WorldWideScience

Sample records for situ time-integrated dgt

  1. Evaluation of the in situ, time-integrated DGT technique by monitoring changes in heavy metal concentrations in estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.J.K.; Teasdale, P.R.; Warnken, J.; Jordan, M.A.; Arthur, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Various natural and anthropogenic processes influence heavy metal concentrations within estuaries. In situ, time-integrated DGT measurements made over concurrent tidal phases found significantly higher concentrations of Cu (probability p = 0.017), Zn (p = 0.003) and Ni (p = 0.003) during the flood phase, because the incoming tide passes several point sources. DGT-reactive Cu concentrations significantly decreased with increased tidal-flushing and vice versa within a marina (correlation r = -0.788, p = 0.02). DGT measurements also recorded significant increases in Cu (4 out of 4 sites, p < 0.001) and Zn (3 out of 4 sites, p ≤ 0.015) after a 24 mm rainfall event. Finally, DGT-reactive Cu increased significantly (p < 0.001) during peak boating times, due to increased numbers of Cu-antifouled boats. This study demonstrates that, with judicious selection of deployment times, DGT measurements enable changes in heavy metal concentrations to be related to various cycles and events within estuaries. - Demonstration of the usefulness of DGT as a monitoring tool for heavy metals in dynamic estuaries

  2. Development of the DGT technique for in-situ Pu speciation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusnir, R.; Bochud, F.; Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Steinmann, P. [Federal Office of Public Health, Swarzenburgstrasse 165, CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Toxic effects of artificial radionuclides are strongly dependent on the surrounding chemical environment which determines the bioavailability of contaminant species. Speciation of plutonium in the environment is of particular interest since it is a long-life actinide contributing to the dose exposure via ingestion with water and food in case of radioactive discharge. Furthermore, natural colloids present in waters, as main carriers of dissolved trace metals, can transport plutonium over significant distances from contaminated sites. The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is an efficient instrument for passive sampling of trace metals. It allows for in-situ monitoring of mean concentrations of bioavailable contaminant species (1). A DGT sampler consists of two gel layers: a polyacrylamide hydrogel diffusion layer allowing to diffuse labile metal species to the second, binding layer, impregnated with ion-exchange resin. Resin elution and further analysis allow determining the amount of the bioavailable fraction of trace metals in the bulk solution, which can be calculated from the relationship: C{sub bulk}= (M x Δg)/(D x t x A) where M is the measured metal species inventory in the resin, Δg the thickness of the diffusion layer, D the diffusion coefficient of the species in the gel, t the time of deployment, A the diffusion area. To our knowledge, the DGT has not yet been applied for Pu speciation measurements and the D value is unknown. Here we propose the use of DGT to monitor the dissolved phase and labile complexes of plutonium in the aquatic environment. We have first measured the diffusion coefficient of plutonium in the hydrogel. Experiments were carried out in a diffusion cell (2) and with commercially available DGT samplers exposed in standardized solutions containing {sup 239}Pu at pico-molar concentrations. Both approaches give comparable D values in the range of 2.30 x 10{sup -6} - 2.45 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We then studied

  3. DGT Passive Sampling for Quantitative in Situ Measurements of Compounds from Household and Personal Care Products in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Yanying; Chen, Chang-Er; Sweetman, Andrew J; Zhang, Hao; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-11-21

    Widespread use of organic chemicals in household and personal care products (HPCPs) and their discharge into aquatic systems means reliable, robust techniques to monitor environmental concentrations are needed. The passive sampling approach of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is developed here and demonstrated to provide in situ quantitative and time-weighted average (TWA) measurement of these chemicals in waters. The novel technique is developed for HPCPs, including preservatives, antioxidants and disinfectants, by evaluating the performance of different binding agents. Ultrasonic extraction of binding gels in acetonitrile gave good and consistent recoveries for all test chemicals. Uptake by DGT with HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced) as the binding agent was relatively independent of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M) and dissolved organic matter (0-20 mg L -1 ), making it suitable for applications across a wide range of environments. Deployment time and diffusion layer thickness dependence experiments confirmed DGT accumulated chemicals masses are consistent with theoretical predictions. The technique was further tested and applied in the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Results were compared with conventional grab-sampling and 24-h-composited samples from autosamplers. DGT provided TWA concentrations over up to 18 days deployment, with minimal effects from biofouling or the diffusive boundary layer. The field application demonstrated advantages of the DGT technique: it gives in situ analyte preconcentration in a simple matrix, with more quantitative measurement of the HPCP analytes.

  4. Comparison of in situ DGT measurement with ex situ methods for predicting cadmium bioavailability in soils with combined pollution to biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Liu, Cui; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Teng; Yuan, Ye; Hou, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To assess the capabilities of the different techniques in predicting Cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils with the addition of Zn, one in situ technique (diffusive gradients in thin films; DGT) was compared with soil solution concentration and four widely used single-step extraction methods (acetic acid, EDTA, sodium acetate and CaCl 2 ). Wheat and maize were selected as tested species. The results demonstrated that single Cd-polluted soils inhibited the growth of wheat and maize significantly compared with control plants; the shoot and root biomasses of the plants both dropped significantly (P 0.9) between Cd concentrations in two plants and Cd bioavailability indicated by each method in soils. Consequently, the results indicated that the DGT technique could be regarded as a good predictor of Cd bioavailability to plants, comparable to soil solution concentration and the four single-step extraction methods. Because the DGT technique can offer in situ data, it is expected to be widely used in more areas.

  5. Titanium dioxide-based DGT technique for in situ measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Bennett, William W.

    2010-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique for measuring dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in fresh and marine waters is reported. The new method, which uses a commercially available titanium dioxide based adsorbent (Metsorb), was evaluated and compared to the well-established fer...

  6. High-resolution metal gradients measured by in situ DGT/DET deployment in Black Sea sediments using an autonomous benthic lander RID G-2489-2010 RID A-4901-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fones, GR; Davison, W.; Holby, O.

    2001-01-01

    DET (Diffusive equilibration in thin films) and DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) have been deployed in situ using an autonomous benthic lander to measure concentrations and induced fluxes of Fe and Mn (DET/DGT) and trace metals (DGT) in pore waters at millimeter spatial resolutions....... The newly developed deployment system is described, and based on these first results, its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Deployments were made in the Western Black Sea in shelf sediments overlain by well-oxygenated water at a water depth of 77 m. Maxima of the redox-sensitive metals at 4 and 8 cm...... elements by several millimeters. Detection of this functional discrimination between Fe and Mn as regulators of trace metals would not have been possible using more conventional sampling procedures....

  7. A novel passive water sampler for in situ sampling of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Er; Zhang, Hao; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-05-01

    Passive water sampling has several advantages over active methods; it provides time-integrated data, can save on time and cost compared to active methods, and yield high spatial resolution data through co-deployment of simple, cheap units. However, one problem with many sampler designs in current use is that their uptake rates for trace substances of interest are flow-rate dependent, thereby requiring calibration data and other information to enable water concentrations to be derived from the mass per sampler. However, the 'family' of samplers employing the principle of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) provides an in situ means of quantitatively measuring labile species in aquatic systems without field calibration. So far, this technique has only been tested and applied in inorganic substances: metals, radionuclides, nutrients, etc. Design and applications of DGT to trace organic contaminants ('o-DGT') would be of widespread interest. This study describes the laboratory testing and performance characteristics of o-DGT, with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as a model compound and XAD18 as the novel binding agent. o-DGT uptake of SMX increased with time and decreased with diffusion layer thickness, confirming the principle for SMX. XAD18 showed sufficiently high capacity for SMX for routine field applications. o-DGT measurement of SMX was independent of pH (6-9) and ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M) and not affected by flow rate once above static conditions. The diffusion coefficient of SMX in the sampler was measured using an independent diffusion cell and information is presented to allow temperature correction and derivation of aqueous concentrations from deployed samplers. The potential use of o-DGT for in situ measurement of pharmaceutical antibiotics is confirmed by this study and applications are briefly discussed.

  8. Evaluation of organic amendment on the effect of cadmium bioavailability in contaminated soils using the DGT technique and traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Organic amendments have been widely proposed as a remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils, but there exist controversial results on their effectiveness. In this study, the effect of pig manure addition on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils was systematically evaluated by one dynamic, in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and four traditional methods based on the equilibrium theory (soil solution concentration and the three commonly used extractants, i.e., acetic acid (HAc), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). Wheat and maize were selected for measurement of plant Cd uptake. The results showed that pig manure addition could promote the growth of two plants, accompanied by increasing biomasses of shoots and roots with increasing doses of pig manure addition. Correspondingly, increasing additions of pig manure reduced plant Cd uptake and accumulation, as indicated by the decreases of Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The bioavailable concentrations of Cd in Cd-contaminated soils reflected by the DGT technique obviously decreased with increasing doses of pig manure addition, following the same changing trend as plant Cd uptake. Changes in soil solution Cd concentration and extractable Cd by HAc, EDTA, and CaCl 2 in soils were similar to DGT measurement. Meanwhile, the capability of Cd resupply from solid phase to soil solution decreased with increasing additions of pig manure, as reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of C DGT to C sol . Positive correlations were observed between various bioavailable indicators of Cd in soils and Cd concentrations in the tissues of the two plants. These findings provide stronger evidence that pig manure amendment is effective in reducing Cd mobility and bioavailability in soils and it is an ideal organic material for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Donnan effects in metal speciation analysis by DET/DGT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.; Veeken, van der P.L.R.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-linked polyacrylamide gels have found wide application in analytical techniques, such as diffusional equilibration in thin film (DET) and diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT). In these applications, the assumption is made that the gel matrix is effectively uncharged and chemically inert with

  10. Biomonitoring and assessment of monomethylmercury exposure in aqueous systems using the DGT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, O.; Lotufo, G.R.; Hintelmann, H.; Best, E.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted under realistic environmental conditions to test the ability of the Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) technique to mimic monomethylmercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation by a clam (Macoma balthica, Baltic clam). Using isotope enriched MMHg as tracers, bioavailability was determined by comparing the rate of MMHg uptake by novel DGT devices and sentinel organism over time. Experiments were conducted under varying conditions of salinity and MMHg speciation. Depending on MMHg level and speciation in the dissolved phase, MMHg uptake rates by the sentinel organism varied greatly from 0.4 to 2.4 L g −1 d −1 . Reproducibilities of MMHg uptakes by DGT and clams were estimated at 7 and 38%, respectively. A significant linear relationship (log basis) between MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams was observed (r 2 = 0.89). The study demonstrates that DGT results reasonably predict MMHg uptake by clams from the aqueous phase and provide the basis for application of the DGT device as a surrogate for sentinel organism for monitoring bioavailable MMHg. - Highlights: ► We investigate the potential of DGT devices to act as surrogates for sentinel organism. ► We compare monomethylmercury accumulation in DGT devices and in clams from the dissolved phase. ► We examine the effects of salinity and MMHg speciation on MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams. ► For all laboratory experiments, a strong overall correlation between MMHg accumulations in clams and DGTs is observed.

  11. Evaluation of DGT techniques for measuring inorganic uranium species in natural waters: Interferences, deployment time and speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Geraldine S.C. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Mills, Graham A. [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Teasdale, Peter R. [Environmental Futures Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Burnett, Jonathan L.; Amos, Sean [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Fones, Gary R., E-mail: gary.fones@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-20

    Graphical abstract: In situ field deployment of DGT devices - manganese dioxide ( Black-Small-Square ) best suited for sea water monitoring (a) up to 7 days and Metsorb ( Black-Small-Square ) best suited for fresh water monitoring (b) of inorganic uranium species up to 7 days. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbents Chelex-100, Metsorb and MnO{sub 2} were investigated for use with DGT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three adsorbents performed well in low ionic strength solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnO{sub 2} resin was found to be the most suitable for marine deployments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DGT is able to measure isotopic ratios of U down to concentrations of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DGT underestimated U concentrations by at least 50% if the DBL was not taken into account. - Abstract: Three adsorbents (Chelex-100, manganese dioxide [MnO{sub 2}] and Metsorb), used as binding layers with the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique, were evaluated for the measurement of inorganic uranium species in synthetic and natural waters. Uranium (U) was found to be quantitatively accumulated in solution (10-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}) by all three adsorbents (uptake efficiencies of 80-99%) with elution efficiencies of 80% (Chelex-100), 84% (MnO{sub 2}) and 83% (Metsorb). Consistent uptake occurred over pH (5-9), with only MnO{sub 2} affected by pH < 5, and ionic strength (0.001-1 mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}) ranges typical of natural waters, including seawater. DGT validation experiments (5 days) gave linear mass uptake over time (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.97) for all three adsorbents in low ionic strength solution (0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}). Validation experiments in artificial sea water gave linear mass uptake for Metsorb (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.9954) up to 12 h and MnO{sub 2} (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.9259) up to 24 h. Chelex-100 demonstrated no linear mass uptake in artificial sea water after 8 h. Possible interferences were investigated with

  12. Biomonitoring and assessment of monomethylmercury exposure in aqueous systems using the DGT technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, O., E-mail: olivier.clarisse@umoncton.ca [Trent University, Chemistry Department, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Universite de Moncton, Departement de Chimie et de Biochimie, Moncton, New Brunswick E1A 3E9 (Canada); Lotufo, G.R. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 (United States); Hintelmann, H. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Best, E.P.H. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 (United States); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Boulevard, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted under realistic environmental conditions to test the ability of the Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) technique to mimic monomethylmercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation by a clam (Macoma balthica, Baltic clam). Using isotope enriched MMHg as tracers, bioavailability was determined by comparing the rate of MMHg uptake by novel DGT devices and sentinel organism over time. Experiments were conducted under varying conditions of salinity and MMHg speciation. Depending on MMHg level and speciation in the dissolved phase, MMHg uptake rates by the sentinel organism varied greatly from 0.4 to 2.4 L g{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Reproducibilities of MMHg uptakes by DGT and clams were estimated at 7 and 38%, respectively. A significant linear relationship (log basis) between MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams was observed (r{sup 2} = 0.89). The study demonstrates that DGT results reasonably predict MMHg uptake by clams from the aqueous phase and provide the basis for application of the DGT device as a surrogate for sentinel organism for monitoring bioavailable MMHg. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the potential of DGT devices to act as surrogates for sentinel organism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare monomethylmercury accumulation in DGT devices and in clams from the dissolved phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the effects of salinity and MMHg speciation on MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For all laboratory experiments, a strong overall correlation between MMHg accumulations in clams and DGTs is observed.

  13. Evaluation of trace metals bioavailability in Japanese river waters using DGT and a chemical equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuping; Naito, Wataru; Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2013-09-15

    To develop efficient and effective methods of assessing and managing the risk posed by metals to aquatic life, it is important to determine the effects of water chemistry on the bioavailability of metals in surface water. In this study, we employed the diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) to determine the bioavailability of metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in Japanese water systems. The DGT results were compared with a chemical equilibrium model (WHAM 7.0) calculation to examine its robustness and utility to predict dynamic metal speciation. The DGT measurements showed that biologically available fractions of metals in the rivers impacted by mine drainage and metal industries were relatively high compared with those in urban rivers. Comparison between the DGT results and the model calculation indicated good agreement for Zn. The model calculation concentrations for Ni and Cu were higher than the DGT concentrations at most sites. As for Pb, the model calculation depended on whether the precipitated iron(III) hydroxide or precipitated aluminum(III) hydroxide was assumed to have an active surface. Our results suggest that the use of WHAM 7.0 combined with the DGT method can predict bioavailable concentrations of most metals (except for Pb) with reasonable accuracy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Miao, Ling-Zhan; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl2, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to be released from its solid phase, but may also be applied to evaluate the abnormal growth of the plants. PMID:27314376

  15. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Miao, Ling-Zhan; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2016-06-15

    Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl₂, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to be released from its solid phase, but may also be applied to evaluate the abnormal growth of the plants.

  16. Time integration of tensor trains

    OpenAIRE

    Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart

    2014-01-01

    A robust and efficient time integrator for dynamical tensor approximation in the tensor train or matrix product state format is presented. The method is based on splitting the projector onto the tangent space of the tensor manifold. The algorithm can be used for updating time-dependent tensors in the given data-sparse tensor train / matrix product state format and for computing an approximate solution to high-dimensional tensor differential equations within this data-sparse format. The formul...

  17. DGT/DET Gel partition features of humic acid/metal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der P.L.R.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gel layer based sensors are increasingly employed for dynamic trace metal speciation analysis in aquatic and soil media, in which humic and fulvic acid species are generally known to be relevant. In DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film), polyacrylamide hydrogels are commonly used for the diffusive

  18. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Van Hees, M; Wannijn, J

    2010-02-01

    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C(DGT)) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO(2)(2+), uranyl carbonate complexes and UO(2)PO(4)(-). The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Tack, F. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-02-15

    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C{sub DGT}) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, uranyl carbonate complexes and UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants.

  20. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquene, L.; Vandenhove, H.; Tack, F.; Van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C DGT ) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO 2 2+ , uranyl carbonate complexes and UO 2 PO 4 - . The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants.

  1. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia, EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, NaOAc (sodium acetate, CaCl2, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p < 0.01 with the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, however, all of the methods could not reflect plant growth status. Additionally, the capability of Cd to change from solid phase to become available in a soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only

  2. Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln) and low effective concentrations (CE), assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed. PMID:23079133

  3. Titanium dioxide-based DGT for measuring dissolved As(V), V(V), Sb(V), Mo(VI) and W(VI) in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stewart, Ryan R.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    A titanium dioxide-based DGT method (Metsorb-DGT) was evaluated for the measurement of As(V), V(V), Sb(V), Mo(VI), W(VI) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in synthetic waters. Mass vs. time DGT deployments at pH 6.06 (0.01 mol L-1 NaNO3) demonstrated linear uptake of all analytes (R2...... for deployment times >4 h (CDGT=0.27-0.72). For ferrihydrite-DGT, CDGT/CSol values in the range 0.92-1.16 were obtained for As(V), V(V) and DRP, however, Mo(VI), Sb(V) and W(VI) could not be measured to within 15% of the solution concentration (C DGT/CSol 0.02-0.83)....

  4. Numerical time integration for air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); J.G. Blom (Joke)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDue to the large number of chemical species and the three space dimensions, off-the-shelf stiff ODE integrators are not feasible for the numerical time integration of stiff systems of advection-diffusion-reaction equations [ fracpar{c{t + nabla cdot left( vu{u c right) = nabla cdot left(

  5. Impact of natural organic matter and increased water hardness on DGT prediction of copper bioaccumulation by yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Rebecca R; Xu, Xiaoyu; Mills, Gary L; Bringolf, Robert B

    2018-06-01

    We conducted an exposure experiment with Diffusive Gradients in Thin- Films (DGT), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) to estimate bioavailability and bioaccumulation of Cu. We hypothesized that Cu concentrations measured by DGT can be used to predict Cu accumulation in aquatic animals and alterations of water chemistry can affect DGT's predict ability. Three water chemistries (control soft water, hard water, and addition of natural organic matter (NOM)) and three Cu concentrations (0, 30, and 60 μg/L) were selected, so nine Cu-water chemistry combinations were used. NOM addition treatments resulted in decreased concentrations of DGT-measured Cu and free Cu ion predicted by Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Both hard water and NOM addition treatments had reduced concentrations of Cu ion and Cu-dissolved organic matter complexes compared to other treatments. DGT-measured Cu concentrations were linearly correlated to fish accumulated Cu, but not to mussel accumulated Cu. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu predicted by BLM, the species complexed with biotic ligands of aquatic organisms and, was highly correlated to DGT-measured Cu. In general, DGT-measured Cu fit Cu accumulations in fish, and this passive sampling technique is acceptable at predicting Cu concentrations in fish in waters with low NOM concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Concentration of Elements in Root Zone of Norway Spruce Stand 16 Years After Fertilization Probed with DGT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Kuneš, I.; Baláš, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 10 (2015), 339/1-339/8 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : amendment * forest soil * disturbed stand * hazardous elements * DGT * effective concentration * root zone Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2015

  7. Evaluation of a titanium dioxide-based DGT technique for measuring inorganic uranium species in fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchins, Colin M.; Panther, Jared G.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique for measuring dissolved uranium (U) in freshwater is reported. The new method utilises a previously described binding phase, Metsorb (a titanium dioxide based adsorbent). This binding phase was evaluated and compared to the well-established...

  8. Inorganic species of arsenic in soil solution determined by microcartridges and ferrihydrite-based diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Six, Laetitia; Williams, Paul N; Smolders, Erik

    2013-01-30

    The bioavailability of soil arsenic (As) is determined by its speciation in soil solution, i.e., arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)]. Soil bioavailability studies require suitable methods to cope with small volumes of soil solution that can be speciated directly after sampling, and thereby minimise any As speciation change during sample collection. In this study, we tested a self-made microcartridge to separate both As species and compared it to a commercially available cartridge. In addition, the diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT), in combination with the microcartridges, was applied to synthetic solutions and to a soil spiked with As. This combination was used to improve the assessment of available inorganic As species with ferrihydrite(FH)-DGT, in order to validate the technique for environmental analysis, mainly in soils. The self-made microcartridge was effective in separating As(III) from As(V) in solution with detection by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in volumes of only 3 ml. The DGT study also showed that the FH-based binding gels are effective for As(III) and As(V) assessment, in solutions with As and P concentrations and ionic strength commonly found in soils. The FH-DGT was tested on flooded and unflooded As spiked soils and recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were 85-104% of the total dissolved As. This study shows that the DGT with FH-based binding gel is robust for assessing inorganic species of As in soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-15

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L{sup −1} for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L{sup −1} for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1} and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1}, respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion

  10. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-01

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L −1 for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L −1 for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm −2 d −1 and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm −2 d −1 , respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion gel and a filter membrane (to

  11. The Crank Nicolson Time Integrator for EMPHASIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Duncan Alisdair Odum; Love, Edward; Kramer, Richard Michael Jack

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the use of implicit time integrators for finite element time domain approxi- mations of Maxwell's equations in vacuum. We discretize Maxwell's equations in time using Crank-Nicolson and in 3D space using compatible finite elements. We solve the system by taking a single step of Newton's method and inverting the Eddy-Current Schur complement allowing for the use of standard preconditioning techniques. This approach also generalizes to more complex material models that can include the Unsplit PML. We present verification results and demonstrate performance at CFL numbers up to 1000.

  12. DGT as a useful monitoring tool for radionuclides and trace metals in environments impacted by uranium mining: Case study of the Sagnes wetland in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Martine; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Drozdzak, Jagoda; Gao, Yue; Nos, Jérémy; Descostes, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique was used to analyse U, (226)Ra and other trace metals in stream water and soil porewater in a wetland in France impacted by uranium mining. High resolution profiles of metals in soil porewater obtained by DGT could be measured for the first time up to a depth of 75 cm by the construction of a novel DGT holder. In stream water, the DGT technique was compared to speciation carried out by filtration (0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF) (500 kDa/100 kDa/10 kDa) and DGT porewater profiles were compared with piezometer data obtained in a parallel study. An increase in the trace concentrations of dissolved (0.45 μm) and particulate U, (226)Ra, and elements such as Al, Fe, Mn and Ba was observed in the stream water as it passes through the bog as a results of mobilization from the wetland. The porewater results indicate DGT labile metals species to be present in porewater and mobilization of uranium and other elements linked to the presence of enriched clays. In stream water, colloids and particles govern the behavior of U, Al and Fe, whereas Mn, Ba and Ra are essentially transported as truly dissolved metal species with DGT labile concentrations accounting for 100% of the dissolved fraction. The combined approaches of DGT and UF allow us to obtain a better understanding on the biogeochemical processes involved in the retention and mobility of U and (226)Ra in the wetland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of phosphate release from Bogor botanical gardens’ sediment into pore water using diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirta, A. P.; Saefumillah, A.; Foliatini

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the environmental problems caused by the excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. In most lakes, phosphate is a limiting nutrient for algae photosynthesis. Even though the concentration of phosphate from external loading into the water body has been reduced, eutrophication could still be occured due to internal mobilization of phosphate from the sediment pore water into the overlying water. Therefore, the released phosphate from sediments and their interaction in the pore water must be included in the monitoring of phosphate concentration in aquatic system. The released phosphate from sediment into pore water has been studied by DGT device with ferrihydrite as binding gel and N-N‧-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinker. The results showed that DGT with 15% acrylamide; 0.1 % N-N‧-methylenebisacrylamide and ferrihydrite as binding gel was suitable for the measurement of the released phosphate from sediment into pore water. The result of the deployed DGT in oxic and anoxic conditions in seven days incubation showed the released phosphate process from the sediment into pore water was affected by incubation time and the existence of oxygen in the environment. The released phosphate from the sediment into pore water in anoxic condition has a higher value than oxic condition. The experimental results of the deployed DGT in natural sediment core at a depth of 1 to 15 cm from the surface of the water for 7 days showed that the sediment has a different phosphate mass profile based on depth. The concentration of phosphate tends to be increased with depth. The maximum CDGT of phosphate released in oxic and anoxic conditions at 7th day period of incubation are 29.23 μg/L at 14 cm depth and 30.19 μg/L at 8 cm depth, respectively.

