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Sample records for situ thermal napl

  1. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  2. Integrated funnel-and-gate/GZB product recovery technologies for in situ management of creosote NAPL-impacted aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.G.; Borchert, S.M.; Klingel, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ source management system was modeled and designed for the containment and recovery of creosote non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a former wood treating facility in Nashua, New Hampshire. The conceptual system was based on the integration of patented technologies for physical source containment and management (ie., funnel-and-gate technology) with patented in situ product recovery (i.e, GZB technology - described below). A funnel-and-gate physical barrier was proposed to mitigate the continued flow of NAPL into the Merrimack River. The purpose of the funnel was to divert groundwater (and potential NAPL) flow through two gate areas. Where required, an in situ system for product recovery was integrated. Mathematical modeling of the combined technologies led to the selection of a metal sheet pile barrier wall along 650 feet of the river's shoreline with the wall anchored into an underlying zone of lesser permeability. Multiple GZB wells were placed strategically within the system. This combination of technologies promised to offer a more effective, cost-efficient approach for long-term management of environmental concerns at Nashua, and related sites

  3. Preliminary analysis of NAPL behavior in soil-heated vapor extraction for in-situ environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of soil-heated vapor extraction have been performed to evaluate the NAPL removal performance as a function of borehole vacuum. The possibility of loss of NAPL containment, or NAPL migration into the unheated soil, is also evaluated in the simulations. A practical warning sign indicating migration of NAPL into the unheated zone is discussed

  4. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  5. Dual-gas tracers for subsurface characterization and NAPL detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Peurrung, L.M.; Mendoza, D.P.; Pillay, G.

    1994-11-01

    Effective design of in situ remediation technologies often requires an understanding of the mass transfer limitations that control the removal of contaminants from the soil. In addition, the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in soils will affect the ultimate success or failure of remediation processes. Knowing the location of NAPLs within the subsurface is critical to designing the most effective remediation approach. This work focuses on demonstrating that gas tracers can detect the location of the NAPLs in the subsurface and elucidating the mass transfer limitations associated with the removal of contaminants from soils

  6. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  7. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  8. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  9. In situ high-resolution thermal microscopy on integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Su, Hai-Ching; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chan, Ming-Che

    2017-09-04

    The miniaturization of metal tracks in integrated circuits (ICs) can cause abnormal heat dissipation, resulting in electrostatic discharge, overvoltage breakdown, and other unwanted issues. Unfortunately, locating areas of abnormal heat dissipation is limited either by the spatial resolution or imaging acquisition speed of current thermal analytical techniques. A rapid, non-contact approach to the thermal imaging of ICs with sub-μm resolution could help to alleviate this issue. In this work, based on the intensity of the temperature-dependent two-photon fluorescence (TPF) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) material, we developed a novel fast and non-invasive thermal microscopy with a sub-μm resolution. Its application to the location of hotspots that may evolve into thermally induced defects in ICs was also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present high-resolution 2D thermal microscopic images of ICs, showing the generation, propagation, and distribution of heat during its operation. According to the demonstrated results, this scheme has considerable potential for future in situ hotspot analysis during the optimization stage of IC development.

  10. In situ geochemical properties of clays subject to thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Compositional variation and geochemical environment in an argillaceous unit are a function of age, depth of burial and mode of origin. This paper considers the variation limits likely to be encountered in potential repository host rocks and examines the significance of factors such as porosity, pore-fluid pressure, total fluid content, and major and accessory mineral component behaviors in controlling the geochemical environment in the neighbourhood of a thermally active waste canister. Particular attention is paid to the use of Eh-pH diagrams in assessing corrosion environments and nuclide speciation. The paper outlines the variables which must be considered when endeavouring to interpret such plots (e.g. temperature, concentration, concurrent reactions and probabilities) and uses the behavior of various iron minerals found in clay deposits under specific conditions to illustrate the complexities. The overall thermal stability of various clay and accessory minerals is discussed and extended to attempt to predict behavior under deep repository conditions, using available data on the diagenetic characteristics of clay-rich sediments. The physical behavior of fluids in plastic clays is considered and methods evaluated for deriving induced geochemical conditions in a thermally active repository. The latter section is particularly related to canister corrosion studies, in situ experiments, and waste dissolution parameters

  11. In situ thermal properties characterization using frequential methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, O.; Defer, D.; Antczak, E.; Chauchois, A.; Duthoit, B. [Laboratoire dArtois de Mecanique Thermique Instrumentation (LAMTI), FSA Universite dArtois, Technoparc Futura, 62400 Bethune (France)

    2008-07-01

    In numerous fields, especially that of geothermal energy, we need to know about the thermal behaviour of the soil now that the monitoring of renewable forms of energy is an ecological, economic and scientific issue. Thus heat from the soil is widely used for air-conditioning systems in buildings both in Canada and in the Scandinavian countries, and it is spreading. The effectiveness of this technique is based on the soils calorific potential and its thermophysical properties which will define the quality of the exchanges between the soil and a heat transfer fluid. This article puts forward a method to be used for the in situ thermophysical characterisation of a soil. It is based upon measuring the heat exchanges on the surface of the soil and on measuring a temperature a few centimetres below the surface. The system is light, inexpensive, well-suited to the taking of measurements in situ without the sensors used introducing any disturbance into the heat exchanges. Whereas the majority of methods require excitation, the one presented here is passive and exploits natural signals. Based upon a few hours of recording, the natural signals allow us to identify the soils thermophysical properties continuously. The identification is based upon frequency methods the quality of which can be seen when the thermophysical properties are injected into a model with finite elements by means of a comparison of the temperatures modelled and those actually measured on site. (author)

  12. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Min, E-mail: cmpark80@gmail.com; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg{sup 0} gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl{sub 2(s)} completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  13. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg"0 gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl_2_(_s_) completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg"0) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  14. USING PHASE DIAGRAMS TO PREDICT THE PERFORMANCE OF COSOLVENT FLOODS FOR NAPL REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosolvent flooding using water miscible solvents such as alcohols has been proposed as an in-situ NAPL remediation technique. This process is conceptually similar to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using alcohols and some surfactant formulations. As a result of interest in the EOR ...

  15. In situ vitrification: An innovative thermal treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product. A square array of four electrodes are inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because the soil is not electrically conductive once the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes to act as the starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes, which establishes an electrical current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil up to 3600 0 F, well above the initial melting temperature or fusion temperature of soils. The normal fusion temperature of soil ranges between 2000 and 2500 0 F. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is now electrically conductive. As the vitrified zone grows, it incorporates nonvolatile elements and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. The pyrolyzed byproducts migrate to the surface of the vitrified zone, where they combust in the presence of oxygen. A hood placed over the processing area provides confinement for the combustion gases, and the gases are drawn into the off-gas treatment system

  16. Micro-scale displacement of NAPL by surfactant and microemulsion in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Gina; Arshadi, Maziar; Qin, Tianzhu; Goual, Lamia

    2017-07-01

    Industrial processes such as remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) often utilize chemical additives to increase the removal of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from subsurface formations. Although the majority of crude oils are classified as LNAPLs, they often contain heavy molecules (DNAPLs) such as asphaltenes that tend to adsorb on minerals and alter their wettability. Effective additives are therefore those that can reduce the threshold capillary pressure, thus mobilizing LNAPL inside pore spaces and solubilizing DNAPL from rock surfaces. Nonionic surfactants in brine have often been injected to oil or contaminated aquifer formations in order to enhance NAPL displacement through IFT reduction. Recent studies revealed that surfactant-based microemulsions have a higher tendency to alter the wettability of surfaces, compared to surfactants alone, leading to more effective NAPL removal. However, the impact of these additives on pore-scale displacement mechanisms and multi-phase fluid occupancy in porous media is, to date, still unclear. In this study, x-ray microtomography experiments were performed to investigate the impact of surfactants and microemulsions on the mobilization and solubilization of NAPL in heterogeneous rocks. Saturation profiles indicated that an incremental NAPL removal was attained by addition of microemulsion to brine, compared with surfactant. Residual cluster size distributions revealed that microemulsions could break up large clusters into smaller disconnected ones, improving their mobilization in the rock. In-situ contact angle measurements showed that microemulsions could reverse the wettability of rough contaminated surfaces to a higher extent than surfactants. Unlike surfactant alone, the surfactant-solvent blend in the carrier fluid of microemulsions was able to penetrate rough grain surfaces, particularly those of dolomite cement, and desorb asphaltenes in the form of small-emulsified NAPL droplets

  17. In-Situ Testing of the Thermal Diffusivity of Polysilicon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intuitive yet effective in-situ thermal diffusivity testing structure and testing method. The structure consists of two doubly clamped beams with the same width and thickness but different lengths. When the electric current is applied through two terminals of one beam, the beam serves as thermal resistor and the resistance R(t varies as temperature rises. A delicate thermodynamic model considering thermal convection, thermal radiation, and film-to-substrate heat conduction was established for the testing structure. The presented in-situ thermal diffusivity testing structure can be fabricated by various commonly used micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS fabrication methods, i.e., it requires no extra customized processes yet provides electrical input and output interfaces for in-situ testing. Meanwhile, the testing environment and equipment had no stringent restriction, measurements were carried out at normal temperatures and pressures, and the results are relatively accurate.

  18. Prediction of single-component NAPL behavior for the TEVES Project using T2VOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed simulations have been performed for the TEVES (Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System) Project using the TOUGH2 code considering air, water, and a single-component NAPL. A critical parameter varied in the simulations is the borehole vacuum which directly affects air flow through the system and indirectly influences soil temperatures and water and NAPL fluid masses. Contaminant migration from the heated zone into the unheated soil can occur if the borehole vacuum, or borehole flow rate, is not sufficient. Under these conditions, evaporation of liquids (water and NAPL) due to the heating can cause flow from the heated zone into the unheated soil. Insufficient air sweep may be indicated by a vapor dominated mass flow rate into the borehole, at least for the present configuration. Sufficient air flow through the heated zone must be provided to contain the contaminants within the heated zone

  19. Evaluating in situ thermal transmittance of green buildings masonries—A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Asdrubali

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a measurement campaign of in situ thermal transmittance, performed in some buildings in the Umbria Region (Italy, designed implementing bio-architecture solutions. The analyzed walls were previously monitored with thermographic surveys in order to assess the correct application of the sensors. Results of the investigation show that in situ thermal transmittance measurements and theoretical calculated U-value are not in perfect agreement. The mismatch becomes important for monolithic structures such as walls made of thermal blocks without insulating layers.

  20. Visualization of thermally activated nanocarriers using in situ atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, M. D.; Howard, K. A.; Oupicky, D.

    2007-01-01

    Thermo-responsive nanocarriers aim to improve the delivery of drugs into target tissue by a process of size-mediated deposition activated by thermal stimuli. The direct imaging of thermally-induced changes in nanocarrier morphology was demonstrated using in situ liquid AFM over a nano-scale and t......-scale and temperature range relevant for clinical approaches. In situ AFM proved to be a unique method for investigating the dynamic conformational changes of individual nanoparticles, promoting its application in the future development of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers.......Thermo-responsive nanocarriers aim to improve the delivery of drugs into target tissue by a process of size-mediated deposition activated by thermal stimuli. The direct imaging of thermally-induced changes in nanocarrier morphology was demonstrated using in situ liquid AFM over a nano...

  1. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  2. In Situ Study of Thermal Stability of Copper Oxide Nanowires at Anaerobic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metal oxides with promising electrochemical properties were developed recently. Before those metal oxides realize the use as an anode in lithium ion batteries, their thermal stability at anaerobic environment inside batteries should be clearly understood for safety. In this study, copper oxide nanowires were investigated as an example. Several kinds of in situ experiment methods including in situ optical microscopy, in situ Raman spectrum, and in situ transmission electron microscopy were adopted to fully investigate their thermal stability at anaerobic environment. Copper oxide nanowires begin to transform as copper(I oxide at about 250°C and finish at about 400°C. The phase transformation proceeds with a homogeneous nucleation.

  3. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  4. In-Situ Spatial Variability Of Thermal Conductivity And Volumetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of spatial variability of thermal conductivity and volumetric water content of silty topsoil were conduct-ed on a 0.6 ha site at Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. The thermal conductivity (k) was measured at depths of up to 0.06 m along four parallel profiles of 200 m long and at an average temperature of 25 C, using ...

  5. Caliper variable sonde for thermal conductivity measurements in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelsner, C; Leischner, H; Pischel, S

    1968-01-01

    For the measurement of the thermal conductivity of the formations surrounding a borehole, a sonde having variable diameter (consisting of an inflatable rubber cylinder with heating wires embedded in its wall) is described. The conditions for the usual sonde made of metal are no longer fulfilled, but the solution to the problem of determining the thermal conductivity from the temperature rise is given, based on an approach by Carslaw and Jaeger, which contains the Bessel functions of the second kind. It is shown that a simpler solution for large values of time can be obtained through the Laplace transformation, and the necessary series developments for computer application are also given. The sonde and the necessary measuring circuitry are described. Tests measurements have indicated that the thermal conductivity can be determined with this sonde with a precision of + 10%.

  6. Effects of thermal annealing on C/FePt granular multilayers: in situ and ex situ studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babonneau, D; Abadias, G; Toudert, J; Girardeau, T; Fonda, E; Micha, J S; Petroff, F

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive study of C/FePt granular multilayers prepared by ion-beam sputtering at room temperature and subsequent annealing is reported. The as-deposited multilayers consist of carbon-encapsulated FePt nanoparticles (average size ∼3 nm) with a disordered face-centered-cubic structure. The effects of thermal annealing on the structural and magnetic properties are investigated by using dedicated ex situ and in situ techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, magnetometry, and coupled grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction. Our structural data show that the particle size and interparticle distance increase slightly with annealing at temperatures below 790 K by thermally activated migration of Fe and Pt atoms. We find that thermal annealing at temperatures above 870 K results in the dramatic growth of the FePt nanoparticles by coalescence and their gradual L1 0 ordering. In addition, we observe a preferential graphitization of the carbon matrix, which provides protection against oxidation for the FePt nanoparticles. Magnetization measurements indicate that progressive magnetic hardening occurs after annealing. The dependences of the blocking temperature, saturation magnetization, coercivity, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy on the annealing temperature are discussed on the basis of the structural data

  7. Using geophysical techniques to control in situ thermal remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.; Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Wilt, M.; Goldman, R.; Kayes, D.; Kenneally, K.; Udell, K.; Hunter, R.

    1994-01-01

    Monitoring the thermal and hydrologic processes that occur during thermal environmental remediation programs in near real-time provides essential information for controlling the process. Geophysical techniques played a crucial role in process control as well as for characterization during the recent Dynamic Underground Stripping Project demonstration in which several thousand gallons of gasoline were removed from heterogeneous soils both above and below the water table. Dynamic Underground Stripping combines steam injection and electrical heating for thermal enhancement with ground water pumping and vacuum extraction for contaminant removal. These processes produce rapid changes in the subsurface properties including changes in temperature fluid saturation, pressure and chemistry. Subsurface imaging methods are used to map the heated zones and control the thermal process. Temperature measurements made in wells throughout the field reveal details of the complex heating phenomena. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) provides near real-time detailed images of the heated zones between boreholes both during electrical heating and steam injection. Borehole induction logs show close correlation with lithostratigraphy and, by identifying the more permeable gravel zones, can be used to predict steam movement. They are also useful in understanding the physical changes in the field and in interpreting the ERT images. Tiltmeters provide additional information regarding the shape of the steamed zones in plan view. They were used to track the growth of the steam front from individual injectors

  8. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  9. Ex-Situ and In-Situ Ellipsometric Studies of the Thermal Oxide on InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-06

    ion---- Distribution/ Availabilit ? Codes£v l llt Codes Avail and/or Dist| Special Abstract The thermally grown InP oxide as etched by an aqueous...aqueous NH4OH/NH4F, and Law(17) has reported observations of orientational ordering of water and organic solvents on pyrex surfaces by in-situ...minutes, followed by a sequence of acetone, deionized water (d. i. water ) rinse. After being dipped in a concentrated aqueous HF solution for 15 seconds

  10. In situ visualization of thermal distortions of synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, P.; Kazimirov, A.; Bazarov, I.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new in situ method to measure heating-induced distortions of the surface of the first monochromator crystal exposed to high-power white synchrotron radiation beam. The method is based on recording the image of a stationary grid of dots captured by a CCD camera as reflected from the surface of a crystal with and without a heat load. The three-dimensional surface profile (heat bump) is then reconstructed from the distortions of the original pattern. In experiments performed at the CHESS A2 wiggler beam line we measured the heat bumps with the heights of up to 600 nm produced by a wiggler beam with total power in the range of 15-60 W incident on the (1 1 1) Si crystal at various angles between 3 deg. and 15 deg

  11. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  12. Single-hole in situ thermal probe for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The REKA thermal probe method, which uses a single borehole to measure in situ rock thermophysical properties and provides for efficient and low-cost site characterization, is analyzed for its application to hydrothermal system characterization. It is demonstrated throughout the evaluation of several temperature fields obtained for different thermal zones that the REKA method can be applied to simultaneously determine (1) two independent thermophysical properties, i.e., heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity and (2) a set of heat transport parameters, which can be used to characterize the behavior of a hydrothermal system. Based on the direct physical meaning of these transport parameters, the components of the heat transport mechanism in a given time and location of the hydrothermal system can be described. This evaluation can be applied to characterizing and quantifying in situ rock dry-out and condensate shedding at the proposed repository site

  13. In situ tests for investigating thermal and mechanical rock behaviors at an underground research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sangki; Cho, Won-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviors expected to be happened around an underground high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is important for a successful site selection, construction, operation, and closure of the repository. In this study, the thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock and rock mass were investigated from in situ borehole heater test and the studies for characterizing an excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which had been carried out at an underground research tunnel, KURT, constructed in granite for the validation of a HLW disposal concept. Thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic properties in EDZ could be predicted from various in situ and laboratory tests as well as numerical simulations. The complex thermo-mechanical coupling behavior of rock could be modeled using the rock properties. (author)

  14. Stream temperature estimated in situ from thermal-infrared images: best estimate and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, F; Todisco, M T

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to show a technique to estimate in situ the stream temperature from thermal-infrared images deepening its best estimate and uncertainty. Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality and nowadays its assessment is important particularly for thermal pollution monitoring in water bodies. Stream temperature changes are especially due to the anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater and from water used as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. The stream temperatures assessment using ordinary techniques (e.g. appropriate thermometers) is limited by sparse sampling in space due to a spatial discretization necessarily punctual. Latest and most advanced techniques assess the stream temperature using thermal-infrared remote sensing based on thermal imagers placed usually on aircrafts or using satellite images. These techniques assess only the surface water temperature and they are suitable to detect the temperature of vast water bodies but do not allow a detailed and precise surface water temperature assessment in limited areas of the water body. The technique shown in this research is based on the assessment of thermal-infrared images obtained in situ via portable thermal imager. As in all thermographic techniques, also in this technique, it is possible to estimate only the surface water temperature. A stream with the presence of a discharge of urban wastewater is proposed as case study to validate the technique and to show its application limits. Since the technique analyzes limited areas in extension of the water body, it allows a detailed and precise assessment of the water temperature. In general, the punctual and average stream temperatures are respectively uncorrected and corrected. An appropriate statistical method that minimizes the errors in the average stream temperature is proposed. The correct measurement of this temperature through the assessment of thermal- infrared images obtained in situ via portable

  15. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  16. Pretest thermal analysis of the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, B.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes the pretest thermal analysis for the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment to be conducted in welded tuff in G-tunnel, Nevada Test Site. The parametric thermal modeling considers variable boiling temperature, tuff thermal conductivity, tuff emissivity, and heater operating power. For nominal tuff properties, some near field boiling is predicted for realistic operating power. However, the extent of boiling will be strongly determined by the ambient (100% water saturated) rock thermal conductivity. In addition, the thermal response of the heater and of the tuff within the dry-out zone (i.e., bounded by boiling isotherm) is dependent on the temperature variation of rock conductivity as well as the extent of induced boiling

  17. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Brian M.; Semprini, Lewis; Istok, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings

  18. In-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and comparison with the adaptive comfort theory in Dutch residential dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Agarwal, Tushar

    2018-01-01

    Indoor thermal comfort is generally assessed using the PMV or the adaptive model. This research presents the results obtained by in-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and thermal comfort perception in 17 residential dwellings in the Netherlands. The study demonstrates the new

  19. Analysis of In Situ Thermal Ion Measurements from the MICA Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. Initial analysis of the in situ thermal ion data indicate possible measurement of an ion conic at low altitude (< 325 km). In the low-energy regime, the response of the instrument varies from the ideal because the measured thermal ion population is sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the sheath which forms around the spacecraft. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Correct interpretation of thermal plasma measurements requires accounting for all of these plasma processes and the non-ideal response of the instrument in the low-energy regime. This is an experimental and modeling project which involves thorough analysis of ionospheric thermal ion data from the MICA campaign. Analysis includes modeling and measuring the instrument response in the low-energy regime as well as accounting for the complex sheath formed around the instrument. This results in a forward model in which plasma parameters of the thermal plasma are propagated through the sheath and instrument models, resulting in an output which matches the in situ measurement. In the case of MICA, we are working toward answering the question of the initiating source processes that result, at higher altitudes, in well-developed conics and outflow on auroral field lines.

  20. Evaluation of in-situ thermal energy storage for lunar based solar dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1991-01-01

    A practical lunar based thermal energy storage system, based on locally available materials, could significantly reduce transportation requirements and associated costs of a continuous, solar derived power system. The concept reported here is based on a unique, in-situ approach to thermal energy storage. The proposed design is examined to assess the problems of start-up and the requirements for attainment of stable operation. The design remains, at this stage, partially conceptional in nature, but certain aspects of the design, bearing directly on feasibility, are examined in some detail. Specifically included is an engineering evaluation of the projected thermal performance of this system. Both steady state and start-up power requirements are evaluated and the associated thermal losses are evaluated as a basis for establishing potential system performance.

  1. Modeling Residual NAPL in Water-Wet Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Lenhard

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is outlined that predicts NAPL which is held in pore wedges and as films or lenses on solid and water surfaces and contributes negligibly to NAPL advection. This is conceptually referred to as residual NAPL. Since residual NAPL is immobile, it remains in the vadose zone after all free NAPL has drained. Residual NAPL is very important because it is a long-term source for groundwater contamination. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that current models for predicting subsurface NAPL behavior are inadequate because they do not correctly predict residual NAPL. The main reason for the failure is a deficiency in the current constitutive theories for multiphase flow that are used in numerical simulators. Multiphase constitutive theory governs the relations among relative permeability, saturation, and pressure for fluid systems (i.e., air, NAPL, water. In this paper, we outline a model describing relations between fluid saturations and pressures that can be combined with existing multiphase constitutive theory to predict residual NAPL. We test the revised constitutive theory by applying it to a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage, as well as water imbibition and drainage. The results suggest that the revised constitutive theory is able to predict the distribution of residual NAPL in the vadose zone as a function of saturation-path history. The revised model describing relations between fluid saturation and pressures will help toward developing or improving numerical multiphase flow simulators.

  2. Monitoring well design and sampling techniques at NAPL sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.; Rohrman, W.R.; Drake, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) at many Superfund and RCRA hazardous waste sites has become a recognized problem in recent years. The large number of sites exhibiting this problem results from the fact that many of the most frequently used industrial solvents and petroleum products can exist as NAPLs. Hazardous waste constituents occurring as NAPLs possess a common characteristic that causes great concern during groundwater contamination evaluation: while solubility in water is generally very low, it is sufficient to cause groundwater to exceed Maximum Contamination Levels (MCLs). Thus, even a small quantity of NAPL within a groundwater regime can act as a point source with the ability to contaminate vast quantities of groundwater over time. This property makes it imperative that groundwater investigations focus heavily on characterizing the nature, extent, and migration pathways of NAPLs at sites where it exists. Two types of NAPLs may exist in a groundwater system. Water-immiscible liquid constituents having a specific gravity greater than one are termed Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids, while those with a specific gravity less than one are considered Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids. For a groundwater investigation to properly characterize the two types of NAPLs, careful consideration must be given to the placement and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells. Unfortunately, technical reviewers at EPA Region VII and the Corps of Engineers find that many groundwater investigations fall short in characterizing NAPLs because several basic considerations were overlooked. Included among these are monitoring well location and screen placement with respect to the water table and significant confining units, and the ability of the well sampling method to obtain samples of NAPL. Depending on the specific gravity of the NAPL that occurs at a site, various considerations can substantially enhance adequate characterization of NAPL contaminants

  3. In situ thermal polymerisation of natural oils as novel sustainable approach in nanographite particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsyuk, Vitaliy; Trotsenko, Svitlana; Reich, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    A sustainable approach to graphite exfoliation via in situ thermal polymerization of fish oil results in the production of nanographite particles. The material was characterized by elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal polymerization of fish oil was controlled by monitoring the viscosity and measuring the iodine number. The number of structural defects on the graphitic surface remained constant during the synthesis. The protocol leads to a hydrophobization of the nanographite surface. Immobilized polyoil islands create sterical hindrance and stabilize the nanographite particles in engineering polymers.

  4. Development of a direct push based in-situ thermal conductivity measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirla, Marian Andrei; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    push based approaches, called Thermal Conductivity Profiler (TCP), that operates based on the principles of a hollow cylindrical geometry heat source. To determinate thermal conductivity in situ, the transient temperature at the middle of the probe and electrical power dissipation is measured. At the same time, this work presents laboratory results obtained when this novel hollow cylindrical probe system was tested on different materials for calibration. By using the hollow cylindrical probe, the thermal conductivity results have an error of less than 2.5% error for solid samples (Teflon, Agar jelly, and Nylatron). These findings are useful to achieve a proper thermal energy balance in the shallow subsurface by using direct push technology and TCP. By providing information of layers with high thermal conductivity, suitable for thermal storage capability, can be used determine borehole heat exchanger design and, therefore, determine geothermal heat pump architecture.

  5. Data Mining of the Thermal Performance of Cool-Pipes in Massive Concrete via In Situ Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zheng; Hu, Yu; Li, Qingbin; Zhang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Embedded cool-pipes are very important for massive concrete because their cooling effect can effectively avoid thermal cracks. In this study, a data mining approach to analyzing the thermal performance of cool-pipes via in situ monitoring is proposed. Delicate monitoring program is applied in a high arch dam project that provides a good and mass data source. The factors and relations related to the thermal performance of cool-pipes are obtained in a built theory thermal model. The supporting ...

  6. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and different kinds of NAPLs for use in analysis of residual soil NAPLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Sarah Andresa; Ferreira, Ângela Fortini Macedo, E-mail: sarah_andresa@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Migas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: zildeter7@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Different studies indicate the applicability of natural radon as a tracer in the determination of contaminated environments by Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs). Such use being due to the non-homogeneous distribution of this element between water, air and NAPL. Thus, it is known that the concentration of radon in a given soil / aquifer and in a given area may indicate that such site is contaminated by NAPL. However, the simple measurement of radon concentration activity allows only a qualitative evaluation of the area contaminated in study. For a quantitative estimate of the NAPL saturation in the pore space, it is necessary to know the radon partition coefficients between the coexisting phases, considering the kind of NAPL present. The present study, the radon partitioning coefficients between air, water and diverse types of NAPL mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, kerosene and olive oil was measured. In a closed system, was applied an analytical method based on the distribution of the radon between the present phases with the use of a system of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The measurement of the specific activity of radon was performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. It is observed that, in the presence of NAPL, the concentration of radon in water and air is significantly lower than in its absence, indicating a negative correlation and allowing the evaluation of the contamination of the area by NAPL. (author)

  7. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and different kinds of NAPLs for use in analysis of residual soil NAPLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Sarah Andresa; Ferreira, Ângela Fortini Macedo; Rocha, Zildete

    2017-01-01

    Different studies indicate the applicability of natural radon as a tracer in the determination of contaminated environments by Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs). Such use being due to the non-homogeneous distribution of this element between water, air and NAPL. Thus, it is known that the concentration of radon in a given soil / aquifer and in a given area may indicate that such site is contaminated by NAPL. However, the simple measurement of radon concentration activity allows only a qualitative evaluation of the area contaminated in study. For a quantitative estimate of the NAPL saturation in the pore space, it is necessary to know the radon partition coefficients between the coexisting phases, considering the kind of NAPL present. The present study, the radon partitioning coefficients between air, water and diverse types of NAPL mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, kerosene and olive oil was measured. In a closed system, was applied an analytical method based on the distribution of the radon between the present phases with the use of a system of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The measurement of the specific activity of radon was performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. It is observed that, in the presence of NAPL, the concentration of radon in water and air is significantly lower than in its absence, indicating a negative correlation and allowing the evaluation of the contamination of the area by NAPL. (author)

  8. Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lv

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated using GOTMS as coupling agents and E-SBA-15/PF (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites extracted using ethanol as solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results demonstrated that the GOTMS were successfully grafted onto the surface of SBA-15, and chemical bonds between PF and SBA-15-GOTMS were formed after in situ polymerization. In addition, it is found that the in situ polymerization method has great effects on the textural parameters of SBA-15. The results also showed that the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the PF nanocomposites were obviously enhanced as compared with the pure PF at silica contents between 1–3 wt%, due to the uniform dispersion of the modified SBA-15 in the matrix.

  9. In Situ Thermal Generation of Silver Nanoparticles in 3D Printed Polymeric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Calignano, Flaviana; Fontana, Marco; Pirri, Fabrizio; Roppolo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have always attracted the interest of researchers and industry because of their potential combination of properties from both the nanofillers and the hosting matrix. Gathering nanomaterials and 3D printing could offer clear advantages and numerous new opportunities in several application fields. Embedding nanofillers in a polymeric matrix could improve the final material properties but usually the printing process gets more difficult. Considering this drawback, in this paper we propose a method to obtain polymer nanocomposites by in situ generation of nanoparticles after the printing process. 3D structures were fabricated through a Digital Light Processing (DLP) system by disolving metal salts in the starting liquid formulation. The 3D fabrication is followed by a thermal treatment in order to induce in situ generation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the polymer matrix. Comprehensive studies were systematically performed on the thermo-mechanical characteristics, morphology and electrical properties of the 3D printed nanocomposites. PMID:28773716

  10. In Situ Thermal Generation of Silver Nanoparticles in 3D Printed Polymeric Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fantino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites have always attracted the interest of researchers and industry because of their potential combination of properties from both the nanofillers and the hosting matrix. Gathering nanomaterials and 3D printing could offer clear advantages and numerous new opportunities in several application fields. Embedding nanofillers in a polymeric matrix could improve the final material properties but usually the printing process gets more difficult. Considering this drawback, in this paper we propose a method to obtain polymer nanocomposites by in situ generation of nanoparticles after the printing process. 3D structures were fabricated through a Digital Light Processing (DLP system by disolving metal salts in the starting liquid formulation. The 3D fabrication is followed by a thermal treatment in order to induce in situ generation of metal nanoparticles (NPs in the polymer matrix. Comprehensive studies were systematically performed on the thermo-mechanical characteristics, morphology and electrical properties of the 3D printed nanocomposites.

  11. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  12. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Xiujun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Chaoyi; Bai, Feiming; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  13. Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Vanessa L.; Dou, Benjia; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Klein-Stockert, Talysa R.; Barnes, Frank S.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Ahmad, Md I.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites have emerged as successful optoelectronic materials with high photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies and low material cost. However, substantial challenges remain in the scalability, stability and fundamental understanding of the materials. Here we present the application of radiative thermal annealing, an easily scalable processing method for synthesizing formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite solar absorbers. Devices fabricated from films formed via radiative thermal annealing have equivalent efficiencies to those annealed using a conventional hotplate. By coupling results from in situ X-ray diffraction using a radiative thermal annealing system with device performances, we mapped the processing phase space of FAPbI3 and corresponding device efficiencies. Our map of processing-structure-performance space suggests the commonly used FAPbI3 annealing time, 10 min at 170 °C, can be significantly reduced to 40 s at 170 °C without affecting the photovoltaic performance. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model was used to determine the activation energy for decomposition of FAPbI3 into PbI2. PMID:28094249

  14. Low-temperature thermal reduction of graphene oxide: In situ correlative structural, thermal desorption, and electrical transport measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexey; Guinel, Maxime J.-F.; Muratov, Dmitry S.; Vanyushin, Vladislav O.; Wilson, Peter M.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Elucidation of the structural transformations in graphene oxide (GO) upon reduction remains an active and important area of research. We report the results of in situ heating experiments, during which electrical, mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were carried out correlatively. The simultaneous electrical and temperature programmed desorption measurements allowed us to correlate the onset of the increase in the electrical conductivity of GO by five orders of magnitude at about 150 °C with the maxima of the rates of desorption of H2O, CO, and CO2. Interestingly, this large conductivity change happens at an intermediate level of the reduction of GO, which likely corresponds to the point when the graphitic domains become large enough to enable percolative electronic transport. We demonstrate that the gas desorption is intimately related to (i) the changes in the chemical structure of GO detected by XPS and Raman spectroscopy and (ii) the formation of nanoscopic holes in GO sheets revealed by TEM. These in situ observations provide a better understanding of the mechanism of the GO thermal reduction.

  15. In Situ Acoustic Monitoring of Thermal Spray Process Using High-Frequency Impulse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Walther, Frank; Luo, Weifeng; Haack, Matthias; Nellesen, Jens; Knyazeva, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In order to guarantee their protective function, thermal spray coatings must be free from cracks, which expose the substrate surface to, e.g., corrosive media. Cracks in thermal spray coatings are usually formed because of tensile residual stresses. Most commonly, the crack occurrence is determined after the thermal spraying process by examination of metallographic cross sections of the coating. Recent efforts focus on in situ monitoring of crack formation by means of acoustic emission analysis. However, the acoustic signals related to crack propagation can be absorbed by the noise of the thermal spraying process. In this work, a high-frequency impulse measurement technique was applied to separate different acoustic sources by visualizing the characteristic signal of crack formation via quasi-real-time Fourier analysis. The investigations were carried out on a twin wire arc spraying process, utilizing FeCrBSi as a coating material. The impact of the process parameters on the acoustic emission spectrum was studied. Acoustic emission analysis enables to obtain global and integral information on the formed cracks. The coating morphology and coating defects were inspected using light microscopy on metallographic cross sections. Additionally, the resulting crack patterns were imaged in 3D by means of x-ray microtomography.

