engineering, including usability testing and usability inspection have received greater attention. Many vendors of healthcare software are now employing usability testing methods in the design and development of their products. However, despite this, the usability of healthcare IT is still considered to be problematic and many healthcare organizations that have purchased systems that have been tested at vendor testing sites are still reporting a range of usability and safety issues. In this paper we explore the distinction between commercial usability testing (conducted at centralized vendor usability laboratories and limited beta test sites) and usability testing that is carried out locally within healthcare organizations that have purchased vendor systems and products (i.e. public "in-situ" usability testing). In this paper it will be argued that both types of testing (i.e. commercial vendor-based testing) and in-situ testing are needed to ensure system usability and safety.

  14. Behavior of technetium in nuclear waste vitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Ian L

    Nearly 100 tests were performed with prototypical melters and off-gas system components to investigate the extents to which technetium is incorporated into the glass melt, partitioned to the off-gas stream, and captured by the off-gas treatment system components during waste vitrification. The tests employed several simulants, spiked with 99m Tc and Re (a potential surrogate), of the low activity waste separated from nuclear wastes in storage in the Hanford tanks, which is planned for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Single-pass technetium retention averaged about 35 % and increased significantly with recycle of the off-gas treatment fluids. The fraction escaping the recycle loop was very small.

  15. HER2 testing in the UK: recommendations for breast and gastric in-situ hybridisation methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartlett, J. M. S.

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines supplement existing guidelines on HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridisation(ISH) methods in the UK. They provide a specific focus on aspects of guidance relevant to HER2 ISH testing methods, both fluorescent and chromogenic. They are formulated to give advice on methodology, interpretation and quality control for ISH-based testing of HER2 status in common tumour types, including both breast and gastric tumours. The aim is to ensure that all ISH-based testing is accurate, reliable and timely.

  16. Survival and ultrastructural features of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) somatic embryos submitted to cryopreservation through vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae), also known as peach palm, was domesticated by Amazonian Indians and is cultivated for its fruit and heart-of-palm, a vegetable grown in the tree's inner core. Currently, the conservation of this species relies on in situ conditions and field gene banks. Complementary conservation strategies, such as those based on in vitro techniques, are indicated in such cases. To establish an appropriate cryopreservation protocol, this study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural features of B. gasipaes embryogenic cultures submitted to vitrification and subsequent cryogenic temperatures. Accordingly, somatic embryo clusters were submitted to Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3). In general, cells submitted to PVS3 had viable cell characteristics associated with apparently many mitochondria, prominent nucleus, and preserved cell walls. Cells not incubated in PVS3 did not survive after the cryogenic process in liquid nitrogen. The best incubation time for the vitrification technique was 240 min, resulting in a survival rate of 37 %. In these cases, several features were indicative of quite active cell metabolism, including intact nuclei and preserved cell walls, an apparently many of mitochondria and lipid bodies, and the presence of many starch granules and condensed chromatin. Moreover, ultrastructure analysis revealed that overall cellular structures had been preserved after cryogenic treatment, thus validating the use of vitrification in conjunction with cryopreservation of peach palm elite genotypes, as well as wild genotypes, which carry a rich pool of genes that must be conserved.

  17. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  18. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  19. Synopsis of in situ testing for mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes was proposed about 25 years ago. Until the mid-1970's, research and development activities were directed essentially to the evaluation of the disposal concept fot salt formations. During the past 5 years, the waste disposal technology programs in the USA and other countries have been expanded substantially in effort and scope for evaluation of a broader range of geologic media beyond salt, including basalt, granite, shale, and tuff. From the outset, in situ testing has been an integral part of these programs, and has included activities concerned with rock mass characterization, the phenomenological response of rock to waste or simulated waste emplacement, model development and verification, and repository design. This paper provides a synopsis of in situ tests that have been or are being performed in geologic media in support of the waste disposal programs in the USA, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the Federal Republic of Germany

  20. Demonstration, testing, ampersand evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a draft final report (Volume 1) for US DOE contract entitled, open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,close quotes Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120 degrees to 130 degrees C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow

  1. Progress and challenges of fish sperm vitrification: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Miaomiao; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Dzyuba, Borys; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Shaliutina-Kolešová, Anna; Linhart, Otomar

    2017-08-01

    To survive low temperature is required for a long-term storage (cryopreservation), cells should be vitrified to a state in which intracellular water is solidified without ice crystal formation. Two different approaches are described for fish sperm cryopreservation: 1) sperm conventional cryopreservation, in which extracellular water is partially crystallized and 2) sperm vitrification, in which both intra- and extra-cellular liquids are vitrified. Sperm vitrification has been applied to some fish species with limited success. Traditional vitrification requires rapid cooling/warming rates, small sample carriers, and using high permeable cryoprotectant concentrations. The latter cause cytotoxic effects which must be well managed and will require continuous effort to match an appropriate cryoprotectant with suitable apparatus and warming methods. Novel cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification approach has been applied to several fishes. This review summarizes development of basic procedures and discusses advantages and disadvantages of vitrification when applied it to fish sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ TEM Nanomechanical Testing of Ceramics: Room-Temperature Plastic Deformation Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kiani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of the effects of size-scale and crystallographic orientation on room-temperature plastic deformation of ceramics. Using in situ electron microscopy based nanomechanical testing, I show that sub-micron-scale single-crystalline refractory carbides exhibit size- and orientation-dependent room-temperature plasticity under uniaxial compression. Refractory carbides such as ZrC, TaC and SiC - chosen as candidate materials - owing to their high hardness (...

  3. The R and D and commercial experience on KHNP's vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., (KHNP) has investigated and evaluated various efficient thermal treatment technologies for the LILW. In 1994 and 1995, the feasibility of several melter technologies was assessed from technical and economic perspectives. Finally, the R and D project to develop the vitrification technology using CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) and PTM (Plasma Torch Melter) was launched in 1997. This R and D project had been completed from 1997 to 2002. KHNP started the project to construct the commercial facility using the results of the R and D project in 2002. The HanUl Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using CCIM technology. The design of UVF had been conducted from 2002 to 2005. The construction was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From 2007 to 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced the commercial operation in October 2009. Based on the successful construction and operation of UVF, the advanced R and D project has been started to develop the large-scale vitrification facility. (author)

  4. Cryopreservation: Vitrification and Controlled Rate Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the application of low temperatures to preserve the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. Conventional cooling protocols allow ice to form and solute concentrations to rise during the cryopreservation process. The damage caused by the rise in solute concentration can be mitigated by the use of compounds known as cryoprotectants. Such compounds protect cells from the consequences of slow cooling injury, allowing them to be cooled at cooling rates which avoid the lethal effects of intracellular ice. An alternative to conventional cooling is vitrification. Vitrification methods incorporate cryoprotectants at sufficiently high concentrations to prevent ice crystallization so that the system forms an amorphous glass thus avoiding the damaging effects caused by conventional slow cooling. However, vitrification too can impose damaging consequences on cells as the cryoprotectant concentrations required to vitrify cells at lower cooling rates are potentially, and often, harmful. While these concentrations can be lowered to nontoxic levels, if the cells are ultra-rapidly cooled, the resulting metastable system can lead to damage through devitrification and growth of ice during subsequent storage and rewarming if not appropriately handled.The commercial and clinical application of stem cells requires robust and reproducible cryopreservation protocols and appropriate long-term, low-temperature storage conditions to provide reliable master and working cell banks. Though current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliant methods for the derivation and banking of clinical grade pluripotent stem cells exist and stem cell lines suitable for clinical applications are available, current cryopreservation protocols, whether for vitrification or conventional slow freezing, remain suboptimal. Apart from the resultant loss of valuable product that suboptimal cryopreservation engenders, there is a danger that such processes will impose a selective

  5. On site disposal of ex situ solidified contaminated soils. Previous tests of trazability; Reemplantacion en el emplazamiento de suelos estabilizados Ex-Situ. Ensayos previos de tratabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordellat, F.; Dickhoff, K.

    2000-07-01

    On Site Disposal of Ex Situ Solidified contaminated soils. Feasibility tests: within site remediation technologies, Stabilization/solidification is among the flew ones that not only survived but also increased its importance in the last years. We will focus our attention in the case of leaving the ex-situ on-site stabilization/solidification. This possibility of ex-situ but on-site has many advantages and is getting increasing importance, so that for many cases, it has been established as proffered alternative by the Ministry of the Environment of Baden-Wuttemberg (Germany). In this paper we will deal mainly with pollution caused by metals. In this paper we will also focus the attention on the most important step in the previous feasibility study: the lixiviation tests and its application to the risk assessment of stabilized soils. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. In situ testing of titanium and mild steel nuclear waste containers at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ tests on the corrosion of titanium and mild steel for high level waste containers is presented. The tests at Sandia have moved out of the laboratory into a test underground facility in order to evaluate the performance of the waste package material. The tests are being performed under both near-reference and accelerated salt repository conditions. Some containers are filled with high level waste glass (non-radioactive); others contain electric heaters. Backfill material is either bentonite/sand or crushed salt. In other tests metals and glasses are exposed directly to brine. The tests are designed to study the corrosion and metallurgy of the canister and overpack materials; the feasibility and performance of backfill materials; and near-field effects such as brine migration

  7. Development of the quickmix injector for in-situ filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, G.; Loughborough, D.

    1993-01-01

    In-situ filter testing is routinely carried out on nuclear ventilation plant to assess the effectiveness of installed filter systems. Ideally the system is tested by introducing a sub-micron aerosol upstream of the filter, in such a way as to present a uniform challenge to the whole of the upstream filter face. Samples are withdrawn from upstream and downstream of the filter, and the respective concentrations are used to calculate the system (or filter) efficiency. These requirements are documented in the Atomic Energy Code of Practice, AECP 1054. The Filter Development Section at Harwell Laboratory has been investigating methods of improving the accuracy and reliability of the in-situ filter test over the past ten years. The programme has included the evaluation of devices used to mix the aerosol and multi-point samplers to obtain representative aerosol samples. This paper reports the results of laboratory trials on the open-quotes QUICKMIXclose quotes injector developed and patented by Harwell. The Quickmix injector is designed to mix the test aerosol with the air stream and thereby reduce the duct length required to produce uniform concentrations. The injector has been tested in ducts ranging from 150 mm diameter to 610 mm square, at air velocities up to 26 m/s. Upstream mixing lengths required to achieve a ± 10% concentration variation on the mean were reduced to between 2 and 5 duct diameters, with a very small pressure drop. This simple, compact device is being installed in new and existing plants in the UK to improve the accuracy and reliability of in-situ filter testing. Some examples of plant applications are given, together with some of the first results from operating plant

  8. Comprehensive validation scheme for in situ fiber optics dissolution method for pharmaceutical drug product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Tahseen; Liu, Qian Julie; Vivilecchia, Richard; Joshi, Yatindra

    2009-03-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past decade in the use of fiber optics dissolution testing. Use of this novel technology is mainly confined to research and development laboratories. It has not yet emerged as a tool for end product release testing despite its ability to generate in situ results and efficiency improvement. One potential reason may be the lack of clear validation guidelines that can be applied for the assessment of suitability of fiber optics. This article describes a comprehensive validation scheme and development of a reliable, robust, reproducible and cost-effective dissolution test using fiber optics technology. The test was successfully applied for characterizing the dissolution behavior of a 40-mg immediate-release tablet dosage form that is under development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey. The method was validated for the following parameters: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. In particular, robustness was evaluated in terms of probe sampling depth and probe orientation. The in situ fiber optic method was found to be comparable to the existing manual sampling dissolution method. Finally, the fiber optic dissolution test was successfully performed by different operators on different days, to further enhance the validity of the method. The results demonstrate that the fiber optics technology can be successfully validated for end product dissolution/release testing. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities

  10. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  11. In-Situ Leak Testing And Replacement Of Glovebox Isolator, Or Containment Unit Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Julio M.; Macdonald, John M.; Steckle, Jr., Warren P.

    2004-11-02

    A test plug for in-situ testing a glove installed in a glovebox is provided that uses a top plate and a base plate, and a diametrically expandable sealing mechanism fitting between the two plates. The sealing mechanism engages the base plate to diametrically expand when the variable distance between the top plate and the bottom plate is reduced. An inlet valve included on the top plate is used to introducing a pressurized gas to the interior of the glove, and a pressure gauge located on the top plate is used to monitor the interior glove pressure.

  12. Non-Destructive Testing for the In Situ Assessment of the Ionic Flux in Cementitious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosuè, Chiara; Ruello, M. Letizia

    2017-08-01

    The study deals with the design, calibration and testing of a diffusive sampling probe for in situ assessment of ion mobility in binder-based matrix. In parallel, leaching texts were conducted to compare the ions release obtained under equilibrium condition with the dynamic flux induced by the diffusive sampling probe. The probe contains an ionic exchange resin that acts as sink, causing a re-supply of ions from the solid to the solution phase, and inducing diffusion fluxes from the mortar through a thin diffusion chamber. The flux depends on the quantity of mobile ions in the solid phase and on the exchanging rate from solid phase to solution. By means of the in situ sampling with this diffusive probe, information about the interaction of materials with the environment can be obtained. This information is very useful for the environmental impact assessment of the material and its durability.

  13. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  14. Revision report about the in-situ tests of 1000 MW unit 5 Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the technical revision performed on the technical report about the in-situ tests performed on 1000 Unit 5 nuclear power station of Kozloduy (Bulgaria), within the frame of the IAEA benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of an existing Nuclear Power Plant. After a foreword to define the aims of the job and the identification of the scope of the work, a brief description of the plant is made. A brief description of the theory about the modal parameter determination and the soil-structure interaction analysis by experimental tests is made. The following chapters collect some comments about the tests carried out in Kozloduy, with special reference to the general correctness of testing procedure and to data special requirements for the seismic safety margin assessment procedures to be applied on the existing power station

  15. Final Design and Installation of the ''In Situ'' test at GRIMSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes-Cantillana, J. L.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the FEBEX project (Full-Scale Engineered Barriers Experiment) is the study of the near-field for a repository of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in crystalline rock. The experiment has three major parts: 1) an in situ test, in natural conditions and at full scale; 2) a mack-up test, at almost full scale, and 3) a set of experimental laboratory tests, to complement the information from the two large-scale tests. The experiment is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste canisters are placed in horizontal drifts surrounded by a clay formed from highly-compacted bentonite blocks. The complete project, with about seven years of duration (1994-2001), has been divided into four sequential stages, defined by the main features of each stage of the two large-scale tests. This report is part of the pre-operational stage (1994-1996). (Author)

  16. GTS-LCS, in-situ experiment 2. Modeling of tracer test 09-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manette, M.; Saaltink, M.W.; Soler, J.M.

    2015-02-01

    Within the framework of the GTS-LCS project (Grimsel Test Site - Long-Term Cement Studies), an in-situ experiment lasting about 5 years was started in 2009 to study water-cement-rock interactions in a fractured granite. Prior to the experiment, a tracer test was performed to characterize the initial flow and transport properties of the rock around the experimental boreholes. This study reports on the model interpretation of tracer test 09-03. The calculations were performed by means of a two-dimensional model (homogeneous fracture plane including 3 boreholes) using the Retraso-CodeBright software package. In the tracer test, Grimsel groundwater containing the tracer (uranine) was circulated in the emplacement borehole during 43 days (zero injection flow rate). Circulation continued without tracer afterwards. Water was extracted at the observation and extraction boreholes. Results from a model sensitivity analysis comparing model results with measured tracer concentrations showed 3 cases where the evolution of tracer concentrations in the 3 different boreholes was satisfactory. In these cases a low-permeability skin affected the emplacement and observation boreholes. No skin appeared to affect the extraction borehole. The background hydraulic gradient seems to have no effect on the results of the tracer test. These results will be applied in the calculation of the initial flow field for the reactive transport phase of in-situ experiment 2 (interaction between pre-hardened cement and fractured granite at Grimsel). (orig.)

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  18. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  19. Ultrastructure of human mature oocytes after vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of human assisted reproduction, oocyte cryopreservation has been regarded as an attractive option to capitalize the reproductive potential of surplus oocytes and preserve female fertility. However, for two decades the endeavor to store oocytes has been limited by the not yet optimized methodologies, with the consequence of poor clinical outcome or of uncertain reproducibility. Vitrification has been developed as the promising technology of cryopreservation even if slow freezing remains a suitable choice. Nevertheless, the insufficiency of clinical and correlated multidisciplinary data is still stirring controversy on the impact of this technique on oocyte integrity. Morphological studies may actually provide a great insight in this debate. Phase contrast microscopy and other light microscopy techniques, including cytochemistry, provided substantial morphofunctional data on cryopreserved oocyte, but are unable to unraveling fine structural changes. The ultrastructural damage is one of the most adverse events associated with cryopreservation, as an effect of cryo-protectant toxicity, ice crystal formation and osmotic stress. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy has attracted only limited attention in the field of cryopreservation. In this review, the subcellular structure of human mature oocytes following vitrification is discussed at the light of most relevant ultrastructural studies.

  20. In-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre Bochum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Rolf; Wittig, Volker; Güldenhaupt, Jonas; Duda, Mandy; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Bussmann, Gregor; Tünte, Henry; Saenger, Erik H.; Eicker, Timm; Löer, Katrin; Schäfers, Klaus; Macit, Osman; Jagert, Felix

    2017-04-01

    The in-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre (GZB) is located on the campus of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences. The area represents a 10.000 m2 drill site with existing research, observation and production wells and allows further drill tests and drilling down to depths of 5.000 m - also in conjunction with the approved authorized 50 km2 mining area "Future Energies" and the GZB's own mobile dual drive drilling rig Bo.Rex capable of drilling down to depths of 1000 m. The site allows for a comprehensive characterization of the subsurface underneath the university's campus in terms of a case study in Bochum pursuing the objective to provide an in-situ test field to researchers from geosciences and other disciplines. The local geology comprises folded and fractured carboniferous sediments including sandstones, siltstones, claystones and coal seams with low matrix permeabilies. Currently, one research well, 29 production wells, and seven monitoring wells are available. The research well reaching to a depth of about 500 m with an open-hole section between 450 m and 500 m has been fully cored down to 200 m, selected sections were additionally cored down to 450 m. Production wells with depths of up to 200 m are equipped with borehole heat exchangers providing heating and cooling for the GZB and a new lecture building. Monitoring wells vary in depth and reach down to 200 m. The majority of wells were comprehensively characterized using the GZB's borehole geophysical logging system with deviation, caliper, gamma ray and acoustic imaging, but also full waveform sonic, flowmeter and electrical conductivity. Cuttings were collected, documented and partly stored. The in-situ test site will be complemented by a seismic and hydrogeological observatory comprising borehole seismometers at depths of up to 200 m. The seismic network will ensure permanent observation of natural and potential anthropogenic seismicity. Additionally, drilling activities

  1. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Revision 1, Demonstration system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.

    1994-08-16

    Over the last nine years IIT Research Institute (IITRI) has been developing and testing the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. The vaporized contaminants, water vapor and air are recovered from the heated zone by means of a vacuum manifold system which collects gases from below surface as well as from the soil surface. A vapor barrier is used to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants and to control air infiltration to minimize dilution of the contaminant gases and vapors. The recovered gases and vapors are conveyed to an on site vapor treatment system for the clean up of the vent gases. Electrical energy is applied to the soil by forming an array of electrodes in the soil which are electrically interconnected and supplied with power. The electrodes are placed in drilled bore holes which are made through the contaminated zone. There are two versions of the in situ heating and soil treatment process: the f irst version is called the In Situ Radio Frequency (RF) Soil Decontamination Process and the second version is called the In Situ Electromagnetic (EM) Soil Decontamination Process. The first version, the RF Process is capable of heating the soil in a temperature range of 100{degrees} to 400{degrees}C. The soil temperature in the second version, the EM Process, is limited to the boiling point of water under native conditions. Thus the soil will be heated to a temperature of about 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. In this project IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site due to the fact that most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C.