  14. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  15. Use of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) with various diffusive gels for characterization of sewage sludge-contaminated soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaříková, V.; Dočekalová, H.; Dočekal, Bohumil; Podborská, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, 7-8 (2007), s. 2303-2311 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DGT * diffusive gels * soils Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  16. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Lien K.; Pinch, Benjamin M.; Bennett, William W.

    2016-01-01

    gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all...... of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb...... in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were...

  17. Mechanistic insights from DGT and soil solution measurements on the uptake of Ni and Cd by radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Jinghua; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    This work tests the previously proposed hypothesis that plant uptake of metals is determined dominantly by diffusional controlled or plant limiting uptake mechanisms at, respectively, low and high metal concentrations. Radish (Raphanus sativus) was grown in 13 soils spiked with Ni (10 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.5 and 4 mg kg(-1)) for 4 weeks to investigate the mechanisms affecting plant uptake. Soil solution concentrations, Css, of Ni and Cd were measured, along with the DGT interfacial concentration, CDGT, and the derived effective concentration in soil solution, CE. Free ion activities, aNi(2+) and aCd(2+), were obtained using WHAM 6. Although there was a poor relationship between Ni in radish roots and either Css or aNi(2+) in unamended soils, the distribution of data could be rationalized in terms of the extent of release of Ni from the soil solid phase, as identified by DGT and soil solution measurements. By contrast Ni in radish was linearly related to CE, demonstrating diffusion limited uptake. For soils amended with high concentrations of Ni, linear relationships were obtained for Ni in radish plotted against, Css, aNi(2+), and CE, consistent with the plant controlling uptake. For Ni the hypothesis concerning dominant diffusional and plant limiting uptake mechanisms was demonstrated. Poor relationships between Cd in radish and Css, aCd(2+), and CE, irrespective of amendment by Cd, showed the importance of factors other than diffusional supply, such as rhizosphere and inhibitory processes, and that fulfilment of this hypothesis is plant and metal specific.

  18. Optimization of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) method for simultaneous assay of potassium and plant-available phosphorus in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulin; Mason, Sean; McNeill, Ann; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are two important macronutrients for crops, and are usually applied to soils as granular fertilizer before seeding. Therefore, accurate soil tests prior to planting to predict crop response to fertilizers are important in optimizing crop yields. Traditional methods used for testing both available K and P in soils, which are based on chemical extraction procedures, are to be soil-type dependent, and the predictive relationships across a broad range of soils are generally poor. The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, based on diffusion theory, is extensively used to measure the diffusive supply of trace elements, metals and some nutrients in soils and water. When DGT is used to assess plant-available P in soils, a good relationship is found between crop response to P fertilizer and concentrations of P in soil measured by DGT, and therefore the DGT method provides a more precise recommendation of P fertilizer requirements. Adaptation of the DGT method to measure plant-available K in soils has already been attempted [1], but limitations were reported due to the non-uniform size of the resin gel, decreased K binding rate of the gel at long deployment times and a limited ability to measure a wide range of K concentrations. To eliminate these problems, a new resin gel has been developed by combining Amberlite and ferrihydrite. This mixed Amberlite and ferrihydrite (MAF) gel has improved properties in terms of handling and even distribution of Amberlite in the gel. The elution efficiencies of the MAF gel for K and P were 90% and 96%, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of K through the diffusive gel was 1.30 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1) at 22 ± 1°C and was stable through time. Since ferrihydrite is already used in DGT P testing, the ability of the MAF gel to assess available P simultaneously was also assessed. The MAF gel performed the same as the traditional ferrihydrite gel for available P assessment in a wide variety of

  19. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C soln ) and 0.005 M Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75 days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C soln , the 0.005 M Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C DGT ) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R 2 > 0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C soln . However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops. - Highlights: ► The effect of soil acidification was assessed for four Zn and Cd polluted soils. ► For some soils moderate acidification could enhance the metal uptake efficiency. ► Chemical assessment of bioavailability using

  20. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus, E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C{sub soln}) and 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75 days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C{sub soln}, the 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C{sub DGT}) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R{sup 2} > 0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C{sub soln}. However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of soil acidification was assessed for four Zn and Cd polluted soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For some soils moderate acidification could

  1. Investigating arsenic speciation and mobilization in sediments with DGT and DET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William W.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Panther, Jared G.

    2012-01-01

    Mobilization of arsenic from freshwater and estuarine sediments during the transition from oxic to anoxic conditions was investigated using recently developed diffusive sampling techniques. Arsenic speciation and Fe(II) concentrations were measured at high resolution (1-3 mm) with in situ diffusi...

  2. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...... equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from undesirable high...

  3. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  4. Prospects for direct measurement of time-integrated Bs mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccama, I.

    1994-01-01

    This note investigates the prospects of measuring time-integrated B s mixing. Three inclusive decay modes of the B s meson are discussed. For each reconstruction mode, the expected number of events and the different background channels are discussed. Estimates are given for the uncertainty on the mixing parameter χ s . (orig.)

  5. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  6. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Lenart, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''.

  7. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal time integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roache, P.J.; Dietrich, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation are presented for a new method of time integration for fluid dynamic proposed by Dietrich. The method, called the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal (FLT) scheme, is analyzed for the one-dimensional constant-coefficient advection equation and is shown to have some advantages for quasi-steady flows. A modification (FLTW) using a weighted combination of FLT and leapfrog is developed which retains the advantages for steady flows, increases accuracy for time-dependent flows, and involves little coding effort. Merits and applicability are discussed

  9. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  10. The application of passive sampler (DGT technology for improved understanding of metal behaviour at a marine disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal behaviour and availability at a contaminated dredge material disposal site within UK waters has been investigated using Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT passive sampling technology. Three stations representing contrasting history and presence of maintenance dredge disposal, including a control station outside the disposal site, have been studied and depth profiles of fluxes of different metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn to the binding gel (Chelex 100 have been derived. Higher flux rates and shallower mobilisation of metals (Mn and Fe to the binding gel were observed at the disposal stations compared to the control station. Here we describe metal mobilization at different depths, linking the remobilization of Fe2+ and Mn2+ to the sediment (resupply of other heavy metals of interest with a focus on Cd, Ni and Pb and as they are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD list of priority substances and OSPAR list of priority pollutants. Results showed that Cd, Pb and Ni exhibited signs of resupply at the sediment-water interface (SWI. There was a potential increased mobilisation and source to the water column of Pb and Ni at the disposal site stations, but there was no Cd source, despite higher total loadings. This information has the potential to improve our current understanding of metal cycles at disposal sites. This work can be used as an indication of likely metal bioavailability and also assist in determining whether the sites act as sources or sinks of heavy metals. This information could assist disposal site monitoring and dredge material licensing.

  11. Hybrid state-space time integration of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    An efficient time integration algorithm for the dynamic equations of flexible beams in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space format in terms of local displacements and local components of the absolute velocity. With inspiration...... of the system rotation enter via global operations with the angular velocity vector. The algorithm is based on an integrated form of the equations of motion with energy and momentum conserving properties, if a kinematically consistent non-linear formulation is used. A consistent monotonic scheme for algorithmic...... energy dissipation in terms of local displacements and velocities, typical of structural vibrations, is developed and implemented in the form of forward weighting of appropriate mean value terms in the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented for a beam theory with consistent quadratic non...

  12. Determining time-weighted average concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in freshwaters using DGT with ion exchange membrane-based binding layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially-available AMI-7001 anion exchange and CMI-7000 cation exchange membranes were utilised as binding layers for DGT measurements of NO3-N and NH4-N in freshwaters. These ion exchange membranes are easier to prepare and handle than DGT binding layers consisting of hydrogels cast with ion...... exchange resins. The membranes showed good uptake and elution efficiencies for both NO3-N and NH4-N. The membrane-based DGTs are suitable for pH 3.5-8.5 and ionic strength ranges (0.0001-0.014 and 0.0003-0.012 mol L−1 as NaCl for the AMI-7001 and CMI-7000 membrane, respectively) typical of most natural...... freshwaters. The binding membranes had high intrinsic binding capacities for NO3-N and NH4-N of 911 ± 88 μg and 3512 ± 51 μg, respectively. Interferences from the major competing ions for membrane-based DGTs are similar to DGTs employing resin-based binding layers but with slightly different selectivity...

  13. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  14. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.; Smol-ka, M.; Dalcin, L; Paszyn'ski, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  15. Measurements of labile Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production with diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João M; Menegário, Amauri A; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus A G; Francioni, Eleine

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the ability of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) was evaluated for monitoring the concentrations, and estimating the availability, of metals at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production. Three sites with an average distance between 0m (EM-1), 100 m (EM-2), and 1,000 m (EM-3) of a submarine outfall-I (Guamaré-RN, Brazil) and another site (GA-1) with an average distance of 12,000 m east of Outfall I, near the city of Galinhos, were studied. DGT units were deployed at the same sites in three campaigns from July, 2010 to June, 2011. Effects on the accuracy of analytical results regarding the deployment time, gel porosity, and thickness were evaluated. There was no difference between the measurements obtained with two sets of DGT devices, those assembled with open or restrictive pore gel, respectively, showing that organic metallic species are not present near the submarine outlet. After 21 day deployments in a region (near Submarine Outfall I) that receives produced waters that have been treated, there was evidence of biofilm formation on DGT membranes. However, it was demonstrated that the biofilm interference with DGT measurements was negligible. Data found in this work show that total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in seawater samples collected at sites GA-1 and EM-1 in two campaigns were below 0.33, 1.67, 0.47, 0.70, 2.86 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the first time, labile levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an area under the influence of oil production were determined. DGT measurements allowed the verification of the effects of temporal variation on levels of Zn and Ni. There were no effects of spatial variations on levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the four studied sites, suggesting no contamination of these metals at the northeastern Brazilian coastal area investigated in this work. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Velocity time integral for right upper pulmonary vein in VLBW infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Lista

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of significant patent ductus arteriosus reduces the risk of clinical worsening in very low birth weight infants. Echocardiographic patent ductus arteriosus shunt flow pattern can be used to predict significant patent ductus arteriosus. Pulmonary venous flow, expressed as vein velocity time integral, is correlated to ductus arteriosus closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between significant reductions in vein velocity time integral and non-significant patent ductus arteriosus in the first week of life. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate very low birth weight infants (<1500 g on respiratory support. Echocardiography was used to evaluate vein velocity time integral on days 1 and 4 of life. The relationship between vein velocity time integral and other parameters was studied. RESULTS: In total, 98 very low birth weight infants on respiratory support were studied. On day 1 of life, vein velocity time integral was similar in patients with open or closed ductus. The mean vein velocity time integral significantly reduced in the first four days of life. On the fourth day of life, there was less of a reduction in patients with patent ductus compared to those with closed patent ductus arteriosus and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in vein velocity time integral in the first days of life is associated with ductus closure. This parameter correlates well with other echocardiographic parameters and may aid in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus.

  18. Assessment of the availability of As and Pb in soils after in situ stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanying; Yang, Jie; Li, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Dongmei; Dang, Fei

    2017-10-01

    The in situ stabilization has been widely used to remediate metal-contaminated soil. However, the long-term retaining performance of heavy metals and the associated risk after in situ stabilization remains unclear and has evoked amounting concerns. Here, Pb- or As-contaminated soil was stabilized by a commercial amendment. The availability of Pb and As after in situ stabilization were estimated by ten different in vitro chemical extractions and DGT technique. After amendment application, a significant decline in extractable Pb or As was observed in treatments of Milli-Q water, 0.01 M CaCl 2 , 0.1 M NaNO 3 , 0.05 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and 0.43 M HOAc. Potential available metal(loid)s determined by DGT also showed remarkable reduction. Meanwhile, the results of in vivo uptake assays demonstrated that Pb concentrations in shoots of ryegrass Lolium perenne L. declined to 12% of the control samples, comparable to the extraction ratio of 0.1 M NaNO 3 (15.8%) and 0.05 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (17.3%). For As-contaminated soil, 0.43 M HOAC provided a better estimation of relative phytoavailability (64.6 vs. 65.4% in ryegrass) compared to other extraction methods. We propose that 0.1 M NaNO 3 or 0.05 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 for Pb and 0.43 M HOAc for As may serve as surrogate measures to estimate the lability of metal(loid)s after soil remediation of the tested contaminated soils. Further studies over a wider range of soil types and amendments are necessary to validate extraction methods.

  19. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results

  20. Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B mesons system at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinale, R

    2016-01-01

    Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B meson system provide information for testing the CKM picture of CP violation in the Standard Model. A review of recent results from the LHCb experiment is presented.

  1. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin

    2011-07-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results show that this new time integration scheme uses considerably larger time steps than the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method when combined with a DG-FEM using higher-order spatial discretization/basis functions for high accuracy. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. SEMIGROUPS N TIMES INTEGRATED AND AN APPLICATION TO A PROBLEM OF CAUCHY TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danessa Chirinos Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of semigroups n times integrated is a generalization of strongly continuous semigroups, which was developed from 1984, and is widely used for the study of the existence and uniqueness of problems such Cauchy in which the operator domain is not necessarily dense. This paper presents an application of semigroups n times integrated into a problem of viscoelasticity, which is formulated as a Cauchy problem on a Banach space presents .

  3. Determination of total arsenic using a novel Zn-ferrite binding gel for DGT techniques: Application to the redox speciation of arsenic in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Josselin; Lesven, Ludovic; Billon, Gabriel; Dumoulin, David; Noiriel, Catherine; Pirovano, Caroline; Madé, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    A new laboratory-made Zn-ferrite (ZnFe2O4) binding gel is fully tested using Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT) probes to measure total As [including inorganic As(III) and As(V), as well as MonoMethyl Arsenic Acid (MMAA(V)) and DiMethyl Arsenic Acid (DMAA(V))] in river waters and sediment pore waters. The synthesis of the binding gel is easy, cheap and its insertion into the acrylamide gel is not problematic. An important series of triplicate tests have been carried out to validate the use of the Zn-ferrite binding gel in routine for several environmental matrixes studies, in order to test: (i) the effect of pH on the accumulation efficiency of inorganic As species; (ii) the reproducibility of the results; (iii) the accumulation efficiency of As species; (iv) the effects of the ionic strength and possible competitive anions; and (v) the uptake and the elution efficiency of As species after accumulation in the binding gel. All experimental conditions have been reproduced using two other existing binding gels for comparison: ferrihydrite and Metsorb® HMRP 50. We clearly demonstrate that the Zn-ferrite binding gel is at least as good as the two other binding gels, especially for pH values higher than 8. In addition, by taking into consideration the diffusion rates of As(III) and As(V) in the gel, combining the 3-mercaptopropyl [accumulating only As(III)] with the Zn-ferrite binding gels allows for performing speciation studies. An environmental study along the Marque River finally illustrates the ability of the new binding gel to be used for field studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. In vitro digestion and DGT techniques for estimating cadmium and lead bioavailability in contaminated soils: Influence of gastric juice pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelfrene, Aurelie; Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis

    2011-01-01

    , bioavailability, and health risk assessment. → In vitro digestion and DGT techniques for estimating Cd and Pb bioavailability in contaminated soils. → Inclusion of bioavailability analysis during health risk assessment opens a wide field of practical research.

  5. In vitro digestion and DGT techniques for estimating cadmium and lead bioavailability in contaminated soils: Influence of gastric juice pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelfrene, Aurelie, E-mail: aurelie.pelfrene@isa-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France (EA 4515), 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France (EA 4515), 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille cedex (France)

    2011-11-01

    . {yields} Influence of gastric juice pH on metal bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and health risk assessment. {yields} In vitro digestion and DGT techniques for estimating Cd and Pb bioavailability in contaminated soils. {yields} Inclusion of bioavailability analysis during health risk assessment opens a wide field of practical research.

  6. On the minima of the time integrated perturbation factor in the Scherer-Blume theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, E.F. da; Freire Junior, F.L.; Massolo, C.P.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1981-09-01

    The minima in the correlation time dependence of the Scherer-Blume time integrated attenuation coefficients for the hyperfine perturbation of ions recoiling in gas are studied. Its position and depth are determined for different physical situations and comparison with experimental data is shown. (Author) [pt

  7. A conservative quaternion-based time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...

  8. Photobleaching kinetics and time-integrated emission of fluorescent probes in cellular membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Christensen, Tanja; Solanko, Lukasz Michal

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Hirschfeld, it is known that time-integrated emission (TiEm) of a fluorophore is independent of fluorescence quantum yield and illumination intensity. Practical implementation of this important result for determining exact probe distribution in living cells is often h...

  9. Analysis of time integration methods for the compressible two-fluid model for pipe flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Sanderse (Benjamin); I. Eskerud Smith (Ivar); M.H.W. Hendrix (Maurice)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse different time integration methods for the two-fluid model and propose the BDF2 method as the preferred choice to simulate transient compressible multiphase flow in pipelines. Compared to the prevailing Backward Euler method, the BDF2 scheme has a significantly

  10. Time-integration methods for finite element discretisations of the second-order Maxwell equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmany, D.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.

    This article deals with time integration for the second-order Maxwell equations with possibly non-zero conductivity in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method DG-FEM) and the $H(\\mathrm{curl})$-conforming FEM. For the spatial discretisation, hierarchic

  11. Terminal current interpolation for multirate time integration of hierarchical IC models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Dohmen, J.J.; Tasic, B.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Fitt, A.D.; Norbury, J.; Ockendon, H.; Wilson, E.

    2010-01-01

    Multirate time-integration methods [3–5] appear to be attractive for initial value problems for DAEs with latency or multirate behaviour. Latency means that parts of the circuit are constant or slowly time-varying during a certain time interval, while multirate behaviour means that some variables

  12. Velocity time integral for right upper pulmonary vein in VLBW infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Mannarino, Savina; Schena, Federico; Castoldi, Francesca; Stronati, Mauro; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis of significant patent ductus arteriosus reduces the risk of clinical worsening in very low birth weight infants. Echocardiographic patent ductus arteriosus shunt flow pattern can be used to predict significant patent ductus arteriosus. Pulmonary venous flow, expressed as vein velocity time integral, is correlated to ductus arteriosus closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between significant reductions in vein velocity time integral and non-significant patent ductus arteriosus in the first week of life. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate very low birth weight infants (ductus. The mean vein velocity time integral significantly reduced in the first four days of life. On the fourth day of life, there was less of a reduction in patients with patent ductus compared to those with closed patent ductus arteriosus and the difference was significant. A significant reduction in vein velocity time integral in the first days of life is associated with ductus closure. This parameter correlates well with other echocardiographic parameters and may aid in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus.

  13. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  14. Long-time integrator for the study on plasma parameter fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalkind, V.M.; Tarasenko, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    A device measuring the absolute value (x) of a fluctuating quantity x(t) averaged over a large number of realizations is described. The specific features of the device are the use of the time selector (Δ t = 50 μs - 1 ms) and the large time integration constant (tau = 30 hrs). The device is meant for studying fluctuations of parameters of a pulse plasma with a small repetition frequency

  15. Molecular radiotherapy: The NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kletting, P.; Schimmel, S.; Luster, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Kestler, H. A. [Research Group Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Institut für Neuroinformatik, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg 97080 (Germany); Bröer, J. H.; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Oberschleißheim 85764 (Germany); Glatting, G. [Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167 (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error.Methods: The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB.Results: To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit

  16. Global format for energy-momentum based time integration in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A global format is developed for momentum and energy consistent time integration of second‐order dynamic systems with general nonlinear stiffness. The algorithm is formulated by integrating the state‐space equations of motion over the time increment. The internal force is first represented...... of mean value products at the element level or explicit use of a geometric stiffness matrix. An optional monotonic algorithmic damping, increasing with response frequency, is developed in terms of a single damping parameter. In the solution procedure, the velocity is eliminated and the nonlinear...

  17. Long-time integration methods for mesoscopic models of pattern-forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Katsoulakis, Markos; Plexousakis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spectral methods for simulation of a mesoscopic diffusion model of surface pattern formation are evaluated for long simulation times. Backwards-differencing time-integration, coupled with an underlying Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver (SUNDIALS-CVODE), is found to substantially accelerate simulations, without the typical requirement of preconditioning. Quasi-equilibrium simulations of patterned phases predicted by the model are shown to agree well with linear stability analysis. Simulation results of the effect of repulsive particle-particle interactions on pattern relaxation time and short/long-range order are discussed.

  18. Molecular radiotherapy: the NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletting, P; Schimmel, S; Kestler, H A; Hänscheid, H; Luster, M; Fernández, M; Bröer, J H; Nosske, D; Lassmann, M; Glatting, G

    2013-10-01

    Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error. The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB. To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit parameters and their standard

  19. Diurnal measurement of equilibrium equivalent radon/thoron concentration using time integrated flow mode grab sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, P.; Kandari, T.; Ramola, R.C.; Semwal, C.P.; Prasad, M.

    2018-01-01

    The basic processes which influenced the concentration of radon and thoron decay products are- attachment, recoil and deposition and by the room specific parameters of radon exhalation and ventilation. The freshly formed decay products have a high diffusivities (especially in air) and ability to stick to surfaces. According to UNSCEAR 1977, radon daughters may be combined as the so called equilibrium equivalent concentration which is related to the potential alpha energy distribution concentration. In the present study an effort has been made to see the diurnal variation of radon and thoron progeny concentration using time integrated flow mode sampler

  20. Explicit Time Integrators for Nonlinear Dynamics Derived from the Midpoint Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krysl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the design of time integrators for mechanical systems that are explicit in the forcing evaluations. Our starting point is the midpoint rule, either in the classical form for the vector space setting, or in the Lie form for the rotation group. By introducing discrete, concentrated impulses we can approximate the forcing impressed upon the system over the time step, and thus arrive at first-order integrators. These can then be composed to yield a second order integrator with very desirable properties: symplecticity and momentum conservation. 