  16. Scoping analysis of in situ thermal-hydrological testing at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, are required to test coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemical (T-H-M-C) process models that support total system performance assessment. The ESF thermal tests must provide an understanding of coupled T-H-M-C processes that are relevant to expected repository conditions. Current planning includes the possibility of two large-scale tests: (1) the first ESF (drift-scale) thermal test, which will be conducted under an accelerated heatup and cooldown schedule, and (2) a second ESF (multi-drift) test, which will be larger-scale, longer-duration test, conducted under a less accelerated heatup and cooldown schedule. With the V-TOUGH (vectorized transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat) code, the authors modeled and evaluated a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to develop a test design that provides sufficient (and timely) information to determine the following: the dominant mode(s) of heat flow; the major T-H regime(s) and the T-H-M-C processes that determine the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow; and the influence of heterogeneous conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. A major purpose of the ESF thermal tests is to determine which major decay-heat-driven T-H flow regime(s) will govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow in the UZ. Another major purpose of the thermal tests is to determine the degree of vapor diffusion enhancement

  17. NAPL detection with ground-penetrating radar (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Non-polar organic compounds are common contaminants and are collectively referred to as nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs). NAPL contamination problems occur in virtually every environment on or near the earth's surface and therefore a robust suite of geophysical tools is required to accurately characterize NAPL spills and monitor their remediation. NAPLs typically have low dielectric permittivity and low electric conductivity relative to water. Thus a zone of anomalous electrical properties often occurs when NAPL displaces water in the subsurface pore space. Such electric property anomalies make it possible to detect NAPL in the subsurface using electrical or electromagnetic geophysical methods including ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The GPR signature associated with the presence of NAPL is manifest in essentially three ways. First, the decrease in dielectric permittivity results in increased EM propagation velocity. Second, the decrease in permittivity can significantly change reflectivity. Finally, electric conductivity anomalies lead to anomalous GPR signal attenuation. The conductivity anomaly may be either high or low depending on the state of NAPL degradation, but with either high or low conductivity, GPR attenuation analysis can be a useful tool for identifying contaminated-zones. Over the past 15 years I have conducted numerous modeling, laboratory, and field tests to investigate the ability to use GPR to measure NAPL induced anomalies. The emphasis of this work has been on quantitative analysis to characterize critical source zone parameters such as NAPL concentration. Often, the contaminated zones are below the conventional resolution of the GPR signal and require thin layer analysis. Through a series of field examples, I demonstrate 5 key GPR analysis tools that can help identify and quantify NAPL contaminants. These tools include 1) GPR velocity inversion from multi-fold data, 2) amplitude vs offset analysis, 3) spectral decomposition, 4) frequency

  18. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O [Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP, FST avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proudhon, H; Forest, S [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J [Erich Schmid Institute for Material Science, Austrian Academy of Science and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Jacques, V; Ravy, S [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.vaxelaire@univ-cezanne.fr

    2010-03-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  19. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O; Proudhon, H; Forest, S; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Jacques, V; Ravy, S

    2010-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  20. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  1. PETher - Physical Properties of Thermal Water under In-situ-Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfurth, Sarah; Schröder, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The objective of PETher, a research project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), is to experimentally determine thermo-physical properties (specific isobaric heat capacity, kinematic viscosity, density and thermal conductivity) of geothermal water in-situ-conditions (pressure, temperature, chemical composition including gas content of the brine) present in geothermal applications. Knowing these thermo-physical properties reduces the uncertainties with respect to estimating the thermal output and therefore the economic viability of the power plant. Up to now, only a limited number of measurements of selected physical properties have been made, usually under laboratory conditions and for individual geothermal plants. In-situ measured parameters, especially in the temperature range of 120°C and higher, at pressures of 20 bar and higher, as well as with a salinity of up to 250 g/l, are sparse to non-existing. Therefore, pure water properties are often used as reference data and for designing the power plant and its components. Currently available numerical models describing the thermo-physical properties are typically not valid for the conditions in geothermal applications and do not consider the substantial influence of the chemical composition of the thermal water. Also, actual geothermal waters have not been subject of detailed measurements systematically performed under operational conditions on a large-scale basis. Owing to the lack of reliable data, a validation of numerical models for investigating geothermal systems is not possible. In order to determine the dependency of the thermo-physical properties of geothermal water on temperature, pressure and salinity in-situ measurements are conducted. The measurements are taking place directly at several geothermal applications located in Germany's hydrogeothermal key regions. In order to do this, a mobile testing unit was developed and refined with instruments specifically

  2. In Situ Determination of Thermal Profiles during Czochralski Silicon Crystal Growth by an Eddy Current Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su.

    An eddy current testing method was developed to continuously monitor crystal growth process and determine thermal profiles in situ during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The work was motivated by the need to improve the quality of the crystal by controlling thermal gradients and annealing history over the growth cycle. The experimental concept is to monitor intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. The experiments were performed in a resistance-heated Czochralski puller with a 203 mm (8 inch) diameter crucible containing 6.5 kg melt. The silicon crystals being grown were about 80 mm in diameter and monitored by an encircling sensor operating at three different test frequencies (86, 53 and 19 kHz). A one-dimensional analytical solution was employed to translate the detected signals into electrical conductivities. In terms of experiments, the effects of changes in growth condition, which is defined by crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, pull rate, and hot-zone configuration, were investigated. Under a given steady-state condition, the thermal profile was usually stable over the entire length of crystal growth. The profile shifted significantly, however, when the crucible rotation rate was kept too high. As a direct evidence to the effects of melt flow on heat transfer process, a thermal gradient minimum was observed about the crystal/crucible rotation combination of 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradient reduction was still most pronounced when the pull rate or the radiant heat loss to the environment was decreased: a nearly flat axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was halved or the height of the exposed crucible wall was effectively doubled. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5 ^{rm o}C/mm. Regardless of growth condition, the three-frequency data revealed radial thermal gradients much larger

  3. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  4. Planning, developing, and fielding of thermal/structural interactions in situ tests for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    Large-scale, well-instrumented underground tests to determine in situ thermal/structural response of bedded salt are being constructed in the WIPP facility in southeastern New Mexico. These tests are an essential component of a broad research and development program to resolve thermal/structural issues, to validate long-term prediction methods, and to develop a design basis for a future repository. They are the result of an extensive planning and evaluation procedure to determine the appropriate test configuration. All details of the tests, including background, decisions, design, site operations, and testing organization are explained. These procedures may be useful in developing other in situ tests

  5. Enhanced mobility of non aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) during drying of wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhivakar; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Raghunathan, Ravikrishna

    2018-02-01

    Enhanced upward mobility of a non aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in wet sand during natural drying, and in the absence of any external pressure gradients, is reported for the first time. This mobility was significantly higher than that expected from capillary rise. Experiments were performed in a glass column with a small layer of NAPL-saturated sand trapped between two layers of water-saturated sand. Drying of the wet sand was induced by flow of air across the top surface of the wet sand. The upward movement of the NAPL, in the direction of water transport, commenced when the drying effect reached the location of the NAPL and continued as long as there was significant water evaporation in the vicinity of NAPL, indicating a clear correlation between the NAPL rise and water evaporation. The magnitude and the rate of NAPL rise was measured at different water evaporation rates, different initial locations of the NAPL, different grain size of the sand and the type of NAPL (on the basis of different NAPL-glass contact angle, viscosity and density). A positive correlation was observed between average rate of NAPL rise and the water evaporation while a negative correlation was obtained between the average NAPL rise rate and the NAPL properties of contact angle, viscosity and density. There was no significant correlation of average NAPL rise rate with variation of sand grain size between 0.1 to 0.5 mm. Based on these observations and on previous studies reported in the literature, two possible mechanisms are hypothesized -a) the effect of the spreading coefficient resulting in the wetting of NAPL on the water films created and b) a moving water film due to evaporation that "drags" the NAPL upwards. The NAPL rise reported in this paper has implications in fate and transport of chemicals in NAPL contaminated porous media such as soils and exposed dredged sediment material, which are subjected to varying water saturation levels due to drying and rewetting.

  6. Electrochemical performance of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Fan, Li-Zhen; Fan, Huanhuan; Shi, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Cross-linked trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) were prepared by in situ thermal polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the GPEs are >10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and continuously increased with the increase of liquid electrolyte content. The GPEs have excellent electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li/Li + . The LiCoO 2 |TMPTMA-based GPE|graphite cells exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 129 mAh g −1 at the 0.2C, and good cycling stability with around 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles. Both the simple fabricating process of polymer cell and outstanding electrochemical performance of such new GPE make it potentially one of the most promising electrolyte materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

  7. Thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2: insights from TGA and in situ XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Perejon, Antonio; Medina, Santiago; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A

    2015-11-28

    Thermal decomposition of dolomite in the presence of CO2 in a calcination environment is investigated by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The in situ XRD results suggest that dolomite decomposes directly at a temperature around 700 °C into MgO and CaO. Immediate carbonation of nascent CaO crystals leads to the formation of calcite as an intermediate product of decomposition. Subsequently, decarbonation of this poorly crystalline calcite occurs when the reaction is thermodynamically favorable and sufficiently fast at a temperature depending on the CO2 partial pressure in the calcination atmosphere. Decarbonation of this dolomitic calcite occurs at a lower temperature than limestone decarbonation due to the relatively low crystallinity of the former. Full decomposition of dolomite leads also to a relatively low crystalline CaO, which exhibits a high reactivity as compared to limestone derived CaO. Under CO2 capture conditions in the Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, MgO grains remain inert yet favor the carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO especially in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. The fundamental mechanism that drives the crystallographic transformation of dolomite in the presence of CO2 is thus responsible for its fast calcination kinetics and the high carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO, which makes natural dolomite a potentially advantageous alternative to limestone for CO2 capture in the CaL technology as well as SO2in situ removal in oxy-combustion fluidized bed reactors.

  8. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  9. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  10. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into 'active' drill hole methods, and 'passive' indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial 'leak' of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm -1 , temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  11. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs −1 , and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s −1 and 100 °C s −1 , revealing numerous phase changes

  12. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F., E-mail: mftoney@slac.stanford.edu [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  13. Partitioning and interfacial tracers for differentiating NAPL entrapment configuration: column-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Barranco, F T; Illangasekare, T H

    2001-12-15

    Research on the use of partitioning and interfacial tracers has led to the development of techniques for estimating subsurface NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area. Although these techniques have been utilized with some success at field sites, current application is limited largely to NAPL at residual saturation, such as for the case of post-remediation settings where mobile NAPL has been removed through product recovery. The goal of this study was to fundamentally evaluate partitioning and interfacial tracer behavior in controlled column-scale test cells for a range of entrapment configurations varying in NAPL saturation, with the results serving as a determinant of technique efficacy (and design protocol) for use with complexly distributed NAPLs, possibly at high saturation, in heterogeneous aquifers. Representative end members of the range of entrapment configurations observed under conditions of natural heterogeneity (an occurrence with residual NAPL saturation [discontinuous blobs] and an occurrence with high NAPL saturation [continuous free-phase LNAPL lens]) were evaluated. Study results indicated accurate prediction (using measured tracer retardation and equilibrium-based computational techniques) of NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area for the case of residual NAPL saturation. For the high-saturation LNAPL lens, results indicated that NAPL-water interfacial area, but not NAPL amount (underpredicted by 35%), can be reasonably determined using conventional computation techniques. Underprediction of NAPL amount lead to an erroneous prediction of NAPL distribution, as indicated by the NAPL morphology index. In light of these results, careful consideration should be given to technique design and critical assumptions before applying equilibrium-based partitioning tracer methodology to settings where NAPLs are complexly entrapped, such as in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations.

  14. Powder metallurgical nanostructured medium carbon bainitic steel: Kinetics, structure, and in situ thermal stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonardelli, I., E-mail: il244@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); University of Trento, Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Bortolotti, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Beek, W. van [Swiss-Norwegian Beamlines, ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Girardini, L.; Zadra, M. [K4-Sint, via Dante 300, 38057 Pergine Valsugana (Italy); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    It has been possible to produce incredibly fine plates of bainitic ferrite separated by a percolating network of retained austenite in a medium carbon steel produced by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering and isothermal heat treatment. This is because the sintering process limits the growth of the austenite grains to such an extent that the martensite-start temperature is suppressed in spite of the medium carbon concentration. Furthermore, the fine austenite grain size accelerates the bainite transformation, which can therefore be suppressed to low temperatures to obtain a nanostructure. Microscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and the thermal stability of the retained austenite during continuous heating. These latter experiments revealed a gradient of carbon concentration in the retained austenite and a reduced thermal stability in high carbon film-austenite. It was also possible to correlate the evolution of defect density and carbon depletion in both retained austenite and bainitic ferrite during tempering.

  15. Solvo-thermal in situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Son, Jeesung; Lee, Jae W

    2018-02-01

    This work addresses non-catalytic biodiesel production from spent coffee ground (SCG) by integrating solvo-thermal effect of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) with in situ transesterification over 160 °C. The SCG water content has a positive effect on the DCE hydrolysis up to 60 wt% due to the bimolecular substitution mechanism. The hydrolysis gives an acidic environment favorable for cellulose decomposition, SCG particle size reduction and lipid conversion. The optimal fatty acid ethyl ester yield was 11.8 wt% based on the mass of dried SCG with 3.36 ml ethanol and 3.16 ml DCE at 196.8 °C through the response surface methodology. Using the solvo-thermal effect, direct utilization of wet SCG as a biodiesel feedstock provides not only economic feasibility without using drying process and additional acid catalyst but also environmental advantage of recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  17. Geothermal waste heat utilization from in situ thermal bitumen recovery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakevska, Nevenka; Schincariol, Robert A; Dehkordi, S Emad; Cheadle, Burns A

    2015-01-01

    In situ thermal methods for bitumen extraction introduce a tremendous amount of energy into the reservoirs raising ambient temperatures of 13 °C to as high as 200 °C at the steam chamber edge and 50 °C along the reservoir edge. In essence these operations have unintentionally acted as underground thermal energy storage systems which can be recovered after completion of bitumen extraction activities. Groundwater flow and heat transport models of the Cold Lake, Alberta, reservoir, coupled with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) model, allowed for investigating the use of closed-loop geothermal systems for energy recovery. Three types of BHEs (single U-tube, double U-tube, coaxial) were tested and analyzed by comparing outlet temperatures and corresponding heat extraction rates. Initial one year continuous operation simulations show that the double U-tube configuration had the best performance producing an average temperature difference of 5.7 °C, and an average heat extraction of 41 W/m. Given the top of the reservoir is at a depth of 400 m, polyethylene piping provided for larger extraction gains over more thermally conductive steel piping. Thirty year operation simulations illustrate that allowing 6 month cyclic recovery periods only increases the loop temperature gain by a factor of 1.2 over continuous operation. Due to the wide spacing of existing boreholes and reservoir depth, only a small fraction of the energy is efficiently recovered. Drilling additional boreholes between existing wells would increase energy extraction. In areas with shallower bitumen deposits such as the Athabasca region, i.e. 65 to 115 m deep, BHE efficiencies should be larger. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Thermal expansion and phase transformations of nitrogen-expanded austenite studied with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-expanded austenite, _N, with high and low nitrogen contents was produced from AISI 316 grade stainless steel powder by gaseous nitriding in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the thermal expansion and thermal stability...... as a fitting parameter. The stacking fault density is constant for temperatures up to 680 K, whereafter it decreases to nil. Surprisingly, a transition phase with composition M4N (M = Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo) appears for temperatures above 770 K. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion depends on the nitrogen...

  19. Investigation of Processes Controlling Elution of Solutes from Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Pools into Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedabbasi, M.; Pirestani, K.; Holland, S. B.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2005-12-01

    Two major processes influencing the elution of solutes from porous media contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are external mass transfer between the NAPL and groundwater and internal diffusion through NAPL ganglia and pools. There is a relatively large body of literature on the dissolution of single-species NAPLs. Less is known about the rates of elution of compounds dissolving from multicomponent NAPLs. We examined the mass transfer of one solute, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol (DMB) - a partitioning tracer, between groundwater and a dense NAPL - trichloroethylene (TCE). Diffusion cell experiments were used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficient of DMB in pure TCE and in porous media contaminated with a TCE pool. Measured diffusion coefficients were compared with empirical correlations (pure TCE) and a parallel resistance model (TCE pool). Based on the results from these analyses, a dimensionless Biot number was derived to express the ratio of the external rate of mass transfer from a NAPL pool to the internal rate of diffusion within the pool, which varies with NAPL saturation and NAPL-water partition coefficient. Biot numbers were then estimated for several laboratory scale experiments involving DMB transport between NAPL pools and groundwater. The estimated Biot numbers were in good agreement with experimental results. The expression for the Biot number developed here may be used to assess the processes controlling the elution of solutes from NAPL pools, which has implications on long-term predictions of solute dissolution from NAPLs in the field.

  20. Investigation on microstructure and thermal properties of in-situ synthesized Cu-ZrO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahdy, Marwa; Abouelmagd, Gamal; Mazen, Asaad A.

    2017-01-01

    Cu-ZrO 2 nanocomposites were prepared by an in-situ reactive synthesis of copper nitrate Cu(NO 3 ) 2 and zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl 2 . Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) was added by 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.% to the Cu matrix to assess its effect on thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior. The results showed that ZrO 2 nanoparticles (30-50 nm) were homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. The measured thermal conductivity for the Cu-ZrO 2 nanocomposites decreased from 372.8 to 94.4 W m -1 K -1 with increasing ZrO 2 content from 0 to 10 wt.%. Cu-10 wt.% ZrO 2 nanocomposite yields a low thermal conductivity of 94.4 W . m -1 K -1 along with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, 11.47 x 10 -6 K -1 .

  1. A set of constitutive relationships accounting for residual NAPL in the unsaturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfler, E L; van der Zee, S E

    2001-07-01

    Although laboratory experiments show that non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) is retained in the unsaturated zone, no existing multiphase flow model has been developed to account for residual NAPL after NAPL drainage in the unsaturated zone. We developed a static constitutive set of saturation-capillary pressure relationships for water, NAPL and air that accounts for both this residual NAPL and entrapped NAPL. The set of constitutive relationships is formulated similarly to the set of scaled relationships that is frequently applied in continuum models. The new set consists of three fluid-phase systems: a three-phase system and a two-phase system, that both comply with the original constitutive model, and a newly introduced residual NAPL system. The new system can be added relatively easily to the original two- and three-phase systems. Entrapment is included in the model. The constitutive relationships of the non-drainable residual NAPL system are based on qualitative fluid behavior derived from a pore scale model. The pore scale model reveals that the amount of residual NAPL depends on the spreading coefficient and the water saturation. Furthermore, residual NAPL is history-dependent. At the continuum scale, a critical NAPL pressure head defines the transition from free, mobile NAPL to residual NAPL. Although the Pc-S relationships for water and total liquid are not independent in case of residual NAPL, two two-phase Pc-S relations can represent a three-phase residual system of Pc-S relations. A newly introduced parameter, referred to as the residual oil pressure head, reflects the mutual dependency of water and oil. Example calculations show consistent behavior of the constitutive model. Entrapment and retention in the unsaturated zone cooperate to retain NAPL. Moreover, the results of our constitutive model are in agreement with experimental observations.

  2. In-situ EXAFS study on the thermal decomposition of TiH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingli; Wu Min; An Pengfei; Zheng Lirong; Chu Shengqi; Zhang Jing; Hu Tiandou

    2014-01-01

    Thermal decomposition behaviors of TiH 2 powder under a flowing helium atmosphere and in a low vacuum condition have been studied using an in situ EXAFS technique. By an EXAFS analysis containing the multiple scattering paths including H atoms, the changes of the hydrogen stoichiometric ratio and the phase transformation sequence are obtained. The results demonstrate that the initial decomposition temperature is dependent on experimental conditions, which occurs, respectively, at about 300 and 400 °C in a low vacuum condition and under a flowing helium atmosphere. During the decomposition process of TiH 2 in a low vacuum condition, the sample experiences a phase change process: δ(TiH 2 ) → δ (TiH x ) → δ(TiH x )+ β(TiH x ) → δ(TiH x )+ β(TiH x ) + α(Ti) → β(TiH x ) + α(Ti) → α(Ti) + β(Ti). This study offers a way to detect the structural information of hydrogen. A detailed discussion about the decomposition process of TiH 2 is given in this paper. (authors)

  3. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the

  4. In situ thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling of tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yuhong; Hofmeister, William H.; Cheng Zhao; Smugeresky, John E.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    Laser deposition is being used for the fabrication of net shapes from a broad range of materials, including tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) cermets (composites composed of a metallic phase and a hard refractory phase). During deposition, an unusual thermal condition is created for cermets, resulting in rather complex microstructures. To provide a fundamental insight into the evolution of such microstructures, we studied the thermal behavior of WC-Co cermets during laser deposition involving complementary results from in situ high-speed thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling. The former allowed for the characterization of temperature gradients and cooling rates in the vicinity of the molten pool, whereas the latter allowed for simulation of the entire sample. By combining the two methods, a more robust analysis of the thermal behavior was achieved. The model and the imaging results correlate well with each other and with the alternating sublayers observed in the microstructure.

  5. Preparation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization and their thermal property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terephthalate (TA intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs were synthesized using hydroxides as raw materials, and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET/LDH nanocomposites with different contents of TA intercalated LDHs were prepared by in-situ polymerization. The structure, morphology and thermal property of PET/LDH nanocomposites were investigated. The TA intercalated LDHs were partially exfoliated and well dispersed in PET matrix. The PET/LDH nanocomposites exhibit enhanced thermal stability relative to pure PET, confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis results. The results of differential scanning calorimetry suggest that LDH nanoparticles could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of PET.

  6. Evaluation of the application of a thermal insulation system: in-situ comparison of seasonal and daily climatic fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fořt, J.; Beran, Pavel; Konvalinka, P.; Pavlík, Z.; Černý, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 159-166 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : in-situ monitoring * temperature * relative humidity * thermal insulation * energy sustainability * seasonal fluctuations Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/4087/4171

  7. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Tonelli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the 'asbestos problem'. The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures

  8. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  9. Effect of Thermal Annealing on Carbon in In-situ Phosphorous-Doped Si1-xCx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Thomas; Loubet, Nicolas; Reznicek, Alexander; Paruchuri, Vamsi; Sampson, Ron; Sadana, Devendra

    2012-01-01

    The effect of thermal heat treatment on carbon in in-situ phosphorous-doped silicon-carbon is studied as a function of annealing temperature and type. Films of 0 to 2% carbon were deposited using cyclic chemical vapor deposition at reduced pressures. Secondary ion-mass spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were employed to extract the total and substitutional carbon concentration in samples with phosphorous levels of mid-10 20 cm -3 . It was found that millisecond laser annealing drastically improves substitutionality while high thermal budget treatments (furnace, rapid-thermal, or spike annealing) resulted in an almost complete loss of substitutional carbon, independent of preceding or subsequent laser heat treatments.

  10. Thermal annealing dynamics of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles studied by in-situ analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumeich, Frank, E-mail: krumeich@inorg.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Waser, Oliver; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The thermal behavior of core-shell carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}-C) nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) during annealing was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in-situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as well as ex-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Crystallization of the initially glassy LiFePO{sub 4}-C nanoparticles starts at quite low temperatures (T=400 °C), forming single crystals inside the confinement of the carbon shell. Upon increasing the temperature to T≥700 °C, LiFePO{sub 4} starts to diffuse through the carbon shell resulting in cavities inside the mostly intact carbon shell. By increasing the temperature further to T≥800 °C, the initial core-shell morphology converts into open carbon shells (flakes and cenospheres) and bulky LiFePO{sub 4} particles (diameter in the range 300–400 nm), in agreement with ex-situ experiments. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of a typical sample area recorded at room temperature and after heating in-situ heating reveal the growth of particles and the formation of empty carbon cages. - Highlights: • LiFePO{sub 4} coated by a carbon shell is produced by flame spray pyrolysis. • The amorphous LiFePO{sub 4} starts to crystallize at 400 °C as revealed by in-situ XRD. • Crystal growth was visualized by TEM heating experiments. • The formation of empty carbon cages starts at 700 °C.

  11. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN NAPL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  12. Thermal simulation of drift emplacement (TSS): In-situ instrumentation and numerical modeling of stress measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusermann, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the planned demonstration test Thermal Simulation of Drift Emplacement (TSS) BGR is carrying out in-situ-measurements of rock stresses, rock deformability and permeability of salt rock and backfill material. The following techniques developed and proved by BGR during the last years are planned to be used in the TSS project: overcoring technique, dilatometer technique, hard inclusion technique, slot-cutting techniques, large-flatjack technique, compensation tests in laboratory, vacuum tests, injection tests, and tracer tests. The purpose of measurements is to determine: the initial stress state; stress gradients around test drifts; stress change caused by mining activities, by creep and stress relaxation and by temperature; the in-situ load-deformation behavior of rock salt; the permeability of rock salt around test drifts; the compaction behavior of backfill material; and the load-deformation behavior of rock salt and borehole grout in laboratory tests

  13. In-situ thermal conductivity estimates in the Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An estimate of thermal conductivity was carried out in 21 well-spaced petroleum wells in the western Niger Delta using sonic and continuous temperature logs. The temperature logs were measured after the wells had attained thermal equilibrium as a result of drilling activities. Regional thermal conductivity varies from ...

  14. Thermal model of in-situ experiment of 32nd level Mysore mine, KGF. Report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, P.K.; Mathur, R.K.; Godse, V.B.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1985-01-01

    Canisters with immobilised high level radioactive wastes require isolation from the biosphere and need to be disposed of in a deep geological media so that radionuclides in the waste are contained in the media for extended period of time. Several countries are evaluating various host rocks for their suitability for location of a geological respository for such work. One of the main thrust of the present work in these countries is in conducting in-situ heater experiment to study the behaviour of the host rock at elevated temperature. The main purpose of the experiment is to evalutate the integrity of the rock by observing the propagation of microfractures consequent to thermal loading. This type of study would lead to optimisation of the spacing and depth of the bore holes and thus the economic usage of space deep underground. In India such thermomechanical experiments have been planned in abandoned chamber of Mysore and Nundydoorg mines of Kolar Gold Fields at the depths of about 1000m-1500m. The scope of the work detailed in this report is to provide guidance to the in situ experiment by developing thermal and thermomechanical models and to generate field data base of various thermal properties of the host rock to facilitate validation of the model. In addition it is also intended to form a basis for developing other complex models which can predict stresses and displacements. (author)

  15. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO 2 (g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO 3 - and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  16. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  17. Investigation on microstructure and thermal properties of in-situ synthesized Cu-ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmahdy, Marwa [Higher Technological Institute, Tenth of Ramadan (Egypt). Mechanical Dept.; Abouelmagd, Gamal; Mazen, Asaad A. [Minia Univ. (Egypt). Production Engineering and Design Dept.

    2017-12-15

    Cu-ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared by an in-situ reactive synthesis of copper nitrate Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl{sub 2}. Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) was added by 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.% to the Cu matrix to assess its effect on thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior. The results showed that ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles (30-50 nm) were homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. The measured thermal conductivity for the Cu-ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposites decreased from 372.8 to 94.4 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} with increasing ZrO{sub 2} content from 0 to 10 wt.%. Cu-10 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposite yields a low thermal conductivity of 94.4 W . m{sup -1} K{sup -1} along with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, 11.47 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}.

  18. Data Mining of the Thermal Performance of Cool-Pipes in Massive Concrete via In Situ Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded cool-pipes are very important for massive concrete because their cooling effect can effectively avoid thermal cracks. In this study, a data mining approach to analyzing the thermal performance of cool-pipes via in situ monitoring is proposed. Delicate monitoring program is applied in a high arch dam project that provides a good and mass data source. The factors and relations related to the thermal performance of cool-pipes are obtained in a built theory thermal model. The supporting vector machine (SVM technology is applied to mine the data. The thermal performances of iron pipes and high-density polyethylene (HDPE pipes are compared. The data mining result shows that iron pipe has a better heat removal performance when flow rate is lower than 50 L/min. It has revealed that a turning flow rate exists for iron pipe which is 80 L/min. The prediction and classification results obtained from the data mining model agree well with the monitored data, which illustrates the validness of the approach.

  19. N-Vinylcarbazole: As an Additive for Thermal Polymerization at Room Temperature with in situ Formation of Ag(0 Nanoparticules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Ali Tehfe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available N-vinylcarbazole (NVK is proposed as an additive for acrylates thermal free radical polymerization (FRP and epoxy thermal ring opening polymerization (ROP at room temperature. The new initiating systems are based on a silane/silver salt/N-vinylcarbazole interaction, which ensures good to excellent polymerization. Moreover, the polymerization is much more efficient under air than under argon. The effects of the N-vinylcarbazole, silane, silver salt and monomer structures are investigated. Interestingly, silver nanoparticles Ag(0 are formed in situ. The as-synthesized nanocomposite materials contained spherical nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrices. Polymers and nanoparticles were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. A coherent picture of the involved chemical mechanisms is presented.

  20. In Situ Analysis of the Li-O2 Battery with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode: Influence of Water Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Younesi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The Li-O2 battery technology holds the promise to deliver a battery with significantly increased specific energy compared to today's Li-ion batteries. As a cathode support material, reduced graphene oxide has received increasing attention in the Li-O2 battery community due to the possibility...... of increased discharge capacity, increased battery cyclability, and decreased, charging, overpotential. In this. article we investigate the effect of water on a thermally, redircedigraphene, oxide cathode in a Li-O2 battery. Differential electrochemical mass spectrciscnieveals a, decreased electron count......-of-the cathode and not only on addition of water to the electrolyte as demonstrated by the solution-based mechanism In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment using a new design of a capillary-based Li-O2 cell with a thermally reduced graphene oxide cathode shows formation of LiOH along with Li2O2....

  1. Thermal stability and in situ SiN passivation of InAlN/GaN high electron mobility heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugani, L.; Carlin, J.-F.; Py, M. A.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the thermal stability of nearly lattice-matched InAlN layers under metal organic vapor phase epitaxy conditions for temperatures >800 °C and show that they are not fully stable. In particular, InAlN top layers undergo degradation during high temperature annealing due to a surface related process, which causes the loss of crystal quality. This strongly impacts the transport properties of InAlN/GaN HEMT heterostructures; in particular, the mobility is significantly reduced. However, we demonstrate that high thermal stability can be achieved by capping with a GaN layer as thin as 0.5 nm. Those findings enabled us to realize in situ passivated HEMT heterostructures with state of the art transport properties.

  2. In situ electrical and thermal monitoring of printed electronics by two-photon mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Printed electronics is emerging as a new, large scale and cost effective technology that will be disruptive in fields such as energy harvesting, consumer electronics and medical sensors. The performance of printed electronic devices relies principally on the carrier mobility and molecular packing...... of the polymer semiconductor material. Unfortunately, the analysis of such materials is generally performed with destructive techniques, which are hard to make compatible with in situ measurements, and pose a great obstacle for the mass production of printed electronics devices. A rapid, in situ, non...

  3. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wei, Chaochen [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate.

  4. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd; Wei, Chaochen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate

  5. In-Situ Preparation of Aramid-Multiwalled CNT Nano-Composites: Morphology, Thermal Mechanical and Electric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Shiju

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work in-situ polymerization technique has been used to chemically link the functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs with aramid matrix chains. Phenylene diamine monomers were reacted in the first stage with the carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs and then amidized in-situ using terephthaloyl chloride generating chemically bonded CNTs with the matrix. Various proportions of the CNTs were used to prepare the hybrid materials. The functionalization procedure was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and composite morphology investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal mechanical properties of these hybrids, together with those where pristine CNTs with similar loadings were used, are compared using tensile and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The tensile strength and temperature involving α-relaxations on CNT loading increased with CNT loading in both systems, but much higher values, i.e., 267 MPa and 353 °C, respectively, were obtained in the chemically bonded system, which are related to the nature of the interface developed as observed in SE micrographs. The water absorption capacity of the films was significantly reduced from 6.2 to 1.45% in the presence pristine CNTs. The inclusion of pristine CNTs increased the electric conductivity of the aramid films with a minimum threshold value at the loading of 3.5 wt % of CNTs. Such mechanically strong and thermally stable aramid and easily processable composites can be suitable for various applications including high performance films, electromagnetic shielding and radar absorption.

  6. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  7. The Economy of Charity in Late Medieval Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Teresa Colesanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the financial management of the Hospital of the Annunziata in Naples and aims for a food for thought on the origins of the gift economy in Southern Italy during the Late Middle Ages. Thanks to the copious historical documentation, it has been possible to reconstruct and analyse: the remarkable financial assets, and the economic impact of the hospital, both in the city and in the kingdom; the economic and management competences of the hospital governors, their social class and geographical origin; the role played by the Royal Court and the Church in the construction process of a “Southern model” of charity network.

  8. Salvator Rosa e Napoli / Salvator Rosa and Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Liso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvator Rosa (Napoli, 1615- Roma 1673 fu pittore e poeta tra i più interessanti del secolo diciassettesimo. Il saggio intende indagare il complesso rapporto artistico e personale che Rosa ebbe con la città di Napoli, in cui era nato e dalla quale era quasi fuggito quando era poco più che un ragazzo. Attraverso una lettura delle principali fonti biobibliografiche a lui contemporanee, di alcune delle sue tele, dei versi delle Satire e di stralci delle lettere che a Napoli dedicherà, s’intende sottolineare che della capitale del Meridione la scrittura e l’arte di Salvator Rosa sono in grado di restituirci un’immagine altra rispetto a quella topica di Napoli gentile, perla luminosa di quella Campania felix che proprio nel Seicento attrae pittori e poeti da ogni parte d’Europa. Nei versi di Rosa, come nella scrittura in prosa, Napoli è, infatti, croce e delizia, prigione da cui fuggire e porto di quell’agognato ritorno che, al di là delle leggendarie asserzioni di alcuni biografi romantici, mai avverrà.   Salvator Rosa (Naples, 1615- Rome, 1673 was a painter and poet among the most interesting of the seventeenth century. The essay intends to investigate the complex artistic and personal relationship that Rosa had with the city of Naples, where she was born and from which she had fled when she was little more than a boy. Through a reading of the main biobibliographic sources to him contemporary, some of his canvases, the verses of the Satire and the excerpts of the letters that Naples will dedicate, it is meant to point out that in the capital of the South the writing and art of Salvator Rosa are Able to give us an image other than the topical one of Napoli's kind, bright pearl of the Campania felix that in the seventeenth century attracts painters and poets from all over Europe. In the lines of Rosa, as in prose writing, Naples is, in fact, a cross and delight, a prison from which to flee and bring about that auspicious return that

  9. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Fan, E-mail: lfan@ncu.edu.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Xiaofeng [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: > ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. > ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. > Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  10. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Li Fan; Chen Yiwang; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: → ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. → ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. → Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  11. In-Situ Real-Time Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for interfacial and in-depth temperature monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel, linear drive, eddy current methods...

  12. Study of the thermal transformations of Co- and Fe-exchanged zeolites A and X by 'in situ' XRD under reducing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchetti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.ronchetti@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Turcato, Elisa Aurelia; Delmastro, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Esposito, Serena; Ferone, Claudio; Pansini, Michele [Laboratorio Materiali del Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Facolta di Ingegneria dell' Universita di Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Onida, Barbara; Mazza, Daniele [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    'In situ' high temperature X-ray diffraction under reducing atmosphere is used for the first time to study the thermal stability and transformations of Co- and Fe-exchanged A and X zeolites. TG-DTA and 'ex situ' XRD characterization were also carried out. The temperature of incipient crystallization of metallic phase was found to be 700 {sup o}C in Fe-zeolites and 800 {sup o}C in Co-zeolites. Moreover, ex situ X-ray experiments, after thermal treatment both under inert and reducing atmosphere, revealed the formation of ceramic phases upon the thermal collapse of the zeolitic framework. Metal nanoparticles were obtained by reduction and the size of metal clusters was found to range between 24 and 40 nm.

  13. Osmotic and thermal effects on in situ ATPase activity in permeabilized gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KÜLtz; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Long-jawed mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were acclimated to sea water (SW) at 7 °C, SW at 26 °C or dilute sea water (DSW) at 26 °C for 5 months. Gill cells were isolated and the proportion of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was determined. The number of cells harvested amounted to 4.7x10(7)±0.6x10(7) to 10.6x10(7)±1.1x10(7) and the yield was between 7.1x10(8)±0.6x10(8) and 10.7x10(8)±1.4x10(8) cells g-1 gill epithelial mass. Cell viability was 96.8±0.4 to 97.8±0.6 %. The number, size and volume of MR cells decreased significantly during DSW acclimation, but did not change during thermal acclimation. The protein content was not influenced by osmotic or thermal acclimation and ranged between 20.0±1.6 and 22.1±1.5 pg cell-1. Using a new method, which is based on the formation of plasma membrane channels by alamethicin, we were able to permeabilize gill cells. For the first time, the Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities of fish gills were determined in intact cells in situ. The activity of both ATPases was dependent on alamethicin concentration (optimum 100 µg mg-1 protein) and on preincubation time (optimum 10 min). The in situ activity of both ATPases was influenced by osmotic, but not thermal, acclimation. A positive linear correlation was found between in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume. However, we show, for the first time, that a negative linear correlation exists between H+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume, suggesting a localization of H+-ATPase in pavement cells. In permeabilized cells, the activity of both ATPases was 2.6­3.9 times higher than that of crude homogenates and 1.6­2.1 times higher than that of permeabilized homogenate vesicles. We hypothesize that in crude homogenates three-quarters of Na+/K+-ATPase and two-thirds of H+-ATPase activity are not detectable both because of a mixture of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles and because of the disruption of membrane and enzyme integrity.

  14. Centro Direzionale of Naples. A “Smart” Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Canfora

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of urban planning linked to the growth of smart cities is now quite common also in the urban-sociological debate. Recent studies (Besselaar, Koizumi, 2005; Fistola, 2010 identify the main focus of the smart city no longer exclusively in the strategic role played by ICT infrastructures, but above all in the factors enabling urban growth, defined as the ability to stimulate innovative urban developments, along with an increasing attention to the environment, eco-design, improved living levels, as well as the "bio-socio-environmental capital" (Corbisiero, 2013. Based on this theoretical background, the paper highlights the results of a research conducted in Naples on the empirical case of the "Centro Direzionale". It is an intervention of urban design of considerable impact on the city. The design and construction of the Centro Direzionale of Naples is, in fact, an archetype of the smart city; a primal testing of "urban intelligence" in terms of transport systems, infrastructure, logistics, systems for energy efficiency and technology. More generally, a good practice of city administration and of exploitation of strategic spatial planning.