  2. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  3. SEALEX in-situ experiments-performance tests of repository seals: experimental observations and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokni Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes observations and numerical analysis of SEALEX performance tests installed in Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL. One of the objectives of the large scale in-situ tests is to investigate the impact of technological gaps on the long term performance of bentonite based seals. The swelling cores consist of pre-compacted blocks of a natural sodic Wyoming bentonite (MX80 type mixed with quartz sand in a ratio of 70/30 (in dry mass with different geometries (monolithic disks or four jointed disks. Several technological gaps exist within the in situ tests: Gaps between the blocks and annular gap with variable width between the bentonite-based core and the host rock. All the tests are extensively instrumented for monitoring the main Hydro-Mechanical (HM variables. Comparison of the experimental results showed that the presence of technological gaps constituted new hydration sources (annular gaps and flow paths (gaps between the blocks that changed the saturation kinetics. A coupled HM formulation that incorporates the relevant processes involved in the problem under consideration has been adopted to analyse the effect of the annular technological gap on dry density homogenization of the bentonite based core as hydration progresses. Technological gaps were demonstrated to have an impact on dry density distribution.

  4. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.; No, Hyo.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E's mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification

  5. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, T.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or ``microwave melter`` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  6. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaick, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of DOE radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915 MHz, 75 kW microwave vitrification system or `microwave melter` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  7. In Situ Elevated Temperature Testing of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Les; Pan, Zhu; Tao, Zhong; van Riessen, Arie

    2016-06-03

    In situ elevated temperature investigations using fly ash based geopolymers filled with alumina aggregate were undertaken. Compressive strength and short term creep tests were carried out to determine the onset temperature of viscous flow. Fire testing using the standard cellulose curve was performed. Applying a load to the specimen as the temperature increased reduced the temperature at which viscous flow occurred (compared to test methods with no applied stress). Compressive strength increased at the elevated temperature and is attributed to viscous flow and sintering forming a more compact microstructure. The addition of alumina aggregate and reduction of water content reduced the thermal conductivity. This led to the earlier onset and shorter dehydration plateau duration times. However, crack formation was reduced and is attributed to smaller thermal gradients across the fire test specimen.

  8. In Situ Elevated Temperature Testing of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Vickers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ elevated temperature investigations using fly ash based geopolymers filled with alumina aggregate were undertaken. Compressive strength and short term creep tests were carried out to determine the onset temperature of viscous flow. Fire testing using the standard cellulose curve was performed. Applying a load to the specimen as the temperature increased reduced the temperature at which viscous flow occurred (compared to test methods with no applied stress. Compressive strength increased at the elevated temperature and is attributed to viscous flow and sintering forming a more compact microstructure. The addition of alumina aggregate and reduction of water content reduced the thermal conductivity. This led to the earlier onset and shorter dehydration plateau duration times. However, crack formation was reduced and is attributed to smaller thermal gradients across the fire test specimen.

  9. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world's first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry

  10. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  11. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them

  12. Engineering test plan for Tank 241-SY-101 in situ viscometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobocinski, R.G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.

    1994-11-01

    To obtain in situ measurements of the rheological properties within tank 241-SY-101, this document will implement the test strategy defined in PNLMIT-041994, acquisition and Reduction of Data Obtained in Tank SY-101 with the Ball Rheometer. Instructions for all sequences are defined within the procedure. All safety requirements as defined in LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-101-SY have been implemented into this procedure

  13. Multiscale Stochastic Fracture Mechanics of Composites Informed by In-situ XCT Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    with a resolution of 330nm/ pixel . The field of view is approximately 712µm (height) x 840µm (diameter). Figure 2 shows the rendered 3D image with the...process. This is one of a few in-situ sub -micron XCT tests on CFRP conducted so far in the world. Figure 2: An X-ray CT volume render of the cross...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. approach. The CT dataset consists of a stack of 2160 slices each comprising 2560x2560 pixels

  14. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-01-01

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

  15. The Haw in-situ test at Asse - its conception and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Hinsch, H.; Monig, J.

    1989-01-01

    The HAW-disposal test is a demonstration and a R and D test utilizing nearly full-size waste canisters with vitrified Cs-137 and Sr-90 as heat and radiation sources in a repository-like setting. It is, however, not intended as an in-situ experiment for testing the glass product of the vitrified waste. The entire test field comprises two separate rooms, A and B, each having four boreholes. The maximum salt temperatures are planned to be 250 0 C (electric heating) and 250/200/200 0 C (γ radiative heating), with essentially the same maximum dose rates for two pairs of boreholes (∼5·10 5 rad/h). The loaded test canisters are now available and do not completely meet the intended specification. Heat loadings as well as dose rates are, for several reasons, lower than planned by about 30%. The designs of the emplacement boreholes in each of the two test rooms are basically the same. For retrievability reasons, all boreholes will have a liner. The only significant difference will be, that the room A-boreholes will have a backfilling of inert alumina pebbles between liner and the salt, whereas these in room B will have a free annulus that allows the salt to converge freely onto the liner surfaces, thus simulating the salt converging onto canisters in an actual repository. Gas sampling from the boreholes will mainly be done in the annular regions. A special dosimetry program, as well as an extensive radiolytic effects program, both in situ and laboratory, are under preparation. A special radiation effects study will be performed with Dummy canisters located at the top of the canister stacks. The entire test is a joint European project with the financial contribution of the CEC and the close cooperation with ECN, ANDRA and ENRESA

  16. Push-pull tests for estimating effective porosity: expanded analytical solution and in situ application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Charles J.; McKay, Larry D.; Perfect, Edmund; Istok, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2017-10-01

    The analytical solution describing the one-dimensional displacement of the center of mass of a tracer during an injection, drift, and extraction test (push-pull test) was expanded to account for displacement during the injection phase. The solution was expanded to improve the in situ estimation of effective porosity. The truncated equation assumed displacement during the injection phase was negligible, which may theoretically lead to an underestimation of the true value of effective porosity. To experimentally compare the expanded and truncated equations, single-well push-pull tests were conducted across six test wells located in a shallow, unconfined aquifer comprised of unconsolidated and heterogeneous silty and clayey fill materials. The push-pull tests were conducted by injection of bromide tracer, followed by a non-pumping period, and subsequent extraction of groundwater. The values of effective porosity from the expanded equation (0.6-5.0%) were substantially greater than from the truncated equation (0.1-1.3%). The expanded and truncated equations were compared to data from previous push-pull studies in the literature and demonstrated that displacement during the injection phase may or may not be negligible, depending on the aquifer properties and the push-pull test parameters. The results presented here also demonstrated the spatial variability of effective porosity within a relatively small study site can be substantial, and the error-propagated uncertainty of effective porosity can be mitigated to a reasonable level (< ± 0.5%). The tests presented here are also the first that the authors are aware of that estimate, in situ, the effective porosity of fine-grained fill material.

  17. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13 C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13 C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V max for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K m values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 μM for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems

  18. Development of In situ Geological Investigation and Test Equipment in KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kweon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-12-01

    For establishment of the advanced infrastructures of KURT, geological investigation and in situ test equipment were installed. The optical sensor technique could be applicable to monitoring system for the safe operation of various kinds of facilities having static and/or dynamic characteristics, such as chemical plant, pipeline, rail, huge building, long and slim structures, bridge, subway and marine vessel. etc. The micro-seismic monitoring system is able to predict the location and timing of fracturing of rock mass and rock fall around an underground openings as well as analysis on safety of various kinds of engineering structures such as nuclear facilities and other structures. The straddle packer system for hydro-testing in a deep borehole will lead to not only improve current technical level in the field of hydraulic testing but also provide important information to radioactive waste disposal technology development and site characterization project

  19. In situ coronary stent paving by Pluronic F127-alginate gel blends: Formulation and erosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental protocol to perform the in situ gel-paving of coronary stent is presented. Biocompatible aqueous blends of Pluronic F127 and sodium alginates are used as potential drug dosage system for pharmacological in situ treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. Pluronic F127/alginate aqueous blend has the unique characteristic to be liquid at room condition and to form gel at physiological temperature. The proposed protocol is based on the blend injection on stent wall previously implanted in a flexible silicon pipe mimicking the coronary artery. Injected blend is warmed up until human body temperature achieving a soft gel, then it is reticulated by copper bivalent ions to obtain an hard gel. To test the gel paving resistance to erosion phenomena when it is exposed to fluid flux (i.e. blood flux) a dedicated device, (the Simulated Artery Device, SAD), was built to simulate the human circulatory apparatus. The SAD is an hydraulic circuit in which a buffer solution (at pH 7.4) was fluxed by a peristaltic pump through the pipe hosting the covered stent. Erosion tests were performed monitoring, by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods, the residual mass anchored to stent mesh after given times. The obtained results showed that the in situ gel-paving developed protocol was efficacious and reliable. The gel-paving was completely eroded in a time of the same order of magnitude of the physiological period required to restore the coronary lesion (subsequent to the atheroma removal) and of a pharmacological therapy to inhibit the in-stent-restenosis pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1013-1022, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  1. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  2. Vitrification of mouse MII oocytes: Developmental competency using paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: A high concentration of paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, interrupted the mouse oocyte competency when supplemented to vitrification media. Consequently, the optimal concentration of this cytoskeleton stabilizer may improve the post-thawed developmental abilities of oocytes.

  3. Basis for in-situ geomechanical testing at the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, M.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the in-situ geomechanical testing needs for the Exploratory Shaft (ES) test facility at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The testing needs are derived from 10CFR60 regulations and simple thermomechanical canister- and room-scale numerical studies. The testing approach suggested is based on an ''iterative'' procedure of full-scale testing combined with numerical and empirical modeling. The testing suggested is based heavily on demonstration of excavation and thermal loading of full-scale repository excavations. Numerical and/or empirical models are compared to the full-scale response, allowing for adjustment of the model and evaluation of confidence in their predictive ability. Additional testing may be specified if confidence in prediction of the rock mass response is low. It is suggested that extensive drifting be conducted within the proposed repository area, including exploration of the bounding Drill Hole Wash and Imbricate fault structures, as well as the Ghost Dance fault. This approach is opposed to an a priori statistical specification of a number of ''point'' tests which attempt to measure a given property at a specific location. 40 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Basis for in-situ geomechanical testing at the Yucca Mountain site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Board, M.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the in-situ geomechanical testing needs for the Exploratory Shaft (ES) test facility at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The testing needs are derived from 10CFR60 regulations and simple thermomechanical canister- and room-scale numerical studies. The testing approach suggested is based on an ``iterative`` procedure of full-scale testing combined with numerical and empirical modeling. The testing suggested is based heavily on demonstration of excavation and thermal loading of full-scale repository excavations. Numerical and/or empirical models are compared to the full-scale response, allowing for adjustment of the model and evaluation of confidence in their predictive ability. Additional testing may be specified if confidence in prediction of the rock mass response is low. It is suggested that extensive drifting be conducted within the proposed repository area, including exploration of the bounding Drill Hole Wash and Imbricate fault structures, as well as the Ghost Dance fault. This approach is opposed to an a priori statistical specification of a number of ``point`` tests which attempt to measure a given property at a specific location. 40 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Browne, L.M.; Bryan, G.H.; Holton, L.K.; Irish, E.R.; Siemens, D.H.

    1979-05-01

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables

  6. Modelling the cooling and partial dismantling of the Febex in-situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Gens, A.; Guimaraes, L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many designs for radioactive waste disposal the space between the canister and the cavity surface is filled by an engineered barrier made up of compacted expansive clay. Engineered barrier and adjacent host rock will be submitted to the heating effect of the nuclear waste as well as to associated hydraulic and mechanical phenomena that interact in a complex way. In order to achieve a safe and robust repository design, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the processes that occur in the near field and their evolution over time. To this end, properly instrumented full scale in situ tests provide essential information. The in-situ test operated at full scale and under natural conditions at the underground laboratory managed by NAGRA (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. Two 4300 W heaters were placed in the axis of the horizontal drift in the natural rock (granite). The heaters were 4.54 m long and 0.90 m in diameter, and were intended to simulate the release of heat by nuclear waste. The space between the rock surface and the heaters was backfilled using blocks of compacted bentonite. The test area was sealed with a 2.7 m long concrete plug. The test was heavily instrumented, including 632 sensors that were installed in the clay barrier and in the rock with measurements of temperatures, relative humidity (equivalent to total suction), pore pressures, displacements, and stresses. The heaters were symmetrically placed in relation to the central section of the test. The power of the heaters was adjusted to maintain a 100 deg. C temperature at the interface between heaters and bentonite barrier. The test was run in this way for five years when one of the heaters was switched off and dismantled. Dismantling data provided extremely valuable information about the state of the barrier at the end of the experiment and a useful benchmark for

  7. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Estimation of In Situ Stresses with Hydro-Fracturing Tests and a Statistical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hikweon; Ong, See Hong

    2018-03-01

    At great depths, where borehole-based field stress measurements such as hydraulic fracturing are challenging due to difficult downhole conditions or prohibitive costs, in situ stresses can be indirectly estimated using wellbore failures such as borehole breakouts and/or drilling-induced tensile failures detected by an image log. As part of such efforts, a statistical method has been developed in which borehole breakouts detected on an image log are used for this purpose (Song et al. in Proceedings on the 7th international symposium on in situ rock stress, 2016; Song and Chang in J Geophys Res Solid Earth 122:4033-4052, 2017). The method employs a grid-searching algorithm in which the least and maximum horizontal principal stresses ( S h and S H) are varied, and the corresponding simulated depth-related breakout width distribution as a function of the breakout angle ( θ B = 90° - half of breakout width) is compared to that observed along the borehole to determine a set of S h and S H having the lowest misfit between them. An important advantage of the method is that S h and S H can be estimated simultaneously in vertical wells. To validate the statistical approach, the method is applied to a vertical hole where a set of field hydraulic fracturing tests have been carried out. The stress estimations using the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the results interpreted from the hydraulic fracturing test measurements.

  9. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  10. Effects of various freezing containers for vitrification freezing on mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul; Kim, Jae Myeoung; Seo, Byoung Boo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, various freezing containers were tested for mouse embryos of respective developmental stages; embryos were vitrified and then their survival rate and developmental rate were monitored. Mouse two cell, 8 cell, and blastula stage embryos underwent vitrification freezing-thawing and then their recovery rate, survival rate, development rate, and hatching rate were investigated. EM-grid, OPS, and cryo-loop were utilized for vitrification freezing-thawing of mouse embryos. It was found that recovery rate and survival rate were higher in the group of cryo-loop compared to those of EM-grid (p containers on vitrified embryos of respective developmental stages; it was demonstrated that higher developmental rate was shown in more progressed (or developed) embryos with more blastomeres. There was however, no difference in embryonic development rate was shown amongst containers. Taken together, further additional studies are warranted with regards to 1) manipulation techniques of embryos for various vitrification freezing containers and 2) preventive measures against contamination via liquid nitrogen.

  11. Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young S; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M; Maas, Richard L; Demirci, Utkan

    2010-03-09

    The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect.

  12. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2011-01-01

    Cr1Nb matrix has been produced, and put into service for 2,200 hours allowing a unique in-situ corrosion test. 10 high Cr alloys have been tested this way. The corrosion appearance is found to be a factor of not only the chemical composition but also the production method. HIPd material with high Cr...... used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49...... content and low content of Fe and Mo is found to be the best choice for hot corrosion resistance....

  13. Iterative procedure for in-situ EUV optical testing with an incoherent source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaka, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Zakhor, Avideh

    2009-12-01

    We propose an iterative method for in-situ optical testing under partially coherent illumination that relies on the rapid computation of aerial images. In this method a known pattern is imaged with the test optic at several planes through focus. A model is created that iterates through possible aberration maps until the through-focus series of aerial images matches the experimental result. The computation time of calculating the through-focus series is significantly reduced by a-SOCS, an adapted form of the Sum Of Coherent Systems (SOCS) decomposition. In this method, the Hopkins formulation is described by an operator S which maps the space of pupil aberrations to the space of aerial images. This operator is well approximated by a truncated sum of its spectral components.

  14. Subsurface Planar Vitrification Treatment of Problematic TRU Wastes: Status of a Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.K.; Nowack, B.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the In Situ Transuranic Waste Delineation and Removal Project in which the GeoMelt R Subsurface Planar Vitrification TM (SPV TM ) process is being evaluated for the in situ treatment of burial sites containing remote handled mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. The GeoMelt R SPV TM process was invented and patented by Geosafe Corporation. AMEC holds the exclusive worldwide license to use this technology. The current project is part of a three-phase demonstration program to evaluate the effectiveness of the GeoMelt R SPV TM process to treat waste contained in vertical pipe units (VPUs) and caissons that were used for the disposal of remote handled transuranic wastes located at Hanford's 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. This project is being performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for use at the Hanford site and other DOE installations. The Phase I evaluation determined that removal and treatment of the 618-10/11 VPUs are beyond what can be safely accomplished using conventional excavation methods. Accordingly, a careful stepwise non-intrusive delineation approach and treatment using the GeoMelt R SPV TM technology, followed by removal, characterization, and disposal of the resulting inert vitrified mass was identified as the preferred alternative. Phase II of the project, which started in July 2004, included a full-scale non-radioactive demonstration of AMEC's GeoMelt R SPV TM process on a mock VPU configured to match the actual VPUs. The non-radioactive demonstration (completed in May 2005) was performed to confirm the approach and design before proceeding to a radioactive ('hot') demonstration on an actual VPU. This demonstration took approximately 130 hours, processed the entire mock VPU, and resulted in a vitrified monolith weighing an estimated 90 tonnes. [1] Plans for a radioactive demonstration on an actual VPU are being developed for CY 2006. In addition to demonstrating GeoMelt R SPV TM , delineation techniques are being

  15. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpith Siddaiah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the “byproduct effects” in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear–corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  16. Lab scale testing of novel natural analog in situ stabilization agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the laboratory-scale test results on several novel in situ treatment and stabilization agents for buried hazardous and radioactive waste. Paraffin, hematite and phosphate materials were examined when combined with soil and other wastes representative of what might be present at buried waste DOE sites. Hematite was made from the reaction of agricultural iron and lime slurries to form gypsum and iron oxide/hydroxide. Common household paraffin was melted, both with and without a zeolitic additive, waste added and then cooled. Magnesium phosphate was made from the reaction of magnesium oxide and phosphoric acid or potassium biphosphate to form, magnesium phosphate. All were tested with soil and some with additional waste sumulants such as ash, machine oil and nitrate salts. The following laboratory-generated data indicate that all waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate materials, for field in situ testing. Compressive strengths of treated Idaho National Engineering and Environment Laboratory (INEEL) soil and the waste encapsulation material were sufficient to prevent collapse of the void space in waste, i.e., greater than the NRC 60 psi minimum. The mineralogy and microstructure of hematite was amorphous but should progress to an interlocking crystalline solid. Phosphate was crystalline with characteristics of higher temperature ceramics. Paraffin is non crystalline but encapsulates even very fine grained INEEL soils. Each agent appears to be chemically and physically inert to possible waste materials such as, nitrates and machine cutting oil. Two of the agents hematite and phosphate react favorably with ash increasing the metals retention at higher waste loadings than Portland cement. Hematite, phosphate and zeolite decrease leaching of most hazardous metals from waste when compared to untreated waste and soil. Solution pH, time for reaction initiation, and viscosity values are conducive to jet-grouting application

  17. Scoping analysis of in situ thermal-hydrological testing at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, are required to test coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemical (T-H-M-C) process models that support total system performance assessment. The ESF thermal tests must provide an understanding of coupled T-H-M-C processes that are relevant to expected repository conditions. Current planning includes the possibility of two large-scale tests: (1) the first ESF (drift-scale) thermal test, which will be conducted under an accelerated heatup and cooldown schedule, and (2) a second ESF (multi-drift) test, which will be larger-scale, longer-duration test, conducted under a less accelerated heatup and cooldown schedule. With the V-TOUGH (vectorized transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat) code, the authors modeled and evaluated a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to develop a test design that provides sufficient (and timely) information to determine the following: the dominant mode(s) of heat flow; the major T-H regime(s) and the T-H-M-C processes that determine the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow; and the influence of heterogeneous conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. A major purpose of the ESF thermal tests is to determine which major decay-heat-driven T-H flow regime(s) will govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow in the UZ. Another major purpose of the thermal tests is to determine the degree of vapor diffusion enhancement

  18. Push-pull tests for estimating effective porosity: expanded analytical solution and in situ application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Charles J.; McKay, Larry D.; Perfect, Edmund; Istok, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2018-03-01

    The analytical solution describing the one-dimensional displacement of the center of mass of a tracer during an injection, drift, and extraction test (push-pull test) was expanded to account for displacement during the injection phase. The solution was expanded to improve the in situ estimation of effective porosity. The truncated equation assumed displacement during the injection phase was negligible, which may theoretically lead to an underestimation of the true value of effective porosity. To experimentally compare the expanded and truncated equations, single-well push-pull tests were conducted across six test wells located in a shallow, unconfined aquifer comprised of unconsolidated and heterogeneous silty and clayey fill materials. The push-pull tests were conducted by injection of bromide tracer, followed by a non-pumping period, and subsequent extraction of groundwater. The values of effective porosity from the expanded equation (0.6-5.0%) were substantially greater than from the truncated equation (0.1-1.3%). The expanded and truncated equations were compared to data from previous push-pull studies in the literature and demonstrated that displacement during the injection phase may or may not be negligible, depending on the aquifer properties and the push-pull test parameters. The results presented here also demonstrated the spatial variability of effective porosity within a relatively small study site can be substantial, and the error-propagated uncertainty of effective porosity can be mitigated to a reasonable level (effective porosity of fine-grained fill material.