  1. A revised method to calculate the concentration time integral of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, E.; Schultz, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is possible to calculate the spreading of a plume in the atmosphere under nonstationary and nonhomogeneous conditions by introducing the ''particle-in-cell'' method (PIC). This is a numerical method by which the transport of and the diffusion in the plume is reproduced in such a way, that particles representing the concentration are moved time step-wise in restricted regions (cells) and separately with the advection velocity and the diffusion velocity. This has a systematical advantage over the steady state Gaussian plume model usually used. The fixed-point concentration time integral is calculated directly instead of being substituted by the locally integrated concentration at a constant time as is done in the Gaussian model. In this way inaccuracies due to the above mentioned computational techniques may be avoided for short-time emissions, as may be seen by the fact that both integrals do not lead to the same results. Also the PIC method enables one to consider the height-dependent wind speed and its variations while the Gaussian model can be used only with averaged wind data. The concentration time integral calculated by the PIC method results in higher maximum values in shorter distances to the source. This is an effect often observed in measurements. (author)

  2. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2016-12-27

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  3. Measurement of time-integrated $D^0\\to hh$ asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    LHCb collected the world’s largest sample of charm decays during LHC Run I, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{−1}$. This has permitted many precision measurements of charm mixing and CP violation parameters. One of the most precise and important observables is the so-called $\\Delta A_{CP}$ parameter, corresponding to the difference between the time-integrated CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{0} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ and $D^{0} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi{-}$ decay modes. The flavour of the $D^{0}$ meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in $D^{∗+} \\rightarrow D^{0}\\pi^{+}$ and $D^{∗−} \\rightarrow \\overline{D}^{0}\\pi^{-}$ decays. $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{raw}(K^{+}K^{−})−A_{raw}(\\pi^{+}\\pi{−})$ is measured to be $\\Delta A_{CP}=(−0.10±0.08±0.03)$%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The measurement is consistent with the no- CP -violation hypothesis and represents the most precise measurement of time-integrated CP asymmetry ...

  4. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S Shoaib; Iqbal, M; Salahuddin, A; Avila, R; Pervez, S

    2004-01-01

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50,000 m 3 h -1 ). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m 3 h -1 , when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. (note)

  5. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe; Collier, N.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Brown, D.L.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  6. An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.

  7. Calibration of environmental monitors operating on time integrating principles for radon/thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-03-01

    An environmental radiation monitor for radon decay products has been tested under laboratory controlled conditions. The instrument is of a quasi-time-integrating type and was tested in conjunction with a radon 'box' calibration facility. It has been found that the instrument appreciably underestimates the radon daughter Working Level (WL). This is attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. The difference between monitor reading and the WL by grab-sampling was higher for low aerosol concentrations. Plate-out on the instrument detector and sampling head, and contamination effects have been observed for the thoron case. There is partial agreement between experimental results and theoretical expectation. The monitor is slow to react to sudden changes in radiation level. The instrument should prove quite useful in the routine monitoring of surface and underground environments provided some suggested changes in the instrument are introduced

  8. Evidence for CP violation in time-integrated $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalorav Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A search for time-integrated $CP$ violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ ($h=K$, $\\pi$) decays is presented using 0.62~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by LHCb in 2011. The flavor of the charm meson is determined by the charge of the slow pion in the $D^{*+} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ and $D^{*-} \\rightarrow \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^-$ decay chains. The difference in $CP$ asymmetry between $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- K^+$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^- \\pi^+$, $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{CP}(K^-K^+) \\, - \\, A_{CP}(\\pi^-\\pi^+)$, is measured to be $\\left[ -0.82 \\pm 0.21 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.11 (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\right]\\%$. This differs from the hypothesis of $CP$ conservation by $3.5$ standard deviations.

  9. Parareal algorithms with local time-integrators for time fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Lin; Zhou, Tao

    2018-04-01

    It is challenge work to design parareal algorithms for time-fractional differential equations due to the historical effect of the fractional operator. A direct extension of the classical parareal method to such equations will lead to unbalance computational time in each process. In this work, we present an efficient parareal iteration scheme to overcome this issue, by adopting two recently developed local time-integrators for time fractional operators. In both approaches, one introduces auxiliary variables to localized the fractional operator. To this end, we propose a new strategy to perform the coarse grid correction so that the auxiliary variables and the solution variable are corrected separately in a mixed pattern. It is shown that the proposed parareal algorithm admits robust rate of convergence. Numerical examples are presented to support our conclusions.

  10. Hybrid state‐space time integration in a rotating frame of reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2011-01-01

    displacements and the global velocities are represented by the same shape functions. This leads to a simple generalization of the corresponding equations of motion in a stationary frame in which all inertial effects are represented via the classic global mass matrix. The formulation introduces two gyroscopic......A time integration algorithm is developed for the equations of motion of a flexible body in a rotating frame of reference. The equations are formulated in a hybrid state‐space, formed by the local displacement components and the global velocity components. In the spatial discretization the local...... terms, while the centrifugal forces are represented implicitly via the hybrid state‐space format. An angular momentum and energy conserving algorithm is developed, in which the angular velocity of the frame is represented by its mean value. A consistent algorithmic damping scheme is identified...

  11. Long-term stable time integration scheme for dynamic analysis of planar geometrically exact Timoshenko beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Long; Sansour, Carlo; Hjiaj, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an energy-momentum method for geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beam is proposed. The classical time integration schemes in dynamics are known to exhibit instability in the non-linear regime. The so-called Timoshenko-type beam with the use of rotational degree of freedom leads to simpler strain relations and simpler expressions of the inertial terms as compared to the well known Bernoulli-type model. The treatment of the Bernoulli-model has been recently addressed by the authors. In this present work, we extend our approach of using the strain rates to define the strain fields to in-plane geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beams. The large rotational degrees of freedom are exactly computed. The well-known enhanced strain method is used to avoid locking phenomena. Conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum is proved formally and numerically. The excellent performance of the formulation will be demonstrated through a range of examples.

  12. Unconditionally Energy Stable Implicit Time Integration: Application to Multibody System Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshin; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    of ordinary diffferential equations is employed to avoid the instabilities associated with the direct integrations of differential-algebraic equations. To extend the unconditional stability of the implicit Newmark method to nonlinear dynamic systems, a discrete energy balance is enforced. This constraint......Advances in computer hardware and improved algorithms for multibody dynamics over the past decade have generated widespread interest in real-time simulations of multibody mechanics systems. At the heart of the widely used algorithms for multibody dynamics are a choice of coordinates which define...... the kinmatics of the system, and a choice of time integrations algorithms. The current approach uses a non-dissipative implict Newmark method to integrate the equations of motion defined in terms of the independent joint coordinates of the system. The reduction of the equations of motion to a minimal set...

  13. How well do time-integrated Kα images represent hot electron spatial distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Kemp, G. E.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2011-07-01

    A computational study is described, which addresses how well spatially resolved time-integrated Kα images recorded in intense laser-plasma experiments correlate with the distribution of "hot" (>1 MeV) electrons as they propagate through the target. The hot electron angular distribution leaving the laser-plasma region is critically important for many applications such as Fast Ignition or laser based x-ray sources; and Kα images are commonly used as a diagnostic. It is found that Kα images can easily mislead due to refluxing and other effects. Using the particle-in-cell code LSP, it is shown that a Kα image is not solely determined by the initial population of forward directed hot electrons, but rather also depends upon "delayed" hot electrons, and in fact continues to evolve long after the end of the laser interaction. Of particular note, there is a population of hot electrons created during the laser-plasma interaction that acquire a velocity direction opposite that of the laser and subsequently reflux off the front surface of the target, deflect when they encounter magnetic fields in the laser-plasma region, and then traverse the target in a wide spatial distribution. These delayed fast electrons create significant features in the Kα time-integrated images. Electrons refluxing from the sides and the back of the target are also found to play a significant role in forming the final Kα image. The relative contribution of these processes is found to vary depending on depth within target. These effects make efforts to find simple correlations between Kα images and, for example, Fast Ignition relevant parameters prone to error. Suggestions for future target design are provided.

  14. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y., E-mail: kadioglu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Berry, Ray A., E-mail: ray.berry@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  15. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  16. Fully implicit solution of large-scale non-equilibrium radiation diffusion with high order time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter N.; Shumaker, Dana E.; Woodward, Carol S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a solution method for fully implicit radiation diffusion problems discretized on meshes having millions of spatial zones. This solution method makes use of high order in time integration techniques, inexact Newton-Krylov nonlinear solvers, and multigrid preconditioners. We explore the advantages and disadvantages of high order time integration methods for the fully implicit formulation on both two- and three-dimensional problems with tabulated opacities and highly nonlinear fusion source terms

  17. EVALUATION OF THE POUNDING FORCES DURING EARTHQUAKE USING EXPLICIT DYNAMIC TIME INTEGRATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica George Bogdan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pounding effects during earthquake is a subject of high significance for structural engineers performing in the urban areas. In this paper, two ways to account for structural pounding are used in a MATLAB code, namely classical stereomechanics approach and nonlinear viscoelastic impact element. The numerical study is performed on SDOF structures acted by ELCentro recording. While most of the studies available in the literature are related to Newmark implicit time integration method, in this study the equations of motion are numerical integrated using central finite difference method, an explicit method, having the main advantage that in the displacement at the ith+1 step is calculated based on the loads from the ith step. Thus, the collision is checked and the pounding forces are taken into account into the equation of motion in an easier manner than in an implicit integration method. First, a comparison is done using available data in the literature. Both linear and nonlinear behavior of the structures during earthquake is further investigated. Several layout scenarios are also investigated, in which one or more weak buildings are adjacent to a stiffer building. One of the main findings in this paper is related to the behavior of a weak structure located between two stiff structures.

  18. Efficient Simulation of Compressible, Viscous Fluids using Multi-rate Time Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikida, Cory; Kloeckner, Andreas; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    In the numerical simulation of problems of compressible, viscous fluids with single-rate time integrators, the global timestep used is limited to that of the finest mesh point or fastest physical process. This talk discusses the application of multi-rate Adams-Bashforth (MRAB) integrators to an overset mesh framework to solve compressible viscous fluid problems of varying scale with improved efficiency, with emphasis on the strategy of timescale separation and the application of the resulting numerical method to two sample problems: subsonic viscous flow over a cylinder and a viscous jet in crossflow. The results presented indicate the numerical efficacy of MRAB integrators, outline a number of outstanding code challenges, demonstrate the expected reduction in time enabled by MRAB, and emphasize the need for proper load balancing through spatial decomposition in order for parallel runs to achieve the predicted time-saving benefit. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.

  19. Optimizing some 3-stage W-methods for the time integration of PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pinto, S.; Hernandez-Abreu, D.; Perez-Rodriguez, S.

    2017-07-01

    The optimization of some W-methods for the time integration of time-dependent PDEs in several spatial variables is considered. In [2, Theorem 1] several three-parametric families of three-stage W-methods for the integration of IVPs in ODEs were studied. Besides, the optimization of several specific methods for PDEs when the Approximate Matrix Factorization Splitting (AMF) is used to define the approximate Jacobian matrix (W ≈ fy(yn)) was carried out. Also, some convergence and stability properties were presented [2]. The derived methods were optimized on the base that the underlying explicit Runge-Kutta method is the one having the largest Monotonicity interval among the thee-stage order three Runge-Kutta methods [1]. Here, we propose an optimization of the methods by imposing some additional order condition [7] to keep order three for parabolic PDE problems [6] but at the price of reducing substantially the length of the nonlinear Monotonicity interval of the underlying explicit Runge-Kutta method.

  20. Massively Parallel and Scalable Implicit Time Integration Algorithms for Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Charbel

    1997-01-01

    Explicit codes are often used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of large-scale structural systems, even for low frequency response, because the storage and CPU requirements entailed by the repeated factorizations traditionally found in implicit codes rapidly overwhelm the available computing resources. With the advent of parallel processing, this trend is accelerating because of the following additional facts: (a) explicit schemes are easier to parallelize than implicit ones, and (b) explicit schemes induce short range interprocessor communications that are relatively inexpensive, while the factorization methods used in most implicit schemes induce long range interprocessor communications that often ruin the sought-after speed-up. However, the time step restriction imposed by the Courant stability condition on all explicit schemes cannot yet be offset by the speed of the currently available parallel hardware. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient alternatives to direct methods that are also amenable to massively parallel processing because implicit codes using unconditionally stable time-integration algorithms are computationally more efficient when simulating the low-frequency dynamics of aerospace structures.

  1. Practical method of calculating time-integrated concentrations at medium and large distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnetti, P.; Ferrara, V.

    1980-01-01

    Previous reports have covered the possibility of calculating time-integrated concentrations (TICs) for a prolonged release, based on concentration estimates for a brief release. This study proposes a simple method of evaluating concentrations in the air at medium and large distances, for a brief release. It is known that the stability of the atmospheric layers close to ground level influence diffusion only over short distances. Beyond some tens of kilometers, as the pollutant cloud progressively reaches higher layers, diffusion is affected by factors other than the stability at ground level, such as wind shear for intermediate distances and the divergence and rotational motion of air masses towards the upper limit of the mesoscale and on the synoptic scale. Using the data available in the literature, expressions for sigmasub(y) and sigmasub(z) are proposed for transfer times corresponding to those for up to distances of several thousand kilometres, for two initial diffusion situations (up to distances of 10 - 20 km), those characterized by stable and neutral conditions respectively. Using this method simple hand calculations can be made for any problem relating to the diffusion of radioactive pollutants over long distances

  2. Scalability of Direct Solver for Non-stationary Cahn-Hilliard Simulations with Linearized time Integration Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, M.; Smołka, M.; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Paszyński, M.; Schaefer, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme

  3. Digging Back In Time: Integrating Historical Data Into an Operational Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern technologies allow reporting and display of data near real-time from in situ instrumentation live on the internet. This has given users fast access to critical information for scientific applications, marine safety, planning, and numerous other activities. Equally as valuable is having access to historical data sets. However, it is challenging to identify sources and access of historical data of interest as it exists in many different locations, depending on the funding source and provider. Also, time-varying formats can make it difficult to data-mine and display historical data. There is also the issue of data quality, and having a systematic means of assessing credibility of historical data sets. The Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) data management system demonstrates the successful ingestion of historical data, both old and new (as recent as yesterday) and has integrated numerous historical data streams into user friendly data portals, available for data upload and display on the AOOS Website. An example is the inclusion of non-real-time (e.g. day old) AIS (Automatic Identification System) ship tracking data, important for scientists working in marine mammal migration regions. Other examples include historical sea ice data, and various data streams from previous research projects (e.g. moored time series, HF Radar surface currents, weather, shipboard CTD). Most program or project websites only offer access to data specific to their agency or project alone, but do not have the capacity to provide access to the plethora of other data that might be available for the region and be useful for integration, comparison and synthesis. AOOS offers end users access to a one stop-shop for data in the area they want to research, helping them identify other sources of information and access. Demonstrations of data portals using historical data illustrate these benefits.

  4. Análisis comparativo de la aplicación de protocolos de evaluación de conductores con discapacidades severas que conducen con Joysticks de 4 vías entre los simuladores de conducción SERCO y UPV-DGT

    OpenAIRE

    ALAGARDA CONTRERAS, RAIMON

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El presente TFG tiene por objeto el análisis inter-comparativo entre los procedimientos de evaluación de conductores con discapacidades severas que conducen con la ayuda de adaptaciones del tipo Joystick de 4 vías, y que se implementan en los simuladores de conducción SERCO y UPV-DGT. Ambos simuladores se encuentran ubicados actualmente en las instalaciones del Instituto de Diseño y Fabricación (IDF). Se ha estudiado el comportamiento de diferentes tipos de conductores (co...

  5. Scalability of Direct Solver for Non-stationary Cahn-Hilliard Simulations with Linearized time Integration Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, M.

    2016-06-02

    We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme with a linearized right-hand side operator. It was applied in solving the Cahn-Hilliard parabolic equation with a nonlinear, fourth-order elliptic part. The second order of the approximation along the time variable was proven. Moreover, the good scalability of the software based on this scheme was confirmed during simulations. We verify the proposed time integration scheme by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy. The numerical simulations are performed by using a parallel multi-frontal direct solver executed over STAMPEDE Linux cluster. Its scalability was compared to the results of the three direct solvers, including MUMPS, SuperLU and PaSTiX.

  6. Detection of anatomical changes in lung cancer patients with 2D time-integrated, 2D time-resolved and 3D time-integrated portal dosimetry: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Cecile J. A.; Brás, Mariana G.; Schyns, Lotte E. J. R.; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; van Elmpt, Wouter; Scheib, Stefan G.; Baltes, Christof; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the performance of 2D time-integrated (2D-TI), 2D time-resolved (2D-TR) and 3D time-integrated (3D-TI) portal dosimetry in detecting dose discrepancies between the planned and (simulated) delivered dose caused by simulated changes in the anatomy of lung cancer patients. For six lung cancer patients, tumor shift, tumor regression and pleural effusion are simulated by modifying their CT images. Based on the modified CT images, time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) portal dose images (PDIs) are simulated and 3D-TI doses are calculated. The modified and original PDIs and 3D doses are compared by a gamma analysis with various gamma criteria. Furthermore, the difference in the D 95% (ΔD 95%) of the GTV is calculated and used as a gold standard. The correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95% is investigated, as well the sensitivity and specificity of all combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold. On the individual patient level, there is a correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95%, which cannot be found at the group level. The sensitivity and specificity analysis showed that there is not one combination of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold that can detect all simulated anatomical changes. This work shows that it will be more beneficial to relate portal dosimetry and DVH analysis on the patient level, rather than trying to quantify a relationship for a group of patients. With regards to optimizing sensitivity and specificity, different combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate should be used to optimally detect certain types of anatomical changes.

  7. Detection of anatomical changes in lung cancer patients with 2D time-integrated, 2D time-resolved and 3D time-integrated portal dosimetry: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Cecile J A; Brás, Mariana G; Schyns, Lotte E J R; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; van Elmpt, Wouter; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-07-12

    The aim of this work is to assess the performance of 2D time-integrated (2D-TI), 2D time-resolved (2D-TR) and 3D time-integrated (3D-TI) portal dosimetry in detecting dose discrepancies between the planned and (simulated) delivered dose caused by simulated changes in the anatomy of lung cancer patients. For six lung cancer patients, tumor shift, tumor regression and pleural effusion are simulated by modifying their CT images. Based on the modified CT images, time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) portal dose images (PDIs) are simulated and 3D-TI doses are calculated. The modified and original PDIs and 3D doses are compared by a gamma analysis with various gamma criteria. Furthermore, the difference in the D 95% (ΔD 95% ) of the GTV is calculated and used as a gold standard. The correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95% is investigated, as well the sensitivity and specificity of all combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold. On the individual patient level, there is a correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95% , which cannot be found at the group level. The sensitivity and specificity analysis showed that there is not one combination of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold that can detect all simulated anatomical changes. This work shows that it will be more beneficial to relate portal dosimetry and DVH analysis on the patient level, rather than trying to quantify a relationship for a group of patients. With regards to optimizing sensitivity and specificity, different combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate should be used to optimally detect certain types of anatomical changes.

  8. Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in linear dispersive media with absorption for scattering and propagation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.; Taflove, Allen

    1991-01-01

    The initial results for femtosecond pulse propagation and scattering interactions for a Lorentz medium obtained by a direct time integration of Maxwell's equations are reported. The computational approach provides reflection coefficients accurate to better than 6 parts in 10,000 over the frequency range of dc to 3 x 10 to the 16th Hz for a single 0.2-fs Gaussian pulse incident upon a Lorentz-medium half-space. New results for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are shown and compared with previous analyses. The present approach is robust and permits 2D and 3D electromagnetic pulse propagation directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  9. Calibration of cellulose nitrate film for measurement of time-integrated concentration of radon-222 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, G.; Raghavayya, M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air by using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) is finding increasing application in such diverse fields as radiation protection, exploration of radioactive minerals, prediction of earthquakes etc. While there are several types of SSNTDs sensitive to specific types of particulate radiation, films made from cellulose nitrate (CN) are found to be the best suited for quick and quantitative measurement of alpha radiation. This is because CN films are available in small thicknesses, of the order of 10-12 μm, which can be suitably evaluated by spark counting technique. This report describes the use of a sensitive thin film of CN (Kodak LR 115, Type II) for quantitative estimation of 222 Rn. The film (along with the base is exposed in a cylindrical plastic cup closed at one end with a special rubber membrane which permits discrimination of 222 Rn against 220 Rn, which is also present in air to varying extents. The calibration procedure, including etching and evaluation of track registration efficiency, are described in detail. The mean track registration efficiency works out to 41.9 per cent and the sensitivity of the system is found to be 58.92 tracks cm -2 per (Bq.litre -1 ) day. The report lists the advantages and limitations of the system for measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air. (author)

  10. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  11. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\to K^0_S K^0_S$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-10-08

    The time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in the decay $D^0 \\to K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured using $3 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the $D^0$ meson is determined by use of the decay $D^{*+} \\to D^0 \\pi^+$ and its charge conjugate mode. The result is \\[ {\\cal A}_{CP} = -0.029 \\pm 0.052 \\pm 0.022, \\] where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and improves the uncertainty with respect to the only previous measurement of this quantity by more than a factor of three.

  12. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ding, Shiming, E-mail: smding@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Qin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zhong, Jicheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC{sub 0}s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K{sub p} and Q{sub max} were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  14. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Di; Ding, Shiming; Sun, Qin; Zhong, Jicheng; Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K p ) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q max ) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC 0 s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K p and Q max were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: ► Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. ► Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. ► Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. ► Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. ► Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  15. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , and organisational characteristic. Therefore, it might fail to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety and team training1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve......Introduction: In situ simulation offers on-site training to healthcare professionals. It refers to a training strategy where simulation technology is integrated into the clinical encounter. Training in the simulation laboratory does not easily tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team...... patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support. This study explored the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports for in situ simulation and short-term observations were used to create learning objectives and training scenarios. Method: This study used an interventional case...

  16. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  17. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bian, Lingzhu; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bobulska, Dana; Bocci, Valerio; Boente Garcia, Oscar; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Buonaura, Annarita; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chekalina, Viktoriia; Chen, Chen; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Danilina, Anna; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Féo Pereira Rivello Carvalho, Mauricio; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garcia Plana, Beatriz; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gu, Chenxi; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nanut, Tara; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tuci, Giulia; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays is reported. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about $2$ fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2015--2016 by the LHCb collaboration in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $13$ TeV. The $D^0$ candidate is required to originate from a $D^{\\ast +} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ decay, allowing the determination of the flavour of the $D^0$ meson using the pion charge. The $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay, which has a well measured $CP$ asymmetry, is used as a calibration channel. The $CP$ asymmetry for $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (4.2\\pm 3.4\\pm 1.0)\\%, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is combined with the previous LHCb measurement at lower centre-of-mass energies to obtain \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (2.0\\pm 2.9\\pm 1.0)\\%. \\end{equa...

  18. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  19. Development of Solid Ceramic Dosimeters for the Time-Integrative Passive Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Riza Gabriela; Nam, Go-Un; Eom, In-Yong; Hong, Yong-Seok

    2017-11-07

    Time-integrative passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water can now be accomplished using a solid ceramic dosimeter. A nonporous ceramic, which excludes the permeation of water, allowing only gas-phase diffusion of VOCs into the resin inside the dosimeter, effectively captured the VOCs. The mass accumulation of 11 VOCs linearly increased with time over a wide range of aqueous-phase concentrations (16.9 to 1100 μg L -1 ), and the linearity was dependent upon the Henry's constant (H). The average diffusivity of the VOCs in the solid ceramic was 1.46 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 25 °C, which was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that in air (8.09 × 10 -6 m 2 s -1 ). This value was 60% greater than that in the water-permeable porous ceramic (0.92 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 ), suggesting that its mass accumulation could be more effective than that of porous ceramic dosimeters. The mass accumulation of the VOCs in the solid ceramic dosimeter increased in the presence of salt (≥0.1 M) and with increasing temperature (4 to 40 °C) but varied only slightly with dissolved organic matter concentration. The solid ceramic dosimeter was suitable for the field testing and measurement of time-weighted average concentrations of VOC-contaminated waters.

  20. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  1. Time integrated x-ray measurments of the very energetic electron end loss profile in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Fabyan, J.