  15. In situ measurement of the thermal conductivity in propylite rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Kenji; Araki, Kunio; Suda, Shintaro.

    1982-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the geological disposal of the high level waste becomes an urgent problem to establish the backend of nuclear fuel cycle. The stability of the original host rock and the flow of groundwater will be perturbed by the thermal disturbances from the waste. So the heater experiment at a depth of 90 m below the surface was carried out to study the conduction of decay heat. For measuring the thermal conductivity of propylite rock mass, a cylindrical heater and 13 thermocouples were inserted in 6 boreholes. The power output of the heater was kept at 880 W constant during the experimental periods of 61 days. From the observed temperature rise around the heater, the thermal conductivity 2.1 W/m 0 C was calculated by steady-state calculation. The value of the rock mass was found to be slightly bigger compared with 1.5 - 1.6 W/m 0 C of core samples. (author)

  16. In-situ long-term thermal performance of impermeably face polyiso foam boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyaya, Phalguni; Normandin, Nicole; Van Reenen, David; Lackey, John [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Reserch in Construction, Ottawa, (Canada); Drouin, Michel [Consultant, Dorion, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Closed-cell polyisocyanurate (polyiso) foam insulation products are widely used in building envelope constructions as they have one of the highest R-values per unit thickness among the insulations used in the construction industry. The introduction of impermeable facers on the surface of polyiso rigid board is aimed at enhancing the long-term thermal resistance (LTTR) properties of the foam. This paper evaluated the thermal performance of impermeably faced polyiso boards after more than six years of field exposure. Boards were installed and instrumented at NRC-IRC's field test facility. Field monitoring was performed on a regular basis for six years of exposure until 2008. Then, nine specimens were cut from the boards which were removed from the test hut to evaluate their thermal characteristic using a heat flow meter apparatus. It was found that the impermeably faced polyiso foam insulation boards aged significantly.

  17. Comparison of residual NAPL source removal techniques in 3D metric scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, O.; Jousse, F.; Cohen, G.; Höhener, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study compared four treatment techniques for the removal of a toluene/n-decane as NAPL (Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) phase mixture in identical 1 cubic meter tanks filled with different kind of sand. These four treatment techniques were: oxidation with persulfate, surfactant washing with Tween80®, sparging with air followed by ozone, and thermal treatment at 80 °C. The sources were made with three lenses of 26 × 26 × 6.5 cm, one having a hydraulic conductivity similar to the whole tank and the two others a value 10 times smaller. The four techniques were studied after conditioning the tanks with tap water during approximately 80 days. The persulfate treatment tests showed average removal of the contaminants but significant flux decrease if density effects are considered. Surfactant flushing did not show a highly significant increase of the flux of toluene but allowed an increased removal rate that could lead to an almost complete removal with longer treatment time. Sparging removed a significant amount but suggests that air was passing through localized gas channels and that the removal was stagnating after removing half of the contamination. Thermal treatment reached 100% removal after the target temperature of 80 °C was kept during more than 10 d. The experiments emphasized the generation of a high-spatial heterogeneity in NAPL content. For all the treatments the overall removal was similar for both n-decane and toluene, suggesting that toluene was removed rapidly and n-decane more slowly in some zones, while no removal existed in other zones. The oxidation and surfactant results were also analyzed for the relation between contaminant fluxes at the outlet and mass removal. For the first time, this approach clearly allowed the differentiation of the treatments. As a conclusion, experiments showed that the most important differences between the tested treatment techniques were not the global mass removal rates but the time required to reach 99% decrease in

  18. In-situ observation of crack propagation in thermally sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, R.; Kovářík, O.; Matějíček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 7 (2010), s. 1807-1811 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : coating fracture * in-situ observation * alumina * stainless steel * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=GatewayURL&_method=citationSearch&_uoikey=B6TVV-4YTFBCY-5&_origin=SDEMFRHTML&_version=1&md5=896533bcc989ebaa374ff209558fbcf1

  19. Kinetically controlled fabrication of gold nanorods and investigation of their thermal stability via in-situ TEM heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankhunthod, N.; Aslam, Z.; Critchley, K.; Evans, S. D.; Brydson, R.

    2017-09-01

    Size controlled CTAB-capped AuNRs with various aspect ratios (ARs) ranging from 1.63±0.13 to 4.12±0.25 were synthesized following a modified seed-mediated method. Their thermal stability was examined by in-situ TEM heating. The results revealed a structural change from rods to spheres with increasing temperature. At lower temperatures 600ºC, particles became increasingly spherical. This behaviour occurred at temperatures lower than the melting point of bulk gold supporting a surface diffusion mechanism with material diffusing from the tips and redepositing at the middle of the rods. The rate of change in AR appeared to increase for thinner AuNRs.

  20. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  1. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  2. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botan, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Telma R.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  3. In situ SANS study of pore microstructure in YSZ thermal barrier coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunz, Pavel; Schumacher, G.; Vassen, R.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 11 (2004), s. 3305-3312 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : plasma spraying * thermal barrier coatings * ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2004

  4. In situ performance and potential applications of a thermal bed-load measurement method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods to detect the flow condition at the pipeline invert are reviewed. New results of a small heated plate inserted into a non-metallic pipe are presented. This thermal method is based on mini-heaters and can detect erratic flow behaviour near...

  5. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy He{sup +} implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntifering, Brittany, E-mail: brmunti@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208 (United States); Fang, Youwu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208 (United States); Leff, Asher C. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dunn, Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 (United States); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech CNRS, 57070, Metz (France); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208 (United States); School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States); Taheri, Mitra L. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dingreville, Remi; Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The high density of interfaces in nanostructured materials are hypothesized to improve radiation tolerance compared to coarse-grained materials. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium, both room temperature in situ TEM He{sup +} implantation and annealing, as well as high temperature He{sup +} implantation was performed on nanocrystalline iron. Dislocation loops are formed by the accumulation of mobile point defects rather than by displacement cascades at intermediate temperatures. Around 600 °C, loops disappeared through gradual shrinking, which is hypothesized to correspond to the annihilation of self-interstitial atoms by mobile vacancies that also resulted in cavity formation. The room temperature implantation resulted in cavities evenly distributed throughout the grain after annealing, whereas cavities were predominately observed at grain boundaries for the elevated temperature implantation. This difference is associated with the formation of stable helium-vacancy complexes in the grains during room temperature implantation, which is not present during high temperature implantation. - Highlights: • In situ TEM He{sup +} implantation and annealing was performed on nanocrystalline iron. • Small grains limited loop size and resulted in complete disappearance of loops by 600 °C. • Implantation followed by annealing resulted in cavities evenly distributed through grain. • Cavities predominately observed at grain boundaries after He{sup +} implantation at 600 °C.

  6. In situ electrical and thermal monitoring of printed electronics by two-photon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolò; Jørgensen, Mikkel; van Hulst, Niek F; Krebs, Frederik C

    2017-06-19

    Printed electronics is emerging as a new, large scale and cost effective technology that will be disruptive in fields such as energy harvesting, consumer electronics and medical sensors. The performance of printed electronic devices relies principally on the carrier mobility and molecular packing of the polymer semiconductor material. Unfortunately, the analysis of such materials is generally performed with destructive techniques, which are hard to make compatible with in situ measurements, and pose a great obstacle for the mass production of printed electronics devices. A rapid, in situ, non-destructive and low-cost testing method is needed. In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to achieve this goal. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence and second harmonic response. We show that, in our experimental conditions, it is possible to relate the total amount of photoluminescence detected to important material properties such as the charge carrier density and the molecular packing of the printed polymer material, all with a spatial resolution of 400 nm. Importantly, this technique can be extended to the real time mapping of the polymer semiconductor film, even during the printing process, in which the high printing speed poses the need for equally high acquisition rates.

  7. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ihlefeld, J. [Electronic, Optical, and Nanomaterials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  8. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V.; Ihlefeld, J.

    2014-01-01

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO 2 /(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  9. In situ spray deposition of cell-loaded, thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel coatings for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivaner Kara, Meryem O; Ekenseair, Adam K

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the efficacy of creating cellular hydrogel coatings on warm tissue surfaces through the minimally invasive, sprayable delivery of thermoresponsive liquid solutions was investigated. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based (pNiPAAm) thermogelling macromers with or without addition of crosslinking polyamidoamine (PAMAM) macromers were synthesized and used to produce in situ forming thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel systems. The effect of solution and process parameters on hydrogel physical properties and morphology was evaluated and compared to poly(ethylene glycol) and injection controls. Smooth, fast, and conformal hydrogel coatings were obtained when pNiPAAm thermogelling macromers were sprayed with high PAMAM concentration at low pressure. Cellular hydrogel coatings were further fabricated by different spraying techniques: single-stream, layer-by-layer, and dual stream methods. The impact of spray technique, solution formulation, pressure, and spray solution viscosity on the viability of fibroblast and osteoblast cells encapsulated in hydrogels was elucidated. In particular, the early formation of chemically crosslinked micronetworks during bulk liquid flow was shown to significantly affect cell viability under turbulent conditions compared to injectable controls. The results demonstrated that sprayable, in situ forming hydrogels capable of delivering cell populations in a homogeneous therapeutic coating on diseased tissue surfaces offer promise as novel therapies for applications in regenerative medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2383-2393, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Inhomogeneous thermal expansion of metallic glasses in atomic-scale studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghvaei, Amir Hossein, E-mail: amirtaghvaei@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakur Shahabi, Hamed [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Bednarčik, Jozef [Photon Science DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    Numerous investigations have demonstrated that the elastic strain in metallic glasses subjected to mechanical loading could be inhomogeneous in the atomic-scale and it increases with distance from an average atom and eventually reaches the macroscopic strain at larger inter-atomic distances. We have observed a similar behavior for the thermal strain imposed by heating of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} glassy particles below the glass transition temperature by analysis of the scattering data obtained by in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results imply that the volumetric thermal strains calculated from the shift in position of the principal diffraction maximum and reduced pair correlation function (PDF) peaks are in good agreement for the length scales beyond 0.6 nm, corresponding to the atoms located over the third near-neighbor shell. However, smaller and even negative volumetric thermal strains have been calculated based on the shifts in the positions of the second and first PDF peaks, respectively. The structural changes of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} glassy particles are accompanied by decreasing the average coordination number of the first near-neighbor shell, which manifests the occurrence of local changes in the short-range order upon heating. It is believed that the detected length-scale dependence of the volumetric thermal strain is correlated with the local atomic rearrangements taking place in the topologically unstable regions of the glass governed by variations in the atomic-level stresses.

  11. Determination of NAPL contamination and evolution of remediation by means nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.; Flores, J. H.; Villegas, D.; Schubert, M.; Knoller, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the application of two nuclear techniques is presented: Natural radioactive tracer and stable isotopics tracer, that allow the localization and delimitation of the contamination in ground and underground water for hydrocarbons denominated NAPL. The work was carry out on the whole and with access permission to facilities and technical information, in a storage center and distribution of fuel of hydrocarbons where occurred a spill for hydrocarbons, approaching actions of remediation that allow to the date to fulfill the normative one applicable. By means of measurement of 222 Rn, in situ, it was possible to be related its ground concentration to the degree of contamination previously determined; the evaluation of 222 Rn in underground water in group with the determination of stable isotope δ 34 S, δ 18 O and δ 13 C as well as the dissolved inorganic coal allowed to locate the contamination source in underground water to 100 m of depth in the aquifer and to determine the existence of a natural bioremediation. (Author)

  12. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  13. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs

  14. In-situ spinelization and thermal shock performance of refractory castables

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, G. B.; Braulio, M. A. L.; Brito, M. A. M.; Bittencourt, L. R. M.; Pandolfelli, V. C.

    2008-01-01

    O desempenho de uma panela siderúrgica está atrelado ao seu revestimento refratário. Devido à elevada agressividade da escória presente no aço fundido, é fundamental a utilização de revestimentos de alta resistência à corrosão. Concretos refratários aluminosos contendo espinélio são amplamente utilizados em tal aplicação por apresentarem esta característica. Neste contexto, destacam-se os concretos refratários do sistema alumina-magnésia, uma vez que a formação de espinélio in-situ é benéfica...

  15. First field test of NAPL detection with high resolution borehole seismic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, Jil T.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this field test is to evaluate the detectability of NAPLs by high resolution tomographic borehole seismic imaging. The site is a former Department of Energy (DOE) manufacturing facility in Pinellas County, Florida. Cross-hole seismic and radar measurements were made in a shallow aquifer contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Cone penetration test (CPT) and induction logging were performed for lithology and conductivity, respectively. The main challenge is to distinguish fluid phase heterogeneities from anomalies arising from geologic structure. Our approach is to compare measurements between locations of known contamination with a nearby uncontaminated location of similar lithology where differences in signal transmission may be attributed to fluid phase changes. The CPT data show similar lithologic structure at the locations both within and outside the NAPL-contaminated area. Zones of low seismic amplitude at about 7 m depth appear more extensive in the NAPL-contaminated area. These zones may be the result of fluid phase heterogeneities (NAPL or gas), or they may be due to the lithology, i.e. attenuating nature of the layer itself, or the transition between two distinct layers. The presence of lithologic contrasts, specifically from higher permeability sands to lower permeability silts and clays, also indicate potential locations of NAPL, as they could be flow barriers to downward NAPL migration

  16. Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: Field-scale test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annable, M.D.; Rao, P.S.C.; Hatfield, K.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The difficult task of locating and quantifying nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) present in the vadose and saturated zones has prompted the development of innovative, nondestructive characterization techniques. The use of the interwell partitioning tracer's (IWPT) test, in which tracers that partition into the NAPL phase are displaced through the aquifer, is an attractive alternative to traditional coring and analysis. The first field test of IWPT was conducted in a hydraulically isolated test cell to quantify the total amount of a complex NAPL (a mixture of JP-4 jet fuel and chlorinated solvents) trapped within a 1.5-m smear zone in a shallow, unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. Tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) were measured in three extraction wells (EWs) following a tracer pulse introduction through four injection wells (IWs). The measured retardation of the partitioning tracer (2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanol) relative to the nonreactive tracer (bromide) was used to quantify the NAPL present. The EW data were used to estimate an average NAPL saturation of 4.6--5.4% within the test cell. NAPL saturations estimated by using measured concentrations in soil cores of two significant compounds present in the NAPL were 3.0 and 4.6%

  17. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling of Pooled NAPL Dissolution in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copty, N. K.; Sarikurt, D. A.; Gokdemir, C.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) entrapped in porous media is commonly modeled at the continuum scale as the product of a chemical potential and an interphase mass transfer coefficient, the latter expressed in terms of Sherwood correlations that are related to flow and porous media properties. Because of the lack of precise estimates of the interface area separating the NAPL and aqueous phase, numerous studies have lumped the interfacial area into the interphase mass transfer coefficient. In this paper controlled dissolution experiments from a pooled NAPL were conducted. The immobile NAPL mass is placed at the bottom of a flow cell filled with porous media with water flowing on top. Effluent aqueous phase concentrations were measured for a wide range of aqueous phase velocities and for two types of porous media. To interpret the experimental results, a two-dimensional pore network model of the NAPL dissolution was developed. The well-defined geometry of the NAPL-water interface and the observed effluent concentrations were used to compute best-fit mass transfer coefficients and non-lumped Sherwood correlations. Comparing the concentrations predicted with the pore network model to simple previously used one-dimensional analytic solutions indicates that the analytic model which ignores the transverse dispersion can lead to over-estimation of the mass transfer coefficient. The predicted Sherwood correlations are also compared to previously published data and implications on NAPL remediation strategies are discussed.

  18. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Manna, Liberato; Longo, Paolo; Buha, Joka; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Lazar, Sorin; Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Prato, Mirko; Li, Hongbo; Ghosh, Sandeep; Palazon, Francisco; De Donato, Francesco; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Zuddas, Efisio; Falqui, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  19. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  20. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto

    2016-01-27

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  1. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  2. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M; Fink, J K [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  3. Poetry or pathology? Jesuit hypochondria in early modern Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    In their didactic poems on fishing and chocolate, both published in 1689, two Neapolitan Jesuits digressed to record and lament a devastating 'plague' of 'hypochondria'. The poetic plagues of Niccolò Giannettasio and Tommaso Strozzi have literary precedents in Lucretius, Vergil, and Fracastoro, but it will be argued that they also have a real, contemporary significance. Hypochondria was considered to be a serious (and epidemic) illness in the seventeenth century, with symptoms ranging from depression to delusions. Not only did our Jesuit poets claim to have suffered from it, but so did prominent members of the 'Accademia degl'Investiganti', a scientific society in Naples that was at odds with both the religious and medical establishments.

  4. The Accounting Register of a Royal Secretary in Aragonese Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the crucial years of the succession war that involved the Kingdom of Naples after Alfonso the Magnanimous’death (1459-1464, a secretary of the new king Ferrante I of Aragon, Antonello Petrucci, was entrusted with royal financial charges. He therefore compiled an account book, where receipts and payments of the royal finances were carefully recorded. It has been recently discovered: this paper aims at examining its actual framework as well as the relative volume of the state budget. Because of its new and comprehensive body of evidence, Petrucci’s account book is a very useful source, which may provide additional informations not only on the bulk of the state funds and expenditure but also on the structure of the king’s household and on the system of the royal financial administration, which appears now as characterized by a more complex organization than it was supposed to be in the past.

  5. Experimental Determination of in Situ Utilization of Lunar Regolith for Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1993-01-01

    A Lunar Thermal Energy from Regolith (LUTHER) experiment has been designed and fabricated at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine the feasibility of using lunar soil as thermal energy storage media. The experimental apparatus includes an alumina ceramic canister (25.4 cm diameter by 45.7 cm length) which contains simulated lunar regolith, a heater (either radiative or conductive), 9 heat shields, a heat transfer cold jacket, and 19 type B platinum rhodium thermocouples. The simulated lunar regolith is a basalt, mined and processed by the University of Minnesota, that closely resembles the lunar basalt returned to earth by the Apollo missions. The experiment will test the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density on the thermophysical properties of the regolith. The properties include melt temperature (range), specific heat, thermal conductivity, and latent heat of storage. Two separate tests, using two different heaters, will be performed to study the effect of heating the system using radiative and conductive heat transfer. The physical characteristics of the melt pattern, material compatibility of the molten regolith, and the volatile gas emission will be investigated by heating a portion of the lunar regolith to its melting temperature (1435 K) in a 10(exp -4) pascal vacuum chamber, equipped with a gas spectrum analyzer. A finite differencing SINDA model was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to predict the performance of the LUTHER experiment. The analytical results of the code will be compared with the experimental data generated by the LUTHER experiment. The code will predict the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density has on the heat transfer to the simulated regolith.

  6. Analysis of Thermal Structure of Arctic Lakes at Local and Regional Scales Using in Situ and Multidate Landsat-8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hongxing; Hinkel, Kenneth; Yu, Bailang; Beck, Richard; Wu, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic coastal plain is covered with numerous thermokarst lakes. These lakes are closely linked to climate and environmental change through their heat and water budgets. We examined the intralake thermal structure at the local scale and investigated the water temperature pattern of lakes at the regional scale by utilizing extensive in situ measurements and multidate Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Our analysis indicates that the lake skin temperatures derived from satellite thermal sensors during most of the ice-free summer period effectively represent the lake bulk temperature because the lakes are typically well-mixed and without significant vertical stratification. With the relatively high-resolution Landsat-8 thermal data, we were able to quantitatively examine intralake lateral temperature differences and gradients in relation to geographical location, topography, meteorological factors, and lake morphometry for the first time. Our results suggest that wind speed and direction not only control the vertical stratification but also influences lateral differences and gradients of lake surface temperature. Wind can considerably reduce the intralake temperature gradient. Interestingly, we found that geographical location (latitude, longitude, distance to the ocean) and lake morphometry (surface size, depth, volume) not only control lake temperature regionally but also affect the lateral temperature gradient and homogeneity level within each individual lake. For the Arctic coastal plain, at regional scales, inland and southern lakes tend to have larger horizontal temperature differences and gradients compared to coastal and northern lakes. At local scales, large and shallow lakes tend to have large lateral temperature differences relative to small and deep lakes.

  7. A Mobile Remote Lab System to Monitor in Situ Thermal Solar Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Saez de Arregui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design and development of interconnected devices which allow monitoring in situ the performance of solar boilers. This mobile remote lab system comprises two huge blocks of hardware: a mobile station located by the boiler, which is monitored and controlled in a remote way, and a fixed station, located in the Laboratory of Energy for the Sustained Development of the Universidad Nacional de Rosario. The communication between the fixed and mobile devices is controlled by microcontrollers included in both stations and programmed in C language. The project is being developed through three parallel lines of work: 1 Design and development of fixed and mobile hardware; 2 Development of firmware and software necessary to register and communicate data; 3 Design and development of learning activities. This mobile remote lab will be useful to test the behavior of solar boilers in the place and environmental conditions where they are placed so as to evaluate their performance and efficiency anywhere. This is also in order to contribute for the implementation of norms for the certification of solar boilers. On the other hand, the data and results obtained from the development will be used as supplies for the design of learning activities

  8. Study of the in-situ thermal transformations of Limonite used as pigment coming from Peru; Estudio in-situ de la transformacion termica de limonita utilizada como pigmento procedente de Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Bustamente, A.; Ruiz-conde, A.; Sanchez-Soto, P. J.

    2013-06-01

    It has been performed a kinetic study of the thermal transformation of Limonite [FeO(OH).nH{sub 2}O] by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), thermal X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and {mu}-Raman spectroscopy. The mineral was extracted from the Taraco District, Huancane Province, Puno region (Peru). Powdered XRD identify goethite phase as the main mineralogical component besides quartz. It was subjected to in-situ thermal treatment in the range of temperatures 100 to 500 degree centigrade in air and an inert atmosphere (nitrogen). The goethite phase remains stable from room temperature until 200 degree centigrade. From 250 degree centigrade there is a phase transformation {alpha}-FeO(OH) {yields}{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 8 wt % weight loss and a chromatic change, i.e., the change of the hydroxylated goethite phase (yellow) to oxided hematite phase (red), as evidenced by the TGA and evolution of the XRD profiles. Moreover, the {mu}-Raman spectra of the in-situ thermal treatment corroborate that there is a transition at 290 degree centigrade by the transformation of the characteristic Raman bands of the goethite to hematite phase, in the frequency range from 200 to 1800cm{sup -}1. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. The migration and monitoring of viscous NAPLs (coal tar and creosote) in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Heidelberg, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The high viscosity of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as creosote and coal tar complicates efforts to monitor their mobility at contaminated sites. Viscous NAPLs can remain mobile for many decades after their application as a wood preservative, or after the closure of the facilities in which they were generated. NAPL-wet pathways in the subsurface can also lead to errors in residual saturation measurements. This abstract discussed issues related to creeping flow and the low seepage rates that are not accounted for using traditional measuring methods. Examples of creeping flow and the monitoring techniques used to assess it were presented for sites in British Columbia and Florida. The drainage of viscous NAPLs during water table declines was also considered, and a case study of a coal tar-removal procedures using polymer surfactant flooding was presented.

  10. COMPATIBILITY OF NAPLS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH MATERIALS UED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural integrity of well construction, sampling, and remediation materials may be compromised at many hazardous sites by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and their dissolved constituents. A literature review of compatibility theory and qualitative field experiences are provid...

  11. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Research: a bridge Naples-USA. Naples, December 6th-7 th2010"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maio Michele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress in understanding the molecular basis of melanoma has made possible the identification of molecular targets with important implications in clinical practice. In fact, new therapeutic approaches are emerging from basic science and it will be important to implement their rapid translation into clinical practice by active clinical investigation. The first meeting of Melanoma Research: a bridge Naples-USA, organized by Paolo A. Ascierto (INT, Naples, Italy and Francesco Marincola (NIH, Bethesda, USA took place in Naples, on 6-7 December 2010. This international congress gathered more than 30 international and Italian faculty members and was focused on recent advances in melanoma molecular biology, immunology and therapy, and created an interactive discussion across Institutions belonging to Government, Academy and Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to stimulate new approaches in basic, translational and clinical research. Four topics of discussion were identified: New pathways in Melanoma, Biomarkers, Clinical Trials and New Molecules and Strategies.

  12. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K., E-mail: tkm@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Assam, (India)

    2013-11-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  13. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer–nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of microcellular polyimide/in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Yu, Zhi; Wu, Peng; Zou, Huawei; Liu, Pengbo

    2018-03-01

    A simple and effective method was adopted to fabricate microcellular polyimide (PI)/reduced graphene oxide (GO)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites. Firstly, microcellular poly (amic acid) (PAA)/GO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared through solvent evaporation induced phase separation. In this process, PAA and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) co-dissolved in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) underwent phase separation with DMAc evaporating, and DBP microdomains were formed in continuous PAA phase. Subsequently, PAA was thermally imidized and simultaneously GO was in situ reduced. After DBP was removed, the microcellular PI/reduced GO (RGO)/MWCNTs nanocomposites were finally obtained. When the initial filler loading was 8 wt%, the electrical conductivity of microcellular PI/RGO, PI/MWCNTs and PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were 0.05, 0.02 and 1.87 S·m-1, respectively, and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of microcellular PI/RGO, PI/MWCNTs and PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were 13.7-15.1, 13.0-14.3 and 16.6-18.2 dB, respectively. The synergistic effect between RGO and MWCNTs enhanced both the electrical conductivity and EMI shielding performance of the microcellular PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites. The dominating EMI shielding mechanism for these materials was microwave absorption. While the initial loading of GO and MWCNT was 8 wt%, the microcellular PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposite (500 μm thickness) had extremely high specific EMI SE value of 755-823 dB·cm2·g-1. Its thermal stability was also obviously improved, the 5% weight loss temperature in nitrogen was 548 °C. In addition, it also possessed a high Young's modulus of 789 MPa.

  15. Buildings Indicators for Sustainable Mobility: the District of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro D'Amico

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is a major component in ensuring freedom of movement and good quality of life. It is strictly associated to the concept of sustainability, considering that more than 70% of European citizens live in urban areas.Traffic volumes and congestion, air quality, noise pollution, consumption of non renewable resources, greenhouse gas emissions, social exclusion and urban sprawl are significant challenges to achieve sustainable urban mobility. This is one of the most important goals of the Coordination Plan of the District of Naples (PTCP. In this paper, we show the process of research, selection, valuation, weighting and synthesis of a set of indicators to monitor sustainable mobility during the realization process of the PTCP.Two urban areas lacking infrastructure connections are considered: North Naples and Giuglianese. According to the Planning Code, the GIS Office and the Planning Office are responsible for choosing the set of indicators and its application, and for evaluating if the goals of the PTCP are achievable and if corrective actions should be undertaken as well.The Environmental Report attached to the Plan sets down to link each topic of the plan to a unique index resulting from a set of specific indicators. One of the results of this study was the selection of 22 indicators for sustainable mobility.They were the outcome of the intersection between the lists available in scientific literature and the databases available for the District of Naples. As set down by the PTCP Planning Code, a top down approach was adopted Therefore indicators were selected by technicians. However, a bottom up approach, i.e. citizenship and stakeholders select indicators, would have resulted in a more transparent process. This study applied a rating method named allocation of budget to weight indicators. Weights determined the importance of each indicator compared to the others.After the weighting procedure, the aggregation of indicators into a single

  16. Development of cellulase-nanoconjugates with enhanced ionic liquid and thermal stability for in situ lignocellulose saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Jasneet; Ahmad, Razi; Khare, S K

    2017-10-01

    The present work aimed to improve catalytic efficiency of Trichoderma reesei cellulase for enhanced saccharification. The cellulase was immobilized on two nanomatrices i.e. magnetic and silica nanoparticles with immobilization efficiency of 85% and 76% respectively. The nanobioconjugates exhibited increase in V max , temperature optimum, pH and thermal stability as compared with free enzyme. These could be efficiently reused for five repeated cycles and were stable in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumacetate [EMIM][Ac], an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids (IL) are used as green solvents to dissolve lignocellulosic biomass and facilitate better saccharification. The cellulase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles was used for in situ saccharification of [EMIM][Ac] pretreated sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw for two cycles. The structural deconstruction and decrease in biomass crystallinity was confirmed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The high hydrolysis yields (∼89%) obtained in this one-pot process coupled with IL stability and recycled use of immobilized cellulase, potentiates its usefulness in biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ probing of temperature in radio frequency thermal plasma using Yttrium ion emission lines during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Tiwari, N.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ghorui, S.

    2017-07-01

    Particle feeding is used in the most important applications of radio frequency (r.f.) thermal plasmas like synthesis of nanoparticles and particle spheroidization. The study reports an in-situ investigation of radial distribution of temperature in such devices using yttrium ion emission lines under different rates of particle loading during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles. A number of interesting facts about the response of r.f. plasma to the rate of particle loading, hitherto unknown, are revealed. Observed phenomena are supported with experimental data from fast photographic experiments and actual synthesis results. The use of the Abel inversion technique together with simultaneous multi-track acquisition of emission spectra from different spatial locations using a CCD based spectrometer allowed us to extract accurate distribution of temperature inside the plasma in the presence of inherent instabilities. The temperature profiles of this type of plasma have been measured possibly for the first time while particles are being fed into the plasma. Observed changes in the temperature profiles as the particle feed rate increases are very significant. Reaction forces resulting from particle evaporation, and increased skin depth owing to the decrease in electrical conductivity in the edge region are proposed as the two different mechanisms to account for the observed changes in the temperature profile as the powder feed rate is increased. Quantitative analyses supporting the proposed mechanisms are presented.

  18. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Methods Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (θ50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. θ50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17–2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When θ50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Conclusions Tb and θ50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination. PMID:24201139

  19. In situ sonochemical reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide: A robust approach with thermal and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktedar, Shrikant S; Mehetre, Shantilal S; Avashthi, Gopal; Singh, Man

    2017-01-01

    The rapid, robust, scalable and non-hazardous sonochemical approach for in situ reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide has been developed for non-toxic biomedical applications. The graphene oxide (GrO) was directly functionalized with tryptamine (TA) without using any hazardous acylating and coupling reagents. The reaction was completed within 20min. An impact of ultrasound was inferred for a direct functionalization with other conventional methods. The evolved electronic states were confirmed with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The direct covalent functionalization and formation of f-(TA) GrO was proven with FTIR, 13 C solid state NMR, XPS, XRD, Raman' HRTEM, AFM and TGA. The total percentage weight loss in TGA confirms an enhanced thermal stability of f-(TA) GrO. The f-(TA) GrO was further explored for an investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity to ensure the health and environmental safety. An outstanding antibacterial activity of f-(TA) GrO was found against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus at MIC 128mgmL -1 . It confirms a suitability of f-(TA) GrO for thermally stable antibacterial coating. The f-(TA) GrO showed 39.14-48.9% antioxidant activities, evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The inherent cytotoxicity of f-(TA) GrO was evaluated with SRB assay to living cells, MCF-7 and Vero. The estimated cell viabilities were >80% upon addition of f-(TA) GrO over a wide concentration range of 10-80μgmL -1 . The high cytocompatibility of f-(TA) GrO confirms the low toxicity and an excellent biocompatibility. The morphological effect on Vero cell line, evidently confirmed the biocompatibility of f-(TA) GrO. Therefore, f-(TA) GrO was emerged as an advanced functional biomaterial for thermal and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal expansion behavior study of Co nanowire array with in situ x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Guang; Cai, Quan; Jiang, Longsheng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Kunhao; Cheng, Weidong; Xing, Xueqing; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure techniques were used to study the structural change of ordered Co nanowire array with temperature. The results show that the Co nanowires are polycrystalline with hexagonal close packed structure without phase change up until 700 °C. A nonlinear thermal expansion behavior has been found and can be well described by a quadratic equation with the first-order thermal expansion coefficient of 4.3×10-6/°C and the second-order thermal expansion coefficient of 5.9×10-9/°C. The mechanism of this nonlinear thermal expansion behavior is discussed.

  1. Influence of in situ synthesized TiC on thermal stability and corrosion behavior of Zr60Cu10Al15Ni15 amorphous composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiwei; Teng, Xinying; Zhou, Guorong; Leng, Jinfeng; Zhao, Degang

    2014-01-01

    In situ synthesized TiC particles were prepared by a thermal explosion method. Adding “in situ synthesized” TiC into Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 glass matrix to obtain amorphous matrix composites was achieved. The corrosion behavior of Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 amorphous composites was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at room temperature. The results show that the microhardness and thermal stability are improved apparently, while the TiC (≤0.6 wt%) does not significantly affect the supercooled liquid behavior. Moreover, the corrosion resistance is improved apparently because the nanocrystals accelerate the diffusion of passive elements for faster formation of the protective passive film at nanocrystals/amorphous interfaces. However, when the TiC content is more than 0.6 wt%, both glass forming ability and corrosion resistance are reduced significantly

  2. A lead isotope perspective on urban development in ancient Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Keenan-Jones, Duncan; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud-Godet, Florent; Romano, Paola; Albarède, Francis

    2016-05-31

    The influence of a sophisticated water distribution system on urban development in Roman times is tested against the impact of Vesuvius volcanic activity, in particular the great eruption of AD 79, on all of the ancient cities of the Bay of Naples (Neapolis). Written accounts on urbanization outside of Rome are scarce and the archaeological record sketchy, especially during the tumultuous fifth and sixth centuries AD when Neapolis became the dominant city in the region. Here we show that isotopic ratios of lead measured on a well-dated sedimentary sequence from Neapolis' harbor covering the first six centuries CE have recorded how the AD 79 eruption was followed by a complete overhaul of Neapolis' water supply network. The Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments further reveal that the previously steady growth of Neapolis' water distribution system ceased during the collapse of the fifth century AD, although vital repairs to this critical infrastructure were still carried out in the aftermath of invasions and volcanic eruptions.

  3. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  4. Rocket-borne thermal plasma instrument "MIPEX" for the ionosphere D, E layer in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. K.; Chen, A. B. C.; Lin, C. C. H.; Wu, T. J.; Liu, K. S.; Chuang, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the design concepts, performances and status of a thermal plasma particle instrument package "Mesosphere and Ionosphere Plasma Exploration complex (MIPEX)", which is going to be installed onboard a NSPO-funded hybrid rocket, to investigate the electrodynamic processes in ionosphere D, E layers above Taiwan are reported. MIPEX is capable of measuring plasma characteristics including ion temperature, ion composition, ion drift, electron temperature and plasma density at densities as low as 1-10 cm-1. This instrument package consists of an improved retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM), a simplified ion drift meter and a planar Langmuir probe. To achieve the working atmospheric pressure of CEM at the height of lower D layer ( 70km), a portable vacuum pump is also placed in the package. A prototype set of the MIPEX has been developed and tested in the Space Plasma Operation Chamber (SPOC) at NCKU, where in ionospheric plasma is generated by back-diffusion plasma sources. A plasma density of 10-106 cm-1, ion temperature of 300-1500 K and electron temperature of 1000-3000K is measured and verified. Limited by the flight platform and the performance of the instruments, the in-situ plasma measurements at the Mesosphere and lower Thermosphere is very challenging and rare. MIPEX is capable of extending the altitude of the effective plasma measurement down to 70 km height and this experiment can provide unique high-quality data of the plasma environment to explore the ion distribution and the electrodynamic processes in the Ionosphere D, E layers at dusk.

  5. Structural in situ study of the thermal behavior of manganese dioxide materials: toward selected electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Ouassim; Pascal, Jean-Louis; Fraisse, Bernard; Favier, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    The thermal behavior of a series of MnO2 materials was investigated toward MnO2 microstructures under inert atmospheres. The byproduct formed during MnO2 heat treatments from the room temperature to 800 °C were characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that annealing spinel and ramsdellite phases caused the formation of MnO2 pyrolusite at 200 °C, Mn2O3, at 400 °C, and then Mn3O4 at higher temperatures. In the case of cryptomelane and birnessite phases, the heating process resulted in the formation of K0.51Mn0.93O2 at 600 °C, while Mn3O4 was also formed and still present up to 800 °C. Heat-treating Ni-todorokite and OMS-5 up to about 450 °C led to the formation of NiMn2O4 and NaxMnO2, respectively, and again Mn3O4 at higher temperatures. All of these structural transformations were correlated to resulting weight losses of MnO2 powders, measured by thermogravimetric analyses, during the heating process. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in the presence of 0.5 M K2SO4 aqueous solution for annealed cryptomelane, K0.51Mn0.93O2, and Mn3O4-based electrodes. It was found that MnO2 cryptomelane is electrochemically stable upon heating. The long-term charge/discharge voltammetric cycling revealed that the specific capacitance of Mn3O4-based electrode is significantly improved from 14 F·g(-1) (after 20 cycles) to 123 F·g(-1) (after 500 cycles).