  19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  20. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Kobler, Aaron; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique; Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Kübel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected

  1. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  2. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, E; Alvarez, B J; Patiño, H; Telenti, A; Barreiro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed. (paper)

  3. Improvements in in-situ filter test methods using a total light-scattering detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents research aimed at providing useful data on a commonly used technique; a DOP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) aerosol and a total light-scattering photometer. Methods of increasing the sensitivity of this technique are described. Alternative methods of in-situ filter testing are also considered. The sensitivity of a typical, modern, total light-scattering photometer, as a function of particle diameter, has a broad maximum in mass terms between 0.1 and 0.4 um. At its maximum usable sensitivity the instrument can detect approx. 1 particle/cm 3 . This response can be explained by light scattering theory and particle loss in the instrument inlet. The mass median diameter of the aerosols produced by various DOP generators varies from 0.2 to 1.0μm. Experiments with good quality HEPA filters indicate a maximum penetration for particles of 0.15 - 0.2μm. Details of the studies are given and the consequences discussed. It is shown that filter penetration of -3 % can be measured in-situ with existing equipment. Methods of extending the sensitivity to measure a penetration of approx.10 -5 % are described. (author)

  4. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  5. A novel nanoscratch device compatible with commercial microscope for in situ tests of materials’ mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For exploring the mechanical properties and behaviors of new materials, a novel in situ nanoscratch device compatible with commercial microscope has been developed. The developed device with specific dimensions of 178 mm × 165 mm × 78 mm includes the coarse positioning module, the precise feed module, the measurement module, and the control module. Integrating the servo motor, worm and gears, ball screw, flexure hinge, and piezoelectric actuator, the device can realize macroscopical coarse positioning motion and precise feed motion. A novel arrangement of load sensor and indenter with no middle chain is used to reduce the measurement error. Closed-loop control system is established to guarantee the accuracy of load and displacement control. Mechanical properties of the developed device have been proved by calibrating the load sensor, finite element analysis of flexure hinge, and verifying the output performance. The in situ nanoscratch test has been conducted on the single crystal copper. The captured images and finite element analysis prove the feasibility and accuracy of the developed device.

  6. Addition of sucrose on cryoprotectant solution of vitrification enhances the quality of Dorper sheep embryos produced in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Pains Oliveira do Monte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding sucrose in vitrification solution of ovine embryos produced in vivo. Forty Dorper ewes were selected and superovulated. Immediately prior to the embryo collection by laparotomy, a laparoscopy was performed to verify the superovulatory response. The recovered flushing was followed by embryo evaluation and embryos were divided in two experimental groups where embryos from Control group were submitted to a traditional vitrification protocol and embryos from Sucrose group to a modified vitrification protocol with sucrose. After warming, embryos were again divided regarding cryoprotectant removal (Indirect or not (Direct. The embryo quality was classified as embryos of degrees I (excellent or good, II (regular, III (poor and IV (dead or degenerate. It was also verified the homogeneity of mass, occurrence of embryonic mass retraction and rupture of pellucid zone. The results were expressed as percentages and were subjected to Chi-square test with P < 0.05. The embryos vitrified in the presence of sucrose had lower proportions of lower-quality embryos after warming (22.20 vs. 44.50%, higher percentages of homogeneous embryos after warming (63.89 vs. 38.89 % while concerning other parameters there was no difference between these groups. It can be concluded that the addition of 0.4 M sucrose during vitrification improves the embryo quality.

  7. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjaktarovic, L. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Nix, P. [EVS Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Gulley, J.

    1995-12-31

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands.

  8. Potential effects of updated pap test screening guidelines and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroilhet, Lisa; Van Hanegem, Lennie; Bernstein, Marilyn; Feldman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    To review cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at our institution to examine how updated guidelines affect the timing of diagnosis. We identified patients with AIS diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification, code 233.1. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology review. We abstracted demographic data, dysplasia history, and modalities utilized for diagnosis and treatment. We identified 242 patients who met selection criteria. Two hundred eight (86%) had Pap test abnormalities at presentation. One hundred thirty-seven out of 208 (66%) patients with abnormal Pap test results had a squamous, rather than glandular, abnormality. The mean time from abnormal Pap test to diagnosis of AIS was 29 months in patients older than 30 years and was 21 months in patients 30 years or younger. In patients younger than 21 years, 16 out of 17 had abnormal screening Pap test results showing squamous lesions. Their subsequent treatment for squamous dysplasia ultimately led to the diagnosis of AIS. : Updated screening guidelines may prevent the expeditious diagnosis of AIS in females younger than 21 years and those aged 21-29 years, many of whom had normal Pap test results within 3 years of diagnosis. II.

  9. In-situ Creep Testing Capability Development for Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2010-08-01

    Creep is the slow, time-dependent strain that occurs in a material under a constant strees (or load) at high temperature. High temperature is a relative term, dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve is shown in Figure 1-1. In a creep test, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature. Strain is then measured over a period of time. The slope of the curve, identified in the figure below, is the strain rate of the test during Stage II or the creep rate of the material. Primary creep, Stage I, is a period of decreasing creep rate due to work hardening of the material. Primary creep is a period of primarily transient creep. During this period, deformation takes place and the resistance to creep increases until Stage II, Secondary creep. Stage II creep is a period with a roughly constant creep rate. Stage II is referred to as steady-state creep because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes. Tertiary creep, Stage III, occurs when there is a reduction in cross sectional area due to necking or effective reduction in area due to internal void formation; that is, the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress.

  10. Design, development, and testing of a hybrid in situ testing device for building joint sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Embree, N.; Buch, C.; Williams, R. S.

    2005-04-01

    The testing of sealant samples has been restricted to devices that either focus on fatiguing multiple samples or quantifying the mechanical properties of a single sample. This manuscript describes a device that combines these two instrumental designs: the ability to both fatigue and characterize multiple sealant samples at the same time. This device employs precise movement capability combined with a stiff loading frame and accurate force measurement for the characterization of five ASTM C719 sealant samples. The performance of this device is demonstrated by monitoring the changes in mechanical properties of silicone sealant during the first 90h of cure. A complete description of the apparatus, results from the study of curing and analysis is included.

  11. Conventional slow freezing cryopreserves mouflon spermatozoa better than vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradiee, J; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2017-04-01

    This work examines the effectiveness of a TCG (Tris, citric acid, glucose, 6% egg yolk and 5% glycerol) and a TEST (TES, Tris, glucose, 6% egg yolk and 5% glycerol) sperm extender in the freezing of mouflon spermatozoa at slow cooling rates, using different pre-freezing equilibration times (2-3 hr). It also examines the tolerance of mouflon spermatozoa to different concentrations of cryoprotectants (5, 10, 20% glycerol; 5%, 10%, 20% dimethyl sulfoxide; 6% polyvinylpyrrolidone) and/or sucrose (100, 300, 500 mm). The highest quality (p spermatozoa were obtained when using the TEST extender and an equilibration time of 3 hr. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were strongly reduced when using rapid freezing rates (60-85°C min -1 ), independent of the concentration of cryoprotectants. The lowest sucrose concentration (100 mm) provided the highest (p spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome. Vitrified-warmed sperm variables were at their best when the spermatozoa was diluted in TCG-6% egg yolk + 100 mm sucrose and warmed at 60°C. Slow warming at 37°C strongly reduced (p < .05) sperm motility and viability. However, sperm vitrification returned lower fertility, sperm motility and sperm viability values than conventional sperm freezing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Cryopreservation of Lilium martagon l. meristems by droplet-vitrification and evaluation of their physiological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniec-Kiepura, M; Bach, A

    The aim of the present study was to compare different strategies for cryopreservation of martagon lily meristems and to evaluate the physiological status of the regenerants. The bulblets were stored at 5 degree C or 20 degree C and pretreated with 3% or 6% sucrose prior to droplet-vitrification. The meristems were then assessed for their survival and regeneration. Their photochemical activity was investigated using a Photosynthesis Yield Analyzer MINI PAM 2000 Portable Chlorophyll Fluorometer and their photosynthesis oxygen production was evaluated with a Plant Vital 5030 device. The plant material stored at 5 degree C on medium containing 3% sucrose exhibited lower survival (40.8%) and regeneration (75%) of meristems following cryopreservation compared with material stored at 20 degree C on medium containing 3% sucrose, for which survival was 65% and regeneration 87%. Treatment of lily meristems for 30 min with PVS2 yielded high survival and regeneration. The implemented cryopreservation protocol did not induce any physiological changes in regenerants. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was 0.822 for cryopreserved samples (+LN) and 0.824 for non-cryopreserved ones (-LN). Photosynthetic oxygen production (KphA) was 1.531 (+LN) and 1.410 (-LN). Droplet-vitrification seems to be an effective method for cryopreservation of martagon lily meristems with the aim of its ex situ protection.

  13. Cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, M; Rawson, D M; Zhang, T

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish oocytes is challenging because these oocytes have low membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant and are highly chilling sensitive. Vitrification is considered to be a promising approach for their cryopreservation as it involves rapid freezing and thawing of the oocytes and therefore minimising the chilling injury. In the present study, vitrification properties and the toxicity of a range of vitrification solutions containing different concentrations of Me2SO, methanol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol were investigated. Two different base media and vitrification methods were compared. The effect of different post-thaw dilution solutions together with incubation periods on oocyte viability were also investigated. Stage III zebrafish oocytes were equilibrated in increasing concentrations of cryoprotectants for 30 min in 3 steps. Oocytes were thawed rapidly in a water bath and cryoprotectants were removed in 4 steps. Oocyte viability was assessed using trypan blue staining. The results showed that vitrification solutions V3 and V4 in KCl buffer had low toxicity and vitrified well. The survivals of oocytes after stepwise dilution using solutions containing permeable cryoprotectants were significant higher than those diluted in 0.5M glucose, and the use of CVA65 vitrification system improved oocyte survival when compared with plastic straws after 30 min at 22 degrees C post-thawing. Cryopreservation of zebrafish oocytes by vitrification is reported here for the first time, although oocyte survivals after cryopreservation assessed by trypan blue staining were relatively high shortly after thawing, they became swollen and translucent after incubation in KCl buffer. Further studies are needed to optimise the post-thaw culturing conditions.

  14. Physical and chemical parameters acquisition in situ, in deep clay. Development of sampling and testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajudie, A.; Coulon, H.; Geneste, P.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of deep formation for radioactive waste disposal requires field-tests or bench-scale experiments on samples of the site material. In the case of clay massifs the taking of cores and the sampling of these are particularly difficult. The most suitable materials and techniques were selected from a study of clay colling and conservation methods. These were used for a series of core samples taken at Mol in Belgium. Subsequently permeability measurements were carried out in laboratory on samples from vertical drilling and compared with in situ measurements. The latter were made by horizontal drillings from the shaft excavation of the underground facility HADES at Mol. There is a good overall agreement between the results of the two types of measurements. 25 figs.; 4 tabs.; 12 refs.; 16 photos

  15. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O' Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  16. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock

  17. Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e

  18. In-situ tensile testing of notched poly- and oligocrystalline 316L wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitevski, Bojan [Materials Science and Engineering (ITM), Duisburg (Germany); Weiss, Sabine [Brandenburg Technical Univ., Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany). Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science.; Fischer, Alfons [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Materials Science and Engineering; Rush Univ. Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics

    2017-03-01

    In-situ testing inside a scanning electron microscope is a helpful tool for detailed analyses of small sized specimens with respect to their mechanical properties and the correlated microstructural alterations. Thus, this test method is used to analyze the tensional properties of thin 316L (1.4441) wires used for microscale components, e.g., like coronary artery stents. Tensile tests were conducted on unnotched and circularly notched 316L wires (oe 0.95 mm) with a special focus on the number of grains within the cross section as well as the notch geometry. Four combinations of notch width (2 and 4 mm) and notch depth (diameter at notch root: 0.5 and 0.75 mm) were chosen. Notch depth and notch shape were adjusted by means of electrochemical polishing. Previous investigations showed, that oligocrystalline structures exhibit a different mechanical behavior compared to polycrystalline ones or single crystals. There are only a few data available on mechanical testing of oligocrystalline structures with respect to varying notch geometries. Depending on the notch geometry, grain size and, therefore, the number of grains within the notch cross section widely scattering yield- and tensile strength as well as failure elongation values were measured. However, the transition criterion between poly- and oligocrystalline behavior could be quantified to be 6 to 7 grains within the cross section.

  19. In situ testing of waste forms and container materials: Contribution to the identification of their long term behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseghem, P. Van; Kursten, B.; Valcke, E.; Serra, H.; Fays, J.; Sneyers, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews in situ projects that have been carried out in the underground laboratory in Boom Clay in Mol in Belgium. The projects involved in situ interaction between candidate container materials, nuclear waste glasses or cements and the Boom Clay. The in situ tests on container materials showed a strong corrosion of C-steel, so that a new container (overpack) material is being considered actually in Belgium, namely stainless steel. The interaction between waste glass or cements and Boom Clay results in reaction layers of a few hundred μm thickness. These layers were successfully characterised in detail, and the reaction processes based on these analyses interpreted. The outputs of the in situ tests on the different materials are compared, and possible interferences discussed. The added value of these in situ tests as part of the global objective of evaluating the long term behaviour of the materials in a disposal rock, in conjunction with laboratory tests and modelling is discussed. (authors)

  20. In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided

  1. A Micro-Comb Test System for In Situ Investigation of Infiltration and Crystallization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gruber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of mineralization and demineralization processes is important for the understanding of many phenomena in daily life. Many crystalline materials are exposed to decay processes, resulting in lesions, cracks, and cavities. Historical artifacts, for example, often composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3, are damaged by exposure to acid rain or temperature cycles. Another example for lesions in a crystalline material is dental caries, which lead to the loss of dental hard tissue, mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp. The filling of such cavities and lesions, to avoid further mineral loss and enable or support the remineralization, is a major effort in both areas. Nevertheless, the investigation of the filling process of these materials into the cavities is difficult due to the non-transparency and crystallinity of the concerned materials. In order to address this problem, we present a transparent, inexpensive, and reusable test system for the investigation of infiltration and crystallization processes in situ, being able to deliver datasets that could potentially be used for quantitative evaluation of the infiltration process. This was achieved using a UV-lithography-based micro-comb test system (MCTS, combined with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to mimic the surface tension/wettability of different materials, like marble, sandstone, or human enamel. Moreover, the potential of this test system is illustrated by infiltration of a CaCO3 crystallization solution and a hydroxyapatite precursor (HApP into the MCTS.

  2. ERG and GRG review of the draft of ''preliminary test plan for in situ testing from an exploratory shaft in salt - October 1983''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) and Geologic Review Group (GRG) were established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering- and geologic-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The January 1984 meeting of the ERG and GRG reviewed the In Situ Test Plan (ISTP) titled ''Preliminary Test Plan for In Situ Testing From an Exploratory Shaft in Salt - October 1983.'' This report documents the ERG's and GRG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG and GRG. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  4. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, Jr., Thomas N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  5. Development of in-situ triaxial test for rock masses. Part 2. Improvement of measurement system and applicability for inhomogeneous rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tetsuji; Kanatani, Mamoru; Kobayakawa, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohtsu, Hitoshi; Tani, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the applicability of in-situ triaxial test for inhomogeneous rock mass. Three in-situ (multiple-step) triaxial compression tests, two in-situ triaxial extension test and an in-situ cyclic triaxial compression tests were carried out in a 9m-deep exploratory adit. The rock mass at the site is sedimentary soft rock of psephites of Neogene system. Axial and lateral strains are measured in the center hole and outer slit of hollow cylindrical specimens. From the result of in-situ triaxial compression test, axial and lateral strains measured in the center hole approximately agreed with the corresponding values measured in the outer slit. Consequently, the measurement systems are reliable. The shear strength evaluated by laboratory triaxial compression test and in-situ rock shear test were about equal to that by in-situ triaxial compression test. The in-situ triaxial extension test and the in-situ cyclic triaxial compression test were also successfully performed but there were some problems to solve for the future. (author)

  6. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  7. In situ X-ray radiography for compression test of porous aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Aruga, Yasuhiro; Makii, Koichi; Miyoshi, Tetsuji

    2003-01-01

    Foam aluminum, as a new structural material for the automobiles, which has attracted attention in recent years, was examined by X-ray radiography using SR light. We aimed to take pictures of the in situ image of the porous structure, and also aimed to clarify how the porous structure influenced the pressure-displacement curve, in this research. The basic information has been obtained, which can be fed back to a basic structural design with the structural materials for the automobile. This was done by combining the X-ray radiography record systems with SR light and CCD camera for the compression test, for instance real-time procedure for foam aluminum to absorb the plastic energy. The difference in foam size could be identified from comparison of each X-ray image using the two samples with different foam size (5.0, 1.7mm) clearly. Moreover, it turns out that the difference in foam size influences pressure-displacement curve in the compression test. As for the sample of which foam size of 1.5mm, it has been understood that displacement until the whole foam collapses is larger than the sample with 5.0mm. It was observed on the sample with 1.5mm in foam size, that it collapsed gradually from the edge through a few steps, though the sample with 5.0mm started to collapse from the vicinity of the center. (author)

  8. Study of twinning behaviors of rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy by interrupted in situ compressive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Dewen; Liu, Tianmo; Shi, Dongfeng; Chen, Huicong; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was deformed by interrupted in situ compressive tests. Compressive and re-compressive tests were conducted along rolling direction (RD). It is discovered that the yield strength of re-compression is enhanced due to grain refinement by {10–12} tensile twins. Twinning activation and evolution are evidenced by electron backscatter diffraction. Correlations with grain orientation and boundary misorientation are observed in the region of twins that arise at grain boundaries. The distributions of grain boundary misorientation associated with twin nucleation are mapped. It is found that nucleation of twin is mainly controlled by the initial texture, and is more easy at low misorientation grain boundaries. The growth of twins depend on two modes: the thickening of the existing twin lamellae and new twins is nucleated at grain boundary. With increasing compressive strain, the growth and coalescence of twins eventually encompassed the whole grain. Meanwhile, the basal texture is weaker after compression due to the propagation and coalescence of tensile twins.