    1984-01-01

    The time-integrated 2-D profile of the thick-target bremsstrahlung produced by energetic end loss electrons has been measured during ECRH operation of TMX-U. Sheets of x-ray film and/or arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed on the outside of the end tank end wall to measure the relative spatial x-ray profile, with locally added filters of Pb to determine the effective mean x-ray energy. The purpose of this simple survey diagnostic was to allow deduction of the gross features of the ECRH region. The electron source functions needed to fit the x-ray data were modeled for various anchor cell radial distributions mapped along magnetic field lines to the elliptical plasma potential control plates or the Al end walls. The data are generally consistent with (1) major ECR heating in the central 25-cm-diam core, (2) a mean ECRH electron loss energy of 420 keV, and (3) an ECRH coupling efficiency to these hot electrons of greater than or equal to 10%

  2. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  3. Time-Dependent and Time-Integrated Angular Analysis of B -> phi Ks pi0 and B -> phi K+ pi-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.

    2008-01-01

    We perform a time-dependent and time-integrated angular analysis of the B 0 → ψK*(892) 0 , ψK* 2 (1430 0 ), and ψ(Kπ) S-wave 0 decays with the final sample of about 465 million B(bar B) pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay, nine parameters for the vector-tensor decay, and three parameters for the vector-scalar decay, including the branching fractions, CP-violation parameters, and parameters sensitive to final state interaction. We use the dependence on the Kπ invariant mass of the interference between the scalar and vector or tensor components to resolve discrete ambiguities of the strong and weak phases. We use the time-evolution of the B → ψK S 0 π 0 channel to extract the CP-violation phase difference Δφ 00 = 0.28 ± 0.42 ± 0.04 between the B and (bar B) decay amplitudes. When the B → ψK ± π # -+# channel is included, the fractions of longitudinal polarization f L of the vector-vector and vector-tensor decay modes are measured to be 0.494 ± 0.034 ± 0.013 and 0.901 -0.058 +0.046 ± 0.037, respectively. This polarization pattern requires the presence of a helicity-plus amplitude in the vector-vector decay from a presently unknown source

  4. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Kai Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC and tightly coupled (TC schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  5. Time-Dependent and Time-Integrated Angular Analysis of B -> phi Ks pi0 and B -> phi K+ pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V

    2008-08-04

    We perform a time-dependent and time-integrated angular analysis of the B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}K*(892){sup 0}, {psi}K*{sub 2}(1430{sup 0}), and {psi}(K{pi}){sub S-wave}{sup 0} decays with the final sample of about 465 million B{bar B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay, nine parameters for the vector-tensor decay, and three parameters for the vector-scalar decay, including the branching fractions, CP-violation parameters, and parameters sensitive to final state interaction. We use the dependence on the K{pi} invariant mass of the interference between the scalar and vector or tensor components to resolve discrete ambiguities of the strong and weak phases. We use the time-evolution of the B {yields} {psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel to extract the CP-violation phase difference {Delta}{phi}{sub 00} = 0.28 {+-} 0.42 {+-} 0.04 between the B and {bar B} decay amplitudes. When the B {yields} {psi}K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} channel is included, the fractions of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} of the vector-vector and vector-tensor decay modes are measured to be 0.494 {+-} 0.034 {+-} 0.013 and 0.901{sub -0.058}{sup +0.046} {+-} 0.037, respectively. This polarization pattern requires the presence of a helicity-plus amplitude in the vector-vector decay from a presently unknown source.

  6. Prediction of time-integrated activity coefficients in PRRT using simulated dynamic PET and a pharmacokinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Deni; Attarwala, Ali Asgar; Kletting, Peter; Mottaghy, Felix M; Glatting, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the accuracy of predicted time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using simulated dynamic PET data and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. PBPK parameters were estimated using biokinetic data of 15 patients after injection of (152±15)MBq of 111 In-DTPAOC (total peptide amount (5.78±0.25)nmol). True mathematical phantoms of patients (MPPs) were the PBPK model with the estimated parameters. Dynamic PET measurements were simulated as being done after bolus injection of 150MBq 68 Ga-DOTATATE using the true MPPs. Dynamic PET scans around 35min p.i. (P 1 ), 4h p.i. (P 2 ) and the combination of P 1 and P 2 (P 3 ) were simulated. Each measurement was simulated with four frames of 5min each and 2 bed positions. PBPK parameters were fitted to the PET data to derive the PET-predicted MPPs. Therapy was simulated assuming an infusion of 5.1GBq of 90 Y-DOTATATE over 30min in both true and PET-predicted MPPs. TIACs of simulated therapy were calculated, true MPPs (true TIACs) and predicted MPPs (predicted TIACs) followed by the calculation of variabilities v. For P 1 and P 2 the population variabilities of kidneys, liver and spleen were acceptable (v10%). Treatment planning of PRRT based on dynamic PET data seems possible for the kidneys, liver and spleen using a PBPK model and patient specific information. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  8. Verifying 4D gated radiotherapy using time-integrated electronic portal imaging: a phantom and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slotman Ben J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT can decrease treatment toxicity by allowing for smaller treatment volumes for mobile tumors. RGRT is commonly performed using external surrogates of tumor motion. We describe the use of time-integrated electronic portal imaging (TI-EPI to verify the position of internal structures during RGRT delivery Methods TI-EPI portals were generated by continuously collecting exit dose data (aSi500 EPID, Portal vision, Varian Medical Systems when a respiratory motion phantom was irradiated during expiration, inspiration and free breathing phases. RGRT was delivered using the Varian RPM system, and grey value profile plots over a fixed trajectory were used to study object positions. Time-related positional information was derived by subtracting grey values from TI-EPI portals sharing the pixel matrix. TI-EPI portals were also collected in 2 patients undergoing RPM-triggered RGRT for a lung and hepatic tumor (with fiducial markers, and corresponding planning 4-dimensional CT (4DCT scans were analyzed for motion amplitude. Results Integral grey values of phantom TI-EPI portals correlated well with mean object position in all respiratory phases. Cranio-caudal motion of internal structures ranged from 17.5–20.0 mm on planning 4DCT scans. TI-EPI of bronchial images reproduced with a mean value of 5.3 mm (1 SD 3.0 mm located cranial to planned position. Mean hepatic fiducial markers reproduced with 3.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm caudal to planned position. After bony alignment to exclude set-up errors, mean displacement in the two structures was 2.8 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively, and corresponding reproducibility in anatomy improved to 1.6 mm (1 SD. Conclusion TI-EPI appears to be a promising method for verifying delivery of RGRT. The RPM system was a good indirect surrogate of internal anatomy, but use of TI-EPI allowed for a direct link between anatomy and breathing patterns.

  9. Measurement of the difference of time-integrated $CP$ asymmetries in $D^0 \\to K^+K^-$ and $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Marino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We present precision measurement of difference time-integrated $CP$ asymmetries, $\\Delta A_{CP}$, in singly Cabibbo-suppressed modes $D^0 \\to K^+K^-$ and $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$, based on the full Run I LHCb data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$.

  10. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylaska, Eric J., E-mail: Eric.Bylaska@pnnl.gov [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weare, Jonathan Q., E-mail: weare@uchicago.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Weare, John H., E-mail: jweare@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time t{sub i} (trajectory positions and velocities x{sub i} = (r{sub i}, v{sub i})) to time t{sub i+1} (x{sub i+1}) by x{sub i+1} = f{sub i}(x{sub i}), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t{sub 0}…t{sub M} can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [x{sub i} − f(x{sub (i−1})]{sub i} {sub =1,M} = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H{sub 2}O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup ((serial execution time)/(parallel execution time) ) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up

  11. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J; Weare, Jonathan Q; Weare, John H

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time ti (trajectory positions and velocities xi = (ri, vi)) to time ti + 1 (xi + 1) by xi + 1 = fi(xi), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t0[ellipsis (horizontal)]tM can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [xi - f(x(i - 1)]i = 1, M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H2O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup (serial execution/timeparallel execution time) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a

  12. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time t i (trajectory positions and velocities x i = (r i , v i )) to time t i+1 (x i+1 ) by x i+1 = f i (x i ), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t 0 …t M can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [x i − f(x (i−1 )] i =1,M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H 2 O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup ((serial execution time)/(parallel execution time) ) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a

  13. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  15. Measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decays with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuci, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    CP violation in charm has not yet been observed, although measurements of time-integrated CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\to K^+K^-$ and $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^- decays$ have reached a remarkable precision, O(0.1%). The $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decay is a promising discovery channel for CP violation in charm. A prediction based on Standard Model gives an upper limit for the CP asymmetry of 1.1% (C.L. 95%). Further enhancements could result from contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. We present a measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in prompt $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decays, performed using data collected with LHCb experiment in 2015 and 2016 at a 13 TeV pp center-of-mass energy (Run-2). This result improves the sensitivity obtained by LHCb in Run-1.

  16. Symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integrators and their long-time behaviour for solving nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changying; Iserles, Arieh; Wu, Xinyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation with nonlinear potential occurs in a wide range of application areas in science and engineering. Its computation represents a major challenge. The main theme of this paper is the construction of symmetric and arbitrarily high-order time integrators for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation by integrating Birkhoff-Hermite interpolation polynomials. To this end, under the assumption of periodic boundary conditions, we begin with the formulation of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation as an abstract second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) and its operator-variation-of-constants formula. We then derive a symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integration formula for the nonlinear abstract ODE. Accordingly, the stability, convergence and long-time behaviour are rigorously analysed once the spatial differential operator is approximated by an appropriate positive semi-definite matrix, subject to suitable temporal and spatial smoothness. A remarkable characteristic of this new approach is that the requirement of temporal smoothness is reduced compared with the traditional numerical methods for PDEs in the literature. Numerical results demonstrate the advantage and efficiency of our time integrators in comparison with the existing numerical approaches.

  17. In situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah J; Johnson, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins. After incubation MMP activity can be observed as black holes in the fluorescent background due to proteolysis of the matrix protein. Alternatively frozen sections can be incubated with matrix proteins conjugated to quenched fluorescein. Proteolysis of the substrate by MMPs leads to the release of fluorescence. This technique can be combined with immunohistochemistry to enable co-location of proteins such as cell type markers or other proteins of interest. Additionally, this technique can be adapted for use with cell cultures, permitting precise location of MMP activity within cells, time-lapse analysis of MMP activity and analysis of MMP activity in migrating cells.

  18. Modeling in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. In-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

  20. In situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

  1. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  2. Measurement of the Difference of Time-Integrated CP Asymmetries in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} Decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2016-05-13

    A search for CP violation in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} decays is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3  fb^{-1}, collected using the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavor of the charm meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in D^{*+}→D^{0}π^{+} and D^{*-}→D[over ¯]^{0}π^{-} decays. The difference between the CP asymmetries in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} decays, ΔA_{CP}≡A_{CP}(K^{-}K^{+})-A_{CP}(π^{-}π^{+}), is measured to be [-0.10±0.08(stat)±0.03(syst)]%. This is the most precise measurement of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector from a single experiment.

  3. Measurement of the difference of time-integrated CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-05-09

    A search for CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~fb^{-1}$, collected using the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8$~$TeV. The flavour of the charm meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in $D^{*+}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^+$ and $D^{*-}\\rightarrow \\bar{D^0}\\pi^{-}$ decays. The difference between the CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays, $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{CP}(K^{-} K^{+}) - A_{CP}(\\pi^{-} \\pi^{+})$, is measured to be $\\left( -0.10 \\pm 0.08(stat) \\pm 0.03(syst) \\right) \\%$. This is the most precise measurement of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector from a single experiment.

  4. Measurement of the time-integrated C P asymmetry in D"0→K_S"0K_S"0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.

    2015-01-01

    The time-integrated C P asymmetry in the decay D"0→K_S"0K_S"0 is measured using 3 fb"−"1 of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the D"0 meson is determined by use of the decay D"∗"+→D"0π"+ and its charge conjugate mode. The result is A_C _P=−0.029±0.052±0.022, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and improves the uncertainty with respect to the only previous measurement of this quantity by more than a factor of three.

  5. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  6. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learmont, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  7. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  8. In Situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, H

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of in situ TE for vascular and valvular purposes were tested with the use of different materials, and animal models. First, the feasibility of a decellularized biological scaffold (pSIS-ECM) as pulmonary heart valve prosthesis is examined in sheep (Chapter 2). Next,

  9. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  10. A novel method for sampling the suspended sediment load in the tidal environment using bi-directional time-integrated mass-flux sediment (TIMS) samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily A.; Monbureau, Elaine; Walters, Glenn W.; Elliott, Mark A.; McKee, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries. The fine-grained suspended sediment load (SSL) makes up a substantial portion of the total sediment load carried within an estuarine system and efficient sampling of the SSL is critical to our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, anthropogenic influence, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately, traditional methods of sampling the SSL, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and often yield insufficient mass for comprehensive geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced due to bi-directional tidal flow. This study tests the efficacy of a time-integrated mass sediment sampler (TIMS) design, originally developed for uni-directional flow within the fluvial environment, modified in this work for implementation the tidal environment under bi-directional flow conditions. Our new TIMS design utilizes an 'L' shaped outflow tube to prevent backflow, and when deployed in mirrored pairs, each sampler collects sediment uniquely in one direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the flow within the sampler, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of sediment indicate that bidirectional TIMS capture up to 96% of incoming SSL across a range of flow velocities (0.3-0.6 m s-1). The modified TIMS design was tested in the field at two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Single-time point suspended sediment samples were collected at high and low tide and compared to time-integrated suspended sediment samples collected by the bi-directional TIMS over the same four-day period. Particle-size composition from the bi-directional TIMS were representative of the array of

  11. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  12. Concept for long-time integrity assurance illustrated by a steam generator and the volume control system of the nuclear power plant Neckarwestheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, J.; Zaiss, W.; Broecker, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ensuring integrity of safety-relevant components or systems over their serviceable life is a legal requirement. A decisive factor within the established system for integrity assurance is whether there is sufficient information available about inservice degradation mechanisms, and whether this information is taken into account in component or system designing. The design relies on existing specifications or data reflecting the then current knowledge. This is why existing knowledge has to be updated in response to new knowledge obtained from plant operation, and negative effects revealed have to be eliminated by appropriate measures. Damage to components is caused by real loads occurring during operation, or real local conditions in the system, so that inservice monitoring of local conditions and causes leading to damage is a priority task. The information obtained from monitoring can be taken as a basis for modifying the operating mode and documenting the current status of the system. Another redundant measure is monitoring of the consequences of a degradation during operation, this task primarily relying on non-destructive examinations. The efficiency of this measure decisively depends on the available knowledge of possible damaging mechanisms, i.e. monitoring of causes. A comprehensive concept for ensuring long-time integrity will encompass the above quality monitoring and evaluation activities, operation-induced impact and damage monitoring and documentation, and updating of the data representing current knowledge. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bian, Lingzhu; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bobulska, Dana; Bocci, Valerio; Boente Garcia, Oscar; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Buonaura, Annarita; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chekalina, Viktoriia; Chen, Chen; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Danilina, Anna; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Féo Pereira Rivello Carvalho, Mauricio; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garcia Plana, Beatriz; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gu, Chenxi; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nanut, Tara; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tuci, Giulia; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    A measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays is reported. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about $2$ fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2015--2016 by the LHCb collaboration in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $13$ TeV. The $D^0$ candidate is required to originate from a $D^{\\ast +} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ decay, allowing the determination of the flavour of the $D^0$ meson using the pion charge. The $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay, which has a well measured $CP$ asymmetry, is used as a calibration channel. The $CP$ asymmetry for $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (4.2\\pm 3.4\\pm 1.0)\\%, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is combined with the previous LHCb measurement at lower centre-of-mass energies to obtain \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (2.0\\pm 2.9\\pm 1.0)\\%. \\end{equa...

  14. Time integrated spectroscopy of turbid media based on the microscopic beer-lambert law: application to small-size phantoms having different boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Urakami, T; Tsuchiya, Y; Lu, Z; Hiruma, T

    1999-01-01

    Continued work on time-integrated spectroscopy (TIS) is presented to quantify absorber concentrations in turbid media. We investigated the applicability of the TIS method to small-size media that have different boundary conditions by measuring two 20×20×50 mm3 cuboid liquid tissue-like phantoms at various absorption levels (absorption coefficients of the phantom from 2.5×10-3 to 4.4×10-2 mm-1 at 782 nm and from 3.1×10-3 to 2.7×10-2 mm-1 at 831 nm). The scattering and absorbing solution was filled into ordinary and black-anodized aluminum containers to provide different boundary conditions. By means of a single equation, the absorber concentrations have been recovered within errors of a few percent in both cases. This demonstrates that the TIS method can quantify absorbers in small-size media having different boundary conditions. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  15. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  16. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  17. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong, E-mail: redastar@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Gu, Jia-Li [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: lijianrong@zjgsu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10{sup −3}–1 mol L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 mol L{sup −1}. DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L{sup −1}, 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1} and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method.

  18. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10 −3 –1 mol L −1 . - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10 −3 to 1 mol L −1 . DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L −1 and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L −1 , respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method

  19. A Systematic Controller Design for a Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter Using a Discrete-Time Integral State Feedback Control and State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jin Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such a system. Conventionally, an LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter can be effectively controlled by using a full-state feedback control. However, this control approach requires the measurement of all system state variables, which brings about more complexity for the inverter system. To address this issue, this paper presents a systematic procedure to design an observer-based integral state feedback control for a LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter in the discrete-time domain. The proposed control scheme consists of an integral state feedback controller and a full-state observer which uses the control input, grid-side currents, and grid voltages to predict all the system state variables. Therefore, only the grid-side current sensors and grid voltage sensors are required to implement the proposed control scheme. Due to the discrete-time integrator incorporated in the state feedback controller, the proposed control scheme ensures both the reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the inverter system in a practical and simple way. As a result, superior control performance can be achieved by using the reduced number of sensors, which significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter system in DG applications. To verify the practical usefulness of the proposed control scheme, a 2 kW three-phase prototype grid-connected inverter has been constructed, and the proposed control system has been implemented based on 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the comprehensive simulation

  20. Novel System for Real-Time Integration of 3-D Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy for Image-Guided Cardiac Interventions: Preclinical Validation and Clinical Feasibility Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housden, R. James; Ma, Yingliang; Rajani, Ronak; Gao, Gang; Nijhof, Niels; Cathier, Pascal; Bullens, Roland; Gijsbers, Geert; Parish, Victoria; Kapetanakis, Stamatis; Hancock, Jane; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Cooklin, Michael; Gill, Jaswinder; Thomas, Martyn; O'neill, Mark D.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time imaging is required to guide minimally invasive catheter-based cardiac interventions. While transesophageal echocardiography allows for high-quality visualization of cardiac anatomy, X-ray fluoroscopy provides excellent visualization of devices. We have developed a novel image fusion system that allows real-time integration of 3-D echocardiography and the X-ray fluoroscopy. The system was validated in the following two stages: 1) preclinical to determine function and validate accuracy; and 2) in the clinical setting to assess clinical workflow feasibility and determine overall system accuracy. In the preclinical phase, the system was assessed using both phantom and porcine experimental studies. Median 2-D projection errors of 4.5 and 3.3 mm were found for the phantom and porcine studies, respectively. The clinical phase focused on extending the use of the system to interventions in patients undergoing either atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (CA) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Eleven patients were studied with nine in the CA group and two in the TAVI group. Successful real-time view synchronization was achieved in all cases with a calculated median distance error of 2.2 mm in the CA group and 3.4 mm in the TAVI group. A standard clinical workflow was established using the image fusion system. These pilot data confirm the technical feasibility of accurate real-time echo-fluoroscopic image overlay in clinical practice, which may be a useful adjunct for real-time guidance during interventional cardiac procedures. PMID:27170872

  1. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  2. Are Pressure Time Integral and Cumulative Plantar Stress Related to First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Pain? Results From a Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita; Douglas Gross, K; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C; Lewis, Cora E; Torner, James C; Hietpas, Jean; Felson, David; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plantar stress over a step, cumulative plantar stress over a day, and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint pain among older adults. Plantar stress and first MTP pain were assessed within the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. All included participants were asked if they had pain, aching, or stiffness at the first MTP joint on most days for the past 30 days. Pressure time integral (PTI) was quantified as participants walked on a pedobarograph, and mean steps per day were obtained using an accelerometer. Cumulative plantar stress was calculated as the product of regional PTI and mean steps per day. Quintiles of hallucal and second metatarsal PTI and cumulative plantar stress were generated. The relationship between predictors and the odds ratio of first MTP pain was assessed using a logistic regression model. Feet in the quintile with the lowest hallux PTI had 2.14 times increased odds of first MTP pain (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.42-3.25, P pain (95% CI 1.01-2.23, P = 0.042). Cumulative plantar stress was unassociated with first MTP pain. Lower PTI was modestly associated with increased prevalence of frequent first MTP pain at both the hallux and second metatarsal. Lower plantar loading may indicate the presence of an antalgic gait strategy and may reflect an attempt at pain avoidance. The lack of association with cumulative plantar stress may suggest that patients do not limit their walking as a pain-avoidance mechanism. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Time-integrated activity coefficient estimation for radionuclide therapy using PET and a pharmacokinetic model: A simulation study on the effect of sampling schedule and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardiansyah, Deni [Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167 (Germany); Guo, Wei; Glatting, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.glatting@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167 (Germany); Kletting, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074, Germany and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center MUMC+, Maastricht 6229 (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of PET-based treatment planning for predicting the time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs). Methods: The parameters of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model were fitted to the biokinetic data of 15 patients to derive assumed true parameters and were used to construct true mathematical patient phantoms (MPPs). Biokinetics of 150 MBq {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE-PET was simulated with different noise levels [fractional standard deviation (FSD) 10%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%], and seven combinations of measurements at 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h p.i. PBPK model parameters were fitted to the simulated noisy PET data using population-based Bayesian parameters to construct predicted MPPs. Therapy simulations were performed as 30 min infusion of {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE of 3.3 GBq in both true and predicted MPPs. Prediction accuracy was then calculated as relative variability v{sub organ} between TIACs from both MPPs. Results: Large variability values of one time-point protocols [e.g., FSD = 1%, 240 min p.i., v{sub kidneys} = (9 ± 6)%, and v{sub tumor} = (27 ± 26)%] show inaccurate prediction. Accurate TIAC prediction of the kidneys was obtained for the case of two measurements (1 and 4 h p.i.), e.g., FSD = 1%, v{sub kidneys} = (7 ± 3)%, and v{sub tumor} = (22 ± 10)%, or three measurements, e.g., FSD = 1%, v{sub kidneys} = (7 ± 3)%, and v{sub tumor} = (22 ± 9)%. Conclusions: {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE-PET measurements could possibly be used to predict the TIACs of {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE when using a PBPK model and population-based Bayesian parameters. The two time-point measurement at 1 and 4 h p.i. with a noise up to FSD = 1% allows an accurate prediction of the TIACs in kidneys.

  4. Accumulation of humic acid in DET/DGT gels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Van der Veeken, P.L.R.; Chakraborty, P.; Van Leeuwen, H.P.

    , but it is practically negligible above an ionic strength of 10 mM (22, 33). The SRFA is expected to be negatively charged at pH 6.1, which would explain the lower FA concentrations in the gel in the presence of a negative Donnan potential, although this effect... thickness in solution κ -1 m, Debye length τ s, elementary diffusion time constant τ acc s, time scale for DET accumulation Literature Cited (1) Morel, F. M. M. Principles of Aquatic Chemistry; John Wiley: New York, 1983. (2) Wilkinson, K. J.; Slaveykova, V...

  5. DGT measurement of dissolved aluminum species in waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Bennett, William W.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum is acutely toxic, and elevated concentrations of dissolved Al can have detrimental effects on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Robust analytical methods that can determine environmentally relevant Al fractions accurately and efficiently are required by the environmental monitoring...