  6. Thermal expansion behavior of empressite, AgTe: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of empressite, AgTe, a rare silver telluride, has been investigated by in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction methods within the temperature range 298-463 K. AgTe remains orthorhombic, space group Pmnb (Pnma as standard), and shows only normal thermal expansion over the entire temperature range. The unit-cell parameters show a gradual increase with the increase of temperature. Slight adjustments in the geometry of Ag-tetrahedra and in the crystal-chemical environment of tellurium atoms occur in a continuous way without abrupt structural changes. The coefficients of thermal expansion along various axes are: α a = 1.5 x 10 -5 K -1 , α b = 3.0 x 10 -5 K -1 , α c = 2.2 x 10 -5 K -1 , and the bulk thermal expansion coefficient α V is 5.4 x 10 -5 K -1 for the temperature range 298-463 K

  7. Assessment of the Natural Attenuation of NAPL Source Zones and Post-Treatment NAPL Source Zone Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    and Rhodes, S., 2000, Natural bioremediation of NZAS diesel spill: Rio Tinto Technical Services Report. Guilbeault, M., Parker, B., and Cherry...situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), electrical resistive heating (ERH), bioremediation , air sparging, soil vapor extraction) often involves short- term

  8. THE SOUTH PAYS FOR THE NORTH: FINANCING THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR FROM NAPLES, 1622-1644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calabria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the severe fiscal offensive which the Spanish Monarchy unleashed in the Kingdom of Naples during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648. Though the war was fought far from its borders, Naples was burdened with a whole range of new fiscal measures designed to aid the wareffort in Northern Europe and to protect the state of Milan from the contingencies of war. This paper provides a quantitative analysis of that burden. It uses archival fiscal documents to examine the various expedients Spain used to finance its designs and to plot their incidence from 1622 to1644.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic calculation and analysis on helium cooled ceramic breeder pebble bed assembly for in-pile irradiation and in-situ tritium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chunqiu; Xie Jiachun; Liu Xingmin

    2013-01-01

    In-pile irradiation and in-situ tritium extraction experiment is one of associated domestic research projects in ITER special program. According to the technical requirements of in-pile irradiation experiment of helium cooled ceramic breeder (ceramic) pebble bed assembly in a research reactor, the feasibility of the design for the in-pile irradiation and in-situ tritium extraction experiment of ceramic pebble bed assembly was evaluated. By conducting thermal-hydraulic design calculation with different in-pile irradiation channels, locations and structure parameters for ceramic pebble bed assembly, a reasonable design scheme of ceramic pebble bed assembly satisfying the design requirements for in-pile irradiation was obtained. (authors)

  10. Determination of In-situ Rock Thermal Properties from Geophysical Log Data of SK-2 East Borehole, Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, X.; Peng, C.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin is a drilling project under the framework of ICDP. It aims at detecting Cretaceous environmental/climate changes and exploring potential resources near or beneath the base of the basin. The main hole, SK-2 East Borehole, has been drilled to penetrate through the Cretaceous formation. A variety of geophysical log data were collected from the borehole, which provide a great opportunity to analyze thermal properties of in-situ rock surrounding the borehole.The geothermal gradients were derived directly from temperature logs recorded 41 days after shut-in. The matrix and bulk thermal conductivity of rock were calculated with the geometric-mean model, in which mineral/rock contents and porosity were required as inputs (Fuchs et. al., 2014). Accurate mineral contents were available from the elemental capture spectroscopy logs and porosity data were derived from conventional logs (density, neutron and sonic). The heat production data were calculated by means of the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium determined from natural gamma-ray spectroscopy logs. Then, the heat flow was determined by using the values of geothermal gradients and thermal conductivity.The thermal parameters of in-situ rock over the depth interval of 0 4500m in the borehole were derived from geophysical logs. Statistically, the numerical ranges of thermal parameters are in good agreement with the measured values from both laboratory and field in this area. The results show that high geothermal gradient and heat flow exist over the whole Cretaceous formation, with anomalously high values in the Qingshankou formation (1372.0 1671.7m) and the Quantou formation (1671.7 2533.5m). It is meaningful for characterization of geothermal regime and exploration of geothermal resources in the basin. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the "China Continental Scientific Drilling Program of Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK)" of China

  11. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers. (paper)

  12. In situ thermal residual stress evolution in ultrathin ZnO and Ag films studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, P.O., E-mail: Pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut P' , CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, UPR 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Krauss, C.; Le Bourhis, E.; Geandier, G. [Institut P' , CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, UPR 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Benedetto, A. [Saint-Gobain Recherche (SGR), 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Grachev, S.Y.; Barthel, E. [Lab. Surface du Verre et Interfaces (SVI), UMR-CNRS 125, 93303 Aubervilliers (France)

    2011-12-30

    Residual-stress evolution in sputtered encapsulated ZnO/Ag/ZnO stack has been studied in-situ by synchrotron x-ray diffraction when heat treated. The ZnO/Ag/ZnO stack encapsulated into Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers and deposited on (001) Si substrates was thermally heated from 25 Degree-Sign C to 600 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to 25 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction 2D patterns captured continuously during the heat treatment allowed monitoring the diffraction peak shifts of both Ag (15 nm thick) and ZnO (10 nm and 50 nm thick) sublayers. Due to the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion, the silicon substrate induced compressive thermal stresses in the films during heating. We first observed a linear increase of the compressive stress state in both Ag and ZnO films and then a more complex elastic-stress evolution starts to operate from about 100 Degree-Sign C for Ag and about 250 Degree-Sign C for ZnO. Thermal contraction upon cooling seems to dominate so that the initial compressive film stresses relax by about 300 and 700 MPa after thermal treatment for ZnO and Ag, respectively. The overall behavior is discussed in terms of structural changes induced by the heat treatment.

  13. Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of in situ Al-based metal matrix composite reinforced with Al2O3 and TiC submicron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Peng; Mei Zhi; Tjong, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report herein the structure and characterization of in situ Al-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) prepared from the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 and Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C systems via hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1000 deg C and 100 MPa. The structure, morphology and thermal behavior of HIPed samples were studied by means of the X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that fined Al 2 O 3 particles and large intermetallic Al 3 Ti plates were in situ formed in the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 sample during HIPing. However, the introduction of C to the Al-TiO 2 system was beneficial to eliminate large intermetallic Al 3 Ti plates. In this case, Al 2 O 3 and TiC submicron particles were in situ formed in the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C sample. Three-point-bending test showed that the strength and the strain-at-break of the HIPed Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C sample were significantly higher than those of its Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 counterpart. The improvement was derived from the elimination of bulk Al 3 Ti intermetallic plates and from the formation of TiC submicron particles. DSC measurements and thermodynamic analyses were carried out to reveal the reaction formation mechanisms of in situ reinforcing phases. The DSC results generally correlated well with the theoretical predictions. Finally, the correlation between the structure-property relationships of in situ composites is discussed

  14. Thermal Treatment, Sliding Wear and Saline Corrosion of Al In Situ Reinforced with Mg2Si and Ex Situ Reinforced with TiC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekatou, A. G.; Poulia, A.; Mavros, H.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this work is to produce a composite consisting of (a) a cast heat-treatable Al-Mg-Si alloy with high contents of Mg for corrosion resistance and Si to offset the Mg-due poor castability (in situ hypoeutectic Mg2Si/Al composite) and (b) TiC particles at high enough volume fractions (≤ 15%), in order to achieve a satisfactory combination of wear and corrosion performance. TiCp/Al-7Mg-5Si (wt.%) composites were produced by flux-assisted casting followed by solution and aging heat treatment. Solution treatment led to a relatively uniform dispersion and shape rounding of Mg2Si precipitates and Si particles. TiC particle addition resulted in refinement of primary Al, modification of the Mg2Si Chinese script morphology and refinement/spheroidization of primary Mg2Si. Heat treatment combined with TiC addition notably improved the sliding wear resistance of Al-7Mg-5Si. A wear mechanism has been proposed. The TiC/Al interfaces remained intact of corrosion during potentiodynamic polarization of the heat-treated materials in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. Different main forms of localized corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl were identified for each TiC content (0, 5, 15 vol.%), depending on specific degradation favoring microstructural features (topology/size/interface wetting) at each composition.

  15. Enhanced dissolution of TCE in NAPL by TCE-degrading bacteria in wetland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjin

    2007-01-01

    The influence of trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorinating mixed cultures in dissolution of TCE in nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) via biodegradation was observed. Experiments were conducted in batch reactor system with and without marsh soils under 10 and 20 deg. C for 2 months. The dissolution phenomenon in biotic reactors containing mixed cultures was showed temporal increases compared to abiotic reactors treated with biocide. Effective NAPL-water transfer rate (K m ) calculated in this study showed more than four times higher in biotic reactors than that in abiotic reactors. The results might be attributed to the biologically enhanced dissolution process via dechlorination in reactors. Temperature would be a factor to determine the dissolution rate by controlling bacterial activity. The TCE dechlorination occurred even in an interface of TCE-NAPL that demonstrated no previous TCE biodegradation, suggesting that microbes may be useful in developing source-zone bioremediation system. In conclusion, dechlorinating mixed culture could enhance dissolution in NAPL that may be useful in the application of source zone bioremediation

  16. Formation of residual NAPL in three-phase systems: Experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, C.; Oostrom, M.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of residual, discontinuous nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the vadose zone is a process that is not well understood. The simulators have conveniently implemented the Leverett concept (Leverett and Lewis, 1941) which states that in a water-wet porous media, when fluid wettabilities

  17. The photodegradation of trichloroethylene with or without the NAPL by UV irradiation in surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Juncai; Chu, W.

    2009-01-01

    The photodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) with or without nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) by ultraviolet irradiation in surfactant solutions was examined in this study. The photodecay of TCE was studied at monochromatic 254 nm UV lamps. The effects of the type of surfactants, initial surfactant concentrations, pH levels and NAPL concentrations were examined to explore the photodecay of TCE. All the photodegradation of TCE followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics at various conditions. It was found that Brij 35 overdose and higher initial pH levels may retard or inhibit the photodecay of TCE, mainly due to protons, intermediate generation and change of surfactant structure in the processes. The optimal condition for TCE photodecay was suggested based on the analysis of kinetics data, from which the reaction mechanism of TCE in the presence of NAPL form was also studied. In general, the reactions of TCE in micellar solution and NAPL pool can be considered as independent pathways due to the low molecule diffusion between the two phases

  18. The photodegradation of trichloroethylene with or without the NAPL by UV irradiation in surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Juncai [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Urban Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chu, W. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Urban Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cewchu@polyu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The photodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) with or without nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) by ultraviolet irradiation in surfactant solutions was examined in this study. The photodecay of TCE was studied at monochromatic 254 nm UV lamps. The effects of the type of surfactants, initial surfactant concentrations, pH levels and NAPL concentrations were examined to explore the photodecay of TCE. All the photodegradation of TCE followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics at various conditions. It was found that Brij 35 overdose and higher initial pH levels may retard or inhibit the photodecay of TCE, mainly due to protons, intermediate generation and change of surfactant structure in the processes. The optimal condition for TCE photodecay was suggested based on the analysis of kinetics data, from which the reaction mechanism of TCE in the presence of NAPL form was also studied. In general, the reactions of TCE in micellar solution and NAPL pool can be considered as independent pathways due to the low molecule diffusion between the two phases.

  19. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M.F.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Crisci, G.M.; Belfiore, C.M.; Padeletti, G.

    2014-01-01

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Belfiore, C. M.; Padeletti, G.; Crisci, G. M.

    2014-03-01

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project "COMAS" (Planned COnservation, " in situ", of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs ( opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called " Villa a Protiro". In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones.

  1. In-situ and self-distributed: A new understanding on catalyzed thermal decomposition process of ammonium perchlorate over Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Min, E-mail: zoumin3362765@163.com; Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangx@mail.njust.edu.cn; Jiang, Xiaohong, E-mail: jxh0668@sina.com; Lu, Lude, E-mail: lulude17@yahoo.com

    2014-05-01

    Catalyzed thermal decomposition process of ammonium perchlorate (AP) over neodymium oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated. Catalytic performances of nanometer-sized Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and micrometer-sized Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In contrast to universal concepts, catalysts in different sizes have nearly similar catalytic activities. Based on structural and morphological variation of the catalysts during the reaction, combined with mass spectrum analyses and studies of unmixed style, a new understanding of this catalytic process was proposed. We believed that the newly formed chloride neodymium oxide (NdOCl) was the real catalytic species in the overall thermal decomposition of AP over Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Meanwhile, it was the “self-distributed” procedure which occurred within the reaction that also worked for the improvement of overall catalytic activities. This work is of great value in understanding the roles of micrometer-sized catalysts used in heterogeneous reactions, especially the solid–solid reactions which could generate a large quantity of gaseous species. - Graphical abstract: In-situ and self-distributed reaction process in thermal decomposition of AP catalyzed by Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Micro- and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} for catalytic thermal decomposition of AP. • No essential differences on their catalytic performances. • Structural and morphological variation of catalysts digs out catalytic mechanism. • This catalytic process is “in-situ and self-distributed” one.

  2. Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

  3. In situ study of thermally activated flow and dynamic restoration of ultrafine-grained pure Cu at 373 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blum, W.; Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Petrenec, M.; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 24 (2017), s. 4514-4521 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cu * dynamic grain coarsening * dynamic recovery * ECAP * in situ * stress relaxation * UFG Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2016

  4. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties; Nanocompositos de polimetacrilato de metila e poliestireno com hidroxido duplo lamelar: sintese in situ, morfologia e propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  5. Behavior of Sn atoms in GeSn thin films during thermal annealing: Ex-situ and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Ryohei; Ishimaru, Manabu; Uchida, Noriyuki; Maeda, Tatsuro; Sato, Kazuhisa; Lieten, Ruben R.; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Thermally induced crystallization processes for amorphous GeSn thin films with Sn concentrations beyond the solubility limit of the bulk crystal Ge-Sn binary system have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. We paid special attention to the behavior of Sn before and after recrystallization. In the as-deposited specimens, Sn atoms were homogeneously distributed in an amorphous matrix. Prior to crystallization, an amorphous-to-amorphous phase transformation associated with the rearrangement of Sn atoms was observed during heat treatment; this transformation is reversible with respect to temperature. Remarkable recrystallization occurred at temperatures above 400 °C, and Sn atoms were ejected from the crystallized GeSn matrix. The segregation of Sn became more pronounced with increasing annealing temperature, and the ejected Sn existed as a liquid phase. It was found that the molten Sn remains as a supercooled liquid below the eutectic temperature of the Ge-Sn binary system during the cooling process, and finally, β-Sn precipitates were formed at ambient temperature.

  6. Synthesis carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite nanocomposites by in-situ starch coating route combined with hydrogen thermal reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fuming [Department of Materials Chemistry, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [Department of Materials Chemistry, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan, Junhong; Hua, Helin [Department of Materials Chemistry, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Gao, Yunhua [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Yan; Pan, Jianfei; Ling, Yun [Department of Materials Chemistry, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite magnetic nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by an inexpensive and environment-friendly method of in-situ starch coating route combined with hydrogen thermal reduction. The nanocomposites were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrate sample magnetometer (VSM) and so on techniques. XRD, FT-IR, TGA and TEM images indicate the formation of carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite magnetic nanocomposites. XRD patterns reveal that the crystalline structure of the nanocomposites is cubic spinel and taenite emerges under the hydrogen thermal reductive ambient. FT-IR spectra suggest that there are interactions on the NiZn ferrite nanocomposites and a spinel-type structure corresponding to NiZn ferrite has formed. TGA shows that the weight loss of the nanocomposites can be divided into three stages in the course of heat decomposition. TEM observations reveal that the carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite magnetic nanocomposites have an intact core–shell structure. Under the magnetic field, the nanocomposites exhibited the ferrimagnetic behavior. The saturated magnetization (M{sub s}) of carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite nanocomposites calcined at 400 °C can reach a high value up to 72.67 emu/g, and the saturated magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases as the annealing temperature goes up, while the coercivity (Hc), magnetic residual (Mr) magnetic parameters practically fixed on 115.15 Oe and 7.85 emu/g. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-encapsulated NiZn ferrite magnetic nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by an inexpensive and environment-friendly method of in-situ starch coating route combined with hydrogen thermal reduction (Fig. 1). The nanocomposites were characterized and the experimental results were discussed. Under applied magnetic field, the nanocomposites exhibited the ferromagnetic behavior

  7. Structural changes and thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO₂ cathode materials studied by combined in situ time-resolved XRD and mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Seong-Min; Hu, Enyuan; Zhou, Yongning; Yu, Xiqian; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Cho, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan

    2014-12-24

    Thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC, with x + y + z = 1, x:y:z = 4:3:3 (NMC433), 5:3:2 (NMC532), 6:2:2 (NMC622), and 8:1:1 (NMC811)) cathode materials is systematically studied using combined in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy (TR-XRD/MS) techniques upon heating up to 600 °C. The TR-XRD/MS results indicate that the content of Ni, Co, and Mn significantly affects both the structural changes and the oxygen release features during heating: the more Ni and less Co and Mn, the lower the onset temperature of the phase transition (i.e., thermal decomposition) and the larger amount of oxygen release. Interestingly, the NMC532 seems to be the optimized composition to maintain a reasonably good thermal stability, comparable to the low-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC333 and NMC433), while having a high capacity close to the high-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC811 and NMC622). The origin of the thermal decomposition of NMC cathode materials was elucidated by the changes in the oxidation states of each transition metal (TM) cations (i.e., Ni, Co, and Mn) and their site preferences during thermal decomposition. It is revealed that Mn ions mainly occupy the 3a octahedral sites of a layered structure (R3̅m) but Co ions prefer to migrate to the 8a tetrahedral sites of a spinel structure (Fd3̅m) during the thermal decomposition. Such element-dependent cation migration plays a very important role in the thermal stability of NMC cathode materials. The reasonably good thermal stability and high capacity characteristics of the NMC532 composition is originated from the well-balanced ratio of nickel content to manganese and cobalt contents. This systematic study provides insight into the rational design of NMC-based cathode materials with a desired balance between thermal stability and high energy density.

  8. In situ thermal conductivity of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments of the Mallik 5L-38 well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninges, J.; Huenges, E.; Burkhardt, H.

    2005-11-01

    Detailed knowledge about thermal properties of rocks containing gas hydrate is required in order to quantify processes involving gas hydrate formation and decomposition in nature. In the framework of the Mallik 2002 program, three wells penetrating a continental gas hydrate occurrence under permafrost were successfully equipped with permanent fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing cables. Temperature data were collected over a 21-month period after completing the wells. Thermal conductivity profiles were calculated from the geothermal data as well as from a petrophysical model derived from the available logging data and application of mixing law models. Results indicate that thermal conductivity variations are mainly lithologically controlled with a minor influence from hydrate saturation. Average thermal conductivity values of the hydrate-bearing sediments range between 2.35 and 2.77 W m-1 K-1. Maximum gas hydrate saturations can reach up to about 90% at an average porosity of 0.3.

  9. Thermal transitions in Fe-Ti-Cr-C quaternary system used as precursor during laser in situ carbide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anshul; Porter, Wallace D.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature range of thermal transitions within the quaternary system (Fe, Ti, Cr, and C) and the thermal stability of the evolved phases were studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC studies indicated that the major exothermic reactions (formation of carbides) take place within 850-1150 deg. C. The evolved phases (TiC, M 7 C 3 , Fe-Cr, and Fe 3 C) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). This multicomponent powder mixture was used as a precursor for synthesizing a composite coating on the surface of steel via laser surface engineering (LSE). The intended wear applications of the coating made thermal stability investigations vital. Experimental evaluation of thermal stability of the phases formed was done

  10. Measured versus calculated thermal conductivity of high-grade metamorphic rocks – inferences on the thermal properties of the lower crust at ambient and in-situ conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    in the literature are applied. Thus, if appropriate samples (in terms of sample size or physical-chemical-mechanical condition) for laboratory measurement are not available, bulk TC of high-grade metamorphic rocks with low anisotropy and porosity could be satisfactorily good assessed from modal mineralogy, using......The bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. Thermal conductivity is also calculated from modal mineralogy...... (determined by XRD and EPMA), applying mixing models commonly used in thermal studies. Most rocks are fine- to medium -grained equigranular in texture. All samples are isotropic to weakly anisotropic and possess low porosities (

  11. Enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites by ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sachin; Kumar Poddar, Maneesh; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-05-01

    This study reports synthesis and characterization of poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B (organo-modified montmorillonite clay) nanocomposites by ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion polymerization. Copolymers have been synthesized with MMA:BA monomer ratio of 4:1, and varying clay loading (1-5wt% monomer). The poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites have been characterized for their thermal and mechanical properties. Ultrasonically synthesized nanocomposites have been revealed to possess higher thermal degradation resistance and mechanical strength than the nanocomposites synthesized using conventional techniques. These properties, however, show an optimum (or maxima) with clay loading. The maximum values of thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites with optimum clay loading are as follows. Thermal degradation temperatures: T 10% =320°C (4wt%), T 50 =373°C (4wt%), maximum degradation temperature=384°C (4wt%); glass transition temperature=64.8°C (4wt%); tensile strength=20MPa (2wt%), Young's modulus=1.31GPa (2wt%), Percentage elongation=17.5% (1wt%). Enhanced properties of poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites are attributed to effective exfoliation and dispersion of clay nanoparticles in copolymer matrix due to intense micro-convection induced by ultrasound and cavitation. Clay platelets help in effective heat absorption with maximum surface interaction/adhesion that results in increased thermal resistivity of nanocomposites. Hindered motion of the copolymer chains due to clay platelets results in enhancement of tensile strength and Young's modulus of nanocomposite. Rheological (liquid) study of the nanocomposites reveals that nanocomposites have higher yield stress and infinite shear viscosity than neat copolymer. Nonetheless, nanocomposites still display shear thinning behavior - which is typical of the neat copolymer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved Data Reduction Algorithm for the Needle Probe Method Applied to In-Situ Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Lunar and Planetary Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Hedlund, M.; Zacny, K.; Taylor, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    The needle probe method (also known as the' hot wire' or 'line heat source' method) is widely used for in-situ thermal conductivity measurements on soils and marine sediments on the earth. Variants of this method have also been used (or planned) for measuring regolith on the surfaces of extra-terrestrial bodies (e.g., the Moon, Mars, and comets). In the near-vacuum condition on the lunar and planetary surfaces, the measurement method used on the earth cannot be simply duplicated, because thermal conductivity of the regolith can be approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower. In addition, the planetary probes have much greater diameters, due to engineering requirements associated with the robotic deployment on extra-terrestrial bodies. All of these factors contribute to the planetary probes requiring much longer time of measurement, several tens of (if not over a hundred) hours, while a conventional terrestrial needle probe needs only 1 to 2 minutes. The long measurement time complicates the surface operation logistics of the lander. It also negatively affects accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, because the cumulative heat loss along the probe is no longer negligible. The present study improves the data reduction algorithm of the needle probe method by shortening the measurement time on planetary surfaces by an order of magnitude. The main difference between the new scheme and the conventional one is that the former uses the exact mathematical solution to the thermal model on which the needle probe measurement theory is based, while the latter uses an approximate solution that is valid only for large times. The present study demonstrates the benefit of the new data reduction technique by applying it to data from a series of needle probe experiments carried out in a vacuum chamber on JSC-1A lunar regolith stimulant. The use of the exact solution has some disadvantage, however, in requiring three additional parameters, but two of them (the diameter and the

  13. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Carbon Fibre Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites Based on Nanocarbons and an In-situ Polymerizable Cyclic Oligoester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Un; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Hun Su; Khil, Myung-Seob; Kim, Seong Yun

    2018-05-16

    There is growing interest in carbon fibre fabric reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites based on a thermoplastic matrix, which is easy to rapidly produce, repair or recycle. To expand the applications of thermoplastic CFRP composites, we propose a process for fabricating conductive CFRP composites with improved electrical and thermal conductivities using an in-situ polymerizable and thermoplastic cyclic butylene terephthalate oligomer matrix, which can induce good impregnation of carbon fibres and a high dispersion of nanocarbon fillers. Under optimal processing conditions, the surface resistivity below the order of 10 +10 Ω/sq, which can enable electrostatic powder painting application for automotive outer panels, can be induced with a low nanofiller content of 1 wt%. Furthermore, CFRP composites containing 20 wt% graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were found to exhibit an excellent thermal conductivity of 13.7 W/m·K. Incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes into CFRP composites is more advantageous for improving electrical conductivity, whereas incorporating GNPs is more beneficial for enhancing thermal conductivity. It is possible to fabricate the developed thermoplastic CFRP composites within 2 min. The proposed composites have sufficient potential for use in automotive outer panels, engine blocks and other mechanical components that require conductive characteristics.

  14. Thermal expansion behavior of empressite, AgTe: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia, Universita di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it

    2009-04-03

    The crystal structure of empressite, AgTe, a rare silver telluride, has been investigated by in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction methods within the temperature range 298-463 K. AgTe remains orthorhombic, space group Pmnb (Pnma as standard), and shows only normal thermal expansion over the entire temperature range. The unit-cell parameters show a gradual increase with the increase of temperature. Slight adjustments in the geometry of Ag-tetrahedra and in the crystal-chemical environment of tellurium atoms occur in a continuous way without abrupt structural changes. The coefficients of thermal expansion along various axes are: {alpha}{sub a} = 1.5 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, {alpha}{sub b} = 3.0 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, {alpha}{sub c} = 2.2 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, and the bulk thermal expansion coefficient {alpha}{sub V} is 5.4 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} for the temperature range 298-463 K.

  15. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  16. Development of a Compact, Deep-Penetrating Heat Flow Instrument for Lunar Landers: In-Situ Thermal Conductivity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the geothermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of the vertical soil/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey and previously the International Lunar Network. One of the difficulties associated with lunar heat flow measurement on a robotic mission is that it requires excavation of a relatively deep (approx 3 m) hole in order to avoid the long-term temporal changes in lunar surface thermal environment affecting the subsurface temperature measurements. Such changes may be due to the 18.6-year-cylcle lunar precession, or may be initiated by presence of the lander itself. Therefore, a key science requirement for heat flow instruments for future lunar missions is to penetrate 3 m into the regolith and to measure both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity. Engineering requirements are that the instrument itself has minimal impact on the subsurface thermal regime and that it must be a low-mass and low-power system like any other science instrumentation on planetary landers. It would be very difficult to meet the engineering requirements, if the instrument utilizes a long (> 3 m) probe driven into the ground by a rotary or percussive drill. Here we report progress in our efforts to develop a new, compact lunar heat flow instrumentation that meets all of these science and engineering requirements.

  17. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  18. An Analysis of Ionospheric Thermal Ions Using a SIMION-based Forward Instrument Model: In Situ Observations of Vertical Thermal Ion Flows as Measured by the MICA Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. In this presentation we focus on in situ measurements of the thermal ion distribution. We observe thermal ions flowing both up and down the auroral field line, with upflows concentrated in Alfvénic and downward current regions. The in situ data are compared with recent ionospheric modeling efforts (Zettergren et al., this session) which show structured patterns of ion upflow and downflow consistent with these observations. In the low-energy thermal plasma regime, instrument response to the measured thermal ion population is very sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is shifted and accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the payload sheath. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Rigorous quantitative analysis of the instrument response is necessary to extract the plasma properties which describe the full 3D distribution function at the instrument aperture. We introduce an instrument model, developed in the commercial software package SIMION, to characterize instrument response at low energies. The instrument model provides important insight into how we would modify our instrument for future missions, including fine-tuning parameters such as the analyzer sweep curve, the geometry factor, and the aperture size. We use the results from the instrument model to develop a forward model, from which we can extract anisotropic ion temperatures, flows, and density of the thermal plasma at the aperture. Because this plasma has transited a sheath to reach the aperture, we must account for the acceleration due to the sheath. Modeling of this complex sheath is being conducted by co-author Fisher, using a PIC code

  19. Prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in Naples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C; Belli, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in urban hospitals of Naples. The patients were screened with a structured questionnaire regarding life style. After discharge, the patient records were examined and the hospi......The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in urban hospitals of Naples. The patients were screened with a structured questionnaire regarding life style. After discharge, the patient records were examined...... and the hospital discharge diagnoses were registered. A patient was considered having an alcohol problem if one or more of the following criteria were fulfilled: (1) a Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test score at or above five; (2) a self-reported daily consumption for at least 2 years of at least 60 g of ethanol...

  20. Probing the thermal decomposition behaviors of ultrathin HfO2 films by an in situ high temperature scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Wang, Lei; An, Jin; Xu, Jianbin

    2011-05-13

    The thermal decomposition of ultrathin HfO(2) films (∼0.6-1.2 nm) on Si by ultrahigh vacuum annealing (25-800 °C) is investigated in situ in real time by scanning tunneling microscopy. Two distinct thickness-dependent decomposition behaviors are observed. When the HfO(2) thickness is ∼ 0.6 nm, no discernible morphological changes are found below ∼ 700 °C. Then an abrupt reaction occurs at 750 °C with crystalline hafnium silicide nanostructures formed instantaneously. However, when the thickness is about 1.2 nm, the decomposition proceeds gradually with the creation and growth of two-dimensional voids at 800 °C. The observed thickness-dependent behavior is closely related to the SiO desorption, which is believed to be the rate-limiting step of the decomposition process.

  1. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

  2. In-situ SCC observation on thermally-sensitized type 304 stainless steel irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, J.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Usami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hide, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is concerned as being one of the specific problems for water-cooled first wall/blanket components in the design activity of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). To examine the crack initiation and growth behaviors of IASCC, in-situ observation on gage length of specimens was conducted during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in high temperature water. Results from in-situ observation on Type 304 stainless steel (SS) irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} have been reported already. Type 304 SS was subjected to a solution annealing (SA), a thermally sensitization (TS) or a cold working (CW, 20%) and irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). After neutron irradiation, SSRT for the specimens was conducted in oxygenated high purity water at 561 K. The gage length of the specimen was observed through a window equipped on an autoclave during the SSRT. Subsequently, fracture surface examination was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In fracture surface examination of the specimens irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, almost entire intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was exhibited for the TS material while mixtures of transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and ductile dimple fracture were observed for the SA and the CW materials. Although crack initiation was observed immediately after maximum stress for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2}, crack initiation was observed immediately before maximum stress (99% of maximum stress) for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in in-situ observation. (authors)

  3. Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.A.; Knightes, C.D.; Brown, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Subsurface contaminants such as coal tar, creosote, diesel fuel, and other petroleum-derived materials typically exist as very complex chemical mixtures. Risk assessment is useful for site management if a single metric can represent the composition-dependent risk profile of the mixture. This paper examines the factors governing human health risk assessment for multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A model is presented describing the interdependence of the dissolution rates of individual compounds and the shifts in the NAPL composition that occur due to the large differences in aqueous solubilities. The model also accounts for solidification of the less soluble NAPL constituents. Thirty-year numerical simulations describe composition dynamics for natural environmental processes as well as three remediation processes: pump-and-treat, bioremediation, and solvent extraction. Carcinogenic risk due to ingestion of contaminated groundwater at the source is estimated, and its dependence on contaminant removal and NAPL composition shifts is described. When composition dynamics are slow, a compound like naphthalene has great potential to contribute to risk because it may persist in groundwater. When there is significant depletion of the lower molecular weight compounds, the risk is dominated by contributions from compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene. Remediation technologies have the greatest potential for risk reduction if they are effective in removing the more carcinogenic, high molecular weight compounds. Because PAHs can contribute to risk for different reasons and because of the interdependence of their behaviors, compositional approaches lead to better risk predictions for PAHs than simple lumped metrics such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

  4. Thermally Stable TiO2 - and SiO2 -Shell-Isolated Au Nanoparticles for In Situ Plasmon-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-12

    Raman spectroscopy is known as a powerful technique for solid catalyst characterization as it provides vibrational fingerprints of (metal) oxides, reactants, and products. It can even become a strong surface-sensitive technique by implementing shell-isolated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). Au@TiO 2 and Au@SiO 2 shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) of various sizes were therefore prepared for the purpose of studying heterogeneous catalysis and the effect of metal oxide coating. Both SiO 2 - and TiO 2 -SHINs are effective SHINERS substrates and thermally stable up to 400 °C. Nano-sized Ru and Rh hydrogenation catalysts were assembled over the SHINs by wet impregnation of aqueous RuCl 3 and RhCl 3 . The substrates were implemented to study CO adsorption and hydrogenation under in situ conditions at various temperatures to illustrate the differences between catalysts and shell materials with SHINERS. This work demonstrates the potential of SHINS for in situ characterization studies in a wide range of catalytic reactions. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Microstructure evolution, thermal stability and fractal behavior of water vapor flow assisted in situ growth poly(vinylcarbazole)-titania quantum dots nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a novel strategy for the preparation of TiO2 quantum dots fillers prepared from alkoxide precursor via in situ water vapor flow diffusion into poly(N-vinylcarbazole) host. A detailed characterization by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry is reported. The growth mechanism of both crystallites and particles was mostly governed by the classical coarsening reaction limited growth and the polymer host showed no detectable chemical modifications at the interface or active participation in the growing process. The main relevance of our strategy respect to the typical sol-gel growth in solution is the possibility of the interruption of the reaction by simple stopping the water vapor flow diffusion into the polymer host thus achieving good control in the nanoparticles size. The thermal stability and fractal behavior of our nanocomposites were also studied by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ small angle X-ray scattering versus temperature. Strong correlations between modifications in the fractal behavior and glass transition or fusion processes were observed for these nanocomposites.

  6. Effect of In Situ Thermal Annealing on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Ayad Al-mebir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ thermal annealing process (iTAP has been introduced before the common ex situ cadmium chloride (CdCl2 annealing to improve crystal quality and morphology of the CdTe thin films after pulsed laser deposition of CdS/CdTe heterostructures. A strong correlation between the two annealing processes was observed, leading to a profound effect on the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the iTAP in the optimal processing window produces considerable CdTe grain growth and improves the CdTe crystallinity, which results in significantly improved optoelectronic properties and quantum efficiency of the CdS/CdTe solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of up to 7.0% has been obtained on thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells of absorber thickness as small as 0.75 μm processed with the optimal iTAP at 450°C for 10–20 min. This result illustrates the importance of controlling microstructures of CdTe thin films and iTAP provides a viable approach to achieve such a control.

  7. Understanding the Thermal Stability of Palladium-Platinum Core-Shell Nanocrystals by In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, Madeline; Roling, Luke T; Wang, Xue; Elnabawy, Ahmed O; Hood, Zachary D; Chi, Miaofang; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2017-05-23

    Core-shell nanocrystals offer many advantages for heterogeneous catalysis, including precise control over both the surface structure and composition, as well as reduction in loading for rare and costly metals. Although many catalytic processes are operated at elevated temperatures, the adverse impacts of heating on the shape and structure of core-shell nanocrystals are yet to be understood. In this work, we used ex situ heating experiments to demonstrate that Pd@Pt 4L core-shell nanoscale cubes and octahedra are promising for catalytic applications at temperatures up to 400 °C. We also used in situ transmission electron microscopy to monitor the thermal stability of the core-shell nanocrystals in real time. Our results demonstrate a facet dependence for the thermal stability in terms of shape and composition. Specifically, the cubes enclosed by {100} facets readily deform shape at a temperature 300 °C lower than that of the octahedral counterparts enclosed by {111} facets. A reversed trend is observed for composition, as alloying between the Pd core and the Pt shell of an octahedron occurs at a temperature 200 °C lower than that for the cubic counterpart. Density functional theory calculations provide atomic-level explanations for the experimentally observed behaviors, demonstrating that the barriers for edge reconstruction determine the relative ease of shape deformation for cubes compared to octahedra. The opposite trend for alloying of the core-shell structure can be attributed to a higher propensity for subsurface Pt vacancy formation in octahedra than in cubes.