  9. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  10. In Situ Measurements of the NO2/NO Ratio for Testing Atmospheric Photochemical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, L.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Fahey, D. W.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Keim, E. R.; Gao, R. S.; Proffitt, M. H.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Salawitch, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO2, NO, O3, ClO, pressure and temperature have been made for the first time, presenting a unique opportunity to test our current understanding of the photochemistry of the lower stratosphere. Data were collected from several flights of the ER-2 aircraft at mid-latitudes in May 1993 during NASA's Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE). The daytime ratio of NO2/NO remains fairly constant at 19 km with a typical value of 0.68 and standard deviation of +/- 0.17. The ratio observations are compared with simple steady-state calculations based on laboratory-measured reaction rates and modeled NO2 photolysis rates. At each measurement point the daytime NO2/NO with its measurement uncertainty overlap the results of steady-state calculations and associated uncertainty. However, over all the ER-2 flights examined, the model systematically overestimates the ratio by 40% on average. Possible sources of error are examined in both model and measurements. It is shown that more accurate laboratory determinations of the NO + O3 reaction rate and of the NO2 cross-sections in the 200-220 K temperature range characteristic of the lower stratosphere would allow for a more robust test of our knowledge of NO(x) photochemistry by reducing significant sources of uncertainties in the interpretation of stratospheric measurements. The present measurements are compared with earlier observations of the ratio at higher altitudes.

  11. Well completion report on installation of horizontal wells for in-situ remediation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Corey, J.C.; Wright, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air-injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. This study was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in unconsolidated sediments and to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils. A tremendous amount of knowledge was obtained during the drilling and installation of the two test wells. Factors of importance to be considered during design of another horizontal well drilling program follow. (1) Trips in and out of the borehole should be minimized to maintain hole stability. No reaming to enlarge the hole should be attempted. (2) Drilling fluid performance should be maximized by utilizing a low solids, low weight, moderate viscosity, high lubricity fluid. Interruption of drilling fluid circulation should be minimized. (3) Well materials should possess adequate flexibility to negotiate the curve. A flexible guide should be attached to the front of the well screen to guide the screen downhole. (4) Sands containing a minor amount of clay are recommended for completion targets, as better drilling control in the laterals was obtained in these sections

  12. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stored in these underground tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will solidify pretreated tank waste into a glass product that will be packaged for disposal in a national repository. This Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Revision 2, consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions, including Revision 4 submitted with this application, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987)

  14. Gas evolution during vitrification of sodium sulfate and silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of an apparatus designed to identify species evolved during vitrification of hazardous waste materials and to measure the temperatures at which they are evolved. To demonstrate the utility of the apparatus for designing off-gas systems, the authors present the results of heating various sulfates alone and in the presence of silica. During vitrification, the decomposition behavior of some waste components will be affected by the chemical composition of the melt. For example, they found that when silica is present during heating, SO x gases are evolved at lower temperatures than when pure sodium sulfate is heated. Such analyses will be important in the design of off-gas units for waste vitrification systems

  15. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, J.J.; Raivo, B.D.; Bates, S.O.; Berry, S.M.; Nishioka, D.N.; Bunnell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts

  16. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  17. Structural and microstructural aspects of asbestos-cement waste vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Zawada, Anna; Przerada, Iwona; Lubas, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of the work was to evaluate the vitrification process of asbestos-cement waste (ACW). A mixture of 50 wt% ACW and 50 wt% glass cullet was melted in an electric furnace at 1400 °C for 90 min and then cast into a steel mold. The vitrified product was subjected to annealing. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effects of the vitrification. The chemical constitution of the material before and after the vitrification process was also analyzed. It was found that the vitrified product has an amorphous structure in which the components of asbestos-cement waste are incorporated. MIR spectroscopy showed that the absorption bands of chrysotile completely disappeared after the vitrification process. The results of the spectroscopic studies were confirmed by X-ray studies - no diffraction reflections from the chrysotile crystallographic planes were observed. As a result of the treatment, the fibrous asbestos construction, the main cause of its pathogenic properties, completely disappeared. The vitrified material was characterized by higher resistance to ion leaching in an aquatic environment than ACW and a smaller volume of nearly 72% in relation to the apparent volume of the substrates. The research has confirmed the high effectiveness of vitrification in neutralizing hazardous waste containing asbestos and the FT-IR spectroscopy was found to be useful to identify asbestos varieties and visualizing changes caused by the vitrification process. The work also presents the current situation regarding the utilization of asbestos-containing products.

  18. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  19. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  20. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  1. Highly active vitrification plant remote handling operational experience and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgate, I.

    1996-01-01

    Operational experience and technological innovation in the area of remote handling is described for the Sellafield Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP). This plant turns Highly Active Liquid Wastes (HALW) into radioactively immobile, solid forms. The technology needed for remote handling of HALWs, such as ejectors and power fluidics is described as is the mechanical handling needed after the vitrification process. Key features of WVP are described, such as the in-cell cranes, master-slave manipulators and swabbing robots. The severity of the in-cell environment has highlighted the need for innovation in the remote handling equipment and these changes are also described. (UK)

  2. Vitrification of mouse embryos in two cryoprotectant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, S; Horlacher, W; Brem, G; Corselli, J; Seregi, J; Solti, L; Bailey, L

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of 2 media on the vitrification of mouse compacted morulae, early blastocysts and expanded blastocysts after equilibration at room temperature of 4 degrees C. Embryos were equilibrated for 10 min in either 25% VS3 (Rall Equilibration Medium, REM) or 10% glycerol + 20% propylene glycol (Massip Equilibration Medium, MEM) in DPBS at 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C. For vitrification either 100% VS3 (Rall Vitrification Medium, RVM) or 25% glycerol + 25% propylene glycol (Massip Vitrification Medium, MVM) in DPBS was used. Embryos equilibrated at room temperature were loaded in 20 microL of vitrification media into 250 microL straws and then immediately (30 sec) plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN2). After equilibration at 4 degrees C the embryos were put into straws with 20 microL of precooled vitrification medium, and after 20 min at 4 degrees C they were plunged into LN2. Embryos from both groups were thawed in a 20 degrees C water bath for 20 sec, transferred to 1.0 M sucrose in DPBS for 5 min and then cultured for 24 to 48 h in Whitten's medium at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 in air. In the groups of embryos prepared for vitrification at room temperature the survival rate of compact morulae vitrified in RVM was higher than those vitrified in MVM (65/70, 93% vs 49/74, 66%; P < 0.01). No difference was found in the survival rate of early blastocysts and expanded blastocysts vitrified in RVM or MVM (30/83, 36% vs 25/75, 33% and 4/66, 6% vs 4/76, 5%). No difference was found between the survival rate of compact morulae after equilibration with RVM or MVM at 4 degrees C (62/75, 83% vs 52/74, 70%). Both the early blastocysts and expanded blastocysts equilibrated at 4 degrees C MVM yielded a higher survival rate than RVM (28/74, 38% and 40/70, 57% vs 4/75, 5% and 4/77, 5%; P < 0.01). We conclude that, of the 3 developmental stages, compact morulae withstand the vitrification process best, and reduction of the temperature prior

  3. Polluted soils with heavy metals. Stabilization by magnesium oxide. Ex-situ and in-situ testings; Suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Estabilizacion con oxido de magnesio. Ensayos ex situ-in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenoz, S.; Hernandez, J.; Gangutia, N.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the use of Low-Grade MgO as a stabiliser agent for polluted soil reclaim. Low-Grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilisation of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The effectiveness of Low-Grade MgO has been studied in three ex-situ stabilisation of heavily polluted soils contaminated by the flue-dust of pyrite roasting. LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir guaranteeing long-term stabilisation without varying the pH conditions. The success of the ex-situ stabilisation was corroborated with the analysis of heavy metals in the leachates collected from the landfill o ver a long period of time. The study also includes the results obtained in an in-situ pilot scale stabilisation of contaminated soil. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scriven, P. N.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for

  5. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L.

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version

  8. Strategy for product composition control in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The major objective of the Process/Product Model Development (PPMD) cost account of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project is the development of a system for guiding control of feed slurry composition (which affects glass properties) and for checking and documenting product quality. This document lays out the broad structure of HWVP's product composition control system, discusses five major algorithms and technical issues relevant to this system, and sketches the path of development and testing

  9. Strategy for product composition control in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The major objective of the Process/Product Model Development (PPMD) cost account of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project is the development of a system for guiding control of feed slurry composition (which affects glass properties) and for checking and documenting product quality. This document lays out the broad structure of HWVP`s product composition control system, discusses five major algorithms and technical issues relevant to this system, and sketches the path of development and testing.

  10. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data

  11. In situ Probe Microphone Measurement for Testing the Direct Acoustical Cochlear Stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Stieger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Acoustical measurements can be used for functional control of a direct acoustic cochlear stimulator (DACS.Background: The DACS is a recently released active hearing implant that works on the principle of a conventional piston prosthesis driven by the rod of an electromagnetic actuator. An inherent part of the DACS actuator is a thin titanium diaphragm that allows for movement of the stimulation rod while hermetically sealing the housing. In addition to mechanical stimulation, the actuator emits sound into the mastoid cavity because of the motion of the diaphragm.Methods: We investigated the use of the sound emission of a DACS for intra-operative testing. We measured sound emission in the external auditory canal (PEAC and velocity of the actuators stimulation rod (Vact in five implanted ears of whole-head specimens. We tested the influence various positions of the loudspeaker and a probe microphone on PEAC and simulated implant malfunction in one example.Results: Sound emission of the DACS with a signal-to-noise ratio >10 dB was observed between 0.5 and 5 kHz. Simulated implant misplacement or malfunction could be detected by the absence or shift in the characteristic resonance frequency of the actuator. PEAC changed by <6 dB for variations of the microphone and loudspeaker position.Conclusion: Our data support the feasibility of acoustical measurements for in situ testing of the DACS implant in the mastoid cavity as well as for post-operative monitoring of actuator function.

  12. Thermally enhanced in situ bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents - A field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němeček, Jan; Steinová, Jana; Špánek, Roman; Pluhař, Tomáš; Pokorný, Petr; Najmanová, Petra; Knytl, Vladislav; Černík, Miroslav

    2018-05-01

    In situ bioremediation (ISB) using reductive dechlorination is a widely accepted but relatively slow approach compared to other technologies for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethenes (CVOCs). Due to the known positive kinetic effect on microbial metabolism, thermal enhancement may be a viable means of accelerating ISB. We tested thermally enhanced ISB in aquifers situated in sandy saprolite and underlying fractured granite. The system comprised pumping, heating and subsequent injection of contaminated groundwater aiming at an aquifer temperature of 20-30°C. A fermentable substrate (whey) was injected in separate batches. The test was monitored using hydrochemical and molecular tools (qPCR and NGS). The addition of the substrate and increase in temperature resulted in a rapid increase in the abundance of reductive dechlorinators (e.g., Dehalococcoides mccartyi, Dehalobacter sp. and functional genes vcrA and bvcA) and a strong increase in CVOC degradation. On day 34, the CVOC concentrations decreased by 87% to 96% in groundwater from the wells most affected by the heating and substrate. On day 103, the CVOC concentrations were below the LOQ resulting in degradation half-lives of 5 to 6days. Neither an increase in biomarkers nor a distinct decrease in the CVOC concentrations was observed in a deep well affected by the heating but not by the substrate. NGS analysis detected Chloroflexi dechlorinating genera (Dehalogenimonas and GIF9 and MSBL5 clades) and other genera capable of anaerobic metabolic degradation of CVOCs. Of these, bacteria of the genera Acetobacterium, Desulfomonile, Geobacter, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were stimulated by the substrate and heating. In contrast, groundwater from the deep well (affected by heating only) hosted representatives of aerobic metabolic and aerobic cometabolic CVOC degraders. The test results document that heating of the treated aquifer significantly accelerated the

  13. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of strawberry by the vitrification method - establishment of a duplicate collection of Fragaria germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The National German Strawberry Genebank, which includes 183 cultivars and 270 accessions of wild Fragaria species, is maintained in a field collection of the Fruit Genebank at Dresden-Pillnitz. A duplicate collection stored in liquid nitrogen would provide a higher level of security for these irreplaceable genetic resources. Four distinct cryopreservation protocols were tested earlier and the best method, a PVS2 vitrification method with a 14-day alternating-temperature cold acclimation, was modified for further genotype screening. A comprehensive genotype spectrum was tested by screening 107 Fragaria ×ananassa cultivars and 20 Fragaria wild species (51 accessions). The average recovery for the cultivars using the optimized medium was 89.55 % and for the wild species 85.50 %. These results indicate that the method could be used to establish a backup collection in liquid nitrogen. Meristem cultures will be established and the collection will be cryopreserved using this vitrification technique to provide cost effective long-term storage.

  14. Field Testing of Downgradient Uranium Mobility at an In-Situ Recovery Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, P. W.; Clay, J. T.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Chamberlain, K.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ recovery (ISR) mining of uranium involves the injection of O2 and CO2 (or NaHCO3) into saturated roll-front deposits to oxidize and solubilize the uranium, which is then removed by ion exchange at the surface and processed into U3O8. While ISR is economical and environmentally-friendly relative to conventional mining, one of the challenges of extracting uranium by this process is that it leaves behind a geochemically-altered aquifer that is exceedingly difficult to restore to pre-mining geochemical conditions, a regulatory objective. In this research, we evaluated the ability of the aquifer downgradient of an ISR mining area to attenuate the transport of uranium and other problem constituents that are mobilized by the mining process. Such an evaluation can help inform both regulators and the mining industry as to how much restoration of the mined ore zone is necessary to achieve regulatory compliance at various distances downgradient of the mining zone even if complete restoration of the ore zone proves to be difficult or impossible. Three single-well push-pull tests and one cross-well test were conducted in which water from an unrestored, previously-mined ore zone was injected into an unmined ore zone that served as a geochemical proxy for the downgradient aquifer. In all tests, non-reactive tracers were injected with the previously-mined ore zone water to allow the transport of uranium and other constituents to be compared to that of the nonreactive species. In the single-well tests, it was shown that the recovery of uranium relative to the nonreactive tracers ranged from 12-25%, suggesting significant attenuation capacity of the aquifer. In the cross-well test, selenate, molybdate and metavanadate were injected with the unrestored water to provide information on the transport of these potentially-problematic anionic constituents. In addition to the species-specific transport information, this test provided valuable constraints on redox conditions within

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985)

  16. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

  17. Improvement of melter off-gas design for commercial HALW vitrification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, A.; Kitamura, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yoshioka, M.; Endo, N.; Asano, N.

    2001-01-01

    The Japan commercial reprocessing plant is now under construction, and it will commence the operation in 2005. The High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) generated at the plant is treated into glass product at the vitrification facility using the Liquid Fed Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (LFCM). The characteristic of the LFCM is that the HALW is fed directly onto the molten glass surface with the glass forming material. This process was developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The JNC process was first applied to the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), which is a pilot scale plant having about 1/6 capacity of the commercial facility. The TVF has been in operation since 1995. During the operation, the rapid increase of the differential pressure between the melter plenum and the dust scrubber was observed. This phenomenon is harmful to the long-term continuous operation of TVF. And, it is also anticipated that the same phenomenon will occur in commercial vitrification facility. In order to solve this problem, the countermeasures were studied and developed. Through the study on the deposit growing mechanism, it was probable that the rapid increased differential pressure was attributed to the condensation of meta-boric acid at the outlet of the air-film cooler slits. And, the heating and the humidification of purge air were judged to be effective as the countermeasures to suppress the condensation. On the other hand, the water injection into melter off-gas pipe was found to be very effective to reduce the differential pressure as the results of the various tests. The deposit adhered on the inner surface of the off-gas pipe was almost washed out. And, it was also demonstrated that the system was superior to other systems by virtue of its simplicity and stability. In order to apply the system to the commercial scale plant, the scale-up tests were conducted at JNC mock-up facility using the acrylic model. (author)

  18. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  19. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  20. Final report on the in situ testing of electrical components and devices at TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberano, F.T.

    1984-06-01

    A total of 88 electrical components and devices were in situ tested. Of these, 11 totally failed and 21 suffered degradation that varied from mild to severe. The equipment that failed or incurred severe degradation was located in areas of known environmental extremes. Several motor operated valves in the Reactor Building basement failed because of submersion in water. Others severely degraded from contamination tracking, resulting in the alteration of their circuit electrical characteristics - a circumstance that could compromise their designed function. One backup oil lift pump motor for a reactor coolant pump motor, although located well above the Reactor Building basement high water mark, failed because of a break in its armature and field circuits; this failure was surmised to be a result of corrosion. The limit switch of a Class 1E solenoid valve likewise failed due to moisture intrusion. Components that noticeably degraded exhibited anomalies, likely due to the incursion of moisture, that varied from high capacitance to increased circuit resistance. The effect of the other degenerating conditions that existed during the accident, such as high temperature, high radiation levels, and the hydrogen burn, could not be evaluated individually or synergistically

  1. Elasticity and yield strength of pentagonal silver nanowires: In situ bending tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlassov, Sergei, E-mail: vlassovs@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Polyakov, Boris [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Dorogin, Leonid M.; Antsov, Mikk [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Mets, Magnus; Umalas, Madis; Saar, Rando [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Lõhmus, Rünno; Kink, Ilmar [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-02-14

    This paper reports in situ mechanical characterization of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) inside a scanning electron microscope using a cantilevered beam bending technique. Measurements consisted in controlled bending of a cantilevered NW by the tip of an atomic force microscope glued to the force sensor. Relatively high degree of elasticity followed by either plastic deformation or fracture was observed in bending experiments. Experimental data were numerically fitted into the model based on the elastic beam theory and values of Young modulus and yield strength were extracted. Measurements were performed on twenty Ag NWs with diameters from 76 nm to 211 nm. Average Young modulus and yield strength were found to be 90 GPa and 4.8 GPa respectively. In addition, fatigue tests with several millions of cycles were performed and high fatigue resistance of Ag NWs was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Mechanical properties of pentagonal silver nanowires were measured. • Cantilevered beam bending technique was used. • Measurements were performed inside a scanning electron microscope. • Young's modulus and yield point were calculated. • Both plastic deformation and fracture of nanowires were observed.