  6. Four Models of In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Krogh, Kristian; Paltved, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest that there are f......Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest...... that there are four fruitful approaches to in situ simulation: (1) In situ simulation informed by reported critical incidents and adverse events from emergency departments (ED) in which team training is about to be conducted to write scenarios. (2) In situ simulation through ethnographic studies at the ED. (3) Using...... the following processes: Transition processes, Action processes and Interpersonal processes. Design and purpose This abstract suggests four approaches to in situ simulation. A pilot study will evaluate the different approaches in two emergency departments in the Central Region of Denmark. Methods The typology...

  7. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  8. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  9. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.

    2001-01-01

    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework...

  10. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  11. In Situ Hybridization Pada Kanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Witari, Ni Putu

    2014-01-01

    Kesulitan yang dijumpai pada penanganan kanker payudara adalah terjadinya kekambuhan atau relaps. Deteksi status HER2 pada pasien merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mendeteksi terjadinya relaps dan juga untuk menentukan jenis terapi yang ada diberikan. Ekspresi protein HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan immunohistochemistry (IHC), sedangkan mutasi gen HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan teknik in situ hybridization baik berupa fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ataupun chromogenic in situ hy...

  12. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  13. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  14. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    decreased survival rate was found in diabetics (p useful in the treatment of critical ischaemia of the lower limb in diabetic patients. The overall results in diabetic patients, whether insulin-dependent or not, were equal to those in non-diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... = 0.005). Critical limb-ischaemia was more often present in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (DM:57%, NDM:36%, p = 0.0002). Diabetic patients had a significantly lower distal anastomosis than non-diabetic patients (p = 0.00001). There were no differences among diabetic and non-diabetic patients...

  15. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  16. PRINS and in situ PCR protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosden, John R

    1997-01-01

    ... mapping of DNA sequences on chromosomes and location of gene expression followed the invention and refinement of in situ hybridization. Among the most recent technical developments has been the use of oligonucleotide primers to detect and amplify or extend complementary sequences in situ, and it is to this novel field that PRINS and In S...

  17. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  18. The In Situ Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1988-10-01

    The Columbia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is pleased to submit the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Project to the Pacific Northwest Council for consideration as the Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement. The ISV process, developed by Battelle-Northwest researchers beginning in 1980, converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. In this way it stabilizes hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes and makes them chemically inert. This report describes the process. A square array of four molybdenum electrodes is inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because soil is not electrically conductive when the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes as a starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes to establish an electric current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil to 2000/degree/C, well above the initial soil-melting temperature of 1100/degree/C to 1400/degree/C. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is electrically conductive. As the molten or vitrified zone grows, it incorporates radionuclides and nonvolatile hazardous elements, such as heavy metals, and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. 2 figs

  19. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  20. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  1. Development of an in situ fatigue sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A prototype in situ fatigue sensor has been designed, constructed and evaluated experimentally for its ability to monitor the accumulation of fatigue damage in a cyclically loaded steel structure, e.g., highway bridge. The sensor consists of multiple...

  2. In Situ Aerosol Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is developing new platform systems that have the potential to benefit Earth science research activities, which include in situ instruments for atmospheric...

  3. Past In-Situ Burning Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshioka, Gary

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of conducting in-situ burning (ISB) using current technology on post 1967 major oil spills over 10,00 barrels in North America and over 50,00 barrels in South America and Europe...

  4. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  5. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  6. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-05-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms by which in situ amorphisation occurs are often not fully understood. In situ amorphisation can be exploited and performed before administration of the drug or possibly even within the gastrointestinal tract, as can be inferred from in situ amorphisation observed during in vitro lipolysis. The use of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  8. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  9. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  10. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Borchert, S.; Heard, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  11. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  12. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-01-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process......-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms...... of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability....

  13. In situ vitrification: Application to buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification field tests were conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification is a technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form and is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate buried waste structures found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests were designed as part of a treatability study to provide essential information on field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes, and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology provided valuable operational control for successfully processing the high metal content waste. The results indicate that in situ vitrification is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  15. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the f......We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...

  16. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  17. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  18. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  19. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  20. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  1. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  2. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  3. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  4. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  5. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  6. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  7. Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) will be the first in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration on Mars. Competitively...

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  9. Energy drift in reversible time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M

    2004-01-01

    Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)

  10. Measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Meng-Han; Gu, Jia-Li; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-12-17

    Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) sampler with a polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) aqueous solution as a binding phase and a dialysis membrane as a diffusive phase (PQAS DGT) was developed for the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was not dependent upon pH 3-10 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-4) to 1 mol L(-1). The effective binding capacity of PQAS DGT containing 2.0 mL of 0.050 mol L(-1) PQAS solution was estimated as 9.9 μg cm(-2). The measurement of DRP in a synthetic solution by PQAS DGT over a 48 h deployment period demonstrated high consistency with the concentration of DRP in the synthetic solution measured directly by the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method. Field deployments of PQAS DGT samplers allowed for accurate measurement of the DRP concentration in situ. The advantages of PQAS DGT include no requirement of the elution steps and direct concentration measurements of the binding phase.

  11. Cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Sheng; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Macdougall, James; Mochi, Iacopo; Warwick, Tony

    2011-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in-situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. In this paper, we report an initial cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror. This cross-check provides a validation of the in-situ shearing interferometry, currently under development at the ALS.

  12. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  13. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  14. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  15. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  16. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  17. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  18. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  19. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: The Whole Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ujas; Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive malignant breast disease traditionally described as a precursor lesion to invasive breast cancer. With screening mammography, DCIS now accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed cancer cases. DCIS is not well understood because of its heterogeneous nature. Studies have aimed to assess prognostic factors to characterize its risk of invasive potential; however, there still remains a lack of uniformity in workup and treatment. We summarize current knowledge of DCIS and the ongoing controversies.

  2. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 76 22. Price UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick...surveillance and spotting techniques/equipment to keep responders in the heaviest oil concentrations where their operation to skim , burn, or disperse...Offshore Oil Skim And Burn System For Use With Vessels Of Opportunity. UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick, et al. Public | June 2015 In-Situ Burn Gaps

  3. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Foadi, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I. [University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7FT (United Kingdom); Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J. [Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory R92, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Moraes, Isabel [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S. [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-17

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams.

  4. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  5. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  6. In situ Raman mapping of art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondeel, Ph.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has grown to be one of the techniques of interest for the investigation of art objects. The approach has several advantageous properties, and the non-destructive character of the technique allowed it to be used for in situ investigations. However, compared with laboratory approaches, it would be useful to take advantage of the small spectral footprint of the technique, and use Raman spectroscopy to study the spatial distribution of different compounds. In this work, an in situ Raman mapping system is developed to be able to relate chemical information with its spatial distribution. Challenges for the development are discussed, including the need for stable positioning and proper data treatment. To avoid focusing problems, nineteenth century porcelain cards are used to test the system. This work focuses mainly on the post-processing of the large dataset which consists of four steps: (i) importing the data into the software; (ii) visualization of the dataset; (iii) extraction of the variables; and (iv) creation of a Raman image. It is shown that despite the challenging task of the development of the full in situ Raman mapping system, the first steps are very promising. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology’. PMID:27799424

  7. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-01-01

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams

  8. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring of electrokinetic in-situ-decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The need for a monitoring system for in-situ soil decontamination is two-fold: Firstly, to ensure that remediation is attained and secondly to minimize costs and treatment time. A further reason is the potential risk of unexpected mobilization or chemical generation of hazardous compounds which could result in an extension of the contamination into other regions of soil, the ground water or the atmosphere. Electrokinetic in-situ decontamination is based on transport processes in the ground that proceed with relatively low velocity. This results in treatment times of several months. Since the transport processes can be described by a mathematical model, monitoring should always be combined with qualified mathematical processing. This makes it possible to estimate treatment time and costs to be expected. The challenge of in-situ monitoring is to identify relevant parameters describing the state of the ground. These parameters must be independent from influences like weather but they must be sensitive to changes of soil characteristics. In the case of electrokinetic soil remediation, probes and sensors must be resistant to influences of electric fields. The function of sensors or measuring systems can be disturbed or even damaged or destroyed by electric fields (for example by electro-corrosion). (orig.)

  10. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern classification by memristive crossbar circuits using ex situ and in situ training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibart, Fabien; Zamanidoost, Elham; Strukov, Dmitri B.

    2013-06-01

    Memristors are memory resistors that promise the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks. Whereas demonstrations of the synaptic operation of memristors already exist, the implementation of even simple networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate pattern classification using a single-layer perceptron network implemented with a memrisitive crossbar circuit and trained using the perceptron learning rule by ex situ and in situ methods. In the first case, synaptic weights, which are realized as conductances of titanium dioxide memristors, are calculated on a precursor software-based network and then imported sequentially into the crossbar circuit. In the second case, training is implemented in situ, so the weights are adjusted in parallel. Both methods work satisfactorily despite significant variations in the switching behaviour of the memristors. These results give hope for the anticipated efficient implementation of artificial neuromorphic networks and pave the way for dense, high-performance information processing systems.

  12. Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr; Bayar, Serife; Dincer, Hatice A. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Gonca, Erguen [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, TR34500 B.Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-04-01

    In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study.

  13. Ex-situ and in-situ mineral carbonation as a means to sequester carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center is investigating mineral carbonation as a method of sequestering CO2 from coal-fired-power plants. Magnesium-silicate minerals such as serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] and olivine (Mg2SiO4) react with CO2 to produce magnesite (MgCO3), and the calcium-silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), reacts to form calcite (CaCO3). It is possible to carry out these reactions either ex situ (above ground in a traditional chemical processing plant) or in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals). For ex situ mineral carbonation to be economically attractive, the reaction must proceed quickly to near completion. The reaction rate is accelerated by raising the activity of CO2 in solution, heat (but not too much), reducing the particle size, high-intensity grinding to disrupt the crystal structure, and, in the case of serpentine, heat-treatment to remove the chemically bound water. All of these carry energy/economic penalties. An economic study illustrates the impact of mineral availability and process parameters on the cost of ex situ carbon sequestration. In situ carbonation offers economic advantages over ex situ processes, because no chemical plant is required. Knowledge gained from the ex situ work was applied to long-term experiments designed to simulate in situ CO2 storage conditions. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), a multi-layered basaltic lava formation, has potentially favorable mineralogy (up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations) for storage of CO2. However, more information about the interaction of CO2 with aquifers and the host rock is needed. Core samples from the CRBG, as well as samples of olivine, serpentine, and sandstone, were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at elevated temperatures and pressures. Changes in core porosity, secondary mineralizations, and both solution and solid chemistry were measured.

  14. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  15. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  16. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  17. The treatment of in situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

  18. ANALISIS FAKTOR PENYEBAB JEBOLNYA TANGGUL SITU GINTUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Harsoyo, Budi

    2018-01-01

    Spatial and hidrology analysis has been done to find out the main factor of causing the burst of Situ Gintung dam incident on March 27, 2009. Spatial analysis was done to get some parameters that needs as input for hidrology analysis. The analysis results indicating that rain fall actually was be one of cause factors that incident, but not as the main factor. The condition of dike which already broken as the consequence of its life time and also the condition of  spill way which has not funct...

  19. Development of in-situ monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Soo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon

    2010-03-01

    Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

  20. Reasonable assurance and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, J.E.; Nelson, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently preparing site characterization plans for sites being considered for the first geologic repository. The site investigations described in these plans will be aimed at providing ''reasonable assurance'' to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that the performance objectives and criteria specified in 10 CFR Part 60 will be met. The in-situ testing being planned by the DOE for site characterization, and the subsequent testing conducted as part of performance confirmation, reflects how the basis for ''reasonable assurance'' will change through the licensing process

  1. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  2. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone

    . One of the most common and successfully used treatments for phobic conditions has been Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which helps people learn to detect thinking patterns that trigger the irrational fear and to replace them with more realistic ideas. The health and financial impacts in society...... presented here is being designed in a modular and scalable fashion. The web-based module can be accessed anywhere any time from a PC connected to the internet and can be used alone or as supplement for a location-based module for in situ gradual exposure therapy....

  3. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  4. PAEDIATRIC URETERIC CALCULI: IN-SITU EXTRACORPOREAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il navait ni obstruction urétérale ni infection urinaire. De légères hématuries et coliques transitoires ont été observées après la lithotripsie. Conclusion Chez lenfant, la lithotripsie extra-corporelle in situ est une procédure efficace dans le traitement des calculs urétéraux quelque soit le siège. Il ny a aucune morbidité liée à la ...

  5. Effect of silica particles modified by in-situ and ex-situ methods on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingze; Yu, Jinhong; Dai, Dan; Song, Lixian; Jiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles. • In-situ method was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with high BET surface area. • Silicone rubber filled with in-situ modified silica exhibits excellent mechanical and thermal properties. - Abstract: In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles in order to investigate their effects on the reinforcement of silicone rubber. Surface area and pore analyzer, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact-angle instrument, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structure and properties of the modified silica particles. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was employed to characterize the vulcanizing behavior and mechanical properties of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to test the thermal stability of the composites. FTIR and contact angle analysis indicated that silica particles were successfully modified by these two methods. The BET surface area and TEM results reflected that in-situ modification was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with irregular shape and higher BET surface area in comparison with ex-situ modification. The DMTA and TGA data revealed that compared with ex-situ modification, the in-situ modification produced positive influence on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

  6. In situ and ex situ modifications of bacterial cellulose for applications in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Yang, Xiuying; Zhang, Jingchang; Cao, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is secreted by a few strains of bacteria and consists of a cellulose nanofiber network with unique characteristics. Because of its excellent mechanical properties, outstanding biocompatibilities, and abilities to form porous structures, BC has been studied for a variety of applications in different fields, including the use as a biomaterial for scaffolds in tissue engineering. To extend its applications in tissue engineering, native BC is normally modified to enhance its properties. Generally, BC modifications can be made by either in situ modification during cell culture or ex situ modification of existing BC microfibers. In this review we will first provide a brief introduction of BC and its attributes; this will set the stage for in-depth and up-to-date discussions on modified BC. Finally, the review will focus on in situ and ex situ modifications of BC and its applications in tissue engineering, particularly in bone regeneration and wound dressing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  8. Alternatieve in situ bodemsaneringstechnieken; literatuuronderzoek bij het project "In Situ Biorestauratie" Asten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuter AJ; LBG

    1997-01-01

    In developing in situ remediation most of the focus used to be on techniques using infiltration water to supply oxygen to the location. Later, techniques were developed in which soil was flushed with air to enhance the oxygen availability to microorganisms. The aim of the study reported here was to

  9. Disappearance of the in situ component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Le Pechoux, C.; Calais, G.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.; Le Floch, O.; Fetisoff, F.; Lemseffer, A.; Body, G.; Lansac, J.

    1992-01-01

    Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  11. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  12. In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1990-01-01

    International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

  13. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  14. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  16. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Kelly, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  17. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  18. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  19. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  20. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, STEVEN H.

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in

  1. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turick, Charles E.; Knox, Anna S.; Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10 6 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

  2. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation...

  3. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  4. Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, N.; Menjeaud, C.; Poyet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (120 0 C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  5. In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

  6. Cryogenic in situ microcompression testing of Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Eilenberg, A.; Shapiro, A.A.; Hosemann, P.; Minor, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at −142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity, while at −142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (1 0 0) orientation and a non-symmetric (4 5 ¯ 1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations

  7. Refractive regression after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mabel K; Chang, John Sm; Chan, Tommy Cy

    2018-04-26

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual impairment across the world. In today's society, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has become the most commonly performed surgical procedure to correct refractive errors. However, regression of the initially achieved refractive correction has been a widely observed phenomenon following LASIK since its inception more than two decades ago. Despite technological advances in laser refractive surgery and various proposed management strategies, post-LASIK regression is still frequently observed and has significant implications for the long-term visual performance and quality of life of patients. This review explores the mechanism of refractive regression after both myopic and hyperopic LASIK, predisposing risk factors and its clinical course. In addition, current preventative strategies and therapies are also reviewed. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G

    1972-01-01

    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  9. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  11. IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

    2006-11-29

    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  12. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  13. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  14. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  15. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  16. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  17. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  18. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman

  19. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....

  20. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites

  1. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize in situ gel-forming implants of methylprednisolone for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Methods: In situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone were prepared by dispersing polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and methylprednisolone in N-methyl-pyrrolidone solvent, and subsequent ...

  2. An expert support model for in situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an expert support model for in situ soil remediation. It combines knowledge and experiences obtained from previous in situ soil remediations. The aim of this model is to optimise knowledge transfer among the various parties involved in contaminated site management. Structured

  3. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  4. In Situ Bioremediation of Energetic Compounds in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    negligible. Thus, this project clearly shows that in situ bioremediation of explosives in groundwater using active-passive cosubstrate addition can...Arlington, NJ, offices), the National Research Council (NRC) Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Environmental Technology...NDAB are unlikely to accumulate during in situ anaerobic bioremediation explosives using cheese whey as a cosubstrate. 7.4 ADEQUATE DISTRIBUTION OF

  5. Comparison of in situ nutrient degradabilities of alternative by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level of inclusion in the concentrate portion of lactating dairy cattle diets, ... Two rumen fistulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used for the in situ study. ... vitamins. Feeds were offered twice daily at 09:00 and 18:00. The in situ bag ...

  6. paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...

  7. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  8. On the ex situ and in situ doping of refractory Ta by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.L.; Lin, S.S.; Shen, P. [National Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [I-Shou University, Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-15

    Ex situ and in situ doping processes of refractory Ta were accomplished by pulsed laser ablation of bulk Ta in vacuum with C-O-H supply from C-coated collodion film and within tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), respectively. Analytical electron microscopic observations of the resultant particulates and condensates indicated that the former process involved interdiffusion in the condensed state to form two kinds of core-shell structures, i.e., C-O-H doped Ta with α-type (bcc) core and lamellar shell and O-H doped γ-TaC{sub 1-x} with amorphous Ta-C-O-H surrounding, respectively, for potential wear and lubrication applications at high temperatures. In situ TEOS mediation, however, enhanced solute trapping to form Si-C-O-H overdoped α-Ta with significant tetragonality (c/a ratio up to 1.27) and Si-O-H doped γ-TaC{sub 1-x} with {111}{sub γ} twin/fault and occasional epitaxial relationship [ anti 123]{sub α}//[ anti 112]{sub γ}; (121){sub α}//(anti 11 anti 1){sub γ} due to particle coalescence. Such Si-C-O-H mediated Ta particles may have potential optocatalytic applications. (orig.)

  9. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qi; Li Daping; Tao Yong; Wang Xiaomei; He Xiaohong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jinlian; Guo Weiqiang; Wang Lan

    2009-01-01

    Ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification represents a novel approach to nitrogen management at landfills. Simultaneous ammonia and organics removal was achieved in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results showed that the maximum nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) was 0.65 g N l -1 d -1 and 3.84 g COD l -1 d -1 , respectively. The ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 99% and 57%, respectively. In the run of the CSTR, free ammonia (FA) inhibition and low dissolved oxygen (DO) were found to be key factors affecting nitrite accumulation. In situ denitrification was studied in a municipal solid waste (MSW) column by recalculating nitrified leachate from CSTR. The decomposition of MSW was accelerated by the recirculation of nitrified leachate. Complete reduction of total oxidized nitrogen (TON) was obtained with maximum TON loading of 28.6 g N t -1 TS d -1 and denitrification was the main reaction responsible. Additionally, methanogenesis inhibition was observed while TON loading was over 11.4 g N t -1 TS d -1 and the inhibition was enhanced with the increase of TON loading

  10. PROSCARA Inc. in-situ burning summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In-situ burning as a viable response tactic in the event of an oil spill, was discussed. Key factors which influence a decision to use burning were enumerated, including a detailed analysis of the environmental effects of in-situ burning on soils. The critical parameters were time, soil heating and extent of oil penetration into the soil. It was noted that on water-saturated and frozen soil in-situ burning had no adverse effects. The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ burning vis-a-vis conventional mechanical recovery were discussed. Factors that do, and factors that do not support decisions in favour of in-situ burning were listed. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J.; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species’ persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.

  12. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species' persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. The adsorption of methanol and water on SAPO-34: in situ and ex situ X-ray diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Johnsen, Rune; Norby, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of methanol on SAPO-34 has been studied using a combination of in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction to follow the process and ex situ high resolution powder diffraction to determine the structure. The unit cell volume of SAPO-34 is found to expand by 0.5% during methanol ad...

  14. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  15. Techno-economic and uncertainty analysis of in situ and ex situ fast pyrolysis for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Boyan; Ou, Longwen; Dang, Qi; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Brown, Robert C.; Wright, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the techno-economic uncertainty in cost estimates for two emerging biorefinery technologies for biofuel production: in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. Stochastic simulations based on process and economic parameter distributions are applied to calculate biorefinery performance and production costs. The probability distributions for the minimum fuel-selling price (MFSP) indicate that in situ catalytic pyrolysis has an expected MFSP of $4.20 per gallon with a standard deviation of 1.15, while the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has a similar MFSP with a smaller deviation ($4.27 per gallon and 0.79 respectively). These results suggest that a biorefinery based on ex situ catalytic pyrolysis could have a lower techno-economic risk than in situ pyrolysis despite a slightly higher MFSP cost estimate. Analysis of how each parameter affects the NPV indicates that internal rate of return, feedstock price, total project investment, electricity price, biochar yield and bio-oil yield are significant parameters which have substantial impact on the MFSP for both in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis.

  16. Development and application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for the measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stillwell, Kathryn P.; Powell, Kipton J.; Downard, Alison J.

    2008-01-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, utilizing an iron-hydroxide adsorbent, has been investigated for the in situ accumulation of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters. Diffusion coefficients of the inorganic As V and As III species in the polyacrylamide gel were measured using a diffusion cell and DGT devices and a variety of factors that may affect the adsorption of the As species to the iron-hydroxide adsorbent, or the diffusion of the individual As species, were investigated. Under conditions commonly encountered in environmental samples, solution pH and the presence of anions, cations, fulvic acid, Fe III -fulvic acid complexes and colloidal iron-hydroxide were demonstrated not to affect uptake of dissolved As. To evaluate DGT as a method for accumulation and pre-concentration of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters, DGT was applied to two well waters and a river water that was spiked with As. For each sample, the concentration obtained with use of DGT followed by measurement by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with a Pd modifier (HG-AAS) was compared with the concentration of As measured directly by HG-AAS. The results confirmed that DGT is a reliable method for pre-concentration of total dissolved As

  17. Development and application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for the measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stillwell, Kathryn P.; Powell, Kipton J. [Chemistry Department, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Downard, Alison J. [Chemistry Department, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)], E-mail: alison.downard@canterbury.ac.nz

    2008-08-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, utilizing an iron-hydroxide adsorbent, has been investigated for the in situ accumulation of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters. Diffusion coefficients of the inorganic As{sup V} and As{sup III} species in the polyacrylamide gel were measured using a diffusion cell and DGT devices and a variety of factors that may affect the adsorption of the As species to the iron-hydroxide adsorbent, or the diffusion of the individual As species, were investigated. Under conditions commonly encountered in environmental samples, solution pH and the presence of anions, cations, fulvic acid, Fe{sup III}-fulvic acid complexes and colloidal iron-hydroxide were demonstrated not to affect uptake of dissolved As. To evaluate DGT as a method for accumulation and pre-concentration of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters, DGT was applied to two well waters and a river water that was spiked with As. For each sample, the concentration obtained with use of DGT followed by measurement by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with a Pd modifier (HG-AAS) was compared with the concentration of As measured directly by HG-AAS. The results confirmed that DGT is a reliable method for pre-concentration of total dissolved As.