  8. In Situ Study of Microstructure Evolution in Solidification of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys with Application of Thermal Analysis and Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediako, Dimitry G.; Kasprzak, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Understanding of the kinetics of solid-phase evolution in solidification of hypereutectic aluminum alloys is a key to control their as-cast microstructure and resultant mechanical properties, and in turn, to enhance the service characteristics of actual components. This study was performed to evaluate the solidification kinetics for three P-modified hypereutectic Al-19 pct Si alloys: namely, Al-Si binary alloy and with the subsequent addition of 2.8 pct Cu and 2.8 pct Cu + 0.7 pct Mg. Metallurgical evaluation included thermodynamic calculations of the solidification process using the FactSage™ 6.2 software package, as well as experimental thermal analysis, and in situ neutron diffraction. The study revealed kinetics of solid α-Al, solid Si, Al2Cu, and Mg2Si evolution, as well as the individual effects of Cu and Mg alloying additions on the solidification path of the Al-Si system. Various techniques applied in this study resulted in some discrepancies in the results. For example, the FactSage computations, in general, resulted in 281 K to 286 K (8 °C to 13 °C) higher Al-Si eutectic temperatures than the ones recorded in the thermal analysis, which are also ~278 K (~5 °C) higher than those observed in the in situ neutron diffraction. None of the techniques can provide a definite value for the solidus temperature, as this is affected by the chosen calculation path [283 K to 303 K (10 °C to 30 °C) higher for equilibrium solidification vs non-equilibrium] for the FactSage analysis; and further complicated by evolution of secondary Al-Cu and Mg-Si phases that commenced at the end of solidification. An explanation of the discrepancies observed and complications associated with every technique applied is offered in the paper.

  9. Espinelização in-situ e seu efeito na resistência ao choque térmico de concretos refratários In-situ spinelization and thermal shock performance of refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Cintra

    2008-09-01

    -magnesia refractory castables, as the in-situ spinel formation leads to a better chemical performance. The steel ladles are also subjected to abrupt temperature changes, due to heating and cooling cycles. Therefore, the thermal shock evaluation is of utmost importance to a proper material selection. The objective of this paper is the analysis of the matrix components and its consequences on the thermal shock damage in order to attain the most suitable thermo mechanical solution coupled with a high corrosion resistance, resulting the increase of the life expectancy of a steel ladle. The results presented show that alumina-spinel castables had better performance than alumina-magnesia castables when there is no constraining. The presence of microssilica increased the thermal shock damage, and this may be related to the testing temperature range.

  10. Comparison of theory and experiment for NAPL dissolution in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, T.; Golfier, F.; Oltéan, C.; Lefevre, E.; Lorgeoux, C.

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of groundwater resources by an immiscible organic phase commonly called NAPL (Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) represents a major scientific challenge considering the residence time of such a pollutant. This contamination leads to the formation of NAPL blobs trapped in the soil and impact of this residual saturation cannot be ignored for correct predictions of the contaminant fate. In this paper, we present results of micromodel experiments on the dissolution of pure hydrocarbon phase (toluene). They were conducted for two values of the Péclet number. These experiments provide data for comparison and validation of a two-phase non-equilibrium theoretical model developed by Quintard and Whitaker (1994) using the volume averaging method. The model was directly upscaled from the averaged pore-scale mass balance equations. The effective properties of the macroscopic model were calculated over periodic unit cells designed from images of the experimental flow cell. Comparison of experimental and numerical results shows that the transport model predicts correctly - with no fitting parameters - the main mechanisms of NAPL mass transfer. The study highlights the crucial need of having a fair recovery of pore-scale characteristic lengths to predict the mass transfer coefficient with accuracy.

  11. Measurement of underground contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on the basis of the radon concentration in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated whether measurements of radon concentrations in ground level air are a suitable method of detecting sub-surface soil contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The working postulation was that, due to the very high solubility of radon in NAPLs, and the resulting accumulation of radon in NAPLs, radon exhalation to the ground level air in the proximity of such NAPL contamination should be locally reduced, thus indicating contamination of sub-surface soils with NAPLs. The research work reported was to verify the working theory by way of experiments, and to finally develop a reliable detection method for NAPL contaminations. The investigations comprised theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, experiments in defined soil columns, and extensive field studies [de

  12. (Project 13-5292) Correlating thermal and mechanical coupling based multiphysics behavior of nuclear materials through in-situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Irradiations and post characterization experiments were performed first on Zr samples. This step will help understand the effect of the 2.5% alloying elements on the behavior of Zircaloy-4 (PWR cladding material) when compared to pure Zr. Irradiation flux measurements and sample temperature calibrations were performed at different energies prior to the irradiation experiments. Irradiations were performed with two different energy regimes1: non-displacment energies and displacement energies. Time was also dedicated to optimize transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation conditions via electropolishing technique. This step is crucial to prepare TEM samples for the in-situ TEM/irradiation experiments (Year 2). In addition, Zircaloy-4 samples are being prepared for irradiation, and a setup is built by one of our collaborators (Dr. Mert Efe) to prepare ultrafine (UF) and nanocrystalline (NC) Zircaloy-4 samples for comparison with the commercial Zircaloy-4 samples.

  13. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified α-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-01-01

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite (α-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of α-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the α-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated α-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of α-FeOOH particles was improved

  14. The age and significance of in-situ sinter at the Te Kopia thermal area, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Rod; Rodgers, Kerry A. [Auckland Univ., Dept. of Geology, Auckland (New Zealand); Mildenhall, Dallas C. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Browne, Patrick R.L. [Auckland Univ., Dept. of Geology, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Univ., Geothermal Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2000-06-01

    One hundred pollen grains and spores, recovered from a single sample of in situ silica sinter from the Te Kopia geothermal field, include some from a podocarp forest that grew in a temperate, frost-free climate, unlike that of today, as indicated by the presence of Ascarina. Also present are pollen from taxa introduced within the last 100 years. Ascarina has been absent from the area since at least 1800 B.P. and its presence in the sinter indicates that alkali chloride waters discharged at the surface of Te Kopia before 1800 B.P., and possibly before 3500 B.P. Although palynology is a powerful tool to place age limits on fluctuations in the shallow hydrology of geothermal fields, interpretation must be moderated by considering the present flora and also changes in both local and regional flora, habitat and climate. (Author)

  15. Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    valent iron (ZVI) powder in a water/ guar slurry for remediation of chlorinated DNAPL source zones. The ZVI continues the remediation after the thermal...MUST BE FOLLOWED BY PERSONNEL ON SITE 1. Smoking, eating, chewing gum or tobacco, or drinking are forbidden except in clean or designated areas...WORK PRACTICES ER-0314 69 Appendix D THE FOLLOWING PRACTICES MUST BE FOLLOWED BY PERSONNEL ON SITE 12. Smoking, eating, chewing gum or tobacco

  16. The High Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME in Ni Rich NiTi Wires: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction on Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coduri Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for using Shape Memory Alloys (SMA was recently proposed and named highperformance shape memory effect (HP-SME. The HP-SME exploits the thermal cycling of stress-induced martensite for producing extremely high mechanical work with a very stable functional fatigue behaviour in Ni rich NiTi alloy. The latter was found to differ significantly from the functional fatigue behaviour observed for conventional SMA. This study was undertaken in order to elucidate the microstructural modifications at the basis of this particular feature. To this purpose, the functional fatigue was coupled to in situ Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction, by recording patterns on wires thermally cycled by Joule effect under a constant applied stress (800 MPa. The accurate analysis the line profile XRD data suggests the accumulation of defects upon functional cycling, while the fibre texture was not observed to change. The functional fatigue exhibits a very similar behaviour as the line broadening of XRD peaks, thus suggesting the accumulation of dislocations as the origin of the mechanism of the permanent deformation.

  17. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M.F.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Crisci, G.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Belfiore, C.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali - Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Catania (Italy); Padeletti, G. [CNR-ICMAT, Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  18. In situ transmission electron microscopy analyses of thermally annealed self catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosini, S.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Booth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Self catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on Si-treated GaAs substrates were studied with a transmission electron microscope before and after annealing at 600◦C. At room temperature the nanowires have a zincblende structure and are locally characterized by a high density of rotational twins and stacking...... faults. Selected area diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that nanowires undergo structural modifications upon annealing, suggesting a decrease of defect density following the thermal treatment....

  19. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided

  20. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

  1. In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films.

  2. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION OF A WINSOR TYPE I SURFACTANT/ALCOHOL MIXTURE FOR IN SITU SOLUBILIZATION OF A COMPLEX LNAPL AS A SINGLE-PHASE MICROEMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Winsor Type I surfactant/alcohol mixture was used as an in situ flushing agent to solubilize a muticomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) as a single-phase microemulsion (SPME) in a hydraulically isolated test cell at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. The surfactant (polyoxye...

  3. A critical evaluation of the local-equilibrium assumption in modeling NAPL-pool dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagren, Eric A.; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Valocchi, Albert J.

    1999-07-01

    An analytical modeling analysis was used to assess when local equilibrium (LE) and nonequilibrium (NE) modeling approaches may be appropriate for describing nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) pool dissolution. NE mass-transfer between NAPL pools and groundwater is expected to affect the dissolution flux under conditions corresponding to values of Sh'St (the modified Sherwood number ( Lxkl/ Dz) multiplied by the Stanton number ( kl/ vx))≈400, the NE and LE solutions converge, and the LE assumption is appropriate. Based on typical groundwater conditions, many cases of interest are expected to fall in this range. The parameter with the greatest impact on Sh'St is kl. The NAPL pool mass-transfer coefficient correlation of Pfannkuch [Pfannkuch, H.-O., 1984. Determination of the contaminant source strength from mass exchange processes at the petroleum-ground-water interface in shallow aquifer systems. In: Proceedings of the NWWA/API Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water—Prevention, Detection, and Restoration, Houston, TX. Natl. Water Well Assoc., Worthington, OH, Nov. 1984, pp. 111-129.] was evaluated using the toluene pool data from Seagren et al. [Seagren, E.A., Rittmann, B.E., Valocchi, A.J., 1998. An experimental investigation of NAPL-pool dissolution enhancement by flushing. J. Contam. Hydrol., accepted.]. Dissolution flux predictions made with kl calculated using the Pfannkuch correlation were similar to the LE model predictions, and deviated systematically from predictions made using the average overall kl=4.76 m/day estimated by Seagren et al. [Seagren, E.A., Rittmann, B.E., Valocchi, A.J., 1998. An experimental investigation of NAPL-pool dissolution enhancement by flushing. J. Contam. Hydrol., accepted.] and from the experimental data for vx>18 m/day. The Pfannkuch correlation kl was too large for vx>≈10 m/day, possibly because of the relatively low Peclet number data used by Pfannkuch [Pfannkuch, H.-O., 1984. Determination

  4. In-situ Density and Thermal Expansion Measurements of Fe and Fe-S Alloying Liquids Under Planetary Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Z.; Chantel, J.; Yu, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid iron is likely the dominant constituent in the cores of terrestrial planets and icy satellites such as Earth, Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Ganymede, and Io. Suggested by geophysical and geochemical observations, light elements such as S, C, Si, etc., are likely present in planetary cores. These light elements can significantly reduce the density and melting temperature of the Fe cores, and hence their abundances are crucial to our understanding of the structure and thermal history of planetary cores, as well as the generation of intrinsic magnetic fields. Knowledge on the density of Fe-light element alloying liquids at high pressures is critical to place constraints on the composition of planetary cores. However, density data on liquid Fe-light element alloys at core pressures are very limited in pressure and composition and are sometimes controversial. In this study, we extend the density dataset for Fe-rich liquids by measuring the density of Fe, Fe-10wt%S, Fe-20wt%S, Fe-27wt%S, and FeS liquids using the X-ray absorption technique in a DIA-type multianvil apparatus up to 7 GPa and 2173 K. An ion chamber (1D-detector) and a CCD camera (2D-detector) were used to measure intensities of transmitted monochromatic X-rays through molten samples, with the photon energy optimized at 40 keV. The densities were then determined from the Beer-Lambert law using the mass absorption coefficients, calibrated by solid standards using X-ray diffraction. At each pressure, density measurements were conducted at a range of temperatures above the liquidus of the samples, enabling the determination of thermal expansion. Combined with our previous results on the sound velocity of Fe and Fe-S liquids at high pressures (Jing et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 78-87), these data provide tight constraints on the equation of state and thermodynamic properties such as the adiabatic temperature gradient for Fe-S liquids. We will discuss these results with implications to planetary

  5. Mitigation of seismic hazard of a megacity: the case of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Panza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic ground motion of a test area in the eastern district of Naples was computed with a hybrid technique based on the rnode surnrnation and the finite difference methods. This technique allowed the realistic modelling of source and propagation effects, including local soil conditions. In the modelling, as seismic source we considered the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, a good example of strong shaking for the area of Naples, located about 90 km from the source. Along a profile through Naples, trencling N86°W, the subsoil is mainly formed by alluvial (ash, stratified sand and peat and pyroclastic materials overlying a pyroclastic rock (yellow Neapolitan tuff representing the Neapolitan bedrock. The detailed information available on the subsoil mechanical properties and its geometry warrants the application of the sophisticated hybrid technique. For SH waves, a comparison was made between a realistic 2-D seismic response and a standard I-D response, based on the vertical propagation of waves in a plane layered structure. As expected the sedimentary cover caused an increase in the signal's amplitudes and duration. If a thin uniform peat layer is present, the amplification effects are reduced, and the peak ground accelerations are similar to those observed for the bedrock model. This can be explained by the backscattering of wave energy at such a laqer. The discrepancies evidenced between the l -D and the 2-D seismic response suggest that serious caution must be taken in the formulation of seismic regulations. This is particularly true in the presence of the thin peat laqer where the misinatch between the l -D and the 2-D amplification functions is particularly evident in correspondence of the dominant peak and of the second significant peak.

  6. Effect of dissolved oxygen manipulation on diffusive emissions from NAPL-impacted low permeability soil layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Lisa M; Dahlen, Paul R; Johnson, Paul C

    2014-05-06

    Aquifer physical model experiments were performed to investigate if diffusive emissions from nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-impacted low-permeability layers into groundwater moving through adjacent NAPL-free high-permeability layers can be reduced by creating an aerobic biotreatment zone at the interface between the two, and if over time that leads to reduced emissions after treatment ceases. Experiments were performed in two 1.2-m long × 1.2-m high × 5.4 cm wide stainless steel tanks; each with a high-permeability sand layer overlying a low-permeability crushed granite layer containing a NAPL mixture of indane and benzene. Each tank was water-saturated with horizontal flow primarily through the sand layer. The influent water was initially deoxygenated and the emissions and concentration distributions were allowed to reach near-steady conditions. The influent dissolved oxygen (DO) level was increased stepwise to 6.5-8.5 mg/L and 17-20 mg/L, and then decreased back to deoxygenated conditions. Each condition was maintained for at least 45 days. Relative to the near-steady benzene emission at the initial deoxygenated condition, the emission was reduced by about 70% when the DO was 6.5-8.5 mg/L, 90% when the DO was 17-20 mg/L, and ultimately 60% when returning to low DO conditions. While the reductions were substantial during treatment, longer-term reductions after 120 d of elevated DO treatment, relative to an untreated condition predicted by theory, were low: 29% and 6% in Tank 1 and Tank 2, respectively. Results show a 1-2 month lag between the end of DO delivery and rebound to the final near-steady emissions level. This observation has implications for post-treatment performance monitoring sampling at field sites.

  7. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  8. In situ polyphenyl derivatisation and the effect of thermal decomposition of adsorbed and chemisorbed polyphenyls on the structure of multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergely, Andras, E-mail: doohan11@chemres.hu [Department of Surface Modification and Nanostructures, Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, Budapest 1025 (Hungary); Ujszaszy, Kalman [Mass Spectrometry Department, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1025 (Hungary); Peltz, Csaba [EGIS Pharmaceuticals PLC, Kereszturi ut 30-38, Budapest 1106 (Hungary); Kiraly, Peter; Tarkanyi, Gabor [NMR Spectroscopy Department, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, Budapest 1025 (Hungary); Mihaly, Judith [Department of Biological Nanochemistry, Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, Budapest 1025 (Hungary); Kalman, Erika [Department of Surface Modification and Nanostructures, Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, Budapest 1025 (Hungary)

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the exploitation of an alternative reaction route of deamination of arylamines to perform in situ derivatisation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polyphenyl (PPh) species of various masses. As a result of consecutive derivatisation, high conversion of PPh grafting of the MWCNTs was realised with the collateral outgrowth of physical modification with adsorbed additional PPhs. Applied derivatisation process exceeds the monolayer coverage related superficial saturation limitations in the overall grafting yield of the nanotubes. Thus, a linear relationship was recognized between the overall quantities of chemisorbed PPhs composed of D{sub 5}-phenylene oligomers and the applied excess of diazonium activated reagents, corresponding to {sup 2}H MAS NMR spectroscopy results. According to mass spectrometry (MS) investigations, uniform thermal decomposition of the chemisorbed PPhs modified MWCNTs was found besides the more intense and altered decomposition characteristic-featured adsorbate-chemisorbate PPhs contained MWCNTs during sequential pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. This is attributed to the pyrolysis provoked isomerisation, decomposition and the formation of adsorbed and chemisorbed PPh moieties. As a result, a mediated and an even more pronounced degradation in the order of graphitic lattice of the MWCNTs were evidenced in the adsorbate-chemisorbate and the chemisorbate PPhs contained samples by FT-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. {sup 2}H MAS NMR supplied results of relevant amount of deuterium in the chemisorbate PPh contained sample without traces of aromatic related MS detected volatile products, these allow us to conclude about a thermally stable derivatisation that is interpreted as an endohedral modification of the nanotubes.

  9. Effect of molecular chain length on the mechanical and thermal properties of amine-functionalized graphene oxide/polyimide composite films prepared by in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hao; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wang, Jen-Yu; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shin-Ming; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2013-02-01

    This study fabricates amine (NH(2))-functionalized graphene oxide (GO)/polyimide(PI) composite films with high performance using in situ polymerization. Linear poly(oxyalkylene)amines with two different molecular weights 400 and 2000 (D400 and D2000) have been grafted onto the GO surfaces, forming two types of NH(2)-functionalized GO (D400-GO/D2000-GO). NH(2)-functionalized GO, especially D400-GO, demonstrated better reinforcing efficiency in mechanical and thermal properties. The observed property enhancement are due to large aspect ratio of GO sheets, the uniform dispersion of the GO within the PI matrix, and strong interfacial adhesion due to the chemical bonding between GO and the polymeric matrix. The Young's modulus of the composite films with 0.3 wt % D400-GO loading is 7.4 times greater than that of neat PI, and tensile strength is 240% higher than that of neat PI. Compared to neat PI, 0.3 wt % D400-GO/PI film exhibits approximately 23.96 °C increase in glass transition temperature (T(g)). The coefficient of thermal expansion below T(g) is significantly decreased from 102.6 μm/°C (neat PI) to 53.81 μm/°C (decreasing 48%) for the D400-GO/PI composites with low D400-GO content (0.1 wt %). This work not only provides a method to develop the GO-based polyimide composites with superior performances but also conceptually provides a chance to modulate the interfacial interaction between GO and the polymer through designing the chain length of grafting molecules on NH(2)-functionalized GO.

  10. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2012-12-01

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by using the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system to infer the velocity of water through a porous medium. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale and subsequently to upscale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for sampling and simultaneously estimating the tree's thermal diffusivity and probe spacing from in situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio measurement device. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require knowledge of probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential for obtaining reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests can be obtained in different seasons and can be automated using the existing data logging system. Empirical factors are introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology may be tested for its applicability to realistic field conditions, with an ultimate goal of calibrating heat ratio sap flow systems in practical applications.

  11. Experimental Analyses of Yellow Tuff Spandrels of Post-medieval Buildings in the Naples Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, B.; Cordasco, E. A.; Lenza, P.; Guerriero, L.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental analyses have been carried out on tuff masonry specimens in order to investigate the structural behaviour of historical buildings in the Naples area (Southern Italy). Spandrels of post-medieval buildings (late XVI to early XX century) have been analysed, with emphasis on morphological characteristics according to chronological indicators. Results of the experimentation on scaled models (1:10) are discussed and the better behaviour of historical masonry typologies on respect to the modern one is highlighted. Comparison with theoretical formulations of ultimate shear resistance are provided too

  12. The Impact of Urban Transit Systems on Property Values: A Model and Some Evidences from the City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hedonic model for estimating the effects of transit systems on real estate values is specified and calibrated for the city of Naples. The model is used to estimate the external benefits concerning property values which may be attributed to the Naples metro at the present time and in two future scenarios. The results show that only high-frequency metro lines have appreciable effects on real estate values, while low-frequency metro lines and bus lines produce no significant impacts. Our results show that the impacts on real estate values of the metro system in Naples are significant, with corresponding external benefits estimated at about 7.2 billion euros or about 8.5% of the total value of real estate assets.

  13. Incorporating Water Boiling in the Numerical Modelling of Thermal Remediation by Electrical Resistance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I. L.; Krol, M.; Mumford, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    Developing numerical models for subsurface thermal remediation techniques - such as Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH) - that include multiphase processes such as in-situ water boiling, gas production and recovery has remained a significant challenge. These subsurface gas generation and recovery processes are driven by physical phenomena such as discrete and unstable gas (bubble) flow as well as water-gas phase mass transfer rates during bubble flow. Traditional approaches to multiphase flow modeling soil remain unable to accurately describe these phenomena. However, it has been demonstrated that Macroscopic Invasion Percolation (MIP) can successfully simulate discrete and unstable gas transport1. This has lead to the development of a coupled Electro Thermal-MIP Model2 (ET-MIP) capable of simulating multiple key processes in the thermal remediation and gas recovery process including: electrical heating of soil and groundwater, water flow, geological heterogeneity, heating-induced buoyant flow, water boiling, gas bubble generation and mobilization, contaminant mass transport and removal, and additional mechanisms such as bubble collapse in cooler regions. This study presents the first rigorous validation of a coupled ET-MIP model against two-dimensional water boiling and water/NAPL co-boiling experiments3. Once validated, the model was used to explore the impact of water and co-boiling events and subsequent gas generation and mobilization on ERH's ability to 1) generate, expand and mobilize gas at boiling and NAPL co-boiling temperatures, 2) efficiently strip contaminants from soil during both boiling and co-boiling. In addition, a quantification of the energy losses arising from steam generation during subsurface water boiling was examined with respect to its impact on the efficacy of thermal remediation. While this study specifically targets ERH, the study's focus on examining the fundamental mechanisms driving thermal remediation (e.g., water boiling) renders

  14. Determination of in-situ thermal properties of Stripa granite from temperature measurements in the full-scale heater experiments: method and preliminary results. Technical information report No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffry, J.A.; Chan, T.; Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    The in-situ thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of a granite rock mass at the Stripa mine, Sweden, have been extracted from the first 70 days of temperature data for the 5 kW full-scale heater experiment by means of least-squares fit to a finite-line source solution. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity have been determined to be 3.69 W/(m- 0 C) and 1.84 x 10 -6 m 2 /s, respectively, at an average rock temperature of 23 0 C (the average value of the actual temperature data used). These values are only slightly higher than the corresponding laboratory values, i.e., there is no significant size effect in the thermal properties of this rock mass. Since the size and shape of the heater canister used are similar to those considered for nuclear waste canisters and a substantial volume of rock is heated, the thermal properties obtained in this study are representative of in-situ rock mass properties under actual nuclear repository operating conditions

  15. In-situ X-Ray Analysis of Rapid Thermal Processing for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Closing the Gap between Production and Laboratory Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-21

    For materials synthesis, it is well known that the material final state may not reach equilibrium and depends on the synthetic process. In particular, processes that quickly remove the available energy from the material may leave it in a metastable state and the metastability may actually impart desirable functional properties. By its very nature, Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is ideally suited to produce such metastable materials. However, metastability and the dynamics of reaching a metastable state are poorly understood, since this is best accomplished through in situ monitoring. In this regard, RTP is particularly challenging as the processing time are very short (seconds to minutes). As a result, there is only poor understanding, and hence use, of RTP in industry. This is potentially a cost-increasing limitation, because RTP can decrease cost by decreasing processing time, and as such, increase throughput and decrease the total thermal budget of processing - a significant cost. RTP is already being used for key processing steps in PV technologies. With silicon wafer PV, it is used for establishing electrical contact between the Ag metal grid and the silicon (known as firing). In this process, a silicon wafer with deposited metal/frit in a grid pattern is heated rapidly to temperatures between 750 and 800 ºC. The processing time when the temperature is held above 600ºC is short (<5 seconds). This process has historically been optimized empirically and it is unclear how the thermal processing affects formation of the final contact between the metal and the silicon. In the case of thin-film PV, RTP has been demonstrated in the process of making absorber layers, i.e. CIGS and CZTS. Use of RTP can reduce the processing time from 10s of minutes to seconds, reducing the thermal budget and increasing the throughput significantly. The conversion from precursor material to final PV material is not well understood, and most of the process optimization is done

  16. Incorporation of low energy activated nitrogen onto HOPG surface: Chemical states and thermal stability studies by in-situ XPS and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Shasha, Michal; Michaelson, Shaul; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we report the chemical states analysis of activated nitrogen incorporated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface under well-controlled conditions. Nitrogen incorporation is carried out by two different processes: an indirect RF nitrogen plasma and low energy (1 keV) N2+ implantation. Bonding configuration, concentration and thermal stability of the incorporated nitrogen species by aforesaid processes are systematically compared by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Relatively large concentration of nitrogen is incorporated onto RF nitride HOPG surface (16.2 at.%), compared to N2+ implanted HOPG surface (7.7 at.%). The evolution of N 1s components (N1, N2, N3) with annealing temperature is comprehensively discussed, which indicates that the formation and reorganization of local chemical bonding states are determined by the process of nitridation and not by the prior chemical conditioning (i.e., amorphization or hydrogenation) of the HOPG surface. A combined XPS and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that N2+ implantation process resulted in a high level of defects to the HOPG surface, which cannot be annealed-out by heat treatment up to 1000 °C. On the other hand, the RF nitrogen plasma process did not produce a high level of surface defects, while incorporating nearly the same amount of stable nitrogen species.

  17. Mercury speciation and analysis in drinking water by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rie; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Sakui, Norihiro; Honda, Hidehiro; Okanouchi, Noriya; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-31

    A method for mercury analysis and speciation in drinking water was developed, which involved stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS. Ten millilitre of tap water or bottled water was used. After a stir bar, pH adjustment agent and derivatization reagent were added, SBSE was performed. Then, the stir bar was subjected to TD-GC-MS. The detection limits were 0.01 ng mL(-1) (ethylmercury; EtHg), 0.02 ng mL(-1) (methylmercury; MeHg), and 0.2 ng mL(-1) (Hg(II) and diethylmercury (DiEtHg)). The method showed good linearity and correlation coefficients. The average recoveries of mercury species (n=5) in water samples spiked with 0.5, 2.0, and 6.0 ng mL(-1) mercury species were 93.1-131.1% (RSDmercury species in water samples.

  18. In situ generated gas bubble-assisted modulation of the morphologies, photocatalytic, and magnetic properties of ferric oxide nanostructures synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Guoxiu; Guan Jianguo; Xiao Zhidong; Huang Xing; Guan Yao

    2010-01-01

    Ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) complex nanoarchitectures with high BET specific surface area, superior photocatalytic activity and modulated magnetic properties are facilely synthesized via controlled thermal decomposition of iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transforming infrared spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscope, field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and nitrogen physisorption and micrometrics analyzer. The corresponding photocatalytic activity and static magnetic properties are also evaluated by measuring the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B aqueous solution under visible light illumination and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Simply tuning the decomposition temperature can conveniently modulate the adsorbing/desorbing behaviors of the in situ generated gases on the nucleus surfaces, and consequently the crystalline structures and morphologies of the Fe 2 O 3 complex nanoarchitectures. The as-prepared Fe 2 O 3 complex nanoarchitectures show strong crystal structure and/or morphology-dependent photocatalytic and magnetic performances. The Fe 2 O 3 complex nanoarchitectures with high specific surface area and favorable crystallization are found to be beneficial for improving the photocatalytic activity. This work not only reports a convenient and low-cost decomposition procedure and a novel formation mechanism of complex nanoarchitectures but also provides an efficient route to enhance catalytic and magnetic properties of Fe 2 O 3 .

  19. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  1. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/ clay nano composites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.M.; Mansor Ahmad; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Rida Tajau; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/ clay nano composites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4 ' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5 % wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nano composites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nano clay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Angstrom, while the structure morphology of the nano composites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nano composites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nano composites was significantly increased by incorporation of nano clay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the T g was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nano composites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nano composites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the effect of Bi, Sb, Sr and cooling condition on eutectic phases in an Al–Si–Cu alloy (ADC12) by in situ thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, S., E-mail: saeedfarahany@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ourdjini, A.; Idrsi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Shabestari, S.G. [Center of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology (CEHSAT), School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: • Combined effect of Bi, Sb and Sr additions, and cooling condition was evaluated. • Two different scenarios of recalecense in response to cooling rate were observed. • Fraction solid increased in the order of Sr > Bi > Sb, corresponds to Si morphologies. • Only Bi decreased the nucleation temperature of Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic phase. - Abstract: Al–Si and Al–Cu eutectic phases strongly affect the properties of Al–Si–Cu cast alloys. The characteristic parameters of these two eutectic phases with addition of bismuth, antimony and strontium under different cooling rates (0.6–2 °C/s) were investigated in ADC12 alloy using in situ thermal analysis. Results show that additives affect the Al–Si phase more than the Al–Cu (Al{sub 2}Cu) phase. Addition elements showed two different scenarios in response to cooling rate in terms of recalescence of the Al–Si eutectic phase. Both Bi and Sb caused an increase in recalescence with increased cooling rate but Sr addition reduced the recalescence. Additions of Sb and Sr increased the nucleation temperature of Al{sub 2}Cu, but addition of Bi produced an opposite effect. There seems to be relationship between the solidification temperature range and fraction solid of Al–Si and Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic phases. As the cooling rate increases the fraction solid of Al–Si decreased and that of Al{sub 2}Cu increased.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of Bi, Sb, Sr and cooling condition on eutectic phases in an Al–Si–Cu alloy (ADC12) by in situ thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahany, S.; Ourdjini, A.; Idrsi, M.H.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined effect of Bi, Sb and Sr additions, and cooling condition was evaluated. • Two different scenarios of recalecense in response to cooling rate were observed. • Fraction solid increased in the order of Sr > Bi > Sb, corresponds to Si morphologies. • Only Bi decreased the nucleation temperature of Al 2 Cu eutectic phase. - Abstract: Al–Si and Al–Cu eutectic phases strongly affect the properties of Al–Si–Cu cast alloys. The characteristic parameters of these two eutectic phases with addition of bismuth, antimony and strontium under different cooling rates (0.6–2 °C/s) were investigated in ADC12 alloy using in situ thermal analysis. Results show that additives affect the Al–Si phase more than the Al–Cu (Al 2 Cu) phase. Addition elements showed two different scenarios in response to cooling rate in terms of recalescence of the Al–Si eutectic phase. Both Bi and Sb caused an increase in recalescence with increased cooling rate but Sr addition reduced the recalescence. Additions of Sb and Sr increased the nucleation temperature of Al 2 Cu, but addition of Bi produced an opposite effect. There seems to be relationship between the solidification temperature range and fraction solid of Al–Si and Al 2 Cu eutectic phases. As the cooling rate increases the fraction solid of Al–Si decreased and that of Al 2 Cu increased

  4. Naples between two fires: eruptive scenarios for the next eruptions by an integrated volcanological-probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Rossano, S.; Panizza, A.

    2009-04-01

    Probabilistic approaches based on available volcanological data from real eruptions of Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius, are assembled in a comprehensive assessment of volcanic hazards at the Neapolitan area. This allows to compare the volcanic hazards related to the different types of events, which can be used for evaluating the conditional probability of flows and falls hazard in case of a volcanic crisis. Hazard maps are presented, based on a rather complete set of numerical simulations, produced using field and laboratory data as input parameters relative to a large range (VEI 1 to 5) of fallout and pyroclastic-flow events and their relative occurrence. The results allow us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the hazard related to pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) at the Neapolitan volcanoes and their surroundings, including the city of Naples. Due to its position between the two volcanic areas, the city of Naples is particularly exposed to volcanic risk from VEI>2 eruptions, as recorded in the local volcanic succession. Because dominant wind directions, the area of Naples is particularly prone to fallout hazard from Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions in the VEI range 2-5. The hazard from PDCs decreases roughly radially with distance from the eruptive vents and is strongly controlled by the topographic heights. Campi Flegrei eruptions are particularly hazardous for Naples, although the Camaldoli and Posillipo hills produce an effective barrier to propagation to the very central part of Naples. PDCs from Vesuvius eruptions with VEI>4 can cover the city of Naples, whereas even VEI>3 eruptions have a moderate fallout hazard there.

  5. Environmental project and public space rehabilitation: the great project for the historic center of Naples Unesco World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Losasso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Historic Centre of Naples, World Heritage Site Enhancement” project has as its goal the rehabilitation of the oldest part of the historic center of Naples, one of the largest and most representative of Europe. The research reference field is placed on the level of strategic approach to the project and process management downstream of EU funding in large cities, with particular multidisciplinary relevance and urban issues of a complex nature. The scientific products of study, training and research were collected in Guidelines for the rehabilitation of public spaces and for sustainable performance of interventions on roads, walkways, squares and urban facilities.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor employing growth interruption and in situ rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Jo, Seong June; Song, Jong-In

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high temperature (∼700 deg. C) in situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) carried out during growth interruption between spacer and δ-doping layers of an In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) grown on a compositionally graded InGaAlAs buffer layer. The in situ RTA improved optical and structural properties of the MHEMT without degradation of transport property, while postgrowth RTA improved the structural property of the MHEMT but significantly degraded mobility due to the defect-assisted Si diffusion. The results indicate the potential of the in situ RTA for use in the growth of high-quality metamorphic epitaxial layers for optoelectronic applications requiring improved optical and electrical properties

  7. Smouldering (thermal) remediation of soil contaminated with industrial organic liquids: novel insights into heat transfer and kinetics uncovered by integrating experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Zanoni, M. A. B.; Torero, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Smouldering (i.e., flameless combustion) underpins the technology Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR). STAR achieves the in situ destruction of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) by generating a self-sustained smouldering reaction that propagates through the source zone. This research explores the nature of the travelling reaction and the influence of key in situ and engineered characteristics. A novel one-dimensional numerical model was developed (in COMSOL) to simulate the smouldering remediation of bitumen-contaminated sand. This model was validated against laboratory column experiments. Achieving model validation depended on correctly simulating the energy balance at the reaction front, including properly accounting for heat transfer, smouldering kinetics, and heat losses. Heat transfer between soil and air was demonstrated to be generally not at equilibrium. Moreover, existing heat transfer correlations were found to be inappropriate for the low air flow Reynold's numbers (Re remediation systems. Therefore, a suite of experiments were conducted to generate a new heat transfer correlation, which generated correct simulations of convective heat flow through soil. Moreover, it was found that, for most cases of interest, a simple two-step pyrolysis/oxidation set of kinetic reactions was sufficient. Arrhenius parameters, calculated independently from thermogravimetric experiments, allowed the reaction kinetics to be validated in the smouldering model. Furthermore, a simple heat loss term sufficiently accounted for radial heat losses from the column. Altogether, these advances allow this simple model to reasonably predict the self-sustaining process including the peak reaction temperature, the reaction velocity, and the complete destruction of bitumen behind the front. Simulations with the validated model revealed numerous unique insights, including how the system inherently recycles energy, how air flow rate and NAPL saturation dictate contaminant

  8. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO{sub 2} by atomic layer deposition on GeO{sub x}/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R., E-mail: zhang@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S. [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO{sub 2} using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO{sub x} interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO{sub 2} film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO{sub 2} film on a 1-nm-thick GeO{sub x} form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO{sub 2} can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO{sub x} structures in the underlying GeO{sub x} interfacial layer.