  2. In Situ Test Study of Characteristics of Coal Mining Dynamic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of coal mining dynamic load and high static stress can easily induce such dynamic disasters as rock burst, coal and gas outburst, roof fall, and water inrush. In order to obtain the characteristic parameters of mining dynamic load and dynamic mechanism of coal and rock, the stress wave theory is applied to derive the relation of mining dynamic load strain rate and stress wave parameters. The in situ test was applied to study the stress wave propagation law of coal mine dynamic load by using the SOS microseismic monitoring system. An evaluation method for mining dynamic load strain rate was proposed, and the statistical evaluation was carried out for the range of strain rate. The research results show that the loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is in direct proportion to the seismic frequency of coal-rock mass and particle peak vibration velocity and is in inverse proportion to wave velocity. The high-frequency component damps faster than the low-frequency component in the shockwave propagating process; and the peak particle vibration velocity has a power functional relationship with the transmitting distance. The loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is generally less than class 10−1/s.

  3. STATUS and DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  4. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  5. Helium Tracer Tests for Assessing Air Recovery and Air Distribution During In Situ Air Sparging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ...) systems for capturing contaminant vapors liberated by in situ air sparging (IAS). The tracer approach is simple to conduct and provides more direct and reliable measures than the soil-gas pressure approach...

  6. Species detection and abundance using a biosensor - Development and Testing of in-situ Biological Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), http://www.mbari.org/ESP/, is an autonomous biological sensing system that conducts in situ collection and molecular...

  7. Radioactive waste combustion / vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-07-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and volume power... (author)

  8. Radioactive waste combustion-vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-06-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and voluminal power... (author)

  9. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  10. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  11. Vitrification of neat semen alters sperm parameters and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Adib, Maryam; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali

    2014-05-06

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of neat semen vitrification on human sperm vital parameters and DNA integrity in men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Semen samples were 17 normozoospermic samples and 17 specimens with abnormal sperm parameters. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Then, the smear was provided from each sample and fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Vitrification of neat semen was done by plunging cryoloops directly into liquid nitrogen and preserved for 7 days. The samples were warmed and re-evaluated for sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity. Besides, the correlation between sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation was assessed pre- and post vitrification. Cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significant decrease in sperm motility, viability and normal morphology after thawing in both normal and abnormal semen. Also, the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after vitrification compared to fresh samples in normal (24.76 ± 5.03 and 16.41 ± 4.53, P = .002) and abnormal (34.29 ± 10.02 and 23.5 ± 8.31, P neat ejaculates has negative impact on sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity, particularly among abnormal semen subjects. It is, therefore, recommend to process semen samples and vitrify the sperm pellets.

  12. Vitrification and neomineralisation of bentonitic and kaolinitic clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... metamorphic and/or igneous rocks. Resultant fired mineral phases depicted mineral compositions of ceramic bodies, and the study suggested that these clays could be gainfully utilized in the making of ceramic wares, subject to selected beneficiation processes. Keywords: kaolin, bentonite, vitrification, neomineralization, ...

  13. Blastocyst cryopreservation using solid surface vitrification: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan S Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blastocyst cryopreservation program using solid surface vitrification. Setting: This study took place in a university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles over a 4-year period between 2006 and 2010 were studied. The cryopreservation policy followed was a vitrification protocol performed at the blastocyst stage, using a solid surface (nonimmersion method. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. Results: Eighty-one women underwent 86 frozen embryo transfer cycles. Of the 240 blastocysts warmed, 204 survived giving a cryosurvival rate of 85% (204/240. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer were 47%, 29%, 12%, 16%, and 23% respectively. Of the 20 live births, there were 16 singletons and 4 twins. Eleven boys and 13 girls were delivered with no major or minor abnormality detected. Conclusion(s: The blastocyst vitrification protocol using the solid surface method is effective with results comparable to fresh blastocyst transfers. While retaining the rapid cooling effect, the nonimmersion technique eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission. Larger studies with long-term follow-up data would further confirm the efficacy and safety of this method of vitrification.

  14. Nuclear maturation of immature bovine oocytes after vitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second experiment, effectiveness of both vitrification methods was compared for cryopreservation of immature bovine oocytes. After warming, COCs were cultured in vitro for 24 h. The polar body (PB+) and metaphase-II (MII) stage rates differed significantly among treatment groups. Oocytes vitrified using cryotop ...

  15. Vitrification in human and domestic animal embryology: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of papers published in major international journals, rapidly increasing application of vitrification is one of the greatest achievements in domestic animal and especially human embryology during the first decade of our century. This review highlights factors supporting or hampering this progress, summarises results achieved with vitrification and outlines future tasks to fully exploit the benefits of this amazing approach that has changed or will change many aspects of laboratory (and also clinical) embryology. Supporting factors include the simplicity, cost efficiency and convincing success of vitrification compared with other approaches in all species and developmental stages in mammalian embryology, while causes that slow down the progress are mostly of human origin: inadequate tools and solutions, superficial teaching, improper application and unjustified concerns resulting in legal restrictions. Elimination of these hindrances seems to be a slower process and more demanding task than meeting the biological challenge. A key element of future progress will be to pass the pioneer age, establish a consensus regarding biosafety requirements, outline the indispensable features of a standard approach and design fully-automated vitrification machines executing all phases of the procedure, including equilibration, cooling, warming and dilution steps.

  16. Remediation case studies: Bioremediation and vitrification. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report is a collection of six case studies of bioremediation and two case studies of vitrification projects prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from early technology applications.

  17. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H 2 and NH 3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H 2 and NH 3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  18. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd 3 . Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek's advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation

  19. GamTox: A Low-Cost Multimetric Ecotoxicity Test with Gammarus spp. for In and Ex Situ Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Gerhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gammarus spp. represent an important taxon in running water ecosystems concerning both structural and functional aspects. Gammarus spp. are also part of several macrozoobenthos indices for assessing biological water quality. However, in ecotoxicological water quality assessment, this taxon has been used much less than Daphnia spp. A new user-friendly and low-cost test protocol for Gammarus spp. has been developed, constituting the “ecotoxicological module ”of an integrated multimetric triad-based concept for water quality assessment. The GamTox test is based on several test parameters: behavior (especially locomotion and feeding depicts rapid and sensitive early warning indicators, survival displays an indicator of severe acute stress, and biochemical biomarkers, esp. AChE inhibition, is a sensitive marker of neurotoxic xenobiotic stress. GamTox can be performed both in situ and ex situ, based either on visual or automatical recording.

  20. Advantages of the in-situ LTP distortion profile test on high-heat-load mirrors and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.; Jark, W.; Sostero, G.; Gambitta, A.; Mazzolini, F.; Savoia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first in-situ distortion profile measurement of a high heat load mirror by use of the penta-prism LTP is presented. A maximum height distortion of 0.47 micron in tangential direction over a length of 180 mm was measured for an internally water-cooled mirror of a undulator beam line at ELETTRA while exposed to a total emitted power of 600 W (undulator gap 30 mm and current 180 mA). The experiment has an accuracy and repeatability of 0.04 micron. The test schematic and the test equipment are presented. Two measuring methods to scan a penta-prism being installed either outside or inside the vacuum chamber are introduced. Advantages and some possible applications of adopting the penta-prism LTP to make the in-situ profile test are explained

  1. Vitrification of ion exchange materials. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Ion exchange is a process that safely and efficiently removes radionuclides from tank waste. Cesium and strontium account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic sorbent that strongly binds cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides. Developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratory and Texas A and M University, CST was commercialized through a cooperative research and development agreement with an industrial partner. Both an engineered (mesh pellets) and powdered forms are commercially available. Cesium removal is a baseline in HLW treatment processing. CST is very effective at removing cesium from HLW streams and is being considered for adoption at several sites. However, CST is nonregenerable, and it presents a significant secondary waste problem. Treatment options include vitrification of the CST, vitrification of the CST coupled with HLW, direct disposal, and low-temperature processes such as grouting. The work presented in this report demonstrates that it is effective to immobilize CST using a baseline technology such as vitrification. Vitrification produces a durable waste form. CST vitrification was not demonstrated before 1996. In FY97, acceptable glass formulations were developed using cesium-loaded CST obtained from treating supernatants from Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) tanks, and the CST was vitrified in a research melter at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). In FY98, SRS decided to reevaluate the use of in-tank precipitation using tetraphenylborate to remove cesium from tank supernatant and to consider other options for cesium removal, including CST. Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory also require radionuclide removal in their baseline flowsheets.

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  4. Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)]. Ca-Na-HCO{sub 3} type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO{sub 3} type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10{sup -1} bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of 'plagioclase', 'clay' and 'zeolite') are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however. (author)

  5. A fast atomic oxygen beam facility with in situ testing/analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, H.; Ikeda, J.; Tagawa, M.; Umeno, M.; Ohmae, N.

    1998-06-01

    A fast atomic oxygen beam facility consisting of a beam source, a mass spectrometer, an Auger electron spectroscope, a scanning tunneling microscope, and a friction tester has been developed to investigate interaction of energetic atomic oxygen with solid surfaces. The fast atomic oxygen beam has been characterized by time of flight distribution, quadrupole mass spectrometry, and quartz crystal microbalance. The time of flight distribution of the beam has shown that the average translational energy of the atomic oxygen beam reaches 4.7 eV and that the full width at half-maximum is 5.5 eV. A flux of the atomic oxygen is calculated from the frequency shift of the quartz crystal microbalance with silver electrodes, and typical flux of the atomic oxygen beam being 4.0×1012atoms/cm2 s. The flux of atomic oxygen of this source is fairly low, but is corresponding to that in the altitude of 500 km in low Earth orbit. The surface sensitive analysis methods equipped with the facility, such as Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, have provided changes in the surface composition and morphology caused by the atomic oxygen exposure, without receiving any effect of ambient air. The ultrahigh vacuum friction tester especially designed for this facility is used to measure tribological properties of solid lubricants under the atomic oxygen exposures. Such in situ testing capability of this facility enables fundamental research for understanding the reaction scheme of atomic oxygen as well as engineering-oriented research for obtaining high reliability of the space systems.

  6. Dual-colour chromogenic in-situ hybridization is a potential alternative to fluorescence in-situ hybridization in HER2 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Pintye, Mariann; Chang, Liang-Che; Chen, Huang-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Yan; Chein, Hui-Ping; Lee, Nin; Chen, Jim-Ray

    2011-11-01

    Dual-colour chromogenic in-situ hybridization (dc-CISH) is an emerging methodology for characterizing genomic alterations. This study was aimed at evaluating the performance of a dc-CISH kit (ZytoVision) in determining human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Two hundred and twenty-eight invasive breast carcinomas arranged in tissue microarrays were analysed in parallel with dc-CISH, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry. Of 227 tumours with available FISH and dc-CISH results, HER2 amplification and non-amplification were detected in 49 (21.6%) and 178 (78.4%) tumours, respectively, by both assays. The concordance between dc-CISH and FISH results showed 100% agreement (κ-coefficient=1.00). Immunohistochemically, 162 (71%), 25 (11.0%) and 41 (18%) tumours were scored 0/1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. The corresponding results with both FISH and dc-CISH demonstrated HER2 amplification in two (3.2%), nine (36%) and 38 (93%) tumours, respectively. Complete consensus among these three methods was observed in 197 cases, representing 98% of all 3+ and 0/1+ tumours (κ-coefficient=0.92). Confirmatory testing of 25 2+ tumours showed complete consensus between FISH and dc-CISH. dc-CISH is a promising alternative to FISH in HER2 testing, and the single-institute incidence of HER2 amplification in breast cancer in Taiwan is 21.2%. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  7. Off-gas considerations for a vitrification plant in the republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ung Kyung; Park, Jong Kil; Yang, Kyung Hwa; Song, Myung Jae

    1997-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle low and intermediate-level radioactive waste from her pressurized water reactors (PWRs). KEPRI, in coordination with her partners, will design, construct, and erect a pilot plant using data from the orientation tests. The pilot plant will be the basis for the development of the final objective, the establishment of an industrial scale vitrification installation in the Republic of Korea. Throughout these projects, the major goal is to minimize the harmful effects of the final waste form to the environment. The gaseous effluents emissions from the facility will need to be managed to meet the environmental regulations concerning gaseous releases into the environment of the Republic of Korea. The focus of this paper is on the considerations for the treatment of the off-gas for a low and intermediate-level radioactive waste treatment vitrification installation in the Republic of Korea. Off-gas considerations will span a wide-range of areas such as waste characteristics, thermal treatment systems, off-gas regulations, off-gas characteristics, assessment of air pollution control devices, systems assessments, numerical modelling, economics etc. Off-gas regulations in Korea are becoming tighter and will likely change from year to year. In terms of both off-gas treatment equipment performance and public protection, the amount and nature (e.g. chemical behavior and morphology) of the species are important. The emissions may be classified as toxic metals, radionuclides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and acid gases. Air pollution control technologies are generally classified as wet or dry technologies covering over 40 different air pollution control devices (APCDs) with varying removal efficiencies for the different types of off-gas. In general, the state of the art systems for vitrification technologies incorporate the basic functions such as further oxidation of products

  8. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  9. A novel approach for preparation and in situ tensile testing of silica glass membranes in the TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačković, Mirza; Przybilla, Thomas; Dieker, Christel; Herre, Patrick; Romeis, Stefan; Stara, Hana; Schrenker, Nadine; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2017-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of glasses in the micro- and/or nanometer regime increasingly gains importance in nowadays modern technology. However, suitable small scale preparation and mechanical testing approaches for a reliable assessment of the mechanical properties of glasses still remain a big challenge. In the present work, a novel approach for site-specific preparation and quantitative in situ tensile testing of thin silica glass membranes in the transmission electron microscope is presented. Thereby, advanced focused ion beam techniques are used for the preparation of nanoscale dog bone shaped silica glass specimens suitable for in situ tensile testing. Small amounts of gallium are detected on the surface of the membranes resulting from redeposition effects during the focused ion beam preparation procedure. Possible structural changes of silica glass upon irradiation with electrons and gallium ions are investigated by controlled irradiation experiments, followed by a structural analysis using Raman spectroscopy. While moderate electron beam irradiation does not alter the structure of silica glass, ion beam irradiation results in minor densification of the silica glass membranes. In situ tensile testing of membranes under electron beam irradiation results in distinctive elongations without fracture confirming the phenomenon of superplasticity. In contrast, in situ tensile testing in the absence of the electron beam reveals an elastic/plastic deformation behavior, and finally leads to fracture of the membranes. The Young’s moduli of the glass membranes pulled at beam off conditions in the TEM are comparable with values known for bulk fused silica, while the tensile strength is in the range of values reported for silica glass fibers with comparable dimensions. The impact of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of silica glass membranes is further discussed. The results of the present work open new avenues for dedicated preparation and

  10. Technical assessment of NOx generation from vitrification process of spent ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. C.; Yang, K. H.; Kim, H. S.; Lu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Hwnag, T. W.; Shin, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    When the radioactive spent ion-exchange resin is being treated in vitrification system, due to the nitrogen in the anion exchange resin media and the nitrogen in air inleaked to the system, the nitrogen oxide (NOx) is generated from both glass melter and the second combustion chamber among the unit-processes in the vitrification plant. The NOx is very hazardous to environment and to human health the emission limit of NOx is regulated very severely. In this study, the NOx generation characteristics are technically analyzed based on the demonstration-test resultes conducted recently by burning simulated spent resin. When burning 30kg/h of simulated resin in CCM under 50% of excess the theoretically needed, the NOx was measured as between 3000 ∼ 3500ppm after 1h of transient test period. And when only the propane is burning in PCC without resin burning in CCM, the concentration of NOx exceeded the detectable limit(4000 ppm) of PGA. The former and the latter were considered as the fuel NOx and the thermal NOx respectively

  11. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  12. Demonstration, testing, ampersand evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,close quotes Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120 degrees to 130 degrees C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow

  13. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  14. Treatability Test Report for Application of In Situ Vitrification Technology to Pesticide-, Arsenic-, and Mercury-Contaminated Soils from the M-1 Ponds Site of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-31

    involve the melting of natural soils; however process residuals [e.g., sludges, tailings, sediments] may also be treated. The unique feature of the... sanitary or chemical sewer, and placement of the activated carbon and filters in a subsequent * 10 ISV s tting for disposal. In this way the destruction...to prevent cross-ccntamination according to th. following steps: 1. Wipe excessive contaminant (dirt, grease, etc.) off wit- a towel or cloth soaked

  15. Testing the Chemical/Structural Stability of Proton Conducting Perovskite Ceramic Membranes by in Situ/ex Situ Autoclave Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodczyk, Aneta; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Sharp, Matthew D; Kilner, John A; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Lacroix, Olivier; Colomban, Philippe

    2013-10-25

    Ceramics, which exhibit high proton conductivity at moderate temperatures, are studied as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions (high gas pressure/high temperature), the chemical activity towards potentially reactive atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is enhanced. This can lead to mechanical, chemical, and structural instability of the membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since the lifetime duration of a device determines its economical interest, stability/aging tests are essential. Consequently, we have developed autoclaves equipped with a sapphire window, allowing in situ Raman study in the 25-620 °C temperature region under 1-50 bar of water vapor/gas pressure, both with and without the application of an electric field. Taking examples of four widely investigated perovskites (BaZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, SrZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, BaZr0.25In0.75O3-δ, BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.16Zn0.04O3-δ), we demonstrate the high potential of our unique set-up to discriminate between good/stable and instable electrolytes as well as the ability to detect and monitor in situ: (i) the sample surface reaction with surrounding atmospheres and the formation of crystalline or amorphous secondary phases (carbonates, hydroxides, hydrates, etc.); and (ii) the structural modifications as a function of operating conditions. The results of these studies allow us to compare quantitatively the chemical stability versus water (corrosion rate from ~150 µm/day to less than 0.25 µm/day under 200-500 °C/15-80 bar PH2O) and to go further in comprehension of the aging mechanism of the membrane.