  18. Concept for long-time integrity assurance illustrated by a steam generator and the volume control system of the nuclear power plant Neckarwestheim; Gesamtkonzept zur langfristigen Absicherung der Integritaet am Beispiel des Dampferzeugers und des Volumenregelsystems des GKN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartonicek, J; Zaiss, W [Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Broecker, B [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Ensuring integrity of safety-relevant components or systems over their serviceable life is a legal requirement. A decisive factor within the established system for integrity assurance is whether there is sufficient information available about inservice degradation mechanisms, and whether this information is taken into account in component or system designing. The design relies on existing specifications or data reflecting the then current knowledge. This is why existing knowledge has to be updated in response to new knowledge obtained from plant operation, and negative effects revealed have to be eliminated by appropriate measures. Damage to components is caused by real loads occurring during operation, or real local conditions in the system, so that inservice monitoring of local conditions and causes leading to damage is a priority task. The information obtained from monitoring can be taken as a basis for modifying the operating mode and documenting the current status of the system. Another redundant measure is monitoring of the consequences of a degradation during operation, this task primarily relying on non-destructive examinations. The efficiency of this measure decisively depends on the available knowledge of possible damaging mechanisms, i.e. monitoring of causes. A comprehensive concept for ensuring long-time integrity will encompass the above quality monitoring and evaluation activities, operation-induced impact and damage monitoring and documentation, and updating of the data representing current knowledge. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Komponenten bzw. Systemen ist die Integritaet im Betrieb zu gewaehrleisten. Dabei ist entscheidend, ob die betrieblichen Schadensmechanismen ausreichend bekannt sind und bei der Auslegung auch entsprechend beruecksichtigt wurden. Die Auslegung erfolgt aufgrund von Spezifikationen bzw. Annahmen, die den jweiligen Kenntnisstand widerspiegeln. Die Aenderungen des Kenntnisstandes im laufenden Betrieb

  19. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  20. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  1. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  2. Incomplete copolymer degradation of in situ chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Boissenot, Tanguy; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Nicolas, Julien; Apra, Caroline; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2018-02-17

    In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery. Eleven months later, a third surgery was performed, revealing unexpected incomplete degradation of the wafer. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was performed to compare this wafer to pure BCNU and to an unused copolymer wafer. In the used wafer, peaks corresponding to hydrophobic units of the excipient were no longer noticeable, whereas peaks of the hydrophilic units and traces of BCNU were still present. These surprising results could be related to the formation of a hydrophobic membrane around the wafer, thus interfering with the expected diffusion and degradation processes. The clinical benefit of carmustine wafers in addition to the standard radio-chemotherapy remains limited, and in vivo behavior of this treatment is not completely elucidated yet. We found that the wafer may remain after several months. Alternative strategies to deal with the blood-brain barrier, such as drug-loaded liposomes or ultrasound-opening, must be explored to offer larger drug diffusion or allow repetitive delivery.

  3. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, in situ alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2007-04-01

    The backfilling process described in this report is based on in situ compaction of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70) into the deposition tunnel. This method has been tested in practice in various field tests by SKB, most recently in the Prototype repository test performed at Aespoe HRL. The backfill mixture is prepared above ground and transported to the repository level with a tank truck. The material is compacted into layers with an inclination of 35 deg C and a thickness of approximately 20 cm. The compaction is performed with a vibratory plate attached to a boom of an excavator. In order to keep up with the required canister installation rate determined for the Finnish repository, at least 13 layers need to be compacted daily. This means working in 2-3 shifts on the working days that are available for backfilling operations. The dry densities achieved in field tests for the wall/roof section of the backfill have been insufficient compared with the dry density criteria set for the backfill. In theory, it may be possible to reach dry densities that fulfil the criteria, although with a relatively small safety margin. Another open issue is whether the mixture of bentonite and ballast has sufficient self-healing ability to seal-off erosion channels after the tunnels have been closed and the backfill has reached full saturation. (orig.)

  4. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

  5. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA

  6. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14 C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  7. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  8. Performance parameters for ex situ bioremediation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology to reduce the concentration of undesirable hydrocarbons, i.e. gasoline and diesel fuel pollution, is very attractive due to its apparent benign nature and potentially low cost. When good industrial practices are used in the design, construction, and administration of the bioremediation system, the performance of the technology can be predicted and monitored. Some of the principles behind the design, construction, and operation of ex situ bioremediation systems and facilities are described. Biological considerations include creation of a favorable environment for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soils, selection of bacteria, and bacterial byproducts. Chemical considerations include nutrient augmentation, oxygen availability, and the use of surfactants and dispersants. Physical considerations include soil textures and structures, soil temperatures, moisture content, and the use of bulking agents. Experience has shown that indigenous microbes will usually be sufficient to implement bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons if encouraged through the application of fertilizers. The introduction of additional carbon sources may be considered if rapid bioremediation rates are desired or if soil conditions are poor. Adjustments to a bioremediation system may be made to enhance the performance of the bacterial community by introducing bulking agents and external temperature sources. Surfactants may be helpful in promoting bacteria-hydrocarbon contact and may be particularly useful for mobilization of free-phase hydrocarbons. 7 refs

  9. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  10. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  11. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  13. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  15. Sperm cryopreservation in endangered felids: developing linkage of in situ-ex situ populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, W F; Magarey, G M; Herrick, J R

    2007-01-01

    Many of the world's cat species face growing threats to their continued survival in nature. For some species, managed captive populations may provide a reservoir for future reintroduction or genetic augmentation. Because most zoo populations are derived from small founder sizes and are subject to loss of genetic variation over time, periodic infusion of founder alleles is necessary to avoid the dire consequences of inbreeding. Collection and freezing of semen from free-living nondomestic felids offers a viable option for introducing founder genes into captive populations without removal of animals from the wild. The effective application of this strategy requires established protocols for safely capturing and anaesthetising wild cats coupled with suitable methods of semen recovery, processing and cryopreservation under field conditions. In small-sized non-domestic felids, the general feasibility of this approach is being explored in two studies of black-footed cats and Pallas' cats. Two factors - relatively low sperm numbers per ejaculate and compromised status of frozen-thawed cat spermatozoa - suggest that in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer present the most efficient use of this limiting resource in small-sized cats. Our studies with captive felids have explored alternative methods of sperm cryopreservation that are adaptable to field situations and shown that frozen-thawed spermatozoa from Pallas' cats, ocelots, and fishing cats exhibit adequate function to fertilise heterologous and/or homologous oocytes in vitro. Most recently, we investigated the fertilising capacity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia. Combined with improved methods for embryo culture and transfer in small cat species, sperm banking in situ will facilitate introduction of new founders into captive populations without causing further depletion of their wild counterparts. As one component of holistic conservation programs, including ongoing

  16. Environmental monitoring with in-situ gamma spectrometer; Umweltueberwachung mit in-situ-Gamma-Spektrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, S. [ENVINET GmbH, Haar (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The in-situ gamma spectroscopy allows large area and continuous monitoring of the radio nuclides and there composition in the environment. In comparison to the gamma dose rate measurement the additional spectral information gives the possibility for a quick and effective action in the case of a man-made radiation exposition in the environment. The knowledge respectively localization of the possible nuclides, which a responsible for the increased dose rate, supports responsible organization in the quick identification of the situation, definition of the actions and tracking of the temporal and local process of the radiation exposition. Due to dedicate actions the risk for people and environment is reduced.

  17. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  18. Modeling In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secody, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    .... An innovative technology was recently developed which uses dual-screened treatment wells to mix an electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in order to effect in situ bioremediation...

  19. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...

  1. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  2. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  3. In situ sampling cart development engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) supports the development for facility use of the next generation in situ sampling system for characterization of tank vapors. In situ sampling refers to placing sample collection devices (primarily sorbent tubes) directly into the tank headspace, then drawing tank gases through the collection devices to obtain samples. The current in situ sampling system is functional but was not designed to provide the accurate flow measurement required by today's data quality objectives (DQOs) for vapor characterization. The new system will incorporate modern instrumentation to achieve much tighter control. The next generation system will be referred to in this ETP as the New In Situ System (NISS) or New System. The report describes the current sampling system and the modifications that are required for more accuracy

  4. Enhanced ex-situ bioremediation of soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminated soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using electrical biostimulation processes to enhance ex-situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. The effect of ...

  5. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a proposal for a new classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.; Peterse, J. L.; Millis, R. R.; Eusebi, V.; Faverly, D.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Zafrani, B.

    1994-01-01

    Details of a proposed new classification for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are presented. This is based, primarily, on cytonuclear differentiation and, secondarily, on architectural differentiation (cellular polarisation). Three categories are defined. First is poorly differentiated DCIS composed

  6. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  7. Anchoring Technology for In Situ Exploration of Small Bodie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, A.; Nasif, A.

    2000-01-01

    Comets, asteroids and other small bodies found in the solar system do not possess enough gravity to ensure spacecraft contact forces sufficient to allow many types of in situ science, such as core or surface sampling.

  8. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  9. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  10. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... inflammatory activity (paw edema test) and in vivo motor function activity in a rat ... Conclusions: The in situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone developed may be .... in the left hind paw in all rats. .... Continuous brain-derived.

  11. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  12. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  13. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  14. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised,

  15. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  16. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  17. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  18. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  19. IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF BEDROCK EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  20. High Fidelity In Situ Shoulder Dystocia Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pelikan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Resident physicians, emergency department (ED staff Introduction: Precipitous deliveries are high acuity, low occurrence in most emergency departments. Shoulder dystocia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of labor that can be relieved by specific maneuvers that must be implemented in a timely manner. This simulation is designed to educate resident learners on the critical management steps in a shoulder dystocia presenting to the emergency department. A special aspect of this simulation is the unique utilization of the “Noelle” model with an instructing physician at bedside maneuvering the fetus through the stations of labor and providing subtle adjustments to fetal positioning not possible though a mechanized model. A literature search of “shoulder dystocia simulation” consists primarily of obstetrics and mid-wife journals, many of which utilize various mannequin models. None of the reviewed articles utilized a bedside provider maneuvering the fetus with the Noelle model, making this method unique. While the Noelle model is equipped with a remote-controlled motor that automatically rotates and delivers the baby either to the head or to the shoulders and can produce a turtle sign and which will prevent delivery of the baby until signaled to do so by the instructor, using the bedside instructor method allows this simulation to be reproduced with less mechanistically advanced and lower cost models.1-5 Objectives: At the end of this simulation, learners will: 1 Recognize impending delivery and mobilize appropriate resources (ie, both obstetrics [OB] and NICU/pediatrics; 2 Identify risk factors for shoulder dystocia based on history and physical; 3 Recognize shoulder dystocia during delivery; 4 Demonstrate maneuvers to relieve shoulder dystocia; 5 Communicate with team members and nursing staff during resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: High-fidelity simulation. Topics: High fidelity, in situ, Noelle model

  1. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  2. In-Situ Roughening of Polymeric Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A method to perform in-situ roughening of arrays of microstructures weakly adherent to an underlying substrate was presented. SU8, 1002F, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures were roughened by polishing with a particle slurry. The roughness and the percentage of dislodged or damaged microstructures was evaluated as a function of the roughening time for both SU8 and 1002F structures. A maximal RMS roughness of 7-18 nm for the surfaces was obtained within 15 to 30 s of polishing with the slurry. This represented a 4-9 fold increase in surface roughness relative to that of the native surface. Less than 0.8% of the microstructures on the array were removed or damage after 5 min of polishing. Native and roughened arrays were assessed for their ability to support fibronectin adhesion and cell attachment and growth. The quantity of adherent fibronectin was increased on roughened arrays by two-fold over that on native arrays. Cell adhesion to the roughened surfaces was also increased compared to native surfaces. Surface roughening with the particle slurry also improved the ability to stamp molecules onto the substrate during microcontact printing. Roughening both the PDMS stamp and substrate resulted in up to a 20-fold improvement in the transfer of BSA-Alexa Fluor 647 from the stamp to the substrate. Thus roughening of micron-scale surfaces with a particle slurry increased the adhesion of biomolecules as well as cells to microstructures with little to no damage to large scale arrays of the structures. PMID:20423129

  3. In Situ Measurement of Bedrock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Beer, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Campana, L.

    2012-07-01

    While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are - if at all available - based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ) and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest generation of compact

  4. In situ precipitation and sorption of arsenic from groundwater: Laboratory and ex situ field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J.M.; Adu-Wusu, K.; Frampton, W.H.; Staib, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Permeable, reactive walls may provide long term, low-maintenance prevention of off-site migration of contaminated groundwater. Laboratory and ex situ field tests conducted on several arsenic-contaminated groundwaters indicate that both precipitation and sorption can remove arsenic to levels of less than 10 ppb. Precipitation has been induced by adjusting pH, adding selected cations, and/or reducing the oxidation-reduction potential. Adjusting pH or adding cations was most effective when there were high levels of other ionic species with which arsenic could coprecipitate. Reducing the oxidation-reduction potential was effective on a variety of groundwaters. Humate was an effective sorbent at low pH; aluminum and iron materials were effective over a large range of conditions. Long term performance of precipitation systems can be limited by formation of precipitate on reactive surfaces. Long term sorption can be reduced by competing ions, such as phosphate. Laboratory and ex situ field tests indicate that reactive walls may have lifetimes of decades or more

  5. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  6. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)

    1997-08-01

    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  7. A review of in situ investigations in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1985-01-01

    In situ investigations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in rock salt formations have the longest history in the field. Well known names are Project Salt Vault (PSV) which was performed in the Lyons Mine, Kansas/USA, and the Asse salt mine in Germany. The overall objective for in situ investigations is twofold: 1. To produce all necessary data for the construction and operation of repositories and 2. to produce all necessary data for a performance assessment for repositories

  8. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  9. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  10. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  12. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Historical, uncontrolled disposal practices have made perchlorate a significant threat to drinking water supplies in the United States. In-situ bioremediation (ISB) technologies are cost effective and provide an environmental friendly solution for treating contaminated groundwater and soil. In situ bioremediation was considered as an option for treatment of perchlorate in groundwater and soil in Lockheed Martin Corporation's Beaumont Site 2 (Beaumont, CA). Based on the perchlorate distribu...

  13. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  14. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  15. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 or rac-Me 2 Si(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  16. In situ leaching of uranium: Technical, environmental and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of its activities in nuclear raw materials the International Atomic Energy Agency has convened a series of meetings to discuss various aspects of uranium ore processing technology, recovery of uranium from non-conventional resources and development of projects for the production of uranium concentrates including economic aspects. As part of this continuing effort to discuss and document important aspects of uranium production the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Technical, Economic and Environmental Aspects of In-Situ Leaching. Although the use of this technique is limited by geological and economic constraints, it has a significant potential to produce uranium at competitive prices. This is especially important in the current uranium market which is mainly characterised by large inventories, excess production capability and low prices. This situation is not expected to last indefinitely but it is unlikely to change drastically in the next ten years or so. This Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna from 3 to 6 November 1987 with the attendance of 24 participants from 12 countries. Eight papers were presented. Technical sessions covered in-situ mining research, environmental and licensing aspects and restoration of leached orebodies; the technological status of in-situ leaching, the current status and future prospects of in-situ leaching of uranium in Member States, general aspects of planning and implementation of in-situ projects and the economics of in-situ leaching. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Geochemical and Microbiological Characteristics during in Situ Chemical Oxidation and in Situ Bioremediation at a Diesel Contaminated Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Kalisz, M.; Krupanek, J.; Marek, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Weert, de J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Gaans, van P.; Keijzer, T.

    2014-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation with persulfate has seen wide commercial application, investigations into the impacts on groundwater characteristics, microbial communities and soil structure are limited. To better understand the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and to determine the

  18. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Meike; Segal, Amanda; Allpress, Stephen; Miranda, Alina; Frost, Felicity A; Sterrett, Gregory F

    2002-12-25

    The current study examines 1) the sensitivity of detection and 2) sampling and screening/diagnostic error in the cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix. The data were taken from public and private sector screening laboratories reporting 25,000 and 80,000 smears, respectively, each year. The study group was comprised of women with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who were accessioned by the Western Australian Cervical Cytology Registry (WACCR) between 1993-1998. Cervical smears reported by the Western Australia Centre for Pathology and Medical Research (PathCentre) or Western Diagnostic Pathology (WDP) in the 36 months before the index biopsy was obtained were retrieved. A true measure of the sensitivity of detection could not be determined because to the authors' knowledge the exact prevalence of disease is unknown at present. For the current study, sensitivity was defined as the percentage of smears reported as demonstrating a possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality (HGEA), either glandular or squamous. Sampling error was defined as the percentage of smears found to have no HGEA on review. Screening/diagnostic error was defined as the percentage of smears in which HGEA was not diagnosed initially but review demonstrated possible or definite HGEA. Sensitivity also was calculated for a randomly selected control group of biopsy proven cases of Grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3) accessioned at the WACCR in 1999. For biopsy findings of AIS alone, the diagnostic "sensitivity" of a single smear was 47.6% for the PathCentre and 54.3% for WDP. Nearly all the abnormalities were reported as glandular. The sampling and screening/diagnostic errors were 47.6% and 4.8%, respectively, for the PathCentre and 33.3% and 12.3%, respectively, for WDP. The results from the PathCentre were better for AIS plus HSIL than for AIS alone, but the results from WDP were

  19. satellite and in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Salas Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución espacial y temporal de la circulación superficial de la Bahía de Banderas se obtuvo con el empleo de series temporales de rapidez de viento, temperatura superficial del mar (AVHR radiómetro y un termógrafo, nivel del mar y trazas ascendentes y descendentes del radar altimétrico ERS-2. El período que abarca dichos datos es de cuatro años, ya que comenzó en el verano de 1997 y finalizó en el invierno de 2002. La marea en la Bahía es mixta (F=0.25 con predominio del armónico M2. La bahía no muestra características de resonancia con la marea del mar abierto. Amplitudes promedio de 30 cms., resultan en corrientes de marea de pocos cms./s. Las bajas frecuencias (periodos mayores a tres días parecen ser los principales generadores de la circulación marina en esta área, en la que predomina el periodo estacional sobre los otros periodos. FEOs fueron aplicadas a las componentes de velocidad, calculadas con observaciones de altimetría medidas en la boca de la Bahía, las cuales mostraron dos principales distribuciones espaciales. El primer periodo de distribución, que se extendió desde febrero hasta julio, muestra un flujo de entrada por la porción norte/sur de la bahía, con un flujo de salida por su boca (distribución anticiclónica. El segundo periodo se extiende desde agosto hasta diciembre y es opuesto al primero (distribución ciclónica. Las características de la circulación aquí presentadas son hipotéticas y observaciones de velocidad medidas in-situ deben confirmarlas

  20. Breeding of in-situ Petroleum Degrading Bacteria in Hangzhou Bay and evaluating for the In-situ repair effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ru; Lin, Hai; Qiao, Bing; Dong, Yingbo; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Wen

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the restoration behaviour of the in-situ microorganisms in seawater and sediments to the marine accident oil spill was researched. The experimental study on the breeding of in-situ petroleum-degrading bacteria in the seawater and sediments of Hangzhou Bay and the restoration of oil spill were carried out. Making use of the reinforced microbial flora, combined with physical and chemical methods in field environment, petroleum degrading and restoration experiment were performed, the effect of the breeding of in-situ degrading bacteria was evaluated, and the standard process of in-situ bacteria sampling, laboratory screening, domestication and degradation efficiency testing were formed. This study laid a foundation for further evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages for the petroleum-degrading bacteria of Hangzhou Bay during the process of in-situ restoration. The results showed that in-situ microbes of Hangzhou Bay could reach the growth peak in 5 days with the suitable environmental factors and sufficient nutrient elements, and the degradation efficiency could reach 65.2% (or 74.8% after acclimation). And also the microbes could adapt to the local sea water and environmental conditions, with a certain degree of degradation. The research results could provide parameter support for causal judgment and quantitative assessment of oil spill damage.

  1. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene...... as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  2. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  3. Comparing electrical characteristics of in situ and ex situ Al2O3/GaN interfaces formed by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Bisi, Davide; Tahhan, Maher; Gupta, Chirag; DenBaars, Steven P.; Keller, Stacia; Zanoni, Enrico; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2018-04-01

    Al2O3/n-GaN MOS-capacitors grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with in-situ- and ex-situ-formed Al2O3/GaN interfaces were characterized. Capacitors grown entirely in situ exhibited ˜4 × 1012 cm-2 fewer positive fixed charges and up to ˜1 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 lower interface-state density near the band-edge than did capacitors with ex situ oxides. When in situ Al2O3/GaN interfaces were reformed via the insertion of a 10-nm-thick GaN layer, devices exhibited behavior between the in situ and ex situ limits. These results illustrate the extent to which an in-situ-formed dielectric/GaN gate stack improves the interface quality and breakdown performance.

  4. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958 were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01. However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  5. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. PMID:27271644

  6. Use of bioreactor landfill for nitrogen removal to enhance methane production through ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and in situ denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hongxia; Cheng, Zhaowen

    2017-08-01

    High concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) derived from ex situ nitrification phase can inhibit methane production during ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification bioreactor landfill. A combined process comprised of ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in an aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) and in situ denitrification in a fresh refuse bioreactor (FRB) was conducted to reduce the negative effect of high concentrationsof NO 3 - -N. Ex situ SND can be achieved because NO 3 - -N concentration can be reduced and the removal rate of ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) remains largely unchanged when the ventilation rate of ARB-A2 is controlled. The average NO 3 - -N concentrations of effluent were 470mg/L in ex situ nitrification ARB-A1 and 186mg/L in ex situ SND ARB-A2. The average NH 4 + -N removal rates of ARB-A1 and ARB-A2 were 98% and 94%, respectively. Based on the experimental data from week 4 to week 30, it is predicted that NH 4 + -N concentration in FRB-F1 of the ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification process would reach 25mg/L after 63weeks, and about 40weeks for the FRB-F2 of ex situ SND and in situ denitrification process . Ex situ SND and in situ denitrification process can improve themethane production of FRB-F2. The lag phase time of methane production for the FRB-F2 was 11weeks. This phase was significantly shorter than the 15-week phases of FRB-F1 in ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification process. A seven-week stabilizationphase was required to increase methane content from 5% to 50% for FRB-F2. Methane content in FRB-F1 did not reach 50% but reached the 45% peak after 20weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  8. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YANG, J.S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses

  9. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  10. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of Adenocarcinoma In Situ of Cervix in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abidi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma in situ is one of the premalignant lesions of the cervix and its incidence is believed to be increasing while the pathogenesis of the disease is not clearly understood. Management of Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS unlike carcinoma in situ (CIS has not been clearly described in the current literature. Here we describe conservative management and serial colposcopy of two pregnant women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Both of the cases were diagnosed initially with abnormal Pap smears and were confirmed by colposcopic directed biopsy. None of the patients agreed with any invasive procedure during pregnancy and both of them were followed with serial colposcopy. None of the lesions showed any evidence of progression. All cases underwent cold knife cone biopsies in their postpartum period. Hysterectomy as the final treatment has been done in both cases with no evidence of progression of the disease during pregnancy. We concluded that adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix during pregnancy could be managed conservatively with definite treatment postponed till after delivery.

  12. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  13. Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

  14. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  16. Interactions of trace metals with hydrogels and filter membranes used in DET and DGT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmo, Oyvind A; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2008-08-01

    Equilibrium partitioning of trace metals between bulk solution and hydrogels/filter was studied. Under some conditions, trace metal concentrations were higher in the hydrogels or filter membranes compared to bulk solution (enrichment). In synthetic soft water, enrichment of cationic trace metals in polyacrylamide hydrogels decreased with increasing trace metal concentration. Enrichment was little affected by Ca and Mg in the concentration range typically encountered in natural freshwaters, indicating high affinity but low capacity binding of trace metals to solid structure in polyacrylamide gels. The apparent binding strength decreased in the sequence: Cu > Pb > Ni approximately to Cd approximately to Co and a low concentration of cationic Cu eliminated enrichment of weakly binding trace metal cations. The polyacrylamide gels also had an affinity for fulvic acid and/or its trace metal complexes. Enrichment of cationic Cd in agarose gel and hydrophilic polyethersulfone filter was independent of concentration (10 nM to 5 microM) but decreased with increasing Ca/ Mg concentration and ionic strength, suggesting that it is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. However, Cu and Pb were enriched even after equilibration in seawater, indicating that these metals additionally bind to sites within the agarose gel and filter. Compared to the polyacrylamide gels, agarose gel had a lower affinity for metal-fulvic complexes. Potential biases in measurements made with the diffusive equilibration in thin-films (DET) technique, identified by this work, are discussed.