  9. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO2 by atomic layer deposition on GeOx/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.; Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO 2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO x interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO 2 film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO 2 film on a 1-nm-thick GeO x form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO 2 can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO x structures in the underlying GeO x interfacial layer

  10. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  11. Theory and numeric modelling of non-isothermal multiphase processes in NAPL-contaminated porous media; Theorie und numerische Modellierung nichtisothermer Mehrphasenprozesse in NAPL-kontaminierten poroesen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, H.

    2000-07-01

    The author investigates the numeric simulation of physical processes in porous media. The development of the model and its components is described, and the model is validated by laboratory experiments. Differences from the discretization methods BOX and CVFE are discussed as well as the applicability of the multigrid method described for multicomponent approaches. [German] Bei der thermischen Sanierung NAPL-kontaminierter Standorte, z.B. durch Injektion von Wasserdampf und/oder Heissluft, treten nichtisotherme Mehrphasenprozesse auf, die in einem Modell durch eine Betrachtung der Stroemungs- und Transportprozesse als Mehrkomponentensystem beschrieben werden koennen. Dabei ist der Austausch thermischer Energie zwischen den Phasen untereinander und auch dem poroesen Medium selbst, wie auch der Uebergang von Massekomponenten zwischen den Phasen zu beruecksichtigen. Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt die numerische Simulation derartiger physikalischer Vorgaenge in poroesen Medien. Ausgehend von der Problemstellung wird die Entwicklung eines konzeptionellen Modells (Kap. 2) sowie die Umsetzung der daraus resultierenden mathematischen Gleichungen und dazu erforderlichen Diskretisierungs- und Loesungsmethoden in numerische Algorithmen dargestellt (Kap. 3). Anschliessend wird in Kap. 4 die Faehigkeit des erstelten numerischen Modells ueberprueft, Problemstellungen in natuerlichen Systemen zu simulieren (Vergleich mit Laborexperimenten); ausserdem werden Unterschiede der Diskretisierungsverfahren BOX und CVFE sowie die Anwendbarkeit des in dieser Arbeit fuer Mehrkomponentenformulierungen erweiterten Mehrgitterverfahrens diskutiert. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides dispersed in carbon materials and in situ XRD study of the changes caused by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Gustavo R.; Schettino, Miguel A. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil); Morigaki, Milton K. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Nunes, Evaristo; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Emmerich, Francisco G. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil); Passamani, Edson C. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Magnetometry and Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Department of Physics (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa [Brazilian Center for Physical Research (CBPF) (Brazil); Freitas, Jair C. C., E-mail: jairccfreitas@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Carbon-based magnetic nanocomposites are of large interest for applications in catalysis, magnetic separation, water cleaning, and magnetic resonance imaging, among others. This work describes the synthesis of nanocomposites consisting of iron oxides dispersed into a char (obtained from the carbonization at 700 °C of a lignocellulosic precursor) and the study of the thermal transformations occurring in these materials as a consequence of heat treatments. The materials were prepared by impregnation of the char with iron nitrate in the presence of ammonium hydroxide in aqueous suspension. X-ray diffraction experiments performed using synchrotron radiation and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared material was composed of amorphous Fe{sup 3+} oxides. Scanning electron microscopy images combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicated a homogeneous dispersion of iron oxides and of silica particles (naturally present in the lignocellulosic precursor) throughout the char. X-ray diffractograms recorded in situ during the heat treatment of the as-prepared material showed the presence of small hematite crystallites (average size ∼22 nm) starting from ca. 300 °C. Further heating caused a progressive growth of the hematite crystallites up to ca. 500 °C, when the conversion to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) started to take place. At higher temperatures, wüstite (Fe{sub 1−x}O) was detected as an intermediate phase and austenitic iron (γ-Fe) became the dominant phase at temperatures from 900 °C. A steep weight loss was observed in the TG curve accompanying this last reduction stage; upon cooling, γ-Fe was converted into α-Fe (ferrite), which was the dominant phase at room temperature in this heat-treated sample.

  13. Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides dispersed in carbon materials and in situ XRD study of the changes caused by thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gustavo R.; Schettino, Miguel A.; Morigaki, Milton K.; Nunes, Evaristo; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Emmerich, Francisco G.; Passamani, Edson C.; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa; Freitas, Jair C. C.

    2015-07-01

    Carbon-based magnetic nanocomposites are of large interest for applications in catalysis, magnetic separation, water cleaning, and magnetic resonance imaging, among others. This work describes the synthesis of nanocomposites consisting of iron oxides dispersed into a char (obtained from the carbonization at 700 °C of a lignocellulosic precursor) and the study of the thermal transformations occurring in these materials as a consequence of heat treatments. The materials were prepared by impregnation of the char with iron nitrate in the presence of ammonium hydroxide in aqueous suspension. X-ray diffraction experiments performed using synchrotron radiation and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared material was composed of amorphous Fe3+ oxides. Scanning electron microscopy images combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicated a homogeneous dispersion of iron oxides and of silica particles (naturally present in the lignocellulosic precursor) throughout the char. X-ray diffractograms recorded in situ during the heat treatment of the as-prepared material showed the presence of small hematite crystallites (average size 22 nm) starting from ca. 300 °C. Further heating caused a progressive growth of the hematite crystallites up to ca. 500 °C, when the conversion to magnetite (Fe3O4) started to take place. At higher temperatures, wüstite (Fe1-xO) was detected as an intermediate phase and austenitic iron (γ-Fe) became the dominant phase at temperatures from 900 °C. A steep weight loss was observed in the TG curve accompanying this last reduction stage; upon cooling, γ-Fe was converted into α-Fe (ferrite), which was the dominant phase at room temperature in this heat-treated sample.

  14. The thermal equation of state of FeTiO3 ilmenite based on in situ X-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.J.; Van Kan Parker, M.; De Vries, J.; Wang, Y.; Sanehire, T.; Li, J.; Chen, B.; Gao, L.; Klemme, S.; McCammon, C.A.; Van Westerenen, W.

    2010-01-01

    We present in situ measurements of the unit-cell volume of a natural terrestrial ilmenite (Jagersfontein mine, South Africa) and a synthetic reduced ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature up to 16 GPa and 1273 K. Unit-cell volumes were determined using energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a multi-anvil press. Moessbauer analyses show that the synthetic sample contained insignificant amounts of Fe 3+ both before and after the experiment. Results were fit to Birch-Murnaghan thermal equations of state, which reproduce the experimental data to within 0.5 and 0.7 GPa for the synthetic and natural samples, respectively. At ambient conditions, the unit-cell volume of the natural sample (V 0 = 314.75 ± 0.23 (1σ) (angstrom) 3 ) is significantly smaller than that of the synthetic sample (V 0 = 319.12 ± 0.26 (angstrom) 3 ). The difference can be attributed to the presence of impurities and Fe 3+ in the natural sample. The 1 bar isothermal bulk moduli K T0 for the reduced ilmenite is slightly larger than for the natural ilmenite (181 ± 7 and 165 ± 6 GPa, respectively), with pressure derivatives K(prime) 0 = 3 ± 1. Our results, combined with literature data, suggest that the unit-cell volume of reduced ilmenite is significantly larger than that of oxidized ilmenite, whereas their thermoelastic parameters are similar. Our data provide more appropriate input parameters for thermo-chemical models of lunar interior evolution, in which reduced ilmenite plays a critical role.

  15. Oxidation kinetics of Si and SiGe by dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation and dry furnace oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Fabien; Gourhant, Olivier; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Bertin, François; Juhel, Marc; Abbate, Francesco; Pribat, Clément; Duru, Romain

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin compressively strained SiGe-On-Insulator layers by the condensation technique is likely a key milestone towards low-power and high performances FD-SOI logic devices. However, the SiGe condensation technique still requires challenges to be solved for an optimized use in an industrial environment. SiGe oxidation kinetics, upon which the condensation technique is founded, has still not reached a consensus in spite of various studies which gave insights into the matter. This paper aims to bridge the gaps between these studies by covering various oxidation processes relevant to today's technological needs with a new and quantitative analysis methodology. We thus address oxidation kinetics of SiGe with three Ge concentrations (0%, 10%, and 30%) by means of dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation, and dry furnace oxidation. Oxide thicknesses in the 50 Å to 150 Å range grown with oxidation temperatures between 850 and 1100 °C were targeted. The present work shows first that for all investigated processes, oxidation follows a parabolic regime even for thin oxides, which indicates a diffusion-limited oxidation regime. We also observe that, for all investigated processes, the SiGe oxidation rate is systematically higher than that of Si. The amplitude of the variation of oxidation kinetics of SiGe with respect to Si is found to be strongly dependent on the process type. Second, a new quantitative analysis methodology of oxidation kinetics is introduced. This methodology allows us to highlight the dependence of oxidation kinetics on the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface, which is modulated by the pile-up mechanism. Our results show that the oxidation rate increases with the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface.

  16. Distinctiveness and Sense of Community in the Historical Center of Naples: A Piece of Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…

  17. Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, K.E.C.; Thullner, M.; Wick, L.Y.; Harms, H.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase above that attributable to dissolved molecular diffusion alone was tested. In controlled experiments, mass transfer rates of

  18. An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model for biofilm growth and its impact on the NAPL dissolution in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benioug, M.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of microbial phase within porous medium is a complex process that involves growth, mortality, and detachment of the biofilm or attachment of moving cells. A better understanding of the interactions among biofilm growth, flow and solute transport and a rigorous modeling of such processes are essential for a more accurate prediction of the fate of pollutants (e.g. NAPLs) in soils. However, very few works are focused on the study of such processes in multiphase conditions (oil/water/biofilm systems). Our proposed numerical model takes into account the mechanisms that control bacterial growth and its impact on the dissolution of NAPL. An Immersed Boundary - Lattice Boltzmann Model (IB-LBM) is developed for flow simulations along with non-boundary conforming finite volume methods (volume of fluid and reconstruction methods) used for reactive solute transport. A sophisticated cellular automaton model is also developed to describe the spatial distribution of bacteria. A series of numerical simulations have been performed on complex porous media. A quantitative diagram representing the transitions between the different biofilm growth patterns is proposed. The bioenhanced dissolution of NAPL in the presence of biofilms is simulated at the pore scale. A uniform dissolution approach has been adopted to describe the temporal evolution of trapped blobs. Our simulations focus on the dissolution of NAPL in abiotic and biotic conditions. In abiotic conditions, we analyze the effect of the spatial distribution of NAPL blobs on the dissolution rate under different assumptions (blobs size, Péclet number). In biotic conditions, different conditions are also considered (spatial distribution, reaction kinetics, toxicity) and analyzed. The simulated results are consistent with those obtained from the literature.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchia, Anna Maria; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Pezza, Massimo

    An investigation on PAH in the atmospheric particulate matter of the city of Naples has been carried out. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was sampled in three sampling sites (West, East and central areas of the city), whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. In each site, 24 h samplings for 7 consecutive days were performed during three sampling campaigns, in 1996-1997. The results were comparable with those reported in literature for similar investigations. Total PAH were in the range 2-130 ng m -3, with a seasonal variation (autumn/winter vs. summer) in the range 1.5-4.5. The relative contribution of diesel engines vs. gasoline fuelled engines was evidenced.

  20. A high-resolution ocean circulation model of the Gulf of Naples and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruggero, P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a high-resolution circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area is discussed. The sigma-coordinate Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is implemented with a 1/144° resolution in a domain that includes highly urbanized coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Naples and the nearby gulfs of Gaeta and Salerno, that are particularly relevant from oceanographic, ecological and social viewpoints. The model takes initial and boundary conditions from a 1/48° resolution POM model of the whole Tyrrhenian Sea. The main forcing is provided by ECMWF wind data, but an alternative wind field obtained from the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data is also tested. Fundamental aspects of coastal modeling, such as the relative importance of local and remote forcing in semi-enclosed seas, and the sensitivity to different wind products are discussed.

  1. The history of the "Virgin with Child" sculpture (Ottaviano, Naples, southern Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Toscano, Maria; Cavazzini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    A life-size whitish marble statue of a "Virgin with Child" has been recently rediscovered in the St.Rosario church located in Ottaviano, a small town near Naples (southern Italy). This artwork shows stylistic features of the Tuscan-Roman school of the 16th century, and is framed in an intriguing...... historical context. Historical documents testify that the sculpture was a property of the cadet branch of noble Tuscan family of the Medici, the Medici of Ottaviano. A multianalytical approach has been used to try to indicate the supply area of the white marble of the studied sculpture. Considering the whole...... mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical data, the source rock can be possibly limited to the main classical white marbles of the Mediterranean district, as the classical marble of Aphrodisias. A reuse practice of a former artwork can be also hypothesized....

  2. Integration of numerical modeling and observations for the Gulf of Naples monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermano, I.; Uttieri, M.; Zambianchi, E.; Buonocore, B.; Cianelli, D.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.

    2012-04-01

    Lethal effects of mineral oils on fragile marine and coastal ecosystems are now well known. Risks and damages caused by a maritime accident can be reduced with the help of better forecasts and efficient monitoring systems. The MED project TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness Network), which gathers 13 partners from 4 Mediterranean countries, has been designed to help create a better response system to maritime accidents. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), TOSCA provides real-time observations and forecasts of the Mediterranean coastal marine environmental conditions. The system is installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The Gulf of Naples, a small semi-closed basin opening to the Tyrrhenian Sea is one of the five test-sites. It is of particular interest from both the environmental point of view, due to peculiar ecosystem properties in the area, and because it sustains important touristic and commercial activities. Currently the Gulf of Naples monitoring network is represented by five automatic weather stations distributed along the coasts of the Gulf, one weather radar, two tide gauges, one waverider buoy, and moored physical, chemical and bio-optical instrumentation. In addition, a CODAR-SeaSonde HF coastal radar system composed of three antennas is located in Portici, Massa Lubrense and Castellammare. The system provides hourly data of surface currents over the entire Gulf with a 1km spatial resolution. A numerical modeling implementation based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is actually integrated in the Gulf of Naples monitoring network. ROMS is a 3-D, free-surface, hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model. In our configuration, the model has high horizontal resolution (250m), and 30 sigma levels in the vertical. Thanks

  3. Structural diagnosis of historic timber structures: the Diplomatic Room of the of Royal Palace of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Calicchio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the diagnosis process made on the timber structure that holds up the vault of the Diplomatic Room of the Royal Palace in Naples (Italy. After a brief historical description of the Royal Palace and the Diplomatic Room, it discusses the methodology according to Italian regulations and the speci­fic problems that arose during the works. To complete the diagnosis, a dendrochronological analysis of the wooden elements was performed. The results show the residual mechanical properties of each structural element and the main problems to be resolved by the restorers. The dendrochronological conclusions yield that the dating of the elements is compatible with that of the frescoes on the vault and therefore demonstrate that the elements have not been replaced.

  4. At the Foot of the Volcano - Organ and Counterpoint in Naples around 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring, Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1575, Rocco Rodio published a “Fantasia” on the hymnus “Ave maris stella” in Naples in his Libro di ricercate. In the context of the progressive contributions to music for keyboard instruments of his contemporaries Antonio Valente (1575, Claudio Merulo and Andrea Gabrieli, Rodio’s setting of cantus firmus seems nothing short of anachronistic. But Rodio’s intention lies in the implementation of counterpoint. For him, the art of counterpoint was the decisive basis of the composer’s craft. Rodio’s intention is illuminated by the circumstances of his creative activity –the academies in Naples, always eager to dispute,– and by certain events in Rome and Palermo that culminated in the appearance of the Spaniard named Sebastián Raval. The original context regarding the history of music for Rodio’s “Ave maris stella” is in the liturgical organ music by Antonio de Cabezón, Manuel Rodriguez Coelho und Jean Titelouze und perhaps by António Carreira.

    1575 veröffentlichte Rocco Rodio in Neapel in seinem Libro di ricercate eine Fantasia über den Kirchenhymnus “Ave maris stella”. Im Kontext der progressiven Beiträge zur Tastenmusik seiner italienischen Zeitgenossen Antonio Valente (1575, Claudio Merulo und Andrea Gabrieli erscheint Rodios Cantus firmus-Satz geradezu anachronistisch. Doch Rodios Intention ist die des Kontrapunktikers. Für ihn war die kontrapunktische Kunst die entscheidende Basis des kompositorischen Handwerkes. Rodios Intention wird beleuchtet durch das Umfeld seines Wirkens –den diskussionsfreudigen Akademien in Neapel– und durch Ereignisse in Rom und Palermo, die im Auftritt des Spaniers Sebastián Raval gipfeln. Ihren eigentlichen musikhistorischen Kontext findet Rodios „Ave maris stella“ in der (liturgischen Orgelmusik von Antonio de Cabezón, Manuel Rodriguez Coelho und Jean Titelouze und vielleicht sogar von António Carreira.

  5. ?Underwater acoustic channel properties ?in the Gulf of Naples and their effects ?on digital data transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iannaccone

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ?In this paper we studied the physical properties of the Gulf of Naples (Southern Italy for its use as a commu- nication channel for the acoustic transmission of digital data acquired by seismic instruments on the seafloor to a moored buoy. The acoustic link will be assured by high frequency acoustic modems operating with a central frequency of 100 kHz and a band pass of 10 kHz. The main operational requirements of data transmission con- cern the near horizontal acoustic link, the maximum depth of the sea being about 300 m and the planned hori- zontal distance between seismic instruments and buoy 2 km. This study constructs the signal-to-noise ratio maps to understand the limits beyond which the clarity of the transmission is no longer considered reliable. Using ray- theory, we compute the amplitudes of a transmitted signal at a grid of 21×12 receivers to calculate the transmis- sion loss at each receiver. The signal-to-noise ratio is finally computed for each receiver knowing also the trans- mitter source level and the acoustic noise level in the Gulf of Naples. The results show that the multipath effects predominate over the effects produced by the sound velocity gradient in the sea in the summer period. In the case of omnidirectional transmitters with a Source Level (SL of 165 dB and a baud rate of 2.4 kbit/s, the results al- so show that distances of 1400-1600 m can be reached throughout the year for transmitter-receiver connections below 50 m depth in the underwater acoustic channel.

  6. Underwater acoustic channel properties in the Gulf of Naples and their effects on digital data transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iannaccone

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the physical properties of the Gulf of Naples (Southern Italy for its use as a communication channel for the acoustic transmission of digital data acquired by seismic instruments on the seafloor to a moored buoy. The acoustic link will be assured by high frequency acoustic modems operating with a central frequency of 100 kHz and a band pass of 10 kHz. Since the maximum depth of the sea is about 300 m and the planned horizontal distance between the seismic instruments and the buoy is 2 km, the acoustic data transmission shall be near horizontal. In this study the signal-to-noise ratio is plotted against depth and distance from the source, thus defining the limit after which the transmitted information becomes unreliable. Using ray-theory, we compute the amplitudes of a transmitted signal at a grid of 21×12 receivers to calculate the transmission loss at each receiver. The signal-to-noise ratio is finally computed for each receiver knowing also the transmitter source level and the acoustic noise level in the Gulf of Naples. The results show that the multipath effects predominate over the effects produced by the sound velocity gradient in the sea in the summer period. In the case of omnidirectional transmitters with a Source Level (SL of 165 dB and a bit rate of 2.4 kbit/s, the results also show that distances of 1400-1600 m can be reached throughout the year for transmitter-receiver connections below 50 m depth in the underwater acoustic channel.

  7. Geochemical survey of an illegal waste disposal site under a waste emergency scenario (Northwest Naples, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, L; Iannace, M; Patelli, A M; Arienzo, M

    2013-03-01

    Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled landfills. The aim was to characterise a former cave located in Roccarainola (Naples, Italy) for its eventual destination to a controlled landfill site. A detailed hydro-geochemical survey of the area was carried out through drilling of 14 boreholes and four monitoring wells. Samples of water, sediment and soil were analysed for heavy metals and organic contaminants from a dew pond placed in the middle of the cave. The underneath aquifer was also surveyed. The nature of gases emitted from the site was investigated. Results of the geognostic survey revealed the presence of huge volumes of composite wastes, approximately half a million of cubic metre, which accumulated up to a thickness of 25.6 m. In some points, wastes lie below the free surface level of the aquifer. The sampled material from the boreholes revealed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Tl and Zn exceeding the intervention legal limits. Outstanding loads of Cd, Pb and Zn were found, with levels exceeding of about 50, 100 and 1,870 times the limit. In several points, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was extremely high, 35 vs 1 mg kg(-1) of the threshold. The aquifer was also very heavily polluted by Cd, Cr-tot, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, with impressive high load of Cr and Mn, up to 250-370 times the limits. Hot gases up to 62 °C with presence of xylene and ethylbenzene were found. Results indicated that the site needs an urgent intervention of recovery to avoid compromising the surrounding areas and aquifers of the Campania plain.

  8. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  9. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing, E-mail: liupq@scu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun, E-mail: xujj@scu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  10. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young's modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler-matrix interface, in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification was a good choice to prepare graphene/PVA nanocomposite with excellent mechanical properties.

  11. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN MELANOMA RESEARCH. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World. Napoli, December 5th–6 th2011”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascierto Paolo A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After more than 30 years, landmark progress has been made in the treatment of cancer, and melanoma in particular, with the success of new molecules such as ipilimumab, vemurafenib and active specific immunization. After the first congress in December 2010, the second edition of “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World” meeting, organized by Paolo A. Ascierto (INT, Naples, Italy, Francesco M. Marincola (NIH, Bethesda, USA, and Nicola Mozzillo (INT, Naples, Italy took place in Naples, on 5–6 December 2011. We have identified four new topics of discussion: Innovative Approaches in Prevention, Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment, New Pathways and Targets in Melanoma: An Update about Immunotherapy, and Combination Strategies. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members and was focused on recent advances in melanoma molecular biology, immunology and therapy, and created an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion of new approaches and strategies in the field of melanoma.

  12. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m -3 to 55 ± 4 kBq.m -3 . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m -3 and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m -3 , diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  13. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  14. The Architectural and Environmental Refurbishment of Industrialised Residential Construction. The example of the Selva Cafaro Quarter in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Perriccioli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the experimental research conducted over the past years by the CHED (Concept House and Environmental Design Research Unit at the “Eduardo Vittoria” School of Architecture and Design in Ascoli Piceno, focused on the theme of Social Housing. The CHED is a temporary research team that proposes a union between diverse know-how, cultures, skills and specialisations, working towards a method of theoretical and conceptual investigation and design and building experiments in the field of innovative construction for sustainable dwelling. In particular, the experience outlined in this text relates to a design experiment completed between 2010 and 2011 and outside the borders of the Marche region, in agreement with the City of Naples' Assessorato all’Edilizia e al Centro Storico (Department of Building and the Historical Centre and focused on the architectural and environmental refurbishment of the residential quarter of Selva Cafaro in San Pietro a Patierno (Naples.

  15. A one-step in-situ assembly strategy to construct PEG@MOG-100-Fe shape-stabilized composite phase change material with enhanced storage capacity for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyong; Andriamitantsoa, Radoelizo S.; Atinafu, Dimberu G.; Gao, Hongyi; Dong, Wenjun; Wang, Ge

    2018-03-01

    A novel in-situ assembly strategy has been developed to synthesis polyethylene glycol (PEG)@iron-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic gel (MOG-100-Fe) shape-stabilized composite phase change materials by regulating metal-to-ligand ratio. The PEG@MOG-100-Fe was prepared by an ingenious introduction of PEG into the traditional sol-gel prepared MOG-100-Fe. The composite exhibited high heat storage density and thermal stability. The PEG loading content reached up to 92% without any leakage above its melting point. The heat storage density reaches to 152.88

  16. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  17. Implications of soil mixing for NAPL source zone remediation: Column studies and modeling of field-scale systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mitchell R; Sale, Tom C

    2015-01-01

    Soil remediation is often inhibited by subsurface heterogeneity, which constrains contaminant/reagent contact. Use of soil mixing techniques for reagent delivery provides a means to overcome contaminant/reagent contact limitations. Furthermore, soil mixing reduces the permeability of treated soils, thus extending the time for reactions to proceed. This paper describes research conducted to evaluate implications of soil mixing on remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. The research consisted of column studies and subsequent modeling of field-scale systems. For column studies, clean influent water was flushed through columns containing homogenized soils, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Within the columns, NAPL depletion occurred due to dissolution, followed by either column-effluent discharge or ZVI-mediated degradation. Complete removal of TCE NAPL from the columns occurred in 6-8 pore volumes of flow. However, most of the TCE (>96%) was discharged in the column effluent; less than 4% of TCE was degraded. The low fraction of TCE degraded is attributed to the short hydraulic residence time (10 m) and reducing permeability by one-or-more orders of magnitude, the residence time could be greatly extended, potentially for periods of years to decades. Model output indicates that the fraction of TCE degraded can be increased to >99.9%, given typical post-mixing soil permeability values. These results suggest that remediation performance can be greatly enhanced by combining contaminant degradation with an extended residence time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ShakeMap Atlas for the City of Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Faenza, Licia; Camassi, Romano; Michelini, Alberto; Ercolani, Emanuela; Lauciani, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    Naples is one of the most vulnerable cities in the world because it is threatened by several natural and man-made hazards: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, hydrogeological disasters, and morphologic alterations due to human interference. In addition, the risk is increased by the high density of population (Naples and the surrounding area are among the most populated in Italy), and by the type and condition of buildings and monuments. In light of this, it is crucial to assess the ground shaking suffered by the city. We take into account and integrate data information from five Italian databases and catalogues (DBMI11; CPTI11; CAMAL11; MOLAL08; ITACA) to build a reliable ShakeMap atlas for the area and to recreate the seismic history of the city from historical to recent times (1293 to 1999). This large amount of data gives the opportunity to explore several sources of information, expanding the completeness of our data set in both time and magnitude. 84 earthquakes have been analyzed and for each event, a Shakemap set has been computed using an ad hoc implementation developed for this application: (1) specific ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) accounting for the different attenuation properties in volcanic areas compared with the tectonic ones, and (2) detailed local microzonation to include the site effects. The ShakeMap atlas has two main applications: a) it is an important instrument in seismic risk management. It quantifies the level of shaking suffered by a city during its history, and it could be implemented to the quantification of the number of people exposed to certain degrees of shaking. Intensity data provide the evaluation of the damage caused by earthquakes; the damage is closely linked with the ground shaking, building type, and vulnerability, and it is not possible to separate these contributions; b) the Atlas can be used as starting point for Bayesian estimation of seismic hazard. This technique allows for the merging

  19. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  20. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in solid adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperato, M.; Monetti, V.; Naimo, D.; Stanzione, D.

    1999-01-01

    This work analyses the distribution of heavy metal in soil adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way, an area which typically contains volcanic products from Somma-Vesuvio. The various concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and Cr found in different portions of the motor way (embankment, road cut, field level) are reported. The data obtained indicate high level of pollution in soil adjacent to the motor way fencing, with maximum concentrations of 1220 ppm Pb, 1.9 ppm Cd and 341 ppm Zn. Gradients of decreasing pollution with distance from the fencing and with altitude from the road surface are highest for Zn followed by Pb and Cd. The presence of these three materials in depth follows an averagely constant falling gradient, with minimum detected values at 50 cm depth. The spatial distribution of Cr does not reveal any significant differences. Relatively big levels are due to the presence in the soil of Chromium-rich minerals such as augite and olivine. Mn and Cu are found, due to local contribution, probably as a consequence of the use of copper compounds in agriculture [it

  1. Forecasting Organized Crime Homicides: Risk Terrain Modeling of Camorra Violence in Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugato, Marco; Calderoni, Francesco; Berlusconi, Giulia

    2017-06-01

    Mafia homicides are usually committed for retaliation, economic profit, or rivalry among groups. The variety of possible reasons suggests the inefficacy of a preventive approach. However, like most violent crimes, mafia homicides concentrate in space due to place-specific social and environmental features. Starting from the existing literature, this study applies the Risk Terrain Modeling approach to forecast the Camorra homicides in Naples, Italy. This approach is based on the identification and evaluation of the underlying risk factors able to affect the risk of a homicide. This information is then used to predict the most likely location of future events. The findings of this study demonstrate that past homicides, drug dealing, confiscated assets, and rivalries among groups make it possible to predict up to 85% of 2012 mafia homicides, identifying 11% of city areas at highest risk. By contrast, variables controlling for the socio-economic conditions of areas are not significantly related to the risk of homicide. Moreover, this study shows that, even in a restricted space, the same risk factors may combine in different ways, giving rise to areas of equal risk but requiring targeted remedies. These results provide an effective basis for short- and long-term targeted policing strategies against organized crime- and gang-related violence. A similar approach may also provide practitioners, policy makers, and local administrators in other countries with significant support in understanding and counteracting also other forms of violent behavior by gangs or organized crime groups.

  2. Difficult balances and impossible partners. The implementation local plan for San Giovanni a Teduccio in Naples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Formato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the processes involved in preparing the preliminary draft of the implementation local plan (ILP of the San Giovanni a Teduccio district of Naples (2008. The plan, drawn up during the activities of the Innovative programme in the urban field (PIAU financed by the Ministry of Infrastructure in 2004, aims to integrate a series of initiatives, already in progress or planned in the district for the designing of public space, by giving special attention to the redevelopment of the waterfront and the strengthening of its relationships with the city. In the given conditions, the solutions proposed by the plan represent the most advanced point of balance between different visions which general urban planning and subsequent programme agreements can bring about. Finally, ILP’s work is subjected to a persistent contradiction, a structural incompatibility between the activities of the commercial port and the renovation of the waterfront: port and city generate a dialectic which, at present, is not conducive either to economic development based on the logistics or to urban renovation. Why don’t we look for other options rather than this unfruitful incompatibility?

  3. Feasibility study on earthquake early warning application to schools: the example of the ITIS 'E. Majorana', Somma Vesuviana, Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emolo, Antonio; Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Martino, Claudio; Elia, Luca; Verderame, Gerardo; De Risi, Maria Teresa; Ricci, Paolo; Lombardi, Anna; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano; Boxberger, Tobias; Miranda, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    One of the main objective of the WP7 (Strategic Applications and Capacity Building) in the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, is to evaluate the effectiveness of EEW and real-time risk assessment procedures in reducing seismic risk to various industrial partners and end-users. In the context of the REAKT project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the application of earthquake early-warning procedures in two high schools located in the Irpinia region (South Italy), an area that in the 1980 was struck by a magnitude 6.9 earthquake. In this work we report on the activities carried out during the last 24 Months at the school ITIS 'E. Majorana', located in Somma Vesuviana, a village in the neighbourhood of Naples. In order to perform a continuous seismic monitoring of the site, which includes a rather complex structure building, 5 accelerometric stations have been installed in different part of the school. In particular, a 24-bit ADC (Sigma/Delta) Agecodagis-Kefren data-logger has been installed with a Guralp CMG-5TC accelerometer with a 0.25g full-scale in the school courtyard, while 4 SOSEWIN sensors have been also installed at different locations within the building. Commercial ADSL lines provide transmission of real-time data to the EEW centre. Data streams are now acquired in real-time in the PRESToPlus (regional and on-site, threshold-based early-warning) software platform [1]. The recent December 29, 2013 M 5.1 Monti del Matese Earthquake, gave us the unique opportunity to use real strong motion data to test the performance of threshold-based early warning method at the school. The on-site method [2] aims to define alert levels at the monitored site. In particular, at each station the characteristic P-waves period (τc) and the peak displacement (Pd) are measured on the initial P-wave signal. They are compared with threshold values, previously established through an

  4. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  5. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements

  6. Towards a network of Urban Forest Eddy Covariance stations: a unique case study in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Esposito, Raffaela; Mattioni, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Urban forests are by definition integrated in highly human-made areas, and interact with different components of our cities. Thanks to those interactions, urban forests provide to people and to the urban environment a number of ecosystem services, including the absorption of CO2 and air pollutants thus influencing the local air quality. Moreover, in urban areas a relevant role is played by the photochemical pollution which is strongly influenced by the interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In several cities, a high percentage of VOC is of biogenic origin mainly emitted from the urban trees. Despite their importance, experimental sites monitoring fluxes of trace gases fluxes in urban forest ecosystems are still scarce. Here we show the preliminary results of an innovative experimental site located in the Royal Park of Capodimonte within the city of Naples (40°51'N-14°15'E, 130 m above sea level). The site is mainly characterised by Quercus ilex with some patches of Pinus pinea and equipped with an eddy-covariance tower measuring the exchange of CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, O3, PM, VOCs and NOx using state-of-the art instrumentations; it is running since the end of 2014 and it is part of the large infrastructural I-AMICA project. We suggest that the experience gained with research networks such as Fluxnet and ICOS should be duplicated for urban forests. This is crucial for carbon as there is now the ambition to include urban forests in the carbon stocks accounting system. This is even more important to understand the difficult interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources that often have negative implications for urban air quality. Urban environment can thus become an extraordinary case study and a network of such kind of stations might represent an important strategy both from the scientific and the applicative point of view.

  7. ONKALO POSE experiment. Determination of in situ thermal properties of rocks in drillholes ONK-PP340, ONK-PP346, ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpisalo, A.; Suppala, I.; Kukkonen, I.; Koskinen, T.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal drillhole device TERO76 (for diameter 76 mm drillholes) used in this study for determining thermal properties of rocks in situ was developed at the Geological Survey of Finland for Posiva in the early 2000's. The measurement method is based on monitoring the temperature variation of a cylindrical heating source in a drillhole. The measured data can be interpreted with full numerical 3D codes as well as with an analytical infinite line source method, a 'rapid interpretation tool', which makes it possible to calculate the first estimates of thermal properties already in the field. Both methods were applied in this study. Because of the unique measurement geometry, only the thermal conductivities can accurately be estimated using the late times of heating periods (accuracy ± 2%). The cylindrical source method cannot directly give the thermal diffusivity or volumetric heat capacity at a sufficient accuracy. Thermal diffusivities are estimated by using the average specific heat capacities and densities of the rock type at the measurement point, or the laboratory results on the general diffusivity-conductivity relationship for different Olkiluoto rock types. The latter technique was applied in this study. Thermal properties were determined in four shallow drillholes (ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411) located in the ONKALO investigation niche 3 (ONK-TKU-3620) at the access tunnel chainage of 3620 m. The measurement positions (17) were strictly selected on the grounds that approximately an equal number of in situ results would be available in both veined gneiss (VGN) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). The results from the drillholes ONK-PP340 and ONK-PP346 measured in a previous project are also presented in this report. In veined gneiss, the average conductivity determined with numerical model of the present measurements is 3.49 (2.83) Wm -1 K -1 and diffusivity 1.89 x 10 -6 (1.3 10 -6 ) m 2 s -1 . The laboratory values of Olkiluoto rocks

  8. A three-dimensional multiphase flow model for assesing NAPL contamination in porous and fractured media, 1. Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyakorn, P. S.; Panday, S.; Wu, Y. S.

    1994-06-01

    A three-dimensional, three-phase numerical model is presented for stimulating the movement on non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPL's) through porous and fractured media. The model is designed for practical application to a wide variety of contamination and remediation scenarios involving light or dense NAPL's in heterogeneous subsurface systems. The model formulation is first derived for three-phase flow of water, NAPL and air (or vapor) in porous media. The formulation is then extended to handle fractured systems using the dual-porosity and discrete-fracture modeling approaches The model accommodates a wide variety of boundary conditions, including withdrawal and injection well conditions which are treated rigorously using fully implicit schemes. The three-phase of formulation collapses to its simpler forms when air-phase dynamics are neglected, capillary effects are neglected, or two-phase-air-liquid, liquid-liquid systems with one or two active phases are considered. A Galerkin procedure with upstream weighting of fluid mobilities, storage matrix lumping, and fully implicit treatment of nonlinear coefficients and well conditions is used. A variety of nodal connectivity schemes leading to finite-difference, finite-element and hybrid spatial approximations in three dimensions are incorporated in the formulation. Selection of primary variables and evaluation of the terms of the Jacobian matrix for the Newton-Raphson linearized equations is discussed. The various nodal lattice options, and their significance to the computational time and memory requirements with regards to the block-Orthomin solution scheme are noted. Aggressive time-stepping schemes and under-relaxation formulas implemented in the code further alleviate the computational burden.