  16. In situ Hearing Tests for the Purpose of a Self-Fit Hearing Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, Monique; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential and limitations of a self-fit hearing aid. This can be used in the "developing" world or in countries with large distances between the hearing-impaired subjects and the professional. It contains an on-board tone generator for in situ user-controlled, automated

  17. Development of sperm vitrification protocols for freshwater fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) and marine fish (European eel, Anguilla anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kása, Eszter; Bernáth, Gergely; Kollár, Tímea; Żarski, Daniel; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Bokor, Zoltán; Hegyi, Árpád; Urbányi, Béla; Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Horváth, Ákos

    2017-05-01

    Vitrification was successfully applied to the sperm of two fish species, the freshwater Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and marine European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Sperm was collected, diluted in species-specific non-activating media and cryoprotectants and vitrified by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen without pre-cooling in its vapor. Progressive motility of fresh and vitrified-thawed sperm was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Additional sperm quality parameters such as sperm head morphometry parameters (in case of European eel) and fertilizing capacity (in case of Eurasian perch) were carried out to test the effectiveness of vitrification. The vitrification method for Eurasian perch sperm resulting the highest post-thaw motility (14±1.6%) was as follows: 1:5 dilution ratio, Tanaka extender, 30% cryoprotectant (15% methanol+15% propylene-glycol), cooling device: Cryotop, 2μl droplets, and for European eel sperm: dilution ratio 1:1, with 40% cryoprotectant (20% MeOH and 20% PG), and 10% FBS, cooling device: Cryotop, with 2μl of sperm suspension. Viable embryos were produced by fertilization with vitrified Eurasian perch sperm (neurulation: 2.54±1.67%). According to the ASMA analysis, no significant decrease in head area and perimeter of vitrified European eel spermatozoa were found when compared to fresh spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupled deformation and fluid-flow behavior of a natural fracture in the CSM in situ test block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsch, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal was the evaluation of an in situ block test as a data source for modeling the coupled flow and mechanical behavior of natural rock fractures. The experiments were conducted with the Colorado School of Mines in situ test block, an 8 m 3 (280 ft 3 ) gneiss cube which has been the focus of several previous studies. A single continuous fracture within the block was surrounded with instruments to measure stresses, deformations, and gas conductivity. The setup was subjected to combinations of normal and shear stress by pressurizing the block sides differentially with hydraulic flatjacks. The induced fracture deformation, as measured by two separate sensor systems, did not correlate closely with the fracture conductivity changes or with each other. The test fracture is more complicated physically than two parallel rock faces. Many joints which were not detected by mapping intersect the test fracture and strongly influence its behavior. These invisible joints create sub-blocks which react complexly to changes in applied load. The flow tests reflected the aggregate sub-block dislocations in the flow path. The deformation readings, however, were the movements of discrete points sparsely located among the sub-blocks. High-confidence extrapolation of block test results to large volumes, such as required for nuclear waste repository design, is not feasible currently. Present instrumentation does not sample rock mass behavior in situ at the proper scales. More basically, however, a fundamental gap exists between the nature of jointed rock and our conception of it. Therefore, the near-field rock mass must be discounted as an easily controllable barrier to groundwater flow, until radically different approaches to rock mass testing and modeling are developed

  19. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite trademark and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI trademark), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. This is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation

  20. Embryo vitrification using a novel semi-automated closed system yields in vitro outcomes equivalent to the manual Cryotop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tammie K; Brandi, Susanna; Tappe, Naomi M; Bradley, Cara K; Vom, Eduardo; Henderson, Chester; Lewis, Craig; Battista, Kristy; Hobbs, Ben; Hobbs, Simon; Syer, John; Lanyon, Sam R; Dopheide, Sacha M; Peura, Teija T; McArthur, Steven J; Bowman, Mark C; Stojanov, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    groups, of which 17 and 15%, respectively, progressed to fully hatched blastocysts 48 h after warming. The cooling and warming rates achieved with the Gavi system were 14 136°C/min and 11 239°C/min, respectively. Testing of the Gavi system described here was limited to in vitro development of embryos from two mouse strains and a limited number of human embryos. Validation of Gavi system advanced production models is now required to confirm the success of semi-automated vitrification, including clinical evaluation of pregnancy outcomes from the transfer of Gavi vitrified-warmed human embryos. The Gavi system has the potential to revolutionize and standardize vitrification of embryos and oocytes. The success of the Gavi system shows that it is possible to semi-automate complicated labour-intensive ART methods and processes, and opens up the possibility for further improvements in clinical outcomes and efficiencies in the ART clinic. This study was funded by Genea Ltd. S.B., N.M.T., T.T.P., S.J.M., M.C.B. and T.S. are shareholders of Genea Ltd. E.V., C.H., C.L., S.R.L. and S.M.D. are shareholders of Planet Innovation Pty Ltd. The remaining authors are employees of either Genea Ltd. or Planet Innovation Pty Ltd. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, Steven A., E-mail: steven.luksic@pnnl.gov; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-15

    Technetium (Tc) retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased if the volatility can be controlled. Incorporating Tc into a thermally stable mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve increased retention. Here, rhenium (Re)-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup −}), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup −}), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass simulants. After melting HLW and LAW simulant feeds, the retention of Re in the glass was measured and compared with the Re retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Phase analysis of sodalite in both these glasses across a profile of temperatures describes the durability of Re-sodalite during the feed-to-glass transition. The use of Re sodalite improved the Re retention by 21% for HLW glass and 85% for LAW glass, demonstrating the potential improvement in Tc-retention if TcO{sub 4}{sup −} were to be encapsulated in a Tc-sodalite prior to vitrification. - Highlights: • Re retention is improved by incorporation into sodalite structure. • LAW-type glass shows lower retention but larger improvement with Re-sodalite. • Sodalite is stable to higher temperatures in high-alumina glass melts.

  2. Field Testing of Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle Technology for In-Situ Groundwater Treatment of a Fractured Rock DNAPL Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Walata, L.; Nash, R.; Gheorghiu, F.; Glazier, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.

    2003-04-01

    This study has been carried out as part of the Corrective Measure Study (CMS) at a property owned by GlaxoSmithKline in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. The study area is located in the Durham subbasin of the Deep River Triassic Basin and is underlain by interbedded siltstone and sandstone sequences. Groundwater underlying portions of the site has been impacted by historical industrial activities conducted by previous owners; groundwater contaminants consist mainly of chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Golder conducted an initial review of potentially applicable remediation technologies and retained the Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle (BNP) technology for further evaluation. BNP consists of nanoscale particles (~ 60 nm) of zero valent iron (Fe0) with a trace coating of noble metal catalyst (palladium). The rapid destruction of a wide range of recalcitrant contaminants is based on a surface-catalyzed redox process where the contaminant serves as an electron acceptor and BNP as the electron donor and can be accomplished either in situ or ex situ (Wei-xian Zhang, 1997, 1999, 2000). This study presents the field demonstration of the BNP effectiveness to treat in-situ chlorinated VOCs in a complex fractured bedrock aquifer setting. During the field pilot test 11 kilograms of BNP mixed in water-based slurry were injected into the shallow bedrock groundwater suspected to contain dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The results of the test indicated rapid treatment of chlorinated VOCs 7 m to 14 m around the injection well. In addition, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values have decreased and persisted at very low levels of -450 millivolts and less than 0.001 milligrams per liter, respectively, indicating favorable conditions for reductive dechlorination. Interpretation of pre- and post-test data on the in-situ microbiological community in the test area indicate that the changes in ORP and DO have resulted in inhibition

  3. Micro-scale testing of ductile and brittle cantilever beam specimens in situ with a dual beam workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnbrough, J E; Liu, D; Flewitt, P E J

    2013-01-01

    Micro-scale cantilever beam specimens created by focused ion beam milling have been mechanically loaded in situ at room temperature to observe the deformation and fracture of single crystal silicon, nanocrystalline nickel and thermal barrier coatings with a multilayer structure. The micro-scale preparation technique allows cantilever beams to be selected from preferred positions in the samples so that specific mechanical properties can be evaluated. As a consequence these microstructural specific properties can be combined with direct observation of the response of the test specimen throughout the period of the test. The measured mechanical properties and response for the materials given above are discussed and compared with previously published data. (paper)

  4. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B 2 O 3 content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B 2 O 3 and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume

  5. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  6. Tolerancing requirements for remote handling at the Hanford vitrification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, R.M.; Bullis, R.E.; Van Katwijk, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant is being designed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. with WasteChem Corporation as Fluor Daniel's major subcontractor specializing in vitrification and remote system technologies. United Engineers and Constructors/Catalytic (UE ampersand C) will construct the plant. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Project Integration manager, manager and as the plant operator provides technical direction to the Architect/Engineer team (A/E) and constructor on behalf of the Department of Energy - Richland Field Office. The A/E has developed, in cooperation with UE ampersand C, WHC and DOE, a new and innovative approach to installations of the many remote nozzles and electrical connectors that must be installed to demanding tolerances. This paper summarizes the key elements of the HWVP approach

  7. Vitrification of transuranic and beta-gamma contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1980-06-01

    Vitrification of solid transuranic contaminated (TRU) wastes alone and with high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) was studied. Homogeneous glasses containing 20 to 30 wt % ash were made by using glass frits previously developed at the Savannah River Plant and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. If the ash is vitrified along with the HLLW, 1.0 wt % as can be added to the waste forms without affecting their quality. This loading of ash is well above the loading required by the relative amounts of HLLW and TRU ash that will be processed at the Savannah River Plant. Vitrification of TRU-contaminated electropolishing sludges and high efficiency particular air filter materials along with HLLW would require an increase in the quantity of glass to be produced. However, if these TRU-contaminated solids were vitrified with the HLLW, the addition of low-level beta-gamma contaminated ash would require no further increase in glass production

  8. New developments for medium and low level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, A.J.-R.; Pujadas, S.M.-V.

    1997-01-01

    Converting ultimate waste material into a stable, inert product is beneficial, notably in the case of potentially very toxic wastes. Vitrification, in which a glass or glass-ceramic material is fabricated from a particular waste form, is now a proven solution. This high-temperature process uses additives-notably silica-if necessary to form a glass network. Vitrification confines the waste by forming a stable, inert, nontoxic material suitable for safe disposal; it usually also results in a significant volume reduction having a major effect on the disposal cost. France is actively engaged in an ongoing research effort in this area, not only to enhance the production capacity and the containment quality, but also to extend the process to low and medium level wastes such as those produced in nuclear power stations

  9. Development of a remote bushing for actinide vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.; Johnson, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are combining their existing experience in handling highly radioactive, special nuclear materials with commercial glass fiberization technology in order to assemble a small vitrification system for radioactive actinide solutions. The vitrification system or open-quotes brushingclose quotes, is fabricated from platinum-rhodium alloy and is based on early marble remelt fiberization technology. Advantages of this unique system include its relatively small size, reliable operation, geometrical safety (nuclear criticality), and high temperature capability. The bushing design should be capable of vitrifying a number of the actinide nuclear materials, including solutions of americium/curium, neptunium, and possibly plutonium. State of the art, mathematical and oil model studies are being combined with basic engineering evaluations to verify and improve the thermal and mechanical design concepts

  10. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating

  11. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.

    1994-12-28

    This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI`s EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area.

  12. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI's EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area

  13. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roberts, M.; Biendicho, J. J.; Hull, S.; Beran, Přemysl; Gustafsson, T.; Svensson, G.; Edstrom, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 226, MAR 15 (2013), s. 249-255 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron * Lithium * LiFePO4 * diffraction * in situ Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.211, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775312016515

  14. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program

  16. Dismantling and decontamination of the PIVER prototype vitrification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PIVER facility was dismantled for replacement by a new continuous pilot plant. The more important operation concerns the vitrification cell, containing equipments of the process, for complete disposal and maximum decontamination, requiring dismantling, cutting, conditioning and removal of equipment inside the cell. Manipulators, handling and cutting tools were used. Activity of removed material and irradiation of personal are followed during the work for matching intervention means to operation conditions [fr

  17. Vitrification of high-level alumina nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Borophosphate glass compositions have been developed for the vitrification of a high-alumina calcined defense waste. The effect of substituting SiO 2 , P 2 O 5 and CuO for B 2 O 3 on the viscosity and leach resistance was measured. The effect of the alkali to borate ratio and the Li 2 O:Na 2 O ratio on the melt viscosity and leach resistance was also measured

  18. A new method for in-situ filter testing using pulses of aerosol and photometric detection with computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.R.C.; Bosley, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique, developed at the Harwell Laboratory, for the in-situ testing of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters using multiple pulses of test aerosol. The pulse test apparatus consists of a modified forward light scattering photometer coupled to a portable micro-computer fitted with an external data acquisition and control card. The micro-computer switches an aerosol generator on and off via an external relay driver unit. Using this apparatus the filter bank is challenged by a small number of equal length, constant concentration, pulses of aerosol at timed intervals. The aerosol concentration data upstream of the filter bank is logged, to disk, by the computer. The process is then repeated for the downstream concentration with the photometer gain increased to give maximum sensitivity. The collected data is analysed using a computer spread-sheet package; the recorded aerosol pulses are combined, integrated and the background data subtracted; the downstream data is then divided by the upstream pulse data to give the filter penetration. Using this technique the sensitivity of the in-situ filter test has been greatly improved, penetrations approaching 10 -5 % can now be measured, allowing HEPA filters mounted in series to be successfully tested. In addition, filter loading is reduced considerably

  19. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90 degrees C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process

  2. A Novel Two-Axis Load Sensor Designed for in Situ Scratch Testing inside Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengli Shi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of a lack of available miniaturized multiaxial load sensors to measure the normal load and the lateral load simultaneously, quantitative in situ scratch devices inside scanning electron microscopes and the transmission electron microscopes have barely been developed up to now. A novel two-axis load sensor was designed in this paper. With an I-shaped structure, the sensor has the function of measuring the lateral load and the normal load simultaneously, and at the same time it has compact dimensions. Finite element simulations were carried out to evaluate stiffness and modal characteristics. A decoupling algorithm was proposed to resolve the cross-coupling between the two-axis loads. Natural frequency of the sensor was tested. Linearity and decoupling parameters were obtained from the calibration experiments, which indicate that the sensor has good linearity and the cross-coupling between the two axes is not strong. Via the decoupling algorithm and the corresponding decoupling parameters, simultaneous measurement of the lateral load and the normal load can be realized via the developed two-axis load sensor. Preliminary applications of the load sensor for scratch testing indicate that the load sensor can work well during the scratch testing. Taking advantage of the compact structure, it has the potential ability for applications in quantitative in situ scratch testing inside SEMs.

  3. A novel two-axis load sensor designed for in situ scratch testing inside scanning electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Wu, Boda; Wan, Shunguang; Shi, Chengli

    2013-02-18

    Because of a lack of available miniaturized multiaxial load sensors to measure the normal load and the lateral load simultaneously, quantitative in situ scratch devices inside scanning electron microscopes and the transmission electron microscopes have barely been developed up to now. A novel two-axis load sensor was designed in this paper. With an I-shaped structure, the sensor has the function of measuring the lateral load and the normal load simultaneously, and at the same time it has compact dimensions. Finite element simulations were carried out to evaluate stiffness and modal characteristics. A decoupling algorithm was proposed to resolve the cross-coupling between the two-axis loads. Natural frequency of the sensor was tested. Linearity and decoupling parameters were obtained from the calibration experiments, which indicate that the sensor has good linearity and the cross-coupling between the two axes is not strong. Via the decoupling algorithm and the corresponding decoupling parameters, simultaneous measurement of the lateral load and the normal load can be realized via the developed two-axis load sensor. Preliminary applications of the load sensor for scratch testing indicate that the load sensor can work well during the scratch testing. Taking advantage of the compact structure, it has the potential ability for applications in quantitative in situ scratch testing inside SEMs.

  4. Hydrogen-enhanced cracking revealed by in situ micro-cantilever bending test inside environmental scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Hajilou, Tarlan; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110). The cantilevers were tested under two environmental conditions: vacuum (approximately 5 × 10-4 Pa) and ESEM (450 Pa water vapour). Crack initiation at stress-concentrated locations and propagation to cause catastrophic failure were observed when cantilevers were tested in the presence of H; while no cracking occurred when tested in vacuum. Both the bending strength for un-notched beams and the fracture toughness for notched beams were reduced under H exposure. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility was found to be orientation dependent: the (010) crystallographic plane was more fragile to HE than the (110) plane. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  5. In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction studies on molecular aggregation structure of nylon 12 films during bulge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojio, Ken; Nagano, Chigusa; Fujimoto, Aya; Nozaki, Shuhei; Yokomachi, Kazutoshi; Kamitani, Kazutaka; Watanabe, Hirohmi; Takahara, Atsushi

    2018-02-28

    It is desirable to establish a method for evaluating mechanical properties, such as modulus and strength, of micrometer and sub-micrometer thick polymer films. Bulge tests, where bulge deformation is imposed on films by the pressure of an inert gas, are suitable for satisfying this demand. However, very few studies on polymer films exist in the literature. In this study, bulge testing equipment for in situ synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements is designed and used to study the relationship between the molecular aggregation structure and the mechanical properties of a crystalline nylon 12 (Ny12) film during bulge testing. Isothermally crystallized and quenched Ny12 films exhibited stress-strain curves similar to those obtained by conventional uniaxial elongation. In situ WAXD measurements during bulge testing revealed that the lattice extension of the crystallites is clearly dependent on crystallinity. Concretely, crystallites in the isothermally crystallized film show higher elastic properties than those in the quenched one. The results of the molecular aggregation structure, including the crystal structure and the amorphous chain surrounding the crystallites, of the films during bulge deformation firstly obtained in this study must be useful for designing toughened polymer films.

  6. Management Plan: Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In Situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz AC power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90 degree C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100 degree to 210 degree C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90 degree to 100 degree C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ AC heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE's K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kill. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are presented

  7. Testing, Evaluation and Sensitivity Analysis of an In-Situ Bioremediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    of background carbon. Equation 2.37 can he rewitten as: ARO = BRbF y (5.10) where Ps KPmax+ S2 0~ (5.11) Looking at each additional 02 sink...for the study of joint effects was bor- rowed from a field of Operations Research called Experimental Design and Opti- mization, as presented by Law... Experimental Measurements. Water Resources Re- search, 28 (7) : 1833-1847. [17] Chiang, C.Y., C.N. Dawson, and M.F. Wheeler. 1990. Modeling of In-situ

  8. Study of the morphology exhibited by exfoliated polyurethane/montmorillonite nano composites during in situ recovery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iaci M., E-mail: iaci@ctex.eb.br [Divisao Belica do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito. CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Departamento de Metalurgia e Materiais. UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    By using small-angle X-ray scattering, this study aims to examine the SM behavior of montmorillonite polyurethane nano composites. To investigate the phase morphology, a deformed specimen was placed on a heating stage mounted at the Synchrotron beamline; the shape recovery was measured during 15 min. As temperature increases, the crystalline fraction rapidly decreases. The degree of clay delamination within the matrix increases, disturbing the formation of hard and soft segments. Deformation induces changes in the phase proportion, increasing the disperse phase contribution. During in situ tests, the ratio between matrix and disperse phase reaches an equilibrium controlled by the temperature. (author)

  9. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part II. Precipitates by in situ aluminum alloy corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Sump strainer head loss testing to evaluate chemical effects. → Aluminum hydroxide precipitates by in situ Al alloy corrosion caused head loss. → Intermetallic particles released from Al alloy can also cause significant head loss. → When evaluating Al effect on head loss, intermetallics should be considered. - Abstract: Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 o C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH) 3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH) 3 when intermetallic particles are present.

  10. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  11. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO 2 (g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO 3 - and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  12. Vitrification and Testing of Hanford Pretreated Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gary Lynn L.; Smith, Harry D.; Schweiger, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Smith, Gary L.; Sundaram, S.K.; Spearing, Dane R.