  17. Comparing dissolved reactive phosphorus measured by DGT with ferrihydrite and titanium dioxide adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Bennett, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Two adsorbents (Metsorb and ferrihydrite) used in binding layers with the diffusive gradients in a thin film technique were evaluated for the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorous (DRP) in synthetic and natural waters. Possible interferences were investigated with Cl- (up to 1.35molL-1) a...

  18. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  19. Electrochemical studies, in-situ and ex-situ characterizations of different manganese compounds electrodeposited in aerated solutions; Etudes electrochimiques, suivis in-situ et caracterisations ex-situ de divers composes de manganese electrodeposes dans des solutions aerees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peulon, S.; Lacroix, A.; Chausse, A. [Univ. d' Evry-val-d' Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modelisation pour la Biologie et l' Environnement (LAMBE CNRS UMR 8587), 91 - Evry (France); Larabi-Gruet, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with the electrodeposition of manganese compounds. A systematic study of the synthesis experimental conditions has been carried out, and the obtained depositions have been characterized by different ex-situ analyses methods (XRD, FTIR, SEM). The in-situ measurements of mass increase with a quartz microbalance during the syntheses have allowed to estimate the growth mechanisms which are in agreement with the ex-situ characterizations. The cation has an important role in the nature of the electrodeposited compounds. In presence of sodium, a mixed lamellar compound Mn(III)/Mn(IV), the birnessite, is deposited, whereas in presence of potassium, bixbyite is formed (Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}), these two compounds having a main role in the environment. The substrate can also influence the nature of the formed intermediary compounds. Little studied compounds such as feitkneichtite ({beta}-MnOOH) and groutite ({alpha}-MnOOH) have been revealed. (O.M.)

  20. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin; Ottow, Kim Ekelund

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were...... was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield...... in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique to improve overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome...

  1. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  2. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, Celia V.; Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  3. In situ protocol for butterfly pupal wings using riboprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Diane; Monteiro, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    Here we present, in video format, a protocol for in situ hybridizations in pupal wings of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana using riboprobes. In situ hybridizations, a mainstay of developmental biology, are useful to study the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in developing tissues at the level of transcription. If antibodies that target the protein products of gene transcription have not yet been developed, and/or there are multiple gene copies of a particular protein in the genome that cannot be differentiated using available antibodies, in situs can be used instead. While an in situ technique for larval wing discs has been available to the butterfly community for several years, the current protocol has been optimized for the larger and more fragile pupal wings.

  4. Applications of in situ hybridization to plant-improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful method for characteristic alien addition and substitution lines. RFLP analysis can identify the presence of a particular individual chromosome, but whether they are as a pair or as a single chromosome cannot be determined. In situ hybridization has become established as an essential method in cell and molecular biology. It is able to link DNA sequences with their organization and physical position. The rate of technology-development in the field of in situ hybridization has been rapid: radioactive probes are now rarely used, while labeling methods, fluorochromes, chromosomes and tissue-preparation methods, microscope and imaging technology have all useful in functional genomics and localization of transgenes on the chromosomes. (author)

  5. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G

    2002-01-01

    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  6. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  7. In situ deposition of thallium-containing oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The number and variety of thallium based materials that can be made by in situ methods have grown consistently since the first report of successful thallium cuprate deposition by Face and Nestlerode in 1992. Processes for the deposition of superconductors, normal metals, and insulators have been developed. Most work to date has been done on the Tl-1212 phases, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 and (Tl,Pb)Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 7 . Recently however, the in situ thallium technique has been extended to other materials. For example, epitaxial thin films of thallium tantalate, an insulator of the pyrochlore structure and a potential buffer layer for thallium cuprate films, have been grown. Multilayers, important in the fabrication of Josephson junctions, have been demonstrated with the thallium lead cuprates. This paper reviews progress in the area of in situ thallium deposition technology which will make more complex thallium cuprate multilayer structures and devices possible

  8. In Situ Atom Probe Deintercalation of Lithium-Manganese-Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Björn; Maier, Johannes; Arlt, Jonas; Nowak, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Atom probe tomography is routinely used for the characterization of materials microstructures, usually assuming that the microstructure is unaltered by the analysis. When analyzing ionic conductors, however, gradients in the chemical potential and the electric field penetrating dielectric atom probe specimens can cause significant ionic mobility. Although ionic mobility is undesirable when aiming for materials characterization, it offers a strategy to manipulate materials directly in situ in the atom probe. Here, we present experimental results on the analysis of the ionic conductor lithium-manganese-oxide with different atom probe techniques. We demonstrate that, at a temperature of 30 K, characterization of the materials microstructure is possible without measurable Li mobility. Also, we show that at 298 K the material can be deintercalated, in situ in the atom probe, without changing the manganese-oxide host structure. Combining in situ atom probe deintercalation and subsequent conventional characterization, we demonstrate a new methodological approach to study ionic conductors even in early stages of deintercalation.

  9. Polluted soils with heavy metals. Stabilization by magnesium oxide. Ex-situ and in-situ testings; Suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Estabilizacion con oxido de magnesio. Ensayos ex situ-in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenoz, S.; Hernandez, J.; Gangutia, N.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the use of Low-Grade MgO as a stabiliser agent for polluted soil reclaim. Low-Grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilisation of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The effectiveness of Low-Grade MgO has been studied in three ex-situ stabilisation of heavily polluted soils contaminated by the flue-dust of pyrite roasting. LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir guaranteeing long-term stabilisation without varying the pH conditions. The success of the ex-situ stabilisation was corroborated with the analysis of heavy metals in the leachates collected from the landfill o ver a long period of time. The study also includes the results obtained in an in-situ pilot scale stabilisation of contaminated soil. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. Master of Puppets: Cooperative Multitasking for In Situ Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific and engineering simulations track the time evolution of billions of elements. For such large runs, storing most time steps for later analysis is not a viable strategy. It is far more efficient to analyze the simulation data while it is still in memory. Here, we present a novel design for running multiple codes in situ: using coroutines and position-independent executables we enable cooperative multitasking between simulation and analysis, allowing the same executables to post-process simulation output, as well as to process it on the fly, both in situ and in transit. We present Henson, an implementation of our design, and illustrate its versatility by tackling analysis tasks with different computational requirements. This design differs significantly from the existing frameworks and offers an efficient and robust approach to integrating multiple codes on modern supercomputers. The techniques we present can also be integrated into other in situ frameworks.

  11. Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina is currently testing the feasibility of developing an in situ cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system. Sintered metal filters are being tested for regenerability or cleanability in simulated conditions found in a high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system. The filters are being challenged using materials found in HLW tanks. HLW simulated salt, HLW simulated sludge and South Carolina road dust. Various cleaning solutions have been used to clean the filters in situ. The tanks are equipped with a ventilation system to maintain the tank contents at negative pressure to prevent the release of radioactive material to the environment. This system is equipped with conventional disposable glass-fiber HEPA filter cartridges. Removal and disposal of these filters is not only costly, but subjects site personnel to radiation exposure and possible contamination. A test apparatus was designed to simulate the ventilation system of a HLW tank with an in situ cleaning system. Test results indicate that the Mott sintered metal HEPA filter is suitable as an in situ cleanable or regenerable HEPA filter. Data indicates that high humidity or water did not effect the filter performance and the sintered metal HEPA filter was easily cleaned numerous times back to new filter performance by an in situ spray system. The test apparatus allows the cleaning of the soiled HEPA filters to be accomplished without removing the filters from process. This innovative system would eliminate personnel radiation exposure associated with removal of contaminated filters and the high costs of filter replacement and disposal. The results of these investigations indicate that an in situ cleanable HEPA filter system for radioactive and commercial use could be developed and manufactured

  12. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P. [CNRS - UPR3079 CEMHTI, Universite d' Orleans, 45071Orleans cedex 2 (France); Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jegou, C.; Magnin, M. [CEA/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Marcoule 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N. [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  13. Nuclear waste management by in-situ melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the in-situ melting concept as an ultimate waste disposal option shows that the placement of solidifed, high-level radioactive wastes in an in-situ melting cavity with a crushed rock backfill not only eliminates the major deficiencies inherent in other in-situ melting schemes, but also satisfies reasonable criteria for ultimate disposal. In-situ melting reduces the waste isolation time requirements to several hundred years. Calculated spent fuel and processing waste afterheat values assess the role of actinide and cladding material nuclides in creating the total afterheat and provide quantitative variation with time for these values for contamporary and advanced-design fission reactors. The dominant roles of 134 Cs in thermal spectrum reactor afterheats during the first decade of cooling of the actinide nuclides in all typical waste after-heats following a century or two of cooling are identified. The spatial and temporal behavior of a spherically symmetric waste repository experiencing in-situ melting in an equal density, homogeneous medium for silicate rock and salt is controlled primarily by the overall volumetric thermal source strength, the time-dependent characteristics of the high-level wastes, and the thermophysical properties of the surrounding rock environment. Calculations were verified by experimental data. The hazard index for typical high-level wastes is dominated by the fission product nuclides for the first three centuries of decay. It is then controlled by the actinides, especially americium, which dominates for 10,000 years. With in-situ melting, the hazard index for the re-solidifed rock/waste matrix deepunderground falls below the hazard index of naturally occurring uranium ore bodies within a few hundred years, whether or not the more hazardous actinide nuclides are selectively removed from the wastes prior to storage

  14. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  15. Progress and applications of in situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongming; Liu Jialong; Song Yuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that the development of advanced in situ TEM techniques makes it possible to investigate the evolution of materials under heat, strain, magnetic field, electric field or chemical reaction environments on the atomic scale. The mechanism of the microstructure evolution under various conditions and the relationship between the atomic structures and their properties can be obtained, which is beneficial for the design of new materials with tailored properties. The clarification of the structure-property relationship will help to develop new materials and solve related basic problems in the field of condensed matter physics. (authors)

  16. In situ observation techniques of protective oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takashi; Adachi, Takeharu; Usuki, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In situ analyzing techniques for investigating a surface and interface change during corrosion and oxidation of metals by using Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are present. The Raman spectra revealed that a crystal structure and distribution of corrosion products varied during corrosion progress at elevated temperature and high pressure electrolyte. Time dependent XRD measurements made clear the behavior of the electrochemical reduction of a rust and the iso thermal transformation of a scale on a steel. It was demonstrated that XPS was capable of the in-situ measurements for initial stage of high temperature oxidation. (author)

  17. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  18. In situ lake pollutant survey using prompt-gamma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunnhsing Chao; Chien Chung

    1991-01-01

    An aluminium-made neutron-gamma probe, consisting of a 1.5 μg 252 Cf neutron source and a high purity germanium detector, was mounted on a mobile floating platform to survey chlorine pollutant concentration in lake water in situ. Laboratory tests for determining the probe operating depth and in situ field trials of a polluted lake were conducted; evaluation of radiation exposure to workers on board was carried out. The polluted chlorine concentration in lake water was found to be 86 ppm, with minimal radiation exposure for the operating crew on board. (author)

  19. Cell In Situ Zymography: Imaging Enzyme-Substrate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Aastha; Rani, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    Zymography has long been used for the detection of substrate-specific enzyme activity. In situ zymography (ISZ), an adaptation from the conventional substrate zymography, is a widely employed technique useful for the detection, localization, and estimation of enzyme-substrate interactions in tissues. Here, we describe a protocol to detect 'in position' matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in cells utilizing H9c2 cardiomyoblasts as a model. This technique is primarily adopted from the method used for histological sections and is termed as 'Cell in situ Zymography'. It is a simple, sensitive, and quantifiable methodology to assess the functional activity of an enzyme 'on site/in position' in cell culture.

  20. In situ remediation integrated program: Success through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP), managed under the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, focuses research and development efforts on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. As described here, specific ISR IP projects are advancing the application of in situ technologies to the demonstration point, providing developed technologies to customers within DOE. The ISR IP has also taken a lead role in assessing and supporting innovative technologies that may have application to DOE

  1. Portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping; Shen Tingyun

    2000-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  2. In SITU Transmission Electron Microscopy on Operating Electrochemical CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide cells (SOC) have the potential of playing a significant role in the future efficient energy system scenario. In order to become widely commercially available, an improved performance and durability of the cells has to be achieved [1]. Conventional scanning and transmission SEM and TEM...... have been often used for ex-situ post mortem characterization of SOFCs and SOECs [2,3]. However, in order to get fundamental insight of the microstructural development of SOFC/SOEC during operation conditions in situ studies are necessary [4]....

  3. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Analysis of in situ stress at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.J.; Holland, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed to initialize far-field finite element models such that the measured in situ stress state appears to be reproduced well. The method includes use of the mechanical stratigraphy, mechanical effect of pore pressure, gravity loading, a horizontal ''tectonic'' component of stress, and use of a jointed rock model to calculate the mechanical response. Topographic effects and effects related to the vertical variation in mechanical properties are predicted for repository depths (∼ 300 m). Gravity loading with a small horizontal compression is used to calculate a minimum horizontal stress similar in magnitude to that measured in situ. 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  6. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  7. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ heating of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for IITRI Project C06787 entitled open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Heating of Soilclose quotes. A work plan for the above mentioned work was previously submitted. This QAPP describes the sampling and analysis of soil core-samples obtained from the K-25 Site (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where an in-situ heating and soil decontamination demonstration experiment will be performed. Soil samples taken before and after the experiment will be analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds. The Work Plan mentioned above provides a complete description of the demonstration site, the soil sampling plan, test plan, etc

  8. Contribution of fluorescence in situ hybridization to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine-Durm, I.; Roy, L.; Durand, V.; Voisin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome specific DNA probes for human chromosomes 2, 4 and 12 an α-satellite centromeric DNA probe labelled with biotin were used to measure symmetrical and terminal translocations (dose rate 0.5 Gy/min) and dicentrics (0.1 Gy/min) induced in vitro by 60 Co γ-irradiation (0-5 Gy). The suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique for dicentrics detection is compared with the conventional technique. Dose-response curves for γ-rays ( 60 Co) for two dose rates are shown (dicentrics and translocations). (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  9. Electrochemical studies, in-situ and ex-situ characterizations of different manganese compounds electrodeposited in aerated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Lacroix, A.; Chausse, A.; Larabi-Gruet, N.

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the electrodeposition of manganese compounds. A systematic study of the synthesis experimental conditions has been carried out, and the obtained depositions have been characterized by different ex-situ analyses methods (XRD, FTIR, SEM). The in-situ measurements of mass increase with a quartz microbalance during the syntheses have allowed to estimate the growth mechanisms which are in agreement with the ex-situ characterizations. The cation has an important role in the nature of the electrodeposited compounds. In presence of sodium, a mixed lamellar compound Mn(III)/Mn(IV), the birnessite, is deposited, whereas in presence of potassium, bixbyite is formed (Mn 2 O 3 ), these two compounds having a main role in the environment. The substrate can also influence the nature of the formed intermediary compounds. Little studied compounds such as feitkneichtite (β-MnOOH) and groutite (α-MnOOH) have been revealed. (O.M.)

  10. Comparison of in Situ and ex Situ Methods for Synthesis of Two-Photon Polymerization Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchuan Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports about nanocomposites, which refractive index is tuned by adding TiO2 nanoparticles. We compare in situ/ex situ preparation of nanocomposites. Preparation procedure is described, properties of nanocomposites are compared, and especially we examine the applicability of two-photon polymerization (2PP of synthesized nanocomposites. All prepared samples exhibit suitable optical transparency at specific laser wavelengths. Three-dimensional structures were generated by means of two-photon polymerization effect induced by a femtosecond laser.

  11. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  12. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric

  14. Repurposing CRISPR/Cas9 for in situ functional assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, Abba; Mills, John R; Cencic, Regina; Yan, Yifei; Fraser, James; Schippers, Laura M; Paquet, Marilène; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    RNAi combined with next-generation sequencing has proven to be a powerful and cost-effective genetic screening platform in mammalian cells. Still, this technology has its limitations and is incompatible with in situ mutagenesis screens on a genome-wide scale. Using p53 as a proof-of-principle

  15. Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), High Level Waste Division, Tanks Focus Area, and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have been investigating high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters which can be regenerated or cleaned in situ as an alternative to conventional disposable HEPA filters. This technical report documents concerns pertaining to conventional HEPA filters

  16. In-Situ Determination Of Actual Evapotranspiration Using Zero Flux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method of determining in-situ actual evapotranspiration using water balance method in the case of maize crop grown for two seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure in a non-saturated soil condition. The crop was ...

  17. Needs of in-situ materials testing under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Hishinuma, A.; Kiuchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    Under neutron irradiation, the component atoms of materials are displaced as primary knock-on atoms, and the energy of the primary knock-on atoms is consumed by electron excitation and nuclear collision. Elementary irradiation defects accumulate to form damage structure including voids and bubbles. In situ test under neutron irradiation is necessary for investigating into the effect of irradiation on creep behavior, the electric properties of ceramics, transport phenomena and so on. The in situ test is also important to investigate into the phenomena related to the chemical reaction with environment during irradiation. Accelerator type high energy neutron sources are preferable to fission reactors. In this paper, the needs and the research items of in situ test under neutron irradiation using a D-Li stripping type high energy neutron source on metallic and ceramic materials are described. Creep behavior is one of the most important mechanical properties, and depends strongly on irradiation environment, also it is closely related to microstructure. Irradiation affects the electric conductibity of ceramics and also their creep behavior. In this way, in situ test is necessary. (K.I.)

  18. Oxygen-free in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy under full electrochemical potential control (in situ STM) has been used extensively as an efficient method to characterize microstructures at solid/liquid interfaces at the atomic and molecular levels. However, under ambient conditions oxygen may interfere in open i...

  19. Simulation of salt behavior using in situ response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent nonlinear structural behavior in a salt formation around the openings can be obtained by either performing computational analysis of measuring in situ responses. However, analysis using laboratory test data may often deviate from the actual in situ conditions and geomechanical instruments can provide information only up to the time when the measurements were taken. A method has been suggested for simulating the salt behavior by utilizing the steady-state portion of in situ response history. Governing equations for computational analysis were normalized to the creep constant, the equations were solved, and the analytical response history was then computed in terms of normalized time. By synchronizing the response history obtained from the analysis to the one measured at the site, the creep constant was determined. Then the structural response of the salt was computed. This paper presents an improved method for simulating the salt behavior. In this method, the governing equations are normalized to the creep function, which represents the transient and the steady-state creep behavior. Both the transient and the steady-state portions of in situ response history are used in determining the creep function. Finally, a nonlinear mapping process relating the normalized and real time domains determines the behavior of the salt

  20. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  1. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Of the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li The work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and

  2. In situ studies of NO reduction by H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, S. B.; Onderwaater, W. G.; van Spronsen, M. A.; Carla, F; Balmes, O; Navarro-Paredes, V; Vendelbo, S.B.; Kooyman, P.J.; Elkjær, C. F.; Helveg, S; Felici, R; Frenken, J. W.M.; Groot, I.M.N.

    2017-01-01

    In situ surface X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy at 1 bar show massive material transport of platinum during high-temperature NO reduction with H2. A Pt(110) single-crystal surface shows a wide variety of surface reconstructions and extensive faceting of the

  3. Designing in situ simulation in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Krogh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Baggrund: Dette interventionsstudie har til formål at forbedre patientsikkerheden gennem design af in situ simulation. Undersøgelsen fandt sted på en akut medicinsk stue i den centrale region i Danmark. Forskning tyder på, at mangelfuld handover kommunikation kan øge sandsynligheden for kritiske ...

  4. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

  5. In-situ thermeolectric stabilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Current analysis indicates that in situ vitrification is applicable to many wastes and soil types at a cost an order of magnitude less than exhumation, processing, and transportation to a deep geological disposal site. Once the waste materials have been solidified, future ground subsidence, wind erosion and plant or animal intrusion are virtually eliminated. Furthermore, the waste form is extremely durable

  6. In-Situ Investigation of Local Boundary Migration During Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andy; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    A combination of electron channeling contrast (ECC) and electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) techniques has been used to follow in situ the migration during annealing at 323 K (50 A degrees C) of a recrystallizing boundary through the deformed matrix of high-purity aluminum rolled to 8...

  7. In situ quantification of membrane foulant accumulation by reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Roosjen, A.; Tang, K.; Norde, W.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present laser light reflectometry [1] (not to be mistaken with ultrasound reflectometry [2] that uses ultrasound waves) as a tool for quantitative investigation of (the initial stages of) fouling on membrane-like surfaces. Reflectometry allows in situ investigation of adsorption

  8. Process for in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenscheid, W.F.; Yan, F.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to the recovery of uranium from subterranean ore deposits, and more particularly to an in-situ leaching operation employing an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide as the lixiviant. Uranium is solubilized in the lixiviant as it traverses the subterranean uranium deposit. The lixiviant is subsequently recovered and treated to remove the uranium

  9. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  10. In-situ biogas upgrading process: modeling and simulations aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H2) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H2 injection into the liquid phase of...

  11. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  12. In-situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in-situ deposition of hydroxyaptite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, trans...

  13. In situ measurements of Merensky pillar behaviour at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available to stabilize the stoping excavations. This paper describes the in situ measurement, of stress within a Merensky pillar from Impala Platinum. These measurements were used to derive a stress-strain curve that includes pre and post failure behaviour. 2D FLAC...

  14. In situ analytical techniques for battery interface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok M; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2018-02-05

    Lithium-ion batteries, simply known as lithium batteries, are distinct among high energy density charge-storage devices. The power delivery of batteries depends upon the electrochemical performances and the stability of the electrode, electrolytes and their interface. Interfacial phenomena of the electrode/electrolyte involve lithium dendrite formation, electrolyte degradation and gas evolution, and a semi-solid protective layer formation at the electrode-electrolyte interface, also known as the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). The SEI protects electrodes from further exfoliation or corrosion and suppresses lithium dendrite formation, which are crucial needs for enhancing the cell performance. This review covers the compositional, structural and morphological aspects of SEI, both artificially and naturally formed, and metallic dendrites using in situ/in operando cells and various in situ analytical tools. Critical challenges and the historical legacy in the development of in situ/in operando electrochemical cells with some reports on state-of-the-art progress are particularly highlighted. The present compilation pinpoints the emerging research opportunities in advancing this field and concludes on the future directions and strategies for in situ/in operando analysis.

  15. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  16. A microfluidic membrane chip for in situ fouling characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, I.S.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A new method for non-invasive in situ monitoring of a microfiltration process is described. In microfiltration systems, local information on the deposition characteristics can be used to determine the cake behavior during a filtration run. Typically, non-invasive methods of fouling study are

  17. In situ TEM observation of solid-gas reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishita, K; Kamino, T; Watabe, A; Kuroda, K; Saka, H

    2008-01-01

    Under a gaseous atmosphere at high temperatures, almost all the materials (metal, catalysts, etc.) change their structures and properties. For the research and development of materials, it is of vital importance to clarify mechanisms of solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions. Recently an in situ TEM system combined with an environmental holder, which has a gas injection nozzle close to a specimen-heating element, has been developed. The gas injection nozzle permits gas to flow around the specimens sitting on the heating element made of a fine W filament. The newly developed in situ TEM has a differential pumping system; therefore, the pressure in the specimen chamber is maintained in the range of higher than 1 Pa, while the pressure in the electron gun chamber can be kept in the range of 10 -5 Pa. This system was applied to in situ observation of chemical reactions of metals with gases: Observation of oxidation and reduction under a gas pressure ranging from 10 -5 Pa to 1 Pa at high temperatures (room temperature to ∼1473 K) were successfully carried out on pure metal and rare metal catalysts at near-atomic resolution. This in situ environmental TEM system is promising for clarifying mechanisms of many solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions that take place at high temperatures under a gas atmosphere.