  9. Effects of March 20, 2015, partial (~50% solar eclipse on meteorological parameters in the urban area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scafetta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the partial (~50% solar eclipse occurred on March 20, 2015, morning, various meteorological parameters were monitored to study their evolution above the urban area of Naples, central Italy. The experimental conditions were optimal because of the clear sky situation all over Italy, and in Naples in particular. The eclipse last about 2 hours between 9:25:06 (UT+1, local Italian time and 11:43:09 (local Italian time, UT+1. From the observation site, the incoming solar radiation diminished by about 50% at the eclipse peak at 10:32:18 (local Italian time, UT+1, as expected. On the contrary, the UV radiation diminished significantly less, about 25%. This frequency response was likely due to Rayleigh scattering. It suggests that about 50% of the UV radiation reaching the surface was direct light and 50% scattered light. During the eclipse, the urban surface temperature and humidity values stayed almost constant instead of increasing and decreasing, respectively, as predicted by their daily cycle. This result was used to estimate that the average emissivity of the city of Naples is about f = 0.86. The wind speed decreased significantly during the event while the atmospheric pressure stayed constant to decrease only after the eclipse. Finally, we propose a simple empirical method to approximately estimate the cooling effect of an eclipse, which meteorologists could use to correct the temperature model forecast that normally ignores the occurrence of an eclipse. Consistency of these results with the literature and its importance is briefly discussed.

  10. In-situ hybrid study of thermal behaviour of Znsbnd Ni and Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 nanocrystallite thin films induced TEA/MEA by electrocodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Dodo, M. R.

    Our present investigation focuses on the thermal stability of already developed electroforms of Znsbnd Ni and Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 thin films induced with triethylamine (TEA) and monoethylamine (MEA) as surfactant by electrocodeposition on mild steel substrate with the aim to re-examine its micro-hardness and degradation behaviour in static sodium chloride solution. In the event, the samples were thermally treated at 200 °C and air cooled. The results obtained showed that the developed composites are thermally stable with hardness value of the Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 coated; 185 Hv increased to 190.5 Hv indicating a 2.89% improvement. Noticeably, in the Znsbnd Ni coatings, a decrease in the hardness with 26.67% was observed. The oxidation resistance was however favored for both composites.

  11. In situ synthesis and characterization of GaN nanorods through thermal decomposition of pre-grown GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, P; Qin, D; An, Y K; Li, G Z; Xing, J; Liu, J J

    2008-01-01

    Herein we describe a thermal treatment route to synthesize gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods. In this method, GaN nanorods were synthesized by thermal treatment of GaN films at a temperature of 800 deg. C. The morphology and structure of GaN nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that GaN nanorods have a hexagonal wurtzite structure with diameters ranging from 30 to 50 nm. Additionally, GaN nanoplates are also founded in the products. The growth process of GaN nanostructures was investigated and a thermal decomposition mechanism was proposed. Our method provides a cost-effective route to fabricate GaN nanorods, which will benefit the fabrication of one-dimensional nanomaterials and device applications

  12. A Bayesian Approach to Integrate Real-Time Data into Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Remediation Efforts in NAPL Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors) without doing extensive modeling. Importantly, the method is further capable to incorporate the inherent uncertainty that often exist in the exact location where the dissolved NAPL plume leaves the source zone. This is achieved by describing the failure of the system as a function of this source zone exit location, parameterized in terms of a vector of parameters. Using a Bayesian interpretation of the system and by means of the posterior multivariate distribution, the failure of the

  13. Thermal analysis of in-situ curing for thermoset, hoop-wound structures using infrared heating: Part II. Dependent scattering effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, B.C.; Moon, T.J.; Howell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The volume fraction of the fibers present in commercial filament wound structures, formed from either epoxy-impregnated tapes (open-quotes prepregclose quotes) or fiber strands pulled through an epoxy bath, approaches 60 percent. Such close-packed structures are near the region that may cause dependent scattering effects to be important; that is, the scattering characteristics of one fiber may be affected by the presence of nearby fibers. This dependent scattering may change the single-fiber extinction coefficient and phase function, and thus may change the radiative transfer in such materials. This effect is studied for unidirectional fibers dispersed in a matrix with nonunity refractive index, and with large size parameter (fiber diameter to wavelength ratio) typical of commercial fiber-matrix composites. Only the case of radiation incident normal to the cylinder axes is considered, as this maximizes the dependent effects. The dependent extinction efficiency is found by solving the dispersion relations for the complex effective propagation constant of the composites. An estimation of this dependent scattering effect on the infrared in-situ curing of thermoset-hoop-wound structures is also conducted. It is found that the wave interference effect is significant for S-glass/3501-6 composite, and neglect of this effect tends to overestimate the temperature and cure state within the materials during IR in-situ curing. 23 refs., 8 figs

  14. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  15. Processes controlling the migration and biodegradation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) within fractured rocks in the vadose zone. FY96 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.Y.; Conrad, M.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Cevera, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Su, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This project investigates both flow dynamics and microbial processes affecting NAPLs in fractured rock in a closely coupled, integrated manner. The objective is to develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the behavior of two and three immiscible fluid phases, microbial transformation and/or degradation, and to provide a scientific basis for field investigations, site characterization, and remedial action for NAPL contamination in fractured rocks. To achieve this, the program combines laboratory and theoretical investigations, coupled with the evaluation of conditions at relevant field sites. This report summarizes the work accomplished since inception of the project in April 1996.

  16. Processes controlling the migration and biodegradation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) within fractured rocks in the vadose zone. FY96 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.Y.; Conrad, M.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Cevera, J.C.; Su, G.

    1997-02-01

    This project investigates both flow dynamics and microbial processes affecting NAPLs in fractured rock in a closely coupled, integrated manner. The objective is to develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the behavior of two and three immiscible fluid phases, microbial transformation and/or degradation, and to provide a scientific basis for field investigations, site characterization, and remedial action for NAPL contamination in fractured rocks. To achieve this, the program combines laboratory and theoretical investigations, coupled with the evaluation of conditions at relevant field sites. This report summarizes the work accomplished since inception of the project in April 1996

  17. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  18. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  19. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ

  20. Post-test comparison of thermal-hydrologic measurements and numerical predictions for the in situ single heater test, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, S.; Francis, N.D.; Sobolik, S.R.; Finley, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is a sixteen-month-long heating and cooling experiment begun in August, 1996, located underground within the unsaturated zone near the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the 9 month heating phase of the test, roughly 15 m 3 of rock were raised to temperatures exceeding 100 C. In this paper, temperatures measured in sealed boreholes surrounding the heater are compared to temperatures predicted by 3D thermal-hydrologic calculations performed with a finite difference code. Three separate model runs using different values of bulk rock permeability (4 microdarcy to 5.2 darcy) yielded significantly different predicted temperatures and temperature distributions. All the models differ from the data, suggesting that to accurately model the thermal-hydrologic behavior of the SHT, the Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM), the conceptual basis for dealing with the fractured porous medium in the numerical predictions, should be discarded in favor of more sophisticated approaches

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate)/Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites by in situ AGET ATRP: Investigating Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Khezrollah; Fazli, Yousef

    2017-10-01

    Hydrophilic silica aerogel nanoparticles surface was modified with hexamethyldisilazane. Then, the resultant modified nanoparticles were used in random copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate via activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. Conversion and molecular weight determinations were performed using gas and size exclusion chromatography respectively. Addition of modified nanoparticles by 3 wt% results in a decrease of conversion from 68 to 46 %. Molecular weight of copolymer chains decreases from 12,500 to 7,500 g.mol-1 by addition of 3 wt% modified nanoparticles; however, PDI values increase from 1.1 to 1.4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results indicate that the molar ratio of each monomer in the copolymer chains is approximately similar to the initial selected mole ratio of them. Increasing thermal stability of the nanocomposites is demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry also shows a decrease in glass transition temperature by increasing modified silica aerogel nanoparticles.

  2. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991

  3. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  4. In situ TEM observations of the thermal degradation of the two way memory effect in a Cu-Al-Be alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zuniga, H.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    A Cu-Al-Be alloy with a martensitic transformation temperature (M S ) lower than room temperature, was trained to induce the two way memory effect (TWME) and the aging effects in austenitic phase were studied by in-situ observations in a Transmission Electron Microscope. The results show movements of dislocations at temperatures where the TWME deformation is well known to decrease after short aging times (about an hour). Since the Burgers vector of these dislocations does not change during aging, and precipitates have been not observed, we concluded that the TWME degrades as a result of modifications in the internal stresses field distribution associated with dislocation movements, that produces a more random orientation of martensitic plates on cooling. (orig.)

  5. The struggle for Via Bologna street market: crisis, racial denial and speaking back to power in Naples Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Antonia

    2018-01-10

    This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted with migrant and Italian street vendors in Naples, southern Italy, in 2012. It tells the story of Via Bologna market which was nearly closed down by the City Hall at the time. Naples is a city where issues of poverty and unemployment pre-date and have been exacerbated by manifold narratives of crisis now unfolding across Europe regarding the economy, political legitimacy, security and migration. Street markets have always been an important and visible economic survival strategy for both Neapolitans and migrants there. This article shows how the Via Bologna street vendors appropriated and adapted discourses about crisis to form their own cosmopolitan social movement that halted the closure of the market. It argues that, in the age of globalized migration, the multilingual nature of such collective action is central to understanding social struggles that must be organized between marginalized groups of people divided by race, religion, politics and legal status. This, frequently ambiguous, transcultural solidarity speaks back against a mainstream post-racial discourse - often articulated by the Neapolitan street vendors at the market - that would reduce the complexity of such collective action to questions of poverty and class struggle. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  6. The influence of water on the strength of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, the most widely used building stone in Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Kushnir, Alexandra R. L.; Lavallée, Yan; Baud, Patrick; Gilg, H. Albert; Reuschlé, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) has been used in construction in Naples (Italy) since the Greeks founded the city—then called Neapolis—in the sixth century BCE. We investigate here whether this popular building stone is weaker when saturated with water, an issue important for assessments of weathering damage and monument preservation. To this end, we performed 28 uniaxial compressive strength measurements on dry and water-saturated samples cored from a block of the lithified Upper Member of the NYT. Our experiments show that the strength of the zeolite-rich NYT is systematically reduced when saturated with water (the ratio of wet to dry strength is 0.63). Complementary experiments show that two other common Neapolitan building stones—Piperno Tuff and the grey Campanian Ignimbrite (both facies of the Campanian Ignimbrite deposit devoid of zeolites)—do not weaken when wet. From these data, and previously published data for tuffs around the globe, we conclude that the water-weakening in NYT is a consequence of the presence of abundant zeolites (the block tested herein contains 46 wt.% of zeolites). These data may help explain weathering damage in NYT building stones (due to rainfall, rising damp, and proximity to the sea or water table) and the observed link between rainfall and landslides, rock falls, and sinkhole formation in Naples, and the weathering of other buildings built from zeolite-rich tuffs worldwide.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels from the gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena; De Felice, Alessandra; Anastasio, Aniello; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of the industrial activity on food safety and risk for consumers, the aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 69 samples of wild and farm Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in sites of coast of Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea. All hydrocarbons were found in samples. Higher levels of pyrolytic PAHs were in wild than in farm mussels. Benzo(a)pyrene exceeded the Regulation (EC) n.835/11 levels of 1 μg/kg in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 25 samples (65.79%) of farm mussels. System of sum of 4 hydrocarbons exceeded the law level in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 21 samples (55.26%) of farm mussels. Wild mussel levels showed a potential impact of pyrolytic sources of PAH on food safety. Occurrence of carcinogenic PAHs should be a cause for concern, in areas where the mussels are being farmed for human consumption. - Highlights: •Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are genotoxic and carcinogenic organic compounds. •Mussels were used as bio-indicators of the marine pollution and human exposure. •14 PAH were evaluated in wild and farm mussels collected in the Gulf of Naples. •The impact of industrial activity on mussel safety is related to pyrolytic sources. •Carcinogenic PAHs in farm mussels may represent a potential risk for human health.

  8. Effect of an in-situ thermal annealing on the structural properties of self-assembled GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Delgado, N., E-mail: natalia.fernandezdelgado@alum.uca.es [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Chisholm, M.F. [Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Kamarudin, M.A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zhuang, Q.D.; Hayne, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Molina, S.I. [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • GaSb QDs are more elongated and Sb is less concentrated after the thermal annealing. • The density of misfit dislocations in GaSb QDs is reduced after the annealing. • Threading dislocations in GaSb/GaAs QDs are Sb-rich after the thermal annealing. • The gliding of a threading dislocation favors Sb diffusion in GaSb/GaAs QDs. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of the application of a thermal annealing on the structural properties of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) is analyzed by aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) Our results show that the GaSb/GaAs QDs are more elongated after the annealing, and that the interfaces are less abrupt due to the Sb diffusion. We have also found a strong reduction in the misfit dislocation density with the annealing. The analysis by EELS of a threading dislocation has shown that the dislocation core is rich in Sb. In addition, the region of the GaAs substrate delimited by the threading dislocation is shown to be Sb-rich as well. An enhanced diffusion of Sb due to a mechanism assisted by the dislocation movement is discussed.

  9. The thermal behaviour and structural stability of nesquehonite, MgCO3.3H2O, evaluated by in situ laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction: New constraints on CO2 sequestration within minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballirano, Paolo; De Vito, Caterina; Ferrini, Vincenzo; Mignardi, Silvano

    2010-06-15

    In order to gauge the appropriateness of CO(2) reaction with Mg chloride solutions as a process for storing carbon dioxide, the thermal behaviour and structural stability of its solid product, nesquehonite (MgCO(3).3H(2)O), were investigated in situ using real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that the nesquehonite structure remains substantially unaffected up to 373 K, with the exception of a markedly anisotropic thermal expansion acting mainly along the c axis. In the 371-390 K range, the loss of one water molecule results in the nucleation of a phase of probable composition MgCO(3).2H(2)O, which is characterized by significant structural disorder. At higher temperatures (423-483 K), both magnesite and MgO.2MgCO(3) coexist. Finally, at 603 K, periclase nucleation starts and the disappearance of carbonate phases is completed at 683 K. Consequently, the structural stability of nesquehonite at high temperatures suggests that it will remain stable under the temperature conditions that prevail at the Earth's surface. These results will help (a) to set constraints on the temperature conditions under which nesquehonite may be safely stored and (b) to develop CO(2) sequestration via the synthesis of nesquehonite for industrial application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the thermal stability of ultrafine-grained Al stabilized by in-situ amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Martin, E-mail: martin.balog@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 83102 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hu, Tao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Krizik, Peter [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 83102 Bratislava (Slovakia); Castro Riglos, Maria Victoria [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9.500 (8400) Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Saller, Brandon D.; Yang, Hanry; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Bulk Al materials with average grain sizes of 0.47 and 2.4 µm, were fabricated by quasi-isostatic forging consolidation of two types of Al powders with average particle sizes of 1.3 and 8.9 μm, respectively. By utilizing the native amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film on the Al powders surfaces, a continuous, ∼7 nm thick, am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network was formed in situ in the Al specimens. Systematic investigation of the changes to the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network embedded in the Al matrix upon heating and annealing up to 600 °C was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At the same time, the stability of the Al grain structure was studied by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), and TEM. The am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network remained stable after annealing at 400 °C for 24 h. In-situ TEM studies revealed that at temperatures ≥450 °C, phase transformation of the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network to crystalline γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles occurred. After annealing at 600 °C for 24 h the transformation was completed, whereby only nanometric γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with an average size of 28 nm resided on the high angle grain boundaries of Al. Due to the pinning effect of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the Al grain and subgrain structures remained unchanged during annealing up to 600 °C for 24 h. The effect of the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}→γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformation on the mechanical properties of ultrafine- and fine-grained Al is discussed from the standpoint of the underlying mechanisms.

  11. In Situ Gamma Irradiation and Thermal Treatment Effects on the Static Bending Properties of Particle boards Based on Waste Materials and Different Adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafaga, M.R.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Zahran, A.H.; Kandeel, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle boards based on different waste materials and different polymers as adhesives have been prepared by compression molding in a hot press at 120 degree and constant pressure. The used waste materials were cotton stalks, flax stalks and wood saw-dust whereas urea formaldehyde (UF), polystyrene (PS) and the epoxy resins 103 (E 103) and 150 (E 150) were used as adhesives. The thermally treated particleboard woods were subsequently exposed to gamma radiation. The static bending parameters of the different factors that may affect the mechanical properties such as irradiation dose, time of thermal treatment and adhesive content were also investigated. In general it was found that the highest mechanical properties of the unirradiated woods were obtained when the preparation was carried out under hot press for 20 min and the adhesive content was 20 wt.% (based on weight of waste material). The obtained results showed that the mechanical properties were greatly increased with increasing irradiation dose from 3 to 5 Mrad. Meanwhile, particleboard based on cotton or flax stalks and the epoxy resins 103 and 150 displayed higher mechanical properties than these based on wood saw-dust and the same adhesives

  12. In situ prepared PET nanocomposites: Effect of organically modified montmorillonite and fumed silica nanoparticles on PET physical properties and thermal degradation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassiliou, A.A.; Chrissafis, K.; Bikiaris, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a series of PET nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization using different amounts of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) with a triphenylphosphine compound and fumed silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 ). As verified by TEM micrographs, the dispersion of both nanoparticles into the PET matrix was homogeneous while montmorillonite was dispersed in the exfoliated form. The intrinsic viscosities of the prepared nanocomposites were affected by the addition of the nanoparticles and in both cases a slight increase was observed. Tensile strength was also increased by increasing nanoparticles content while both types of nanoparticles act as nucleating agents, enhancing the crystallization rates of PET. From the thermogravimetric curves it was concluded that PET and the samples with different nanoparticles presented good thermostability, since no remarkable mass loss occurred up to 320 o C ( 2 2 wt.% nanocomposites was almost identical (222.1 kJ/mol). However, PET/OMMT 2 wt.% nanocomposites exhibited a higher activation energy (228.3 kJ/mol), indicating that OMMT incurred a stabilizing effect upon the decomposition of the matrix. The form of the conversion function for all the studied samples obtained by fitting was the mechanism of n th -order auto-catalysis.

  13. Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Surfactants and Shear Thinning Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, S.; Sadeghi, S.; Cerda, C. C.; Espinoza, I.; Schultz, P. B.; Miller, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an attractive approach for the remediation of recalcitrant contaminants, due to the fact that target compounds are degraded in place, precluding the need for ex situ treatment or disposal. However, field applications of ISCO approaches have been plagued by "rebound" of contaminant concentrations in groundwater weeks to months after treatment. The cause of rebound at a given site may vary, but is typically associated with back-diffusion from finer grained, low permeability units or the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) that are incompletely degraded during treatment. Modifications to traditional ISCO methods have been proposed to overcome these challenges, including the use of shear-thinning polymers to improve delivery of oxidants to low permeability units and the addition of surfactants to improve dissolution of contaminants from NAPLs. In this work, we investigate the application of these approaches to the oxidation of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tars—NAPLs composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We conducted experiments to determine the mutual impact of each chemical component on the physical and chemical properties of the overall system. Specifically, experiments were designed to: determine the kinetics and overall effectiveness of contaminant-oxidant reactions for multiple oxidant-activator combinations; screen several common surfactants in terms of their ability to increase MGP tar solubility and their compatibility with oxidant systems; measure the impact of oxidants and surfactants on the rheology of several common polymer additives; and assess the effect of surfactants and polymers on the consumption of oxidants/activators and on the kinetics of contaminant-oxidant reactions. The results of this work provide insight into the chemical and physical mechanisms associated with enhanced ISCO approaches and an improved basis with which to model and design ISCO applications at both the lab

  14. Local materials in the regeneration of urban space of the historic centre of the Metropolitan City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is part of the studies conducted by the Urban Planning Board, Land Management, Environment Laboratory for the “metropolitan city” and the Big Project “Historic centre of Naples, enhancement of the UNESCO site”. Among the issues under discussion, very important for the 92 municipalities of the Metropolitan City, is the preservation of different urban identities which, although united administratively, are claiming their own cultural profile rooted in the urban space, in the architecture of places and in local resources. The work is based on the principle that the use of local resources affects the quality and perception of urban space and, as evidence of belonging to the place, it is necessary to deal its exploitation under sustainable auspices.

  15. City/Sea Searching for a New Connection. Regeneration Proposal for Naples Waterfront Like an Harbourscape: Comparing Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangelo Russo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The port is a strategic area of transition, where it is possible to perceive the territory-landscape and the urban front. However it lost its urban character, gradually becoming an high specialized independent machines, a sectorial infrastructure divided from the city: this phenomenon has created increasingly socio-economical marginalization.  Within a double view, lengthwise and transverse, we can describe the port as a space closed to the city and as an unfathomable barrier for the transverse flows that previously connected the waterfront to the city. The paper examines the case study of Naples, where the port expansion continues to grow without any integration with other parts of the city, distorting its “urban area” role, establishing its independence and making urban system compatibility conditions even weaker. The functional and physical division increases the perception of the port as a barrier rather than a filter. Turning the sense of these conditions aims at rethinking waterfront as a public space, a place where integration and specialization spaces become new open and accessible spatial devices. In some contemporary European and American cities (Aalborg, Oslo and Toronto we could see the port as multifunctional system, an interdisciplinary project that creates urban spaces integrated to the city and that allows the coexistence of different uses. The project of a new public space between the sea and the hinterland could involve all these conflicting functions creating, with different strategies, a potential multifunctional landscape. In Naples as well, where the waterfront is still waiting to be re-connected with the story of the city itself.

  16. Identification of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources in aquifers by a modified two-level saturation based imperialist competitive algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, H. R.; Mosharaf-Dehkordi, M.; Afzalan, B.

    2017-07-01

    A simulation-optimization model is proposed for identifying the characteristics of local immiscible NAPL contaminant sources inside aquifers. This model employs the UTCHEM 9.0 software as its simulator for solving the governing equations associated with the multi-phase flow in porous media. As the optimization model, a novel two-level saturation based Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is proposed to estimate the parameters of contaminant sources. The first level consists of three parallel independent ICAs and plays as a pre-conditioner for the second level which is a single modified ICA. The ICA in the second level is modified by dividing each country into a number of provinces (smaller parts). Similar to countries in the classical ICA, these provinces are optimized by the assimilation, competition, and revolution steps in the ICA. To increase the diversity of populations, a new approach named knock the base method is proposed. The performance and accuracy of the simulation-optimization model is assessed by solving a set of two and three-dimensional problems considering the effects of different parameters such as the grid size, rock heterogeneity and designated monitoring networks. The obtained numerical results indicate that using this simulation-optimization model provides accurate results at a less number of iterations when compared with the model employing the classical one-level ICA. A model is proposed to identify characteristics of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources. The contaminant is immiscible in water and multi-phase flow is simulated. The model is a multi-level saturation-based optimization algorithm based on ICA. Each answer string in second level is divided into a set of provinces. Each ICA is modified by incorporating a new knock the base model.

  17. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes.

  18. Self-Assembled 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical β-Ni(OH2Hollow Architectures and their In Situ Thermal Conversion to NiO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Gui-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional (3D flower-like hierarchicalβ-Ni(OH2hollow architectures were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. The as-obtained products were well characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM, SAED, and DSC-TGA. It was shown that the 3D flower-like hierarchicalβ-Ni(OH2hollow architectures with a diameter of several micrometers are assembled from nanosheets with a thickness of 10–20 nm and a width of 0.5–2.5 μm. A rational mechanism of formation was proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. 3D flower-like hierarchical NiO hollow architectures with porous structure were obtained after thermal decomposition at appropriate temperatures. UV–Vis spectra reveal that the band gap of the as-synthesized NiO samples was about 3.57 eV, exhibiting obviously red shift compared with the bulk counterpart.

  19. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg–xCa and Mg–0.5Ca–xZn alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahany, Saeed; Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni; Ourdjini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn were investigated. ► Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. ► T N –T DCP increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn, respectively. ► Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg–Ca–Zn. ► A new peak Mg 51 Zn 20 was identified in Mg–0.5Ca–9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg–xCa and Mg–0.5%Ca–xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg 2 Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 °C in addition to α-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg–0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to α-Mg, Mg 2 Ca and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg 2 Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 °C for Mg–0.5Ca–9Zn which was identified as Mg 51 Zn 20 . Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T N –T DCP ) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg–Ca and Mg–Ca–Zn systems.

  20. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5Ca-xZn alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza, E-mail: Rezabakhsheshi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Idris, Mohd Hasbullah [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implants Technology Group, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Biomechanics and Biomedical Materials, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni [Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Ourdjini, Ali [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T{sub N}-T{sub DCP} increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg-Ca-Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new peak Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} was identified in Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5%Ca-xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg{sub 2}Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 Degree-Sign C in addition to {alpha}-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg-0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to {alpha}-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg{sub 2}Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 Degree-Sign C for Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn which was identified as Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20}. Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T{sub N}-T{sub DCP}) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn systems.

  1. New Constraints for Tectono-Thermal Alpine Evolution of the Pyrenees: Combining Zircon Fission-Track and (U-Th)/He Analyses with Raman Spectrometry and In-Situ K-Ar Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M.; Bellahsen, N.; Mouthereau, F.; Pik, R.; Bernet, M.; Scaillet, S.; Rosenberg, C.

    2017-12-01

    The pyrenean range was formed by the convergence of European and Iberian plates following the inversion of the Mesozoic rifting in the north of Pyrenees. In the Axial Zone, the collision caused an antiformal nappe-stacking of tectonic units. Recent studies pointed out the importance of pre-collision structural and thermal inheritance that may play a major role for orogeny such as: 1) Paleozoic Variscan inheritance; 2) Mesozoic rift-related high geothermal gradients, which are maintained during the onset of convergence in the North Pyrenean Zone. From a mineralogical point of view, pre-collision feldspars have been destabilized and influenced the development of alpine phyllonite in brittle-ductile conditions which suggests a weak crustal behavior during the formation of the orogenic wedge. Our aim is to get a better understanding of alpine deformation and exhumation by coupling different thermochronological, geochronological and thermometric methods. We document the thermal evolution of each tectonic unit by using low-temperature thermochronometers (Zircon Fission Tracks, U-Th/He on zircons including laser ablation profiles). Our data on vertical profiles combined to existing dataset on apatite allows to model alpine exhumation across the Axial zone. Structural observations through alpine thrusts coupled to geochronology (in situ K/Ar on phengites), Raman and chlorite-phengite thermo(baro)metry provide new key data to unravel the alpine evolution of the Pyrenees. According to preliminary ZFT results on granite massifs in the central part of Pyrenean Axial zone (near ECORS profile), exhumation ages potentially indicates a migration of exhumation towards the south. Exhumation ages of the northern massifs seems to have preserved the North Pyrenean Cretaceous rift evolution. Further south, the onset of exhumation is as old as Paleocene, which precedes the Eocene ages of the literature. The low burial estimated in the northern massifs may indicate a high thermal gradient

  2. A medical bandage in an Italian Renaissance mummy (Naples, XVI century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Marinozzi, Silvia; Vultaggio, Claudia; Fornaciari, Gino

    2008-01-01

    A dressing was observed on the left arm of the mummy of Mary of Aragon (1503-1568), under her precious Renaissance clothes. It consisted of a true medical bandage, covering a large syphilitic cutaneous ulcer, with a sulphur-embedded wad still in situ. The bandage has a very peculiar shape, rather different from the usual dressings described in the contemporary medical texts: a central rectangular pad, used as compressing appliance, is provided with a sort of pocket containing ivy leaves. The function of the dressing was not only to cover and protect the ulcer, but also to apply a plant drug. This is the first case of ancient medical bandage studied directly on a mummified body.

  3. Integrating spatial and temporal oxygen data to improve the quantification of in situ petroleum biodegradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory B; Laslett, Dean; Patterson, Bradley M; Johnston, Colin D

    2013-03-15

    Accurate estimation of biodegradation rates during remediation of petroleum impacted soil and groundwater is critical to avoid excessive costs and to ensure remedial effectiveness. Oxygen depth profiles or oxygen consumption over time are often used separately to estimate the magnitude and timeframe for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and subsurface environments. Each method has limitations. Here we integrate spatial and temporal oxygen concentration data from a field experiment to develop better estimates and more reliably quantify biodegradation rates. During a nine-month bioremediation trial, 84 sets of respiration rate data (where aeration was halted and oxygen consumption was measured over time) were collected from in situ oxygen sensors at multiple locations and depths across a diesel non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated subsurface. Additionally, detailed vertical soil moisture (air-filled porosity) and NAPL content profiles were determined. The spatial and temporal oxygen concentration (respiration) data were modeled assuming one-dimensional diffusion of oxygen through the soil profile which was open to the atmosphere. Point and vertically averaged biodegradation rates were determined, and compared to modeled data from a previous field trial. Point estimates of biodegradation rates assuming no diffusion ranged up to 58 mg kg(-1) day(-1) while rates accounting for diffusion ranged up to 87 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Typically, accounting for diffusion increased point biodegradation rate estimates by 15-75% and vertically averaged rates by 60-80% depending on the averaging method adopted. Importantly, ignoring diffusion led to overestimation of biodegradation rates where the location of measurement was outside the zone of NAPL contamination. Over or underestimation of biodegradation rate estimates leads to cost implications for successful remediation of petroleum impacted sites. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Gomorra: Napoli e la scena fantasmatica del tardo-capitalismo Globale / Gomorra: Naples as the primal fantasy of Late Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Il progetto narrativo di Gomorra, nelle sue rimediazioni televisive successive, è stato troppo spesso liquidato come il resoconto di una catabasi nell’impero del male al quale il lettore/spettatore ha accesso attraverso il resoconto autofinzionale e l’obiettivo della telecamera. Mediante la critica lacaniana di Slavoj Žižek, l’analisi dell’opera di Saviano di Fredric Jameson in Valences of Dialectics, il concetto agambeniano di “stato di eccezione”, è a mio avviso possibile sostenere che la Napoli di Gomorra riproduca le coordinate cronotopiche del tardo-capitalismo globale il cui paradigma culturale è caratterizzato dall’esibizione perversa della fantasia fondamentale della società contemporanea. Il presente contributo mira a confutare le letture critiche che individuano nell’opera un appiattimento della finzione letteraria al mimetismo della realtà di cronaca, al fine di dimostrare come la Napoli di Gomorra si configuri di contro come uno scenario fantasmatico, sede di un’umanità colonizzata dalla merce e dalla circolazione impazzita della jouissance del Capitale.     Roberto Saviano’s best seller Gomorra has often been labelled as crime fiction and described as a katabasis in “Hell”, where the reader is drawn into following the uncanny figure of an autofictional author who bears witness to the abjection of this criminal empire. Drawing on the psychoanalytic theories illustrated by Slavoj Žižek and confronting his dialectical-materialistic approach with the analysis conducted by Fredric Jameson and with the idea of “state of exception” by Giorgio Agamben, the scope of this study is to show that the city of Naples depicted in Gomorra represent the chronotope of the contemporary global Capitalism, which is characterized by the obscene exhibition of the pervert fantasy of our society. The present work is intened to refute those critical readings which identify the sylistic devices employed by Saviano

  5. Naples Prognostic Score, Based on Nutritional and Inflammatory Status, is an Independent Predictor of Long-term Outcome in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, Gennaro; Lieto, Eva; Auricchio, Annamaria; Cardella, Francesca; Mabilia, Andrea; Podzemny, Vlasta; Castellano, Paolo; Orditura, Michele; Napolitano, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    The existing scores reflecting the patient's nutritional and inflammatory status do not include all biomarkers and have been poorly studied in colorectal cancers. The purpose of this study was to assess a new prognostic tool, the Naples prognostic score, comparing it with the prognostic nutritional index, controlling nutritional status score, and systemic inflammation score. This was an analysis of patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. The study was conducted at a university hospital. A total of 562 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in July 2004 through June 2014 and 468 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery were included. MaxStat analysis dichotomized neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte:monocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index, and the controlling nutritional status score. The Naples prognostic scores were divided into 3 groups (group 0, 1, and 2). The receiver operating characteristic curve for censored survival data compared the prognostic performance of the scoring systems. Overall survival and complication rates in all patients, as well as recurrence and disease-free survival rates in radically resected patients, were measured. The Naples prognostic score correlated positively with the other scoring systems (p cancer. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A469.

  6. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.

  7. Boveri's research at the Zoological Station Naples: Rediscovery of his original microscope slides at the University of Würzburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Ulrich

    2018-02-14

    Eric Davidson once wrote about Theodor Boveri: "From his own researches, and perhaps most important, his generalized interpretations, derive the paradigms that underlie modern inquiries into the genomic basis of embryogenesis" (Davidson, 1985). As luck would have it, the "primary data" of Boveri's experimental work, namely the microscope slides prepared by him and his wife Marcella during several stays at the Zoological Station in Naples (1901/02, 1911/12 and 1914), have survived at the University of Würzburg. More than 600 slides exist and despite their age they are in a surprisingly good condition. The slides are labelled and dated in Boveri's handwriting and thus can be assigned to his published experimental work on sea urchin development. The results allowed Boveri to unravel the role of the cell nucleus and its chromosomes in development and inheritance. Here, I present an overview of the slides in the context of Boveri's work along with photographic images of selected specimens taken from the original slides. It is planned to examine the slides in more detail, take high-resolution focal image series of significant specimens and make them online available. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulphur, nitrogen and carbon content of Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in the Naples urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation ability of the major elements sulphur, nitrogen and carbon by the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in Naples urban area,was investigated. Bags were exposed at the beginning of July 1999 and gathered in two subsequent moments: at the end of the dry season (after 10 weeks of exposure) and during the wet season (after 17 weeks of exposure), to include the effects of rainy conditions. Sulphur and N content of the lichen increased all over the exposure period, while the level of C did not change significantly either after 10 or 17 weeks of exposition. For the moss the S accumulation was limited to the dry period of exposure, whereas N and C content decreased with exposure. Results, in contrast with those obtained in a previous study on trace elements bioaccumulation [Adamo et al., Environmental Pollution, (2003) 122, 91-103], suggest that accumulation of gaseous pollutants is strongly influenced by biomonitor vitality and that lichen bags are a more reliable and effective tool for monitoring S, N and C atmospheric depositions in urban areas compared to moss bags, because of greater lichen resistance to dry and stressing conditions of urban environment. - The lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea is more effective than the moss Sphagnum capillifolium as S and N pollutants biomonitor

  9. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  10. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  11. Film-Induced Tourism, City-Branding and Place-Based Image: the Cityscape of Naples between Authenticity and Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libera D'Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the connections between film-induced tourism, city-branding and place-based image through the case-study of Naples, particularly deepening the role played by urban policies not only in promoting or sustaining but also in refusing some specific city’s representations. In the first part we will explore this relationship focusing the attention on the changing representations of the city in films and on the changes produced by the urban policies carried out in the phase of so-called Neapolitan Renaissance. The second part will be dedicated to deepen the link between the images of the city conveyed by the media and the touristic sector, emphasizing the role of the official representations and of the Campania Region Film Commission. The third part of the paper will focus on the conflicts involving the urban actors about the existence of a potential link between some negative representations of the periodical crisis of the city (for garbage, organized crime and difficulties in the administrative management and tourist flows. We will argue that the duplicity of representations proposes in a new way the traditional dual image of the Neapolitan cityscape, inspiring by a different notion of “authenticity”.

  12. Benthic foraminifera and heavy metals distribution: A case study from the Naples Harbour (Tyrrhenian Sea, Southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, L.; Sprovieri, M.; Alberico, I.; Lirer, F.; Prevedello, L.; Marsella, E.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of 90 surficial sediments from three docks of the Naples Harbour (Levante, Granili, and Diaz) permits to compare the distribution modes of heavy metals with grain sizes, total organic carbon content (TOC) and distribution patterns of benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal density and species richness decrease with the increasing toxic elements concentrations from the Levante to the Diaz dock. Median concentrations of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg (medians of 21.43 mg/kg, 270.24 mg/kg, 489.65 mg/kg, and 1.18 mg/kg, respectively) were reported for the Diaz dock where foraminifera are absent, thus suggesting a possible impact of toxic elements on the benthic ecosystem balance. Compared to the unpolluted marine sediments of the Granili dock, the Levante area shows higher heavy metals levels and a quasi-oligotypic benthic assemblage. This is dominated by the tolerant species Ammonia tepida that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution of anthropised marine sediments. - Benthic foraminiferal density and species distribution may be used as pollution indicators

  13. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the f......We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...