    2002-01-01

    Actual pretreated LAW samples were vitrified to demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the LAW product ORP Phase B-1 contract requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. Chemical compositions of two LAW glasses (i.e. elements (excluding oxygen) present in concentrations greater than 0.5 percent by weight) were measured using KOH and Na2O2 fusion preparation procedures. The measured wt% sodium oxide content for the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are 17.7 and 18.3 respectively; however, it is argued herein that process knowledge, i.e. the target sodium oxide content, is better than the analytical measurement. Therefore for both LAW glasses the target oxide loading for sodium of 20 wt% is accepted. At these levels the glass meets or exceeds both the RPP-WTP glass specification and the DOE ORG contract requirement for waste sodium loading. The concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides for AW-101 and AN-107 are: (1) 0.231 and 0.292 Ci/m3, 0.435 and 0.005 Ci/m3, 0.019 and 0.129 Ci/m3, andlt; 0.16 andlt; 2.6 nCi/g, respectively. The ORP contract criteria for 137Cs, 90Sr and TRU (shall be less than 3 Ci/m3, 20 Ci/m3, and 100 nCi/g, respectively) are met in both glasses. The ORP contract criteria for 99Tc (shall be less than 0.1 Ci/m3) is met explicitly by AW-101 and will be met for the AN-107 glass by averaging its 99Tc content over the previous LAW glasses produced to meet the contract. After canister centerline cooling, no crystals were observed in the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses by XRD, optical examination and SEM analysis. The normalized PCT release rates of sodium, silicon, and boron at both 40 and 90 C from the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are less than 2.0 g/m2 the ORP contract criteria

  13. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  14. In-Situ Testing and Performance Assessment of a Redesigned WIPP Panel Closure - 13192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Thomas; Patterson, Russell; Camphouse, Chris; Herrick, Courtney; Kirchner, Thomas; Malama, Bwalya; Zeitler, Todd; Kicker, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    operations and a greater understanding of the waste and the behavior of the underground salt formation, the DOE has established a revised panel closure design. This revised design meets both the short-term NMED Permit requirements for the operational period, and also the Federal requirements for long-term repository performance. This new design is simpler, easier to construct and has less of an adverse impact on waste disposal operations than the originally approved Option D design. The Panel Closure Redesign is based on: (1) the results of in-situ constructability testing performed to determine run-of-mine salt reconsolidation parameters and how the characteristics of the bedded salt formation affect these parameters and, (2) the results of air flow analysis of the new design to determine that the limit for the migration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be met at the compliance point. Waste panel closures comprise a repository feature that has been represented in WIPP performance assessment (PA) since the original Compliance Certification Application of 1996. Panel closures are included in WIPP PA models principally because they are a part of the disposal system, not because they play a substantive role in inhibiting the release of radionuclides to the outside environment. The 1998 rulemaking that certified WIPP to receive transuranic waste placed conditions on the panel closure design to be implemented in the repository. The revised panel closure design, termed the Run-of-Mine (ROM) Panel Closure System (ROMPCS), is comprised of 30.48 meters of ROM salt with barriers at each end. The ROM salt is generated from ongoing mining operations at the WIPP and may be compacted and/or moistened as it is emplaced in a panel entry. The barriers consist of bulkheads, similar to those currently used in the panels as room closures. A WIPP performance assessment has been completed that incorporates the ROMPCS design into the representation of the repository, and compares

  15. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  16. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented

  17. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  18. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  19. Effects of vitrification and post-thawing interval on the cytoskeleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, vitrification reduces the subsequent fertilization rate of MO, however, a prolonged post-thawing incubation period (120 min) improves survival, cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, and enhances the reorganization of MO\\'s cytoskeleton (MT and MS). Keywords: Vitrification; cytoskeleton; bovine; oocytes; ...

  20. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification

  1. Vitrification of oocytes from endangered Mexican gray wolves (Canis lupus baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, S; Lenahan, K; Krisher, R; Bauman, K L; Asa, C S; Silber, S

    2011-03-01

    Careful genetic management, including cryopreservation of genetic material, is central to conservation of the endangered Mexican gray wolf. We tested a technique, previously used to vitrify human and domestic animal oocytes, on oocytes from domestic dogs as a model and from the endangered Mexican wolf. This method provided a way to conserve oocytes from genetically valuable older female Mexican wolves as an alternative to embryos for preserving female genes. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of 36 female dogs in December and March (0 to 65 oocytes per female) and from six female wolves (4 to 73 per female) during their physiologic breeding season, or following stimulation with the GnRH agonist deslorelin. Oocytes from dogs were pooled; half were immediately tested for viability and the remainder vitrified, then warmed and tested for viability. All oocytes were vitrified by being moved through media of increasing cryoprotectant concentration, placed on Cryotops, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was no difference in viability (propidium iodide staining) between fresh and vitrified, warmed dog oocytes (65.7 and 61.0%, respectively, P = 0.27). Oocyte viability after warming was similarly assessed in a subset of wolves (4 to 15 oocytes from each of three females; total 29 oocytes). Of these, 57.1% of the post-thaw intact oocytes were viable, which was 41.4% of all oocytes warmed. These were the first oocytes from a canid or an endangered species demonstrated to have maintained viability after vitrification and warming. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that vitrification of oocytes with the Cryotop technique was an option for preserving female gametes from Mexican wolves for future use in captive breeding programs, although in vitro embryo production techniques must first be developed in canids for this technique to be used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  3. In situ testing of CO2 laser on dental pulp function: Effects on microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Liu, M.; Doerscher-Kim, J.K.; Kim, S. (Department of Endodontics, Hadassah-Hebrew University School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on pulpal microcirculation was studied in cat canines. The enamel surfaces of 4 teeth were exposed with energy densities of 304-1440J/cm2, using either a handpiece or a microslad, with a focal spot of 0.21mm and 0.33mm respectively. Pulpal blood flow (PBF) before and following lasing was recorded through the intact tooth surface by a laser Doppler flowmeter. CO2 laser irradiation caused an increase in PBF, which was immediate and transient. The PBF increase was higher in a large pulp than in a small pulp, and it was inversely related to the focal spot size. These findings confirm that the dental pulp is thermally affected by CO2 lasing of the tooth surface, however, without extensive pulp coagulation. It is concluded that the effects of laser irradiation on the pulpal microcirculation may be studied in situ by means of the presented methodology.

  4. Evolution of the argillite / CEM I interface at 70 C.: in situ tests and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalan, P.; Dauzeres, A.; Barker, E.; De Windt, L.; Detilleux, V.; Desveaux, P.

    2015-01-01

    French radioactive waste disposal concept involves cementitious materials in a clayey host-rock. The presence of exothermic wastes in the storage cells may induce a temperature of about 70 Celsius degrees at the material interfaces. At present, experiment thermal conditions have been undertaken at about 20 C. degrees and studies at higher temperature are really scarce, especially experiments considering diffusion through the cement / clay interface. The still on-going study presented here is focusing on argillite / CEM-I interface. A one-year experiment under in situ conditions at the Tournemire experimental station (IRSN) was carried out and meanwhile, preliminary reactive transport modelling with HYTEC helped to understand the impact of a high temperature on the physico-chemical behaviour of cement / clay interface. The first results showed decalcification of cement and diffuse carbonation as well as a possible illite precipitation of clay-type phases. A C-S-H ribbon appeared at the interface between the two materials and a layer grew between the C-S-H ribbon and the cementitious material. This layer contained zeolites and behaved as a diffusive barrier. After one year of in situ interactions, the disturbance thickness was about 350 microns in CEM-I cement paste and about 100 microns in argillite. The modelling reproduced relatively well the experimentally observed processes but the extension of the disturbance is too wide and the zeolite layer is misplaced according to the experimental observations. This study highlights the lack of data at highest temperature on the reaction kinetics, diffusion coefficients but also on porosity variations. (authors)

  5. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al 2 O 3 to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition

  6. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  7. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  8. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  9. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  10. Tracer Tests and Field Monitoring of In situ Bioreduction of Cr(VI) Bioreduction at the Hanford 100H Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Resch, C. T.; Cantrell, K.; Faybishenko, B.; Hazen, T. C.; Brodie, E.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S.; Conrad, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Wan, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.; Peterson, J. E.; Firestone, M.; Andersen, G.; Desantis, T.; Hanlon, J.; Willett, A.; Koenigsberg, S.

    2006-05-01

    Tracer tests and field monitoring before, during, and after bio-immobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at the Hanford 100H field site have provided key data constraining the geohydrology and biogeochemistry of field- scale bioreduction. A slow release polylactate, Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), was used to stimulate the in situ bioreduction and removal of Cr(VI) from groundwater. Monitoring included an extensive suite of field and laboratory techniques, as well as five Br-tracer injection tests and four pumping tests. To minimize drilling costs, a three-well system (injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells) was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation and monitoring. Pre-biostimulation Br-tracer tests demonstrated that low-flow pumping (1.2 to 2.5 l/min) on the down-gradient well was required to ensure capture of groundwater flow lines passing through the injection well (5 m from the downgradient pumping well). Detailed Br breakthrough curves were obtained using field-deployed Br ion-selective electrodes (Instrumentation Northwest, Inc.). We also used a multi-parameter flow cell (Hydrolab H2O Multiprobe) to collect hourly data on temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Field measurements were used to enable repeat groundwater sampling by pumping through specially designed borehole water samplers. Following the HRC injection, the data demonstrated the temporal relationship between the Br arrival and onset of reducing conditions induced by the injection. For example, redox potential decreased from +240 to -130 mV while conductivity changed from ~510 μS/cm to ~850 μS/cm along with a complete removal of DO and a drop in pH. These changes occurred concomitantly with more than a 2- order of magnitude increase in microbial cell numbers. The pore-water conductivity changes were used to constrain interpretation of the results of cross-borehole radar tomography conducted prior to and after the

  11. Technical manual: operation and equipment instructions for in situ impulse test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This manual describes the test equipment and procedures for a new field test which determines the shear modulus of a soil deposit at strain levels equivalent to those experienced during actual earthquakes. Results from this test are typically used as input parameters to response analyses for evaluating local soil effects during earthquake shaking. The test employs a cross-hole wave propagation procedure with velocity transducers located in closely spaced adjacent borings. Clear, consistent, and repeatable data in all types of soil and a method of data reduction different from conventional geophysical first arrival techniques are unique aspects of this new test. In addition to describing the principles of the test and data reduction procedures, major discussions of the field procedures are also included. Detailed drilling and testing information is provided both for planning and executing a test program

  12. Cryopreservation of mouse embryos by ethylene glycol-based vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiji; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Taguma, Kyuichi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2011-11-18

    Cryopreservation of mouse embryos is a technological basis that supports biomedical sciences, because many strains of mice have been produced by genetic modifications and the number is consistently increasing year by year. Its technical development started with slow freezing methods in the 1970s(1), then followed by vitrification methods developed in the late 1980s(2). Generally, the latter technique is advantageous in its quickness, simplicity, and high survivability of recovered embryos. However, the cryoprotectants contained are highly toxic and may affect subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the technique was not applicable to certain strains of mice, even when the solutions are cooled to 4°C to mitigate the toxic effect during embryo handling. At the RIKEN BioResource Center, more than 5000 mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds and phenotypes are maintained(3), and therefore we have optimized a vitrification technique with which we can cryopreserve embryos from many different strains of mice, with the benefits of high embryo survival after vitrifying and thawing (or liquefying, more precisely) at the ambient temperature(4). Here, we present a vitrification method for mouse embryos that has been successfully used at our center. The cryopreservation solution contains ethylene glycol instead of DMSO to minimize the toxicity to embryos(5). It also contains Ficoll and sucrose for prevention of devitrification and osmotic adjustment, respectively. Embryos can be handled at room temperature and transferred into liquid nitrogen within 5 min. Because the original method was optimized for plastic straws as containers, we have slightly modified the protocol for cryotubes, which are more easily accessible in laboratories and more resistant to physical damages. We also describe the procedure of thawing vitrified embryos in detail because it is a critical step for efficient recovery of live mice. These methodologies would be helpful to researchers and

  13. Development of high sensitivity gamma and beta sensors for in situ diffusion tests in the mudstone in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    The precise monitoring of radiotracers, for example used for medical imaging, for the storage of ultimate waste, or for certain industrial applications can be a very complex subject. The development of low-noise sensors with long-term stability and high geometric flexibility were engaged by the AXINT company. (Hautefeuille, et al., 2006). My PhD thesis was focused on experiments in the diffusion of radiotracers, typically to monitor the possible leakage of radioactive products from the geological repositories. We focuses on the study of the 22 Na and 36 Cl ion diffusion, which is one of the highest cation and anions diffusion rate in geological medium, as well as actinides, which represent the majority of the radioactive elements of Stored nuclear waste. This thesis is in continuity with the research carried out by ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste), under contract with the laboratory ILM (Institute Light Matter), of which AXINT is the main subcontractor. The present project describes the research work that foreseen the radiation impact on the environment for the coming years during the deep disposal of nuclear waste. Our work focus on the investigation and quantification of the radionuclide diffusion through the geological clay barriers. A new in situ experiment was considered by Andra for the study of the radionuclide migration. Compared to previous experiments, this new in situ diffusion test required longer distance (hundreds of mm), longer time-scale (over 10 years), and real time in situ monitoring of radionuclides migration. To fulfill these conditions, the work was organized as following: 1: Conception and dimensional design of the Diffusion of Radio Nuclide (DRN) experiments in solving emission of beta and gamma radiations 2: Development of corresponding beta and gamma monitoring systems by means of sensors located in peripheral boreholes. (author) [fr

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project Building limited scope risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.J.; Lindberg, S.E.; Reardon, M.F.; Wilson, G.P.

    1992-10-01

    A limited scope risk assessment was performed on the preliminary design of a high-level waste interim storage facility. The Canister Storage Building (CSB) facility will be built to support remediation at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State. The CSB will be part of the support facilities for a high level Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The limited scope risk assessment is based on a preliminary design which uses forced air circulation systems to move air through the building vault. The current building design calls for natural circulation to move air through the building vault

  15. HLW vitrification in France industrial experience and glass quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvaux, J.L.; Delahaye, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the vitrification process, the technology and process improvements at the La Hague plant in R 7 and T 7 facilities. The main achievements relate to the process flexibility, the reliability of the equipment and solid waste management. The quality of the vitrified glass produced and canisters compliance with agreed specifications are demonstrated through characterization studies. Since the active start-up of R 7/T 7 facilities, canisters compliance with specifications relies upon a complete quality assurance/quality control program including process control. 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Safety aspects with regard to plutonium vitrification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantling US and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. Various disposition options are under consideration. One option is to vitrify the plutonium with the addition of 137 Cs or high-level waste to act as a deterrent to proliferation. The primary safety problem associated with vitrification of plutonium is to avoid criticality in form fabrication and in the final repository over geologic time. Recovery should be as difficult (costly) as the recovery of plutonium from spent fuel

  17. Vitrification of isolated mice blastomeres using a closed loading device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isolated blastomeres obtained by embryo biopsy serve mainly for preimplantation genetic screening. Blastomeres are undifferentiated embryonic cells that include all the embryo genetic information. A lot of developing technologies may benefit by the efficient cryopreservation of blastomeres for future potential use, especially for stem cell culture and differentiation control. We are hereby reporting for the first time the feasibility of preserving individual isolated blastomeres in microvolumes in a closed vitrification system. Using a cryotip and propagation in microvolumes, isolated mice blastomeres were vitrified and warmed with 100% post-warming survival.

  18. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Biendicho, Jordi Jacas; Hull, Stephen; Beran, Premysl; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Svensson, Gunnar; Edström, Kristina

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new cell design for the construction of lithium ion batteries with conventional electrochemical performance whilst allowing in situ neutron diffraction measurement. A cell comprising of a wound cathode, electrolyte and anode stack has been prepared. The conventional hydrogen-containing components of the cell have been replaced by hydrogen-free equivalents. The electrodes are fabricated using a PTFE binder, the electrolyte consists of deuterated solvents which are supported in a quartz glass fibre separator. Typical battery performance is reported using the hydrogen-free components with a specific capacity of 140 mA h g-1 being observed for LiFePO4 at a rate of 0.2 C. Neutron diffraction patterns of full cells were recorded with phase change reactions monitored. When aluminium packaging was used a better signal to noise ratio was obtained. The obtained atomic positions and lattice parameters for all cells investigated were found to be consistent with parameters refined from the diffraction pattern of a powder of the pure electrode material. This paper highlights the pertinent points in designing cells for these measurements and addresses some of the problems.

  19. In Situ TEM Scratch Testing of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Multilayers with a Novel MEMS Tribometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Eric D.; Stauffer, Douglas D.; Oh, Yunje; Asif, S. A. Syed

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a newly developed two-dimensional (2D) transducer designed for in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanotribology, deformation mechanisms of a perpendicular magnetic recording film stack under scratch loading conditions were evaluated. These types of films are widely utilized in storage devices, and loss of data by grain reorientation in the recording layers is of interest. The observed deformation was characterized by a stick-slip mechanism, which was induced by a critical ratio of lateral to normal force regardless of normal force. At low applied normal forces, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating and asperities in the recording layer were removed during scratching, while, at higher applied forces, grain reorientation and debonding of the recording layer was observed. As the normal force and displacement were increased, work for stick-slip deformation and contact stress were found to increase based upon an Archard's Law analysis. These experiments also served as an initial case study demonstrating the capabilities of this new transducer.

  20. EPRI flow-loop/in situ test program for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.F.; Dorfman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is undertaking a comprehensive research program to develop and validate methods for predicting the performance of common motor-operated gate, global, and butterfly valves. To assess motor-operated valve (MOV) performance characteristics and provide a basis for methods validation, full-scale testing was conducted on 62 MOVs. Tests were performed in four flow-loop facilities and in nine nuclear units. Forty-seven gate, five globe, and 10 butterfly valves were tested under a wide range of flow and differential pressure conditions. The paper describes the test program scope, test configurations, instrumentation and data acquisition, testing approach, and data analysis methods. Key results are summarized

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) research and development program: in situ testing plan, March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The WIPP in southeast New Mexico is being developed as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive defense wastes in bedded salt. The tests are done first without radioactive materials and then with transuranic (TRU) waste and Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW). The thermal/structural itneraction experiments include (a) geomechanical evaluations of access drifts, vertical shafts, and isothermal TRU disposal rooms during the Site and Preliminary Validation Program, (b) tests that represent the reference DHLW room configuraton (5.5 m x 5.5 m) and areal thermal loading of 12 W/m 2 , (c) an overtest of the DHLW congfiguration heated to about four times the reference thermal loading; (d) geomechanical evaluations of various room widths up to 9.1 m, variable pillar widths, and a long-drift intersection, (e) an 11-m-dia axisymmetric heated pillar test, and (f) miscellaneous tests to determine stress field and clay seam sliding resistance. The plugging and sealing experiments include (a) salt permeability tests, (b) tests to determine effects of size and scale on behavior of plugs and to determine backfill material behavior and emplacement techniques, and (c) a plug test matrix to evaluate candidate sealing materials. Waste package interaction experiments include (a) simulated-waste package tests that use several design options and engineered barrier materials under reference and accelerated DHLW environments, (b) confirmatory brine migration tests, (c) TRU drum durability tests in dry and wet conditions, (d) options for radiation-source tests using cesium capsules, and (e) actual DHLW tests using up to 40 canisters for technical demonstrations and for addressing concerns of wasteform chemistry, leaching, and near-field radionuclide migration

  2. Rock mechanics methods and in situ heater tests for design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of integrating data from the Near-Surface Test Facility into the overall Waste Isolation Program are examined. Discussions are presented dealing primarily with the application of numerical models to the design of a waste repository. The various types of models currently available are discussed with reference to design in basalt and the breakdown of the problem of repository design is summarized. It is shown that the most efficient method for analyzing repository design is to break the problem down into several problems which are based on physical scale. These include the area directly surrounding a single waste canister (the very near field), the area including many canisters and canister emplacement rooms (the near field), and the area including the entire repository and the rock mass to the free surface (the far field). The methods by which numerical models are used for design are discussed. Flow charts are used to show the basic input data required, the calculational processes used, and the preliminary criteria for judgment of suitable repository performance. It is shown that the ultimate design of the allowable gross thermal loading density, and, thus, the layout of the underground workings is highly dependent upon the rock mass properties supplied as base line input data to the numerical models. Of the many input properties required, the thermal conductivity, the thermal expansion coefficient, and elastic moduli of the rock mass have, perhaps, the greatest effect on the calculation of induced temperatures, stresses, and displacements and, thus, repository design. To ensure that the design continues with confidence, field (in situ) values of input data must be obtained. The role of the Near-Surface Test Facility in situ testing in obtaining these basic required data is discussed

  3. In situ measurement of solvent-mediated phase transformations during dissolution testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Heinänen, Paula; Peltonen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    In this study, solvent-mediated phase transformations of theophylline (TP) and nitrofurantoin (NF) were measured in a channel flow intrinsic dissolution test system. The test set-up comprised simultaneous measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium (with UV-Vis spectrophotometry...