  18. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  19. In-situ crack repair by laser cladding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding crack repair of austenitic stainless steel vessels subjected to internal water pressure was evaluated. The purpose of this investigation was to develop process parameters for in-situ repair of through-wall cracks in components...

  20. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    2001-01-01

    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-co...

  1. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  2. In situ gas treatment technology demonstration test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Miller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the objectives and requirements associated with undertaking a field demonstration of an in situ gas treatment appoach to remediation chromate-contaminated soil. The major tasks presented in this plan include the design and development of the surface gas treatment system, performance of permitting activities, and completion of site preparation and field testing activities

  3. Design of a fast in situ infrared diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hest, van M.F.A.M.; Klaver, A.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopes cannot be used to perform real time in situ IR reflection absorption spectroscopy at monolayer sensitivity for high deposition rates (a couple of tens to hundreds of nm/s) which can be obtained when using an expanding thermal deposition plasma.

  4. Light-emission from in-situ grown organic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2011-01-01

    Organic crystalline nanofibers made from phenylene-based molecules exhibit a wide range of extraordinary optical properties such as intense, anisotropic and polarized luminescence that can be stimulated either optically or electrically, waveguiding and random lasing. For lighting and display...... of morphological characterization and demonstrate how appropriate biasing with an AC gate voltage enables electroluminescence from these in-situ grown organic nanostructures....

  5. OceanSITES TAO daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from one of the flux reference mooring sites in the tropical oceans. Included in this file are sea...

  6. OceanSITES PAPA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from station Papa at 50N,145W in the North Pacific. This taut-line mooring has been instrumented...

  7. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  8. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic est...

  9. 78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09092; NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ... October 3, 2012, AUC submitted a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The AUC License Application request and additional...

  10. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  11. In?situ permeability from integrated poroelastic reflection coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Ghose, R.; Drijkoningen, C.G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the in?situ permeability of a porous layer in the subsurface is extremely difficult to obtain. We have observed that at the field seismic frequency band the poroelastic behavior for different seismic wavetypes can differ in such a way that their combination gives unique

  12. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.; Honkamaa, T.; Niskala, P. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  13. AFM cantilever with in situ renewable mercury microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Geerlings, J.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Sarajlic, Edin

    2013-01-01

    We report here first results obtained on a novel, in situ renewable mercury microelectrode integrated into an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Our approach is based on a fountain pen probe with appropriate dimensions enabling reversible filling with(nonwetting) mercury under changing the

  14. OceanSITES KEO daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) site nominally at 32.3N,144.6E, in the Kuroshio...

  15. In situ XAS of the solvothermal decomposition of dithiocarbamate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, H.-U.; Roffey, A.; Hollingsworth, N.; Catlow, R.; Wolthers, M.; de Leeuw, N.H.; Bras, W.; Sankar, G.; Hogarth, G.

    2012-01-01

    An in situ XAS study of the solvothermal decomposition of iron and nickel dithiocarbamate complexes was performed in order to gain understanding of the decomposition mechanisms. This work has given insight into the steps involved in the decomposition, showing variation in reaction pathways between

  16. In situ study on the formation of FeTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeTe compound from a mixture of Fe and Te powders was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. FeTe does not form directly from the starting elements; instead, FeTe2 forms as an intermediate product. During a 2 °C/min heating ramp, Te first reacts...

  17. In situ research and investigations in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report explains why deep geological disposal is the most favoured option for the disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, as well as some alpha bearing wastes. It also gives an overview of the main aim and elements of in-situ research and investigation activities in OECD countries, as well as of initiatives taken at an international level

  18. Assessing soundscape: Comparison between in situ and laboratory methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermida Cadena Luis Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soundscape implies an interdisciplinary approach, where objective and subjective aspects are considered. For the subjective evaluation, in situ and laboratory methodologies are usually followed. Local observations allow the collection of information on the influence of different stimuli present in the environment, whereas laboratory tests present a determined quantity of controlled stimuli to the evaluator. The purpose of this work is to compare results from the different methodologies in order to understand their strengths and their weaknesses. Three urban parks in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, were evaluated. Fragments of binaural sound recordings collected in the parks were used in laboratory tests to compare with the responses in situ and of expert and nonexpert listeners. Statistically significant differences were found in several of the perceptual attributes under observation, which led to variation in the results of the main model’s components. The sound environments were found to be more pleasant and uneventful in situ than in the laboratory, a phenomenon possibly due to the influence of other stimuli such as visual in the process of assessment. The in situ tests allow a systemic and holistic evaluation of the environment under study,whereas the laboratory tests allow a specific and tightly targeted analysis of different component sound events. Therefore, the two methodologies can be useful in soundscape assessment depending on the specific application and needs. No differences were found in the assessment made by either experts or nonexperts.

  19. OceanSITES PIRATA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from one of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO)/TRITON, Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical...

  20. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Petridis (Christos); R.H. Brook; V. Shah (Vandna); K. Kohut (Kelly); P. Gorman (Patricia); M. Caneppele (Michele); D. Levi (Dina); E. Papouli (Efterpi); N. Orr (Nick); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Benítez (Javier); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); J. Li (Jingmei); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); P. Soucy (Penny); J. Simard (Jacques); R.L. Milne (Roger); G.G. Giles (Graham); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); T. Brüning (Thomas); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Kabisch (Maria); U. Hamann (Ute); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); L. Le Marchand (Loic); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); F. Marme (Federick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); N. Miller (Nicola); M. Kerin (Michael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); O.A.M. Floris; J. Wesseling (Jelle); H. Flyger (Henrik); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S. Yao (Song); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Guénel (Pascal); A. Rudolph (Anja); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Czene (Kamila); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); J.E. Olson (Janet); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); S. Pinder (Sarah); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); R. Roylance (Rebecca); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk

  1. In-situ testing methods using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, G.

    1976-01-01

    Some typical applications of tracer techniques in hydrology are presented: study of the extraction of sands and gravels in a estuary; in-situ study of the transport of sediments by the swell at a depth ranging from 8 to 22m; study of the transport of sands on the site Bonne Anse - Saint Palais [fr

  2. Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of Rhizophora racemosa in a Heavy Metal Polluted Mangrove Forest, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Many of these noxious substances have been noted to be removable from polluted environment through proper application of phytoremediation techniques, particularly ...

  3. In Situ Study of Noncatalytic Metal Oxide Nanowire Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Jiang, Hua; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    a catalyst is still widely disputed and unclear. Here, we show that the nanowire growth during metal oxidation is limited by a nucleation of a new layer. On the basis of in situ transmission electron microscope investigations we found that the growth occurs layer by layer at the lowest specific surface...

  4. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M; Honkamaa, T; Niskala, P [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  5. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology

  6. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology.

  7. In situ detection of horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, Tove

    2002-01-01

    . The obtained data show that the several different types of fluorescent reporters, which are now available, allow more informative in situ investigations of horizontal gene transfer to be carried out, and by combining these genes with various expression systems it is possible to simultaneously monitor donor...

  8. IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-situ Fenton oxidation (ISFO) is a rapidly emerging technology which involves the injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other chemical reagents into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing and transforming contaminants. ISFO is being applied at an increasing number of ...

  9. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  10. Assessment of microbial in situ activity in contaminated aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, A.; Nijenhuis, I.; Stelzer, N.; Bombach, P.; Richnow, H.H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Isotopenbiogeochemie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Geyer, R. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Umweltmikrobiologie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Tebbe, C.C. [Institut fuer Agraroekologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Microbial ecologists and environmental engineers share the interest in identifying the key microorganisms responsible for compound turnover in the environment and in estimating the respective transformation rates. For the successful application of Natural Attenuation processes, a reliable assessment of the in situ turnover of a contaminant in an aquifer is essential. Here, we review and present new details of two recently developed approaches concerning the assessment of in situ biodegradation: (i) determination of biodegradation caused by microbial metabolism in a contamination plume by stable isotope fractionation analysis (SIFA) and (ii) determination of the actual degradation under the respective environmental conditions in the aquifer by using in situ microcosms (BACTRAPS registered) amended with {sup 13}C-labeled substrates as tracer compounds. Based on stable isotope fractionation analysis, the degradation occurring under anoxic biogeochemical conditions at a respective site can be calculated for the entire plume. This has been shown for benzene and toluene at the Zeitz site and partly for chlorobenzene at the Bitterfeld site. By use of the in situ microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds, the microbial in situ degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions could be proven for benzene and toluene in Zeitz and for chlorobenzene in Bitterfeld. The transformation of {sup 13}C-carbon of the labeled substrate into microbial fatty acids confirmed the assimilation of the pollutant resulting in the formation of biomass. In addition, metabolites such as benzylsuccinic acid were found in the toluene-amended microcosms indicating anaerobic degradation of toluene. This result corresponds to the geochemical conditions found at the field site and therefore, the microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds can be used to assign the predominant in situ degradation pathways in a contaminated aquifer. Since fatty acids profiles alone are often too

  11. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years

  12. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 ± 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated ∼75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 ± 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  13. Groundwater restoration with in situ uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In situ leach mining of uranium has developed into a major mining technology. Since 1975, when the first commercial mine was licensed in the United States, the percentage or uranium produced by in situ mining has steadily grown from 0.6 to 10 percent in 1980. Part of the reason for this growth is that in situ mining offers less initial capital investment, shorter start-up times, greater safety, and less labor than conventional mining methods. There is little disturbance of the surface terrain or surface waters, no mill tailings piles, and no large open pits, but in situ leaching mining does have environmental disadvantages. During the mining, large amounts of ground water are cirulated and there is some withdrawal from an area where aquifers constitute a major portion of the water supply for other purposes. When an ammonia-based leach system is used, the ammonium ion is introduced into an area where cation exchange on clays (and some production of nitrate) may occur. Also, injection of an oxidant with the leach solution causes valence and phase changes of indigenous elements such as As, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, S, and V as well as U. Furthermore, the surrounding ground water can become contaminated by escape of the leach solution from the mining zone. This chapter presents an overview of the in situ mining technology, including uranium deposition, mining techniques, and ground water restoration alternatives. The latter part of the chapter covers the situation in South Texas. Economics and development of the industry, groundwater resources, regulation, and restoration activities are also reviewed

  14. Testing of in situ and ex situ bioremediation approaches for an oil-contaminated peat bog following a pipeline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.J.; Lee, D.W.; Yeske, B.M.; Kuipers, F.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a 1985 pipeline spill of light Pembina Cardium crude oil at a bog near Violet Grove, Alberta was discussed. Pembina Pipeline Corporation arranged for a treatability test to be conducted on oil-contaminated sphagnum peat moss from the site to determine effective in situ or ex situ remediation options for the site. The test was used to evaluate the biodegradation potential of contaminants. Four tests were designed to simulate field different field treatment approaches and to collect critical data on toxicity and leachability of the peat moss. The tests included a bioslurry test, a soil microcosm test, an aerated water saturated peat column test, and a standard toxicity characteristic leachate potential test. The first three tests gave similar results of at least 74 per cent biodegradation of the residual crude oil on the peat solids and no residual toxicity as measured by the Microtox Assay. It was determined that both in situ bioremediation using an aerated water injection system or an ex situ landfarming approach would achieve required criteria and no fertilizers would be necessary to maintain active bioremediation. The new gas-liquid reactor (GLR) aeration technology used in these tests creates a constant supply of hyperoxygenated water prior to column injection. The continuous release of tiny air bubbles maximizes air surface area and increases the gas transfer rates. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  16. Tomato genome mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridisation = Kartering van het tomatengenoom met behulp van fluorescentie in situ hybridisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, X.B.

    1998-01-01

    The general introduction reviews the progress in tomato genome mapping using classical genetics, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics, emphasising the great potential of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques.

    Chapter 2 describes how to

  17. Application of hydraulic fracturing to determine virgin in situ stress state around Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out in horizontal drillholes in rock salt in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. It was determined that the virgin in situ stress field is isotropic or nearly isotropic. The inferred magnitude of the isotropic in situ stress falls between bounds of 14.28 MPa and 17.9 MPa for the average breakdown/reopening pressures and driving pressures. The best estimate from instantaneous shut-in pressures is 16.61 MPa. Given some uncertainties about the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in salt, all of the foregoing values are in acceptable agreement with an average calculated isotropic in situ stress of 14.9 MPa at an average depth of 657 m below surface. Interpretations of breakdown and reopening pressures are based on finite element analyses of the relaxed stress field around a borehole in salt. This stress field varies little between approximately 50 and 200 days after drilling. The finite element analyses were also used to interpret the observed stable pressure-time signatures with little or no pressure drops during primary breakdown of the salt formation. The conclusion about the isotropic nature of the virgin in situ stress field is supported by observations of the induced fracture patterns. The report includes a comparison of the hydrofrac data in the WIPP with the published results of hydraulic fracturing tests in salt at three other locations. 75 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Development of In Situ Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Techniques: Application to Lithium Intercalation Reactions in Electrode Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frech, Roger

    2007-01-01

    .... The transition between LiFePO4 and FePO4 could easily be followed in the in situ spectra. An industrially available coin cell was modified to facilitate routine in situ Raman measurements of lithium batteries...

  19. Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions on phthalocyanine modified electrodes: Electrochemical, in situ spectroelectrochemical, and in situ electrocolorimetric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif, E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Kalkan, Ayfer; Bayir, Zehra Altuntas [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical characterizations of the metallophthalocyanines were performed. > The presence of O{sub 2} influences both oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical behaviors of the complexes. > Homogeneous catalytic ORR process occurs via an 'inner sphere' chemical catalysis process. > CoPc and CuPc coated on a glassy carbon electrode decrease the overpotential of the working electrode for H{sup +} reduction. - Abstract: This study describes electrochemical, in situ spectroelectrochemical, and in situ electrocolorimetric monitoring of the electrocatalytic reduction of molecular oxygen and hydronium ion on the phthalocyanine-modified electrodes. For this purpose, electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical characterizations of the metallophthalocyanines (MPc) bearing tetrakis-[4-((4'-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenoxy] groups were performed. While CoPc gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, H{sub 2}Pc, ZnPc and CuPc show only ring-based electron transfer processes. In situ electrocolorimetric method was applied to investigate the color of the electrogenerated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes. The presence of O{sub 2} in the electrolyte system influences both oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical and spectral behaviors of the complexes, which indicate electrocatalytic activity of the complexes for the oxygen reduction reaction. Perchloric acid titrations monitored by voltammetry represent possible electrocatalytic activities of the complexes for hydrogen evolution reaction. CoPc and CuPc coated on a glassy carbon electrode decrease the overpotential of the working electrode for H{sup +} reduction. The nature of the metal center changes the electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction in aqueous solution. Although CuPc has an inactive metal center, its electrocatalytic activity is recorded more than CoPc for H{sup +} reduction in aqueous

  20. Cost accounting method for in-situ leaching mines and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zongfang; Yang Yihan; Liu Zhanxiang; Lai Yongchun

    2008-01-01

    Cost structures and accounting method for in-situ leaching mines are studied according to the technical characteeristics of in-situ leaching. A method of cost forecast for in-situ leaching deposit or mine area is presented, and the application of this method is illustrated with examples. (authors)

  1. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  2. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ physical/chemical treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites: Applicability, developing status, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Gates, D.D.; West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Webb, O.F.; Corder, S.L.; Dickerson, K.S.

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established in June 1991 to facilitate the development and implementation of in situ remediation technologies for environmental restoration within the DOE complex. Within the ISR IP, four subareas of research have been identified: (1) in situ containment, (2) in situ physical/chemical treatment (ISPCT), (3) in situ bioremediation, and (4) subsurface manipulation/electrokinetics. Although set out as individual focus areas, these four are interrelated, and successful developments in one will often necessitate successful developments in another. In situ remediation technologies are increasingly being sought for environmental restoration due to the potential advantages that in situ technologies can offer as opposed to more traditional ex situ technologies. These advantages include limited site disruption, lower cost, reduced worker exposure, and treatment at depth under structures. While in situ remediation technologies can offer great advantages, many technology gaps exist in their application. This document presents an overview of ISPCT technologies and describes their applicability to DOE-complex needs, their development status, and relevant ongoing research. It also highlights research needs that the ISR IP should consider when making funding decisions

  3. In situ transmission electron microscopy for magnetic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2016-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a subject of great interest because of both application and fundamental aspects in which understanding of the physical and electromagnetic structure of magnetic nanostructures is essential to explore the magnetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool...... that allows understanding of both physical structure and micromagnetic structure of the thin samples at nanoscale. Among TEM techniques, in situ TEM is the state-of-the-art approach for imaging such structures in dynamic experiments, reconstructing a real-time nanoscale picture of the properties......-structure correlation. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing in situ TEM magnetic imaging studies, including Lorentz microscopy and electron holography in TEM, applied to the research of magnetic nanostructures....

  4. MR angiography of in situ and transplanted renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Bakke, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) was performed in 34 patients with suspected renal artery disease. In situ (i.e., nontransplanted) renal arteries were studied with MRA in 14 patients. Of these, 12 had conventional angiography for comparison. Twenty-four MRAs of transplanted renal arteries were obtained in 20 patients; 8 of these had angiography as well. Significant stenoses of in situ renal arteries were diagnosed with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95%. The stenoses were all proximal; 3D TOF MRA proved inadequate for depiction of peripheral renal arteries. MRA and angiography showed good agreement between findings in 7 of 8 patients with renal transplants. In one patient with a renal transplant, MRA showed a significant stenosis of the arterial anastomosis which appeared completely normal at i.a. DSA, indicating that findings at MRA still need to be confirmed by more established alternative methods. (orig.)

  5. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  6. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...... evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were...

  7. Groundwater restoration of in-situ uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In-situ leaching is a relatively new uranium production technology that is expected to account for a growing share of future output. Depending upon the leaching solution used, the process may have considerable impact on the ground water. Since restoration of ground water quality is required in most countries and since this restoration is by far the most costly aspect of reclamation of an in-situ mine, it is necessary to utilize a process that lends itself both to the efficiency of the leaching process and the restoration process. This article examines a number of techniques that may be used in the restoration efforts. These include: (1) groundwater sweep, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) chemical restoration, and (4) electrodialysis. The article also discusses disposal of the excess fluids used in the restoration process

  8. OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-07

    We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.

  9. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  10. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  11. Treatment of hazardous metals by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Buelt, J.L.

    1989-02-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous metals are a significant problem to many Defense Program sites. Contaminated soils have ranked high in assessments of research and development needs conducted by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) in FY 1988 and FY 1989. In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology suitable for stabilizing soils contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous materials. Since ISV treats the material in place, it avoids costly and hazardous preprocessing exhumation of waste. In situ vitrification was originally developed for immobilizing radioactive (primarily transuranic) soil constituents. Tests indicate that it is highly useful also for treating other soil contaminants, including hazardous metals. The ISV process produces an environmentally acceptable, highly durable glasslike product. In addition, ISV includes an efficient off-gas treatment system that eliminates noxious gaseous emissions and generates minimal hazardous byproducts. This document reviews the Technical Basis of this technology. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. First use of in situ vitrification on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlds, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-temperature method for containing hazardous wastes, which was first developed in the 1980s, is being adapted for the in situ treatment of buried radioactive wastes by the US DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), following its recent report on successful preliminary tests. The method, called in situ vitrification (ISV), is an electrically induced thermal process that melts and fuses soil and wastes into a glass-like material at least as strong as natural obsidian or granite. Gases released during the process are captured and treated by an off-gas treatment system. After the wastes are vitrified, they could be left in place, or the mass could be broken up and transported to a disposal site. The glass-like substance would be chemically and physically similar to obsidian and from 4 to 10 times more durable than typical borosilicate glasses used to immobolize high-level nuclear wastes

  13. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here......, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed...... along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...

  14. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    The assessment indicates that there do not appear to be any significant demonstrated negative environmental impacts. Moreover, the impacts of in situ mining compare favorably with those impacts expected from conventional mining techniques. Exposure to radioactive elements is less, atmospheric emissions of radioactive and nonradioactive materials are generally less and socioeconomic impacts are decreased. In fact, because of the generally small and unskilled labor forces associated with in-situ mining, development has provided much needed economic stimulus to economically depressed areas of Texas. There are still, however, several areas of unknowns and several areas of inadequate information that will need to be addressed before a complete quantification evaluation of impacts can be made. These areas include levels of radon emissions and groundwater restoration methods and impacts. Several issues mostly relating to the interaction of industry with state and Federal regulators need to be addressed

  15. Geothermal in situ experiments in the Asse salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.; Jung, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents design and results of in situ experiments carried out by the Bundesanstat fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, F.R. of Germany) in the Asse salt-mine. With reference to model calculations of the temperature field which is produced in salt formations by radioactive waste, temperature measurements in the area of electrical heating elements and in situ measurements of thermal conductivity have been performed. The measured temperatures are in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Preliminary results of the thermal conductivity measurements correspond with the data of single NaCl crystals published by Birch and Clark. At present a heating experiment is being conducted in the Asse mine to investigate thermo-mechanical effects of a cylindrical heat source upon the surrounding rock salt. Possible thermal induced fractures monitored by permeability changes and seismoacoustical phenomena are the main objects of this experiment

  16. Development of in-situ visualization tool for PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Nobuaki; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    As the capability of a supercomputer is improved, the sizes of simulation and its output data also become larger and larger. Visualization is usually carried out on a researcher's PC with interactive visualization software after performing the computer simulation. However, the data size is becoming too large to do it currently. A promising answer is in-situ visualization. For this case a simulation code is coupled with the visualization code and visualization is performed with the simulation on the same supercomputer. We developed an in-situ visualization tool for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and it is provided as a Fortran's module. We coupled it with a PIC simulation code and tested the coupled code on Plasma Simulator supercomputer, and ensured that it works. (author)

  17. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength

  18. High Throughput In Situ XAFS Screening of Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Beesley, Angela M.; Weiher, Norbert; Tatton, Helen; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Dent, Andy J.; Mosselmans, Frederick J. W.; Tromp, Moniek; Russu, Sergio; Evans, John; Harvey, Ian; Hayama, Shu

    2007-01-01

    We outline and demonstrate the feasibility of high-throughput (HT) in situ XAFS for synchrotron radiation studies. An XAS data acquisition and control system for the analysis of dynamic materials libraries under control of temperature and gaseous environments has been developed. The system is compatible with the 96-well industry standard and coupled to multi-stream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) analysis of reactor effluents. An automated analytical workflow generates data quickly compared to traditional individual spectrum acquisition and analyses them in quasi-real time using an HT data analysis tool based on IFFEFIT. The system was used for the automated characterization of a library of 91 catalyst precursors containing ternary combinations of Cu, Pt, and Au on γ-Al2O3, and for the in situ characterization of Au catalysts supported on Al2O3 and TiO2

  19. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  20. In situ nanocalorimetry of thin glassy organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gutierrez, E.; Garcia, G.; Lopeandía, A. F.; Fraxedas, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we describe the design and first experimental results of a new setup that combines evaporation of liquids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with in situ high sensitivity thermal characterization of thin films. Organic compounds are deposited from the vapor directly onto a liquid nitrogen cooled substrate, permitting the preparation and characterization of glassy films. The substrate consists of a microfabricated, membrane-based nanocalorimeter that permits in situ measurements of heat capacity under ultrafast heating rates (up to 105 K/s) in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Three glass forming liquids—toluene, methanol, and acetic acid—are characterized. The spikes in heat capacity related to the glass-transition temperature, the fictive temperature and, in some cases, the onset temperature of crystallization are determined for several heating rates.