  14. Effect of silica particles modified by in-situ and ex-situ methods on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingze; Yu, Jinhong; Dai, Dan; Song, Lixian; Jiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles. • In-situ method was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with high BET surface area. • Silicone rubber filled with in-situ modified silica exhibits excellent mechanical and thermal properties. - Abstract: In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles in order to investigate their effects on the reinforcement of silicone rubber. Surface area and pore analyzer, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact-angle instrument, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structure and properties of the modified silica particles. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was employed to characterize the vulcanizing behavior and mechanical properties of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to test the thermal stability of the composites. FTIR and contact angle analysis indicated that silica particles were successfully modified by these two methods. The BET surface area and TEM results reflected that in-situ modification was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with irregular shape and higher BET surface area in comparison with ex-situ modification. The DMTA and TGA data revealed that compared with ex-situ modification, the in-situ modification produced positive influence on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

  15. From light polarization to the basic ideas of Quantum Mechanics. Experience carried out in a Technical Institute in Scampia (Naples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching/learning Quantum Mechanics (QM) in secondary schools and involves two fundamental aspects: teacher training and experimentation in the classroom, carefully reflecting on the content and highlighting innovation in the teaching methodology. The experience of training took place within a second level post-graduate Master course for Physics teachers (The II level post-graduate Master course in Didactic Innovation in Physics and Guidance (Innovazione Didattica in Fisica e Orientamento IDIFO) http://www.fisica.uniud.it/ URDF/laurea/index.htm) is directed by M. Michelini. The University of Udine organizes the course with the collaboration of the Physiscs Education Research Groups of eighteen Italian Universities, and is a part of a training project addressed to physics teachers focused on modern physics. IDIFO is part of a national plan of the Ministry of Education, Research and University for the Scientific Degrees project (Piano Lauree Scientifiche)), based on a module dedicated to teaching/learning QM according to the fundamental concepts of Dirac theory. The teacher achieved formation attending three e-learning courses about teaching/learning quantum mechanics in secondary schools, researching and discussing research materials of physics education, planning an intervention module and experimenting in a real classroom the planned innovative path for a situated formation. The experimentation, carried out in a fifth class of a Technical Institute at Scampia (Naples), made the conclusive phase and gave data concerning the thinking ways of the students about some basic concepts of QM collected and evaluated. In particular, average students focused more the functional/applicative aspects of formal and conceptual constructs rather than on their physical meanings.

  16. Neuropsychology of the Prodrome to Psychosis in the NAPLS Consortium: Relationship to Family History and Conversion to Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Meyer, Eric C.; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Christensen, Bruce K.; Hawkins, Keith; Heaton, Robert; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Heinssen, Robert; Cornblatt, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Early detection and prospective evaluation of clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals who may develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders is critical for predicting psychosis onset and for testing preventive interventions. Objective To elucidate the neuropsychology of the CHR syndrome, to determine the association of neuropsychological function with conversion to psychosis and family history (FH) of psychosis, and to examine whether baseline neuropsychological functioning predicts subsequent psychosis. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal study with 2 1/2 years follow-up of 304 prospectively identified CHR individuals meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) criteria, 52 non-CHR persons with a FH of psychosis in first- or second-degree relatives (“family HR”/FHR), and 193 normal controls with neither a FH of psychosis nor a CHR syndrome, all of whom had baseline neuropsychological evaluations, recruited across eight centers as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Main Measures A neurocognitive composite score, eight individual neuropsychological measures, an IQ estimate, and HR status. Results Global (“composite”) neuropsychological functioning was comparably impaired in CHR and FHR groups compared to controls, but profiles differed significantly between groups. Neuropsychological functioning in the CHR group was significantly lower in persons who progressed to psychosis than in those who did not, and worst in the subgroup with a FH of psychosis. Tests of processing speed and verbal learning and memory were most sensitive in discriminating CHR from controls, although reductions were less severe than in established schizophrenia. Neuropsychological functioning did not contribute uniquely to the prediction of psychosis beyond clinical criteria, but worse verbal memory predicted more rapid conversion. Conclusion These findings document that CHR individuals have significant neuropsychological

  17. Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Public Residential Housing - A Case Study in the Outskirts of Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Fabiana; Russo, Yvonne

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the quality of homes and social life are two closely interacting categories which require a more careful interpretation of the users’ needs. Their opinions, expectations and “desires” have to be incorporated into both the design and evaluation processes. With specific reference to the experiences of public housing, the practice of “user satisfaction” should be increasingly incorporated during the ex-post (or monitoring) evaluation in order to verify the quality and validity of the service offered, thus activating a real co-participation of the user in the creation and improvement of the housing service. It is well-known that the principle of customer satisfaction derives from the field of marketing as a tool to evaluate how and how much the products/services offered meet the needs of the consumers. In the field of the construction industry, customer satisfaction has been incorporated into the “Post-Occupation Evaluation”, an evaluation tool of the performance of the building “in use” through the combination of objective and subjective variables expressed by the occupiers. Widely used since the 1970s in Anglo-Saxon countries, Italy is still struggling to find a systematic implementation. In this perspective, the article presents an application of the customer satisfaction method for the identification of some interventions aimed at improving the quality of a complex of public residential housing localized in Ponticelli, the second most populated district in the outskirts of the metropolitan city of Naples, in the Campania Region (Italy). Following a synthetic introduction of the theme and the explanation of the object of evaluation, the article discusses the methodology and the results, focalizing on some intervention hypotheses verified in terms of economic sustainability.

  18. Sandfly-Borne Phlebovirus Isolations from Turkey: New Insight into the Sandfly fever Sicilian and Sandfly fever Naples Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Alkan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have presented virus sequences which suggest the existence of a variety of putative new phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies in the Old World. However, in most of these studies, only partial sequences in the polymerase or the nucleoprotein genes were characterised. Therefore to further our understand of the presence and potential medical importance of sandfly-borne phleboviruses that circulate in southern Anatolia, we initiated field campaigns in 2012 and 2013 designed to identify, isolate and characterise phleboviruses in sandflies in this region.An entomological investigation encompassing 8 villages in Adana, Mediterranean Turkey was performed in August and September 2012 and 2013. A total of 11,302 sandflies were collected and grouped into 797 pools which were tested for the presence of phleboviruses using specific primers for RT-PCR analysis and also cell culture methods for virus isolation. Seven pools were PCR positive, and viruses were isolated from three pools of sandflies, resulting in the identification of two new viruses that we named Zerdali virus and Toros virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on full-length genomic sequence showed that Zerdali virus was most closely related with Tehran virus (and belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples species, whereas Toros virus was closest to Corfou virus.The results indicate that a variety of phleboviruses are co-circulating in this region of southern Anatolia. Based on our studies, these new viruses clearly belong to genetic groups that include several human pathogens. However, whether or not Toros and Zerdali viruses can infect humans and cause diseases such as sandfly fever remains to be investigated.

  19. Civic activation, vulnerable subjects and public space: the case of the park of Rione Traiano in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman, in every kind of human settlement, culture as well a time, plays a peculiar role in terms of active observation and multitasking actor of the urban form and their organization model. Studying urban phenomena through the filter of the gender interpretation and fostering a proactive participation of women in the process of urban planning could provide added value in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency. In this paper it was decided to dealing with this issue in the framework of public spaces through the construction of a case study centered on women-mothers and their contribution for interpreting and being proactive in a participatory process of urban regeneration. The expected result of this interactive process is twofold: developing a generalized methodology of interaction with communities for interpreting, in terms of space organization, the demand they express on the one hand as well as for dealing with specific context, with the involvement of activists and associations to define and share possible trajectories of transformation of public spaces, on the other hand. To pursue this goal we have chosen to deal with the specificities of a complex environment such as Naples and with a CEP district, the largest in Italy, whose construction was initiated in 1960: Rione Traiano. In this area has started a dialogue, with non-profit organizations operating in the area first and then with women in the community, in order to address the relationship between vulnerable people and public spaces, testing a methodology for interaction and civic activation finalized to collect, prioritize and translate into proposals instances as expressed by these subjects. The disciplinary horizon selected is the integration between established tools of community planning and project strategies typical of urban design.

  20. Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (tFADE) to Quantify Aqueous Phase Contaminant Elution from a Trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL Source Zone in Sand Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, G. R.; Wei, S.; Sun, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Pore-scale heterogeneity, NAPL distribution, and sorption/desorption processes can significantly affect aqueous phase elution and mass flux in porous media systems. The application of a scale-independent fractional derivative model (tFADE) was used to simulate elution curves for a series of columns (5 cm, 7 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm, and 80 cm) homogeneously packed with 20/30-mesh sand and distributed with uniform saturations (7-24%) of NAPL phase trichloroethene (TCE). An additional set of columns (7 cm and 25 cm) were packed with a heterogeneous distribution of quartz sand upon which TCE was emplaced by imbibing the immiscible liquid, under stable displacement conditions, to simulate a spill-type process. The tFADE model was able to better represent experimental elution behavior for systems that exhibited extensive long-term concentration tailing requiring much less parameters compared to typical multi-rate mass transfer models (MRMT). However, the tFADE model was not able to effectively simulate the entire elution curve for such systems with short concentration tailing periods since it assumes a power-law distribution for the dissolution rate for TCE. Such limitations may be solved using the tempered fractional derivative model, which can capture the single-rate mass transfer process and therefore the short elution concentration tailing behavior. Numerical solution for the tempered fractional-derivative model in bounded domains however remains a challenge and therefore requires further study. However, the tFADE model shows excellent promise for understanding impacts on concentration elution behavior for systems in which physical heterogeneity, non-uniform NAPL distribution, and pronounced sorption-desorption effects dominate or are present.

  1. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  2. From urchins to sailors: an educative and civic experiment in Naples (1913-1928) - The story of “Caracciolo”, between poverty, social solidarity and education challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Selvaggio

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes to examine Giulia Civita Franceschi’s work in the city of Naples, in favour of abandoned childhood. Between 1913 and 1928, she obtained by the Ministry of Navy and steered the training ship Caracciolo, which became for many urchins their home and family. So, they had the occasion to be saved from misery and delinquency. While before it they crowded streets, squares and arcades of the city, searching charity and ready to steel for surviving, on board ship they became little...

  3. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.

    2001-01-01

    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework...

  4. Modeling in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Hydrologic Cycle Response to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum at Austral, High-Latitude Site 690 as Revealed by In Situ Measurements of Foraminiferal Oxygen Isotope and Mg/Ca Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdon, R.; Kelly, D.; Fournelle, J.; Valley, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Earth surface temperatures warmed by ~5°C during an ancient (~55.5 Ma) global warming event termed the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). This transient (~200 ka) "hyperthermal" climate state had profound consequences for the planet's surficial processes and biosphere, and is widely touted as being an ancient analog for climate change driven by human activities. Hallmarks of the PETM are pervasive carbonate dissolution in the ocean basins and a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in variety of substrates including soil and marine carbonates. Together these lines of evidence signal the rapid (≤30 ka) release of massive quantities (≥2000 Gt) of 13C-depleted carbon into the exogenic carbon cycle. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on pedogenic features in paleosols, clay mineralogy and sedimentology of coastal and continental deposits, and land-plant communities indicate that PETM warmth was accompanied by a major perturbation to the hydrologic cycle. Micropaleontological evidence and n-alkane hydrogen isotope records indicate that increased poleward moisture transport reduced sea-surface salinities (SSSs) in the central Arctic Ocean during the PETM. Such findings are broadly consistent with predictions of climate model simulations. Here we reassess a well-studied PETM record from the Southern Ocean (ODP Site 690) in light of new δ18O and Mg/Ca data obtained from planktic foraminiferal shells by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), respectively. The unparalleled spatial resolution of these in situ techniques permits extraction of more reliable δ18O and Mg/Ca data by targeting of minute (≤10 μm spots), biogenic domains within individual planktic foraminifera that retain the original shell chemistry (Kozdon et al. 2011, Paleocean.). In general, the stratigraphic profile and magnitude of the δ18O decrease (~2.2‰) delimiting PETM warming in our SIMS-generated record are similar to those of

  6. Biostimulation proved to be the most efficient method in the comparison of in situ soil remediation treatments after a simulated oil spill accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Gerlach, Magdalena; Mikkonen, Anu; Malk, Vuokko; Mikola, Juha; Romantschuk, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The use of in situ techniques in soil remediation is still rare in Finland and most other European countries due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the techniques especially in cold regions and also due to their potential side effects on the environment. In this study, we compared the biostimulation, chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation treatments in natural conditions and pilot scale during a 16-month experiment. A real fuel spill accident was used as a model for experiment setup and soil contamination. We found that biostimulation significantly decreased the contaminant leachate into the water, including also the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The total NAPL leachate was 19 % lower in the biostimulation treatment that in the untreated soil and 34 % lower in the biostimulation than oxidation treatment. Soil bacterial growth and community changes were first observed due to the increased carbon content via oil amendment and later due to the enhanced nutrient content via biostimulation. Overall, the most effective treatment for fresh contaminated soil was biostimulation, which enhanced the biodegradation of easily available oil in the mobile phase and consequently reduced contaminant leakage through the soil. The chemical oxidation did not enhance soil cleanup and resulted in the mobilization of contaminants. Our results suggest that biostimulation can decrease or even prevent oil migration in recently contaminated areas and can thus be considered as a potentially safe in situ treatment also in groundwater areas.

  7. REPAiR: REsource Management in Peri-urban AReas: Going Beyond Urban Metabolism : D3.3 Process model for the two pilot cases: Amsterdam, the Netherlands & Naples, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldermans, R.J.; Wandl, A.; Steenmeijer, M.A.; Furlan, C.; Streefland, Tamara; Formato, E.; Cerreta, Maria; Amenta, L.; Varju, Viktor; Inglese, Pasquale; Iodice, Silvia; Berruti, Gilda; Varju, Viktor; Grünhut, Z; Bodor, Akos; Lovász, Virág; Moticska, Zsombor; Tonini, Davide; Taelman, Sue Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Deliverable 3.3 of Work Package 3 concerns an integrated analysis of the two pilot case studies within the REPAiR project, Amsterdam and Naples, from the vantage point of waste production and processing, and the transition to circular societies. It comprises spatial, social and material flow

  8. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Fabrication of in-situ Al/TiC Composites by Thermally Activated Combustion Reaction Process in an Aluminium Melt using Al-TiO_2-C Powder Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2012-01-01

    A feasible way to fabricate in-situ Al/TiC composites was investigated. An elemental mixture of Al-TiO_2-C pellet was directly added into an Al melt at 800-920°C to form TiC by self-combustion reaction. The addition of CuO initiates the self-combustion reaction to form TiC in 1-2 um at the melt temperature above 850°C. Besides the CuO addition, a diluent element of excess Al plays a significant role in the TiC formation by forming a precursor phase, Al_3Ti. Processing parameters such as CuO content, the amount of excess Al and the melt temperature, have affected the combustion reaction and formation of TiC, and their influences on the microstructures of in-situ Al/TiC composites are examined.

  9. Dyke emplacement in a Quaternary active volcano: the exposed swarm of Monte Somma-Vesuvio (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, L. B.

    2003-04-01

    The Monte Somma-Vesuvius is a famous active stratovolcano located on the Bay of Naples (Italy). Unexpectedly, the intrusive complex of this volcano is poorly known. This work focuses on the moderate-intensity dyke swarm that crops out along the caldera wall cut in the Monte Somma (MS) and its host rock. A detailed field survey of 101 individual intrusions consisted of the recording of about 20 parameters for each intrusion according to a standardised method. The intrusions were located in the framework of a new geological map drawn for the caldera wall at a scale 1:2000. The MS intrusions that crop out from 780 to 1055 m a.s.l., are mostly monogenetic steeply-dipping segmented dykes; inclined sheets are also present, generally dipping towards the outer periphery of the volcano. Apparent crosscut due to dyke segmentation is common; true intersections show ambiguous alternation of dyke strikes. Indicators of initial intrusive flow (opening stage of the dyke-hosting fracture) often differ in direction and sense from late-stage indicators. Frequently, dykes intruded sub-horizontally in an early stage and later sub-vertically. The peak extension for MS, computed according to a standardised method, is 81.7 m in the direction N90°, based on 96 exposed sheets. Very likely, most of MS sheets intruded within ~12 ka, giving a time-averaged minimum extension rate of ~7 mm a-1. On MS, the azimuth pattern and the azimuth of peak extension are different in the two portions in which the caldera wall can be divided, east and west of Canale dell'Arena. This difference may indicate that two fault systems affecting the basement underneath the volcano exert their influence on the feeding system. On the other hand, three main dyke sets (among which the set trending NE-SW is prevalent) exist on MS, and inclined sheets form a significant portion of the intrusions. In addition, the peak extension and the percentage extension are comparable quantitatively in the two different sections of

  10. Application of a NAPL partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) to support DNAPL remediation at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico chemical waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, J.E.; Mariner, P.; Jin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents as dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) are present at a large number of hazardous waste sites across the U.S. and world. DNAPL is difficult to detect in the subsurface, much less characterize to any degree of accuracy. Without proper site characterization, remedial decisions are often difficult to make and technically effective, cost-efficient remediations are even more difficult to obtain. A new non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) characterization technology that is superior to conventional technologies has been developed and applied at full-scale. This technology, referred to as the Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT), has been adopted from oil-field practices and tailored to environmental application in the vadose and saturated zones. A PITT has been applied for the first time at full-scale to characterize DNAPL in the vadose zone. The PITT was applied in December 1995 beneath two side-by-side organic disposal pits at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) RCRA Interim Status Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. DNAPL, consisting of a mixture of chlorinated solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons, and PCE oils, is known to exist in at least one of the two buried pits. The vadose zone PITT was conducted by injecting a slug of non-partitioning and NAPL-partitioning tracers into and through a zone of interest under a controlled forced gradient. The forced gradient was created by a balanced extraction of soil gas at a location 55 feet from the injector. The extracted gas stream was sampled over time to define tracer break-through curves. Soil gas sampling ports from multilevel monitoring installations were sampled to define break-through curves at specific locations and depths. Analytical instrumentation such as gas chromatographs and a photoacoustical analyzers operated autonomously, were used for tracer detection

  11. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  12. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  13. Thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachloroosmate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asanova, T I; Kantor, Innokenty; Asanov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of (NH4)2[OsCl6] occurring during thermal decomposition in a reduction atmosphere have been studied in situ using combined energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ED-XAFS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). According to PXRD, (NH4)2[OsCl6] transforms directly to meta...

  14. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  15. Ágai, Adolf: "Az örök zsidó. Régi naplók, életképek (1862-1906" [The Eternal Jew: Old Diaries and Life Sketches (1862-1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mandler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ágai, Adolf. Az örök zsidó. Régi naplók, életképek (1862-1906 [The Eternal Jew: OldDiaries and Life Sketches (1862-1906]. Budapest-Jerusalem: Múlt és Jövő Kiadó,2010. Reviewed by David Mandler, Stuyvesant High School, New York City.

  16. Probabilistic-numerical assessment of pyroclastic current hazard at Campi Flegrei and Naples city: Multi-VEI scenarios as a tool for "full-scale" risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo

    Full Text Available The Campi Flegrei volcanic field (Italy poses very high risk to the highly urbanized Neapolitan area. Eruptive history was dominated by explosive activity producing pyroclastic currents (hereon PCs; acronym for Pyroclastic Currents ranging in scale from localized base surges to regional flows. Here we apply probabilistic numerical simulation approaches to produce PC hazard maps, based on a comprehensive spectrum of flow properties and vent locations. These maps are incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS and provide all probable Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI scenarios from different source vents in the caldera, relevant for risk management planning. For each VEI scenario, we report the conditional probability for PCs (i.e., the probability for a given area to be affected by the passage of PCs in case of a PC-forming explosive event and related dynamic pressure. Model results indicate that PCs from VEI<4 events would be confined within the Campi Flegrei caldera, PC propagation being impeded by the northern and eastern caldera walls. Conversely, PCs from VEI 4-5 events could invade a wide area beyond the northern caldera rim, as well as part of the Naples metropolitan area to the east. A major controlling factor of PC dispersal is represented by the location of the vent area. PCs from the potentially largest eruption scenarios (analogous to the ~15 ka, VEI 6 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff or even the ~39 ka, VEI 7 Campanian Ignimbrite extreme event would affect a large part of the Campanian Plain to the north and the city of Naples to the east. Thus, in case of renewal of eruptive activity at Campi Flegrei, up to 3 million people will be potentially exposed to volcanic hazard, pointing out the urgency of an emergency plan. Considering the present level of uncertainty in forecasting the future eruption type, size and location (essentially based on statistical analysis of previous activity, we suggest that appropriate planning measures should

  17. Thermal infrared spectra of surface rocks. Comparison of in the laboratory, in situ, and remote sensing data; Chihyo ganseki no netsusekigaiiki bunko tokusei. Chijo sokutei data to remote sensing data no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y; Matsunaga, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) is one of the image sensors. It is to be installed in an earth survey polar orbit platform satellite, EOS-AM1, which is to be launched in 1998, and it is going to start its operation. Data observed by the thermal infrared remote sensing of ASTER include the spectral emissivity, and the spectral emission reflectivity which is expressed by the function of temperature. It is required to overcome technical problems how to extract the spectral emissivity from the observed data. The spectral emissivity extracted from the remote sensing data by the MMD method, measured for samples collected in Cuprite area, Nevada, and/or measured at sampled points were compared to each other and discussed. The hemisphere spectral reflectivity, which is indirect spectral emissivity, agreed well with the direct spectral emissivity. Data suggesting the establishment of Kirchhoff`s law were obtained even for the weathered samples. The spectral emissivity derived from the remote sensing data by the MMD method was in harmony with the spectral characteristics measured strictly on the ground. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. In-situ construction of Au nanoparticles confined in double-shelled TiO2/mSiO2 hollow architecture for excellent catalytic activity and enhanced thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Hongxing; Sheng, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    A facile strategy has been developed for the synthesis of H-TS-Au microspheres (MCs) with double-shelled hollow architecture and sub-5 nm Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). The synthetic procedure involves the successive sol-gel template-assisted method for the preparation of uniform hierarchical hollow-in-hollow H-TS MCs with TiO2/mSiO2 as yolks/shells, and the unique deposition-precipitation method mediated with Au(en)2Cl3 precursors for the in-situ construction of extremely stable Au NPs under a low-temperature hydrogen reduction. The synthesized H-TS-Au MCs were characterized by TEM, SEM, FTIR, XRD, BET and UV-vis absorption spectra. Catalytic activity of H-TS-Au was evaluated using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by NaBH4. Results established that H-TS-Au MCs possessed a large-size double-shelled architecture with high structural integrity and robustness,which can effectively confine numerous tiny Au NPs and restrict them from sintering aggregation even up to further calcination at 800 °C. Owing to the advantageous structural configuration and the synergistic effect of TiO2/mSiO2 double shells, the H-TS-Au MCs were demonstrated to exhibit a remarkable catalytic activity and stability, and preserve the intact morphology after 6 repeating reduction of 4-NP.

  19. Innovative Procedure for fhe, In Situ, Measurement of the Resistive Thermal Coefficient Of H(D)/Pd During Electrolysis; Cross-Comparison of New Elements Detected in The Th–Hg–Pd–D(H) Electrolytic Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of cold fusion studies one of the most important parameters is the deuterium (D) to palladium (Pd) ratio, D/Pd. It is well known that the value of this parameter is related to the normalised resistivity (R/R0) of the D–Pd system. When at high D/Pd ratios (i.e. at low R/R0 values) some excess heat occurs, the Pd wire temperature increase and, as a consequence, the apparent R/R0 value also increases. This effect might give raise to ambiguous data interpretation: similar results are in fact expected in case of a Pd wire degassing (i.e. decreasing of D/Pd ratio). To solve this problem, we developed an innovative procedure and a suitable experimental set-up for the in situ measurement of the Resistive Temperature Coefficient (which is affected only by the real D/Pd ratio) during electrolysis. We will report the results on the hydrogen and deuterium loading of thin (50 µm), and long (60 cm) Pd wires, immersed in a solution of C2H5OD (or C2H5OH) and D2O (or H2O), with addition of thorium (Th) a...

  20. Thermal conductivity: calibration of in-situ measurements (i.e. 'cable-free temperature probe') with laboratory determination as a basis for the geothermal mapping of the Canton of Zurich and the surrounding Swiss Cantons; Thermische Leitfaehigkeit: Eichung von in-situ Messungen (d.h. 'kabellose Temperatursonde') mit Laborbestimmungen als Grundlage fuer die geothermische Kartierung des Kanton ZH und der umliegenden Kantone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaerli, U. [Geologie und Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Rohner, E.; Signorelli, S.; Wagner, R. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of these investigations is to create a first basic data set for geothermal mapping in Kanton Zurich and adjacent regions. These data include undisturbed ground temperatures, thermal conductivities and porosities of rocks as well as heat flow determinations. The temperature profiles in the ground have been logged, to depths up to 300 m in several borehole heat exchangers, in the Canton Zurich and adjacent regions. A new, patented wireless instrument developed by the authors (NIMO-T / Non-wired Immersible Measuring Object for Temperature) was used to perform the measurements. Such measurements are possible in backfilled boreholes with installed double U-tube heat exchangers, not yet connected to the heat pump, filled with water standing since at least 7 days. A total of 33 boreholes have been measured; 24 of them enabled heat flow determinations. The NIMO-T probe (weight 100 g, length 20 cm, diameter 2 cm; with a built-in miniature data logger) sinks though its own weight with about 7 m per minute in one of the water-filled U-tube limbs and records every 25 cm a temperature and pressure (=measuring depth) value. Relative temperature accuracy is {+-} 0.0015 {sup o}K, for depth {+-} 20 cm. After the probe has reached the U-tube bottom it can be easily flushed back to the surface by pumping, where data readout to a laptop computer follows. For terrestrial heat flow determinations the rock thermal conductivities (of the undisturbed, water-saturated, compact rocks at in-situ pressure) would be needed. Laboratory measurements on rock samples (cores, cuttings) can only approximate these conditions. The thermal conductivities and related porosities of cuttings have been compared and calibrated by measurements on cores. The ground temperatures are influenced in the uppermost 20 meters by seasonal surface temperature variations, between 20 and about 100 m depth by climatic warming in the past 200-300 years. Below 100 m the temperature increase with depth is more or

  1. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  2. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , and organisational characteristic. Therefore, it might fail to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety and team training1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve......Introduction: In situ simulation offers on-site training to healthcare professionals. It refers to a training strategy where simulation technology is integrated into the clinical encounter. Training in the simulation laboratory does not easily tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team...... patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support. This study explored the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports for in situ simulation and short-term observations were used to create learning objectives and training scenarios. Method: This study used an interventional case...

  3. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  4. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. From urchins to sailors: an educative and civic experiment in Naples (1913-1928 - The story of “Caracciolo”, between poverty, social solidarity and education challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Selvaggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to examine Giulia Civita Franceschi’s work in the city of Naples, in favour of abandoned childhood. Between 1913 and 1928, she obtained by the Ministry of Navy and steered the training ship Caracciolo, which became for many urchins their home and family. So, they had the occasion to be saved from misery and delinquency. While before it they crowded streets, squares and arcades of the city, searching charity and ready to steel for surviving, on board ship they became little sailors, living a laborious and restrained life. Civita, inspiring to the concept of the sea as an educator, showed that thanks to her method, edged children and boys could become citizens, conscious of their rights and duties. The ship was site of visits by Italian and foreign delegations, which went to observe closer an educative experiment, considered as a pattern to imitate. The ship was a «second birth» for the Neapolitan urchins, offering them a new starting point, not an arrival point or a temporary protective recovery. The orientation impressed by Giulia Civita, in fact, marked the “Caracciolo” among other similar experiences as a unique educative pattern.

  6. Multitemporal analysis of Landsat images to detect land use land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing in the Nola area (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, Michaela; Allocca, Maria; Franci, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Land Use Land Cover Changes (LULCC) data provide objective information to support environmental policy, urban planning purposes and sustainable land development. Understanding of past land use/cover practices and current landscape patterns is critical to assess the effects of LULCC on the Earth system. Within the framework of soil sealing in Italy, the present study aims to assess the LULCC of the Nola area (Naples metropolitan area, Italy), relating to a thirty year period from 1984 to 2015. The urban sprawl affects this area causing the impervious surface increase, the loss in rural areas and landscape fragmentation. Located near Vesuvio volcano and crossed by artificial filled rivers, the study area is subject to landslide, hydraulic and volcanic risks. Landsat time series has been processed by means of the supervised per-pixel classification in order to produce multitemporal Land Use Land Cover maps. Then, post-classification comparison approach has been applied to quantify the changes occurring between 1984 and 2015, also analyzing the intermediate variations in 1999, namely every fifteen years. The results confirm the urban sprawl. The increase of the built-up areas mainly causes the habitat fragmentation and the agricultural land conversion of the Nola area that is already damaged by unauthorized disposal of urban waste. Moreover, considering the local risk maps, it was verified that some of the new urban areas were built over known hazardous sites. In order to limit the soil sealing, urgent measures and sustainable urban planning are required.

  7. The Naples High- and Low-Excitability rats: selective breeding, behavioral profile, morphometry, and molecular biology of the mesocortical dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Davide; Vallone, Daniela; Welzl, Hans; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2002-09-01

    The Naples High- (NHE) and Low-Excitability (NLE) rat lines have been selected since 1976 on the basis of behavioral arousal to novelty (Làt-maze). Selective breeding has been conducted under continuous genetic pressure, with no brother-sister mating. The behavioral analyses presented here deal with (1) activity in environments of different complexity, i.e., holeboard and Làt maze; (2) maze learning in hexagonal tunnel, Olton, and Morris water mazes and; (3) two-way active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion tests. Morphometric analyses deal with central dopaminergic systems at their origin and target sites, as well as the density of dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Molecular biology analyses are also presented, dealing with recent experiments on the prefrontal cortex (PFc), cloning and identifying differentially expressed genes using subtractive libraries and RNAase protection. The divergence between NLE and NHE rats varies as a function of the complexity level of the environment, with an impaired working and reference memory in both lines compared to random bred (NRB) controls. Moreover, data from the PFc of NHE rats show a hyperdopaminergic innervation, with overexpression of mRNA species involved in basal metabolism, and down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors. Altogether, the evidence gathered so far supports a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system that makes NHE rats a useful tool for the study of hyperactivity and attention deficit, learning and memory disabilities, and drug abuse.

  8. Contamination by hazardous substances in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas: a review of sources, environmental levels and potential impacts in the MSFD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    During the 7th FW EU Programme, a large group of research institutions with a strong tradition in marine science designed PERSEUS, a policy-oriented, marine research project aimed at identifying human-derived pressures and their impacts in the Southern European Seas. PERSEUS is about gathering and analyzing the data on our marine ecosystems and developing recommendations to assist policy makers in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In its initial phase, the project focuses on the analysis and evaluation of human pressures in selected coastal areas across the Mediterranean and Black Seas. This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples, one of the sites selected for the analysis, and surrounding waters of the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Based on a systematic up-to-date literature review, the paper brings together for the first time the available information on the presence, severity and distribution of contaminants on the site. In spite of methodological and sampling heterogeneity among studies, this review compiles the data in a harmonized and effective way, so that the current status, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. Thus, the review wishes not only to provide a contribution to the scientific community, but also to help to extract recommendations for mitigating pollution sources and risks in the area of concern. A similar process of analysis may be carried out for other areas and pressures in order to facilitate policy making at the European level. © 2013.

  9. Seasonal patterns in plankton communities in a pluriannual time series at a coastal Mediterranean site (Gulf of Naples: an attempt to discern recurrences and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribera d'Alcalà

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The annual cycle of plankton was studied over 14 years from 1984 to 2000 at a coastal station in the Gulf of Naples, with the aim of assessing seasonal patterns and interannual trends. Phytoplankton biomass started increasing over the water column in February-early March, and generally achieved peak values in the upper layers in late spring. Another peak was often recorded in autumn. Diatoms and phytoflagellates dominated for the largest part of the year. Ciliates showed their main peaks in phase with phytoplankton and were mainly represented by small (< 30 mm naked choreotrichs. Mesozooplankton increased in March-April, reaching maximum concentrations in summer. Copepods were always the most abundant group, followed by cladocerans in summer. At the interannual scale, a high variability and a decreasing trend were recorded over the sampling period for autotrophic biomass. Mesozooplankton biomass showed a less marked interannual variability. From 1995 onwards, phytoplankton populations increased in cell number but decreased in cell size, with intense blooms of small diatoms and undetermined coccoid species frequently observed in recent years. In spite of those interannual variations, the different phases of the annual cycle and the occurrence of several plankton species were remarkably regular.

  10. Effectiveness of a physical barrier for contaminant control in an unconfined coastal plain aquifer: the case study of the former industrial site of Bagnoli (Naples, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Allocca, Vincenzo; Manna, Ferdinando; Trifuoggi, Marco; Ferrara, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    A vertical engineered barrier (VEB) coupled with a water treatment plant was surveyed in the framework of a vast remedial action at the brownfield site of the former ILVA of Bagnoli steel making facility located in western Naples, Italy. The VEB was put in place to minimize contaminant migration from the brownfield site toward the sea at the shorelines sites of Bagnoli and Coroglio. The efficiency of the VEB was monitored through 12 piezometers, 8 at the Bagnoli shoreline and 4 at the Coroglio shoreline. Concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were examined in upstream and downstream groundwater relative to the VEB. The mean levels of Al, As, Fe, and Mn largely exceeded the legal limits, 10-15-fold, whereas that of Hg was up to 3-fold the rules. The VEB decreased the outlet concentrations only at certain specific location of the barrier, four times for Al, 6-fold for Hg, and by 20% for Mn with means largely exceeding the rules. At the other sites, the downstream water showed marked increases of the pollutants up to 3-fold. Outstanding levels of the hydrocarbons > 12 were detected in the inlet water with means of some hundred times the limits at both sites. Likewise most of screened inorganic pollutants, the downstream water showed marked increases of the hydrocarbons up to ~113%. The treatment plant was very effective, with removal efficiencies >80% for As, Al, Fe, and Mn. The study evidenced the need to put alternative groundwater remedial actions.

  11. Probabilistic-numerical assessment of pyroclastic current hazard at Campi Flegrei and Naples city: Multi-VEI scenarios as a tool for "full-scale" risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe; Palladino, Danilo M; Pappalardo, Lucia; Rossano, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei volcanic field (Italy) poses very high risk to the highly urbanized Neapolitan area. Eruptive history was dominated by explosive activity producing pyroclastic currents (hereon PCs; acronym for Pyroclastic Currents) ranging in scale from localized base surges to regional flows. Here we apply probabilistic numerical simulation approaches to produce PC hazard maps, based on a comprehensive spectrum of flow properties and vent locations. These maps are incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provide all probable Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scenarios from different source vents in the caldera, relevant for risk management planning. For each VEI scenario, we report the conditional probability for PCs (i.e., the probability for a given area to be affected by the passage of PCs in case of a PC-forming explosive event) and related dynamic pressure. Model results indicate that PCs from VEIextreme event) would affect a large part of the Campanian Plain to the north and the city of Naples to the east. Thus, in case of renewal of eruptive activity at Campi Flegrei, up to 3 million people will be potentially exposed to volcanic hazard, pointing out the urgency of an emergency plan. Considering the present level of uncertainty in forecasting the future eruption type, size and location (essentially based on statistical analysis of previous activity), we suggest that appropriate planning measures should face at least the VEI 5 reference scenario (at least 2 occurrences documented in the last 10 ka).

  12. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  13. The Impact of Social and Cultural Engagement and Dieting on Well-Being and Resilience in a Group of Residents in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rapacciuolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation and exclusion are associated with poor health status and premature death. A number of related isolation factors, inadequate transportation system and restrictions in individuals’ life space, have been associated with malnutrition in older adults. Since eating is a social event, isolation can have a negative effect on nutrition. Cultural involvement and participation in interactive activities are essential tools to fight social isolation, and they can counteract the detrimental effects of social isolation on health. To provide data supporting the hypothesis that encouraging participation might represent an innovative preventive and health promoting strategy for healthy living and aging, we developed an ad hoc questionnaire to investigate the relationship between cultural participation, well-being, and resilience in a sample of residents in the metropolitan area of Naples. The questionnaire includes a question on adherence to diet or to a special nutritional regimen; in addition, the participants are asked to mention their height and weight. We investigated the relationship between BMI, adherence to diet, and perceived well-being (PWB and resilience in a sample of 571 subjects