  4. Quality control tests of an activity meter to be used as reference for an in situ calibration methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Eduardo de L.; Kuahara, Lilian T.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality involving the application of radioactive isotopes in diagnosis and/or treatment of disease. In order to ensure that the radiation dose applied to the patient is adequate, the radiopharmaceutical activity must be adequately measured. This work was performed to analyze the behavior of an activity meter Capintec NPL-CRC to be used as a reference for the implementation of a methodology for in situ calibration of nuclear medicine equipment. It were made the daily quality control tests, such as auto zero, background, system test, accuracy test and constancy test, and determination of repeatability and intermediate measurement precision using {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 133}Ba sources.Furthermore, this equipment was used to confirm the check sources activities produced at IPEN and used by the laboratory that produces the radiopharmaceuticals sent to the nuclear medicine services. The results showed a good behavior of this equipment. The maximum variation obtained in the accuracy test was of 1.81% for the {sup 57}Co source. For {sup 137}Cs this variation was of 4.59%, and for {sup 133}Ba, 11.83%. The high value obtained for the last case, indicates the needs of a correction that can be obtained by calibration methods. The result obtained using different reference sources showed a great repeatability with maximum variation of 1.38%. (author)

  5. Development of the plutonium oxide vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.M.; Marra, J.C.; Coughlin, J.T.; Calloway, T.B.; Schumacher, R.F.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Pareizs, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Repository disposal of plutonium in a suitable, immobilized form is being considered as one option for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. Accelerated development efforts were completed in 1997 on two potential immobilization forms to facilitate downselection to one form for continued development. The two forms studied were a crystalline ceramic based on Synroc technology and a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. As part of the glass development program, melter design activities and component testing were completed to demonstrate the feasibility of using glass as an immobilization medium. A prototypical melter was designed and built in 1997. The melter vessel and drain tube were constructed of a Pt/Rh alloy. Separate induction systems were used to heat the vessel and drain tube. A Pt/Rh stirrer was incorporated into the design to facilitate homogenization of the melt. Integrated powder feeding and off-gas systems completed the overall design. Concurrent with the design efforts, testing was conducted using a plutonium surrogate LaBS composition in an existing (near-scale) melter to demonstrate the feasibility of processing the LaBS glass on a production scale. Additionally, the drain tube configuration was successfully tested using a plutonium surrogate LaBS glass

  6. High hydrostatic pressure: a new way to improve in vitro developmental competence of porcine matured oocytes after vitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y; Pribenszky, C S; Molnár, M

    2008-01-01

    (11.4±2.4%) or 130 (13.1±3.2%) min recovery, when compared with the vitrification control group without HHP treatment where no blastocysts were obtained. The influence of temperature at HHP treatment on further embryo development was also investigated. Treatments of 20 MPa with 70 min recovery were......) oocytes. The HHP pretreatment will be tested as a means to improve survival and developmental competence at different developmental stages in different species including humans...

  7. Geochemical processes in the Febex bentonite after a heating and hydration in situ test in the Grimsel URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Rivas, P.; Muurinen, A.; Montarges-Pelletier, E.; Jockwer, N.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The FEBEX project provides the opportunity to understand and quantify the geochemical processes taking place in the near-field and to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the FEBEX bentonite. FEBEX is a demonstration and research project, which includes a large-scale in situ experiment performed in a gallery excavated in granite at the Grimsel underground laboratory research (URL) in Switzerland. Two main operational phases have been executed: a) the First Operational Phase (1996-2002), which corresponds to the FEBEX-I and FEBEX-II projects, and b) the Second Operational Phase (2002-2007), which was carried out within the frame of the NF-PRO project. In the first Operation Phase, the in situ test consisted of: 1) the heating system formed by two heaters separated horizontally by 1 m, which simulate full-sized canisters and maintain a temperature of 100 deg. C; 2) the bentonite barrier, made of blocks of highly compacted bentonite (w.c.: 14.4%;ρ d : 1.70 g/cm 3 ); 3) the drift excavated in the granite. This rock is saturated and hydrates the clay with a water flow of 7-12 L/ day; and 4) the instrumentation, monitoring and control systems. The in situ test began on February 27 1997. Heater 1 was switched-off in February 2002. The dismantling of section 1 of the in situ test provided the opportunity to analyse the thermo-hydro-geochemical (THG) processes taking place in the bentonite barrier. In the second Operational Phase, after removing the buffer and all the components, a dummy steel cylinder with a length of 1 m was inserted in the void left by Heater 1 in the centre of the buffer. A new concrete plug with a total length of 3 m was constructed by shotcreting. Heater 2 maintained its temperature of 100 deg. C at contact with the bentonite throughout the entire

  8. Effects of feed process variables on Hanford Vitrification Plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Wagner, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of nuclear defense activities, high-level liquid radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site for over 40 yr. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being proposed to immobilize these wastes in a waste form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. Prior to vitrification, the waste will undergo several conditioning steps before being fed to the melter. The effect of certain process variables on the resultant waste slurry properties must be known to assure processability of the waste slurry during feed preparation. Of particular interest are the rheological properties, which include the yield stress and apparent viscosity. Identification of the rheological properties of the slurry is required to adequately design the process equipment used for feed preparation (agitators, mixing tanks, concentrators, etc.). Knowledge of the slurry rheological properties is also necessary to establish processing conditions and operational limits for maximum plant efficiency and reliability. A multivariable study was performed on simulated HWVP feed to identify the feed process variables that have a significant impact on rheology during processing. Two process variables were evaluated in this study: (a) the amount of formic acid added to the feed and (b) the degree of shear encountered by the feed during processing. The feed was physically and rheologically characterized at various stages during feed processing

  9. Dismantling and decontamination of Piver prototype vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Roudil, S.; Thomas, F.

    1991-01-01

    The PIVER prototype was targeted for dismantling in order to install a new pilot facility for the french continuous vitrification process. Most of the work involved the vitrification cell containing the process equipments, which had to be cleared out and thoroughly decontaminated; this implied disassembling, cutting up, conditioning and removing all the equipment installed in the cell. Remote manipulation, handling and cutting devices were used and some prior modifications were implemented in the cell environment. The dismantling procedure was conducted under a detailed programme defining the methodology for each operation. After equipment items and active zones were identified, the waste materials were removed, and several liquid decontamination operations were implemented. Removed activity, levels of irradiation in the cell and doses integrated by personnel were monitored to control progress and to adapt procedures to the conditions encountered. At the end of December 1989, the PIVER cleanup programme was at 87% complete and the total activity removed was 2.11 X 10 14 Bq (5712 Ci). The objective now is to obtain suitable working conditions in order to allow operators to enter the cell to remove items that are inaccessible or which cannot be dismantled by remote manipulators and to complete the decontamination procedure

  10. Concepts in prototype testing for in situ geomechanical investigations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, B.A.; Finley, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the geomechanical investigations that comprise a significant portion of the site characterization program to be conducted at Yucca Mountain, the site of a proposed repository for nuclear waste. The investigations include large-scale experiments conducted in an exploratory shaft facility at the site. A program of prototype testing has been initiated to ensure the success of these expensive and complex experiments. The prototype testing program addresses three problems in rock mechanics

  11. In situ bend testing of niobium-reinforced alumina nanocomposites with and without single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Katherine E.; Jiang Dongtao; Lemberg, Joseph A.; Koester, Kurt J.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-01-01

    Alumina-based nanocomposites were fabricated and consolidated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and niobium additions to nanocrystalline alumina was examined by in situ bend testing. The addition of 10 vol.% niobium to nanocrystalline alumina provided substantial improvement of fracture toughness (6.1 MPa m 1/2 )-almost three times that of nanocrystalline alumina. Observation of cracks emanating from Vickers indents, as well as bend specimen fracture surfaces, reveal the operation of ductile phase toughening in the Nb-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites. Further addition of 5 vol.% SWCNTs to the 10 vol.%Nb-Al 2 O 3 revealed a more porous structure and less impressive fracture toughness-having an indentation and bend fracture toughness of 2.9 MPa m 1/2 and 3.3 MPa m 1/2 , respectively

  12. Description of Work for Drilling at the 183-DR Site in Support of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Edward C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-06-26

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Prior work suggests that a candidate for application of this approach is the 183-DR site at Hanford. However, deep vadose zone drilling is needed to verify the presence of a hexavalent chromium source and to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of contamination. This document presents the requirements associated with drilling one to two vadose zone boreholes at the 183-DR site to obtain this information. If hexavalent chromium is determined to be present at levels of at least 10 ppm in the vadose zone in one of the initial boreholes, this hole will be completed for gas injection and six additional gas extraction boreholes will be drilled and completed. This network will be used as a flowcell for performing a gas treatment test at the site.

  13. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [SL Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sorstrom, S.E. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m{sup 3} in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  14. Temperature-dependency analysis and correction methods of in-situ power-loss estimation for crystalline silicon modules undergoing potential-induced degradation stress testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of in-situ characterization of the photovoltaic module power at standard test conditions using superposition of the dark current-voltage (I-V) curve measured at elevated stress temperature during potential-induced degradation (PID) testing. PID chamber studies were performed o...

  15. The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derryck B Klarkowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2 and UniGold HIV rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV. Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2. 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3-6.7 when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9-99.9% with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC

  16. The presence of zinc in the mouse ovary vitrification medium: histological evaluation and follicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravandi, S; Azadbakht, M

    Cryopreservation of ovary is a relevant option for preserving fertility of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. To evaluate the effect of zinc in the vitrification medium on histology and follicle growth. Mouse ovaries were vitrified in vitrification medium supplemented with 0, 100, 150 or 200 μg/dl zinc, identified as V0, V1, V2 and V3 groups, respectively. Histological evaluation of ovaries was carried out. The isolated pre-antral follicles were cultured. The size and growth of follicles were assessed. The percentage of morphologically normal follicles increased with increasing zinc concentration in the vitrification medium (P medium with zinc can improve follicle viability and growth.

  17. In situ tensile testing of nanofibers by combining atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Fei; Lu, Dun; Bailey, Russell J.; Jimenez-Palomar, Ines; Stachewicz, Urszula; Cortes-Ballesteros, Beatriz; Davies, Martin; Zech, Martin; Bödefeld, Christoph; Barber, Asa H.

    2011-09-01

    A nanomechanical testing set-up is developed by integrating an atomic force microscope (AFM) for force measurements with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide imaging capabilities. Electrospun nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), nylon-6 and biological mineralized collagen fibrils (MCFs) from antler bone were manipulated and tensile-tested using the AFM-SEM set-up. The complete stress-strain behavior to failure of individual nanofibers was recorded and a diversity of mechanical properties observed, highlighting how this technique is able to elucidate mechanical behavior due to structural composition at nanometer length scales.

  18. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, W.; Angelo, F.; Clemens, M.

    1995-01-01

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO x emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ''greenhouse gas'' contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition

  19. Human Factors for Nursing: From In-Situ Testing to Mobile Usability Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Solvoll, Terje; Hullin, Carola

    2016-01-01

    The tutorial goal is to familiarize participants with human aspects of health informatics and human-centered approaches to the design, evaluation and deployment of both usable and safe healthcare information systems. The focus will be on demonstrating and teaching practical and low-cost methods for evaluating mobile applications in nursing. Basic background to testing methods will be provided, followed by live demonstration of the methods. Then the audience will break into small groups to explore the application of the methods to applications of interest (there will be a number of possible applications that will be available for applications in areas such as electronic health records and decision support, however, if the groups have applications of specific interest to them that will be possible). The challenges of conducting usability testing, and in particular mobile usability testing will be discussed along with practical solutions. The target audience includes practicing nurses and nurse researchers, nursing informatics specialists, nursing students, nursing managers and health informatics professionals interested in improving the usability and safety of healthcare applications.

  20. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ( 241 Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of 241 Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results

  1. Vitrification in Open and Closed Carriers at Different Cell Stages: Assessment of Embryo Survival, Development, DNA Integrity and Stability during Vapor Phase Storage for Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High cooling rates with vitrification can be achieved through the use of carriers that allow cryopreservation in fluid volumes Methods Frozen one-cell mouse embryos were thawed and randomly allocated to treatment groups. Embryos were cultured and vitrified at the 8-cell (CL or at the blastocyst (BL stage. The cryoloop, an open carrier was tested against two closed systems, the Cryotip and the HSV straw. Carriers were tested for their ability to maintain embryo viability when held in the vapor phase of a dry shipper for a period of 96 hours. Outcome parameters monitored were embryo survival, recovery, subsequent development and signs of DNA damage. Results A total of 561 embryos were vitrified. The only parameter significantly affected by the type of carrier was the percentage of embryos recovered after warming. Vitrification of both CL and BL stage embryos in the Cryotip resulted in significantly lower recovery rates (P Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine DNA integrity after vitrification on different carriers and at different cell stages. It also provides insight on relative safety of short term vapor storage of vitrified embryos during transport. Within the limits of this study we could not detect an adverse effect of vapor storage on blastomere DNA or other measured outcome parameters.

  2. Vitrification of pronuclear-stage mouse embryos on solid surface (SSV) versus in cryotube: comparison of the effect of equilibration time and different sugars in the vitrification solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, H; Sagirkaya, H; Mercan, H Odaman; Dinnyès, A

    2004-02-01

    The cryopreservation of pronuclear-stage embryos has particular importance in transgenic technology and human assisted reproductive technology (ART). The objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of cryopreservation of pronuclear-stage mouse embryos. Two vitrification methods (solid surface vitrification (SSV) vs. vitrification in cryotube) have been compared with special emphasis on the effect of the exposure of the embryos to the solutions for various times and the sugar content (trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose) of the vitrification solutions. Pronuclear-stage embryos were either exposed to 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 1 M propylene-glycol (PG) solution for 2, 5, 10, or 15 min or not exposed to this "equilibration" solution. The vitrification solutions consisted of 2.75 M DMSO and 2.75 M PG in M2 medium supplemented with 1 M trehalose (DPT), 1 M sucrose (DPS), or 1 M raffinose (DPR). In the cryotube method, groups of 15-25 embryos were transferred into a 1.8 ml cryotube containing 30 microl of DPT, DPS, or DPR. After 30 sec, the cryotubes were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and stored for 1 day to 1 month. Vitrified samples were warmed by immersing the cryotubes in a 40 degrees C water bath and then immediately diluted with 300 microl of 0.3 M trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose in M2. In the SSV method, after equilibration 15-20 embryos were exposed to DPT, DPS, or DPR solutions for around 20 sec before being dropped in 2-microl drops onto a pre-cooled (-150 to -180 degrees C) metal surface. Vitrified droplets were stored in cryovials in LN(2). Warming was performed by transferring the vitrified droplets into 0.3 M solutions of trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose at 37 degrees C, respectively. Results showed that both SSV and cryotube vitrification methods can result in high rates of in vitro blastocyst development (up to 58.3 and 68.5% with DPR, respectively), not statistically different from that of the controls (58.3 and 64.4%). Even

  3. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  4. Rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.; Davoren, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra, has commenced tendering procedures for appointment of a Project Management Organisation for the Rehabilitation of the former British atomic weapon test sites at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia. This paper gives a historical background to the atomic tests, and reports scientific and engineering studies conducted by the Technical Assessment Group (TAG) to define practical and economic options for rehabilitation of the former test sites. The rehabilitation option preferred by the Australian Government will focus on removal and burial of soil and fragments highly contaminated with plutonium oxide, and erection of warning fences around areas where permanent residence will not be permitted. The application of in-situ vitrification is under investigation for stabilisation of twenty one disposal pits containing up to twenty kilograms of plutonium at Taranaki. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Bending properties of a macroalga: Adaptation of Peirce's cantilever test for in situ measurements of Laminaria digitata (Laminariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Pierre-Yves T

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: The mechanical properties of a plant are key variables governing the interaction between the plant and its environment. Thus, measuring variables such as the flexural rigidity (bending) of a plant element is necessary to understand and predict the plant-flow interaction. However, plant elements such as macrophyte blades can be relatively thin and flexible, thus difficult to characterize. Different adaptations of the classical 3-point bending tests can also affect the interpretation of the flexural rigidity of an element. A simple, robust, method is newly applied to a biomaterial and validated here as an alternative to measure flexural rigidity of thin, flexible plant elements.• Methods: Based on a bending test procedure developed for the textile industry, an apparatus for in-situ measurements was developed and compared with other normalized methods, then used in a field test on the blade of a marine macroalga (Laminaria digitata) to assess its suitability to measure the bending modulus of a biomaterial.• Key results: Results of the presented method on selected surrogate materials agree with a normalized cantilever method (ISO 9073-7:1998) and 3-point bending test (ISO 178:2010). Values determined for the bending moduli for blades of L. digitaria were in the typical range for algal material. The range of validity of the method is discussed.• Conclusion: By validating this method with existing norms, this study suggests a better approach to measure bending properties of different biomaterials in the field compared with more traditional bending tests and opens new possibilities. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Energy saving potential of heat insulation solar glass: Key results from laboratory and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert; Young, Chin-Huai

    2016-01-01

    HISG (heat insulation solar glass) is a recently developed multi-functional glazing technology to mitigate energy consumption of buildings. HISG can generate electricity similar to conventional PV (photovoltaic) glazing products when exposed to sunlight, however it differs from them by having some extraordinary characteristic features such as thermal insulation, which is competitive with Argon filled triple glazed windows, acoustic comfort, remarkable energy saving potential and self-cleaning ability owing to TiO 2 nano coating. Within the scope of this research, latest results from laboratory and in-situ testing of HISG are presented in terms of its key role in mitigating heating and cooling demand of buildings as well as clean energy generation. Lighting and thermal comfort related parameters such as shading coefficient, UV, IR and visible light intensity are also investigated through the tests conducted in real operating conditions. It is achieved from the results that instant electricity generation of HISG is 16% higher than that of standard PV glazing owing to its nano layer reflective film. Shading coefficient of HISG is only 0.136, which provides almost 80% reduction in solar heat gain compared to ordinary glazing. Indoor air temperature measured from HISG test house in summer time is very close to the ambient temperature, whereas it is found to be 14.7 °C higher in ordinary glass test house due to greenhouse effect. Annual heating and cooling demand tests indicate that HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season, respectively. - Highlights: • Nano layer reflective film of HISG enables 16% more power generation. • 80% of undesired outdoor thermal radiation is prevented by HISG. • HISG has a 100% UV blocking rate. • The shading coefficient of HISG is 0.136. • HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season.

  7. Study on vertical permeability regularity and collapsibility of a large thickness loess foundation by in-situ testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many regions in China there is a wide distribution of dead-weight collapsible loess that experience frequent disasters resulting in enormous losses to national property. Loess collapsibility is the leading cause of disasters in loess areas. Many international scholars are working collaboratively to avoid property losses and human casualties caused by the collapsible loess. Loess collapsibility is closely related to the vertical permeability regularity, so the vertical permeability regularity should be the first critical factor taken into account in studying loess collapsibility. In Lanzhou city, the in-situ soaking test is carried out on an unsaturated natural loess foundation with a thickness of 36.5m, the test pit diameter is 40m, TDR moisture probes are embedded, and the test lasts 282 days. During the test, the vertical migration of water is observed and the temporal and spatial variations of volumetric water content are considered. In the detailed research of the vertical permeability regularity, the relation between permeability regularity and collapsibility are discussed. For shallow layer soil, soil volumetric water content reaches saturation at wetting front, the water flows downward due to gravity and the infiltration rate is larger. For deep layer soil, the moisture will increase because of the upper soil permeability and its own suction, but, due to soil compression caused by the occurrence of the upper soil collapsibility, the infiltration rate is significantly reduced. The temporal and spatial variations of water volumetric content can be used to determine whether a loess collapsible deformation has occurred. The limit permeability depth in this test is 25m, and the limit permeability depth can also be served as the collapsibility evaluation depth of the unsaturated natural Malan loess foundation.

  8. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle

  10. Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Choi, A.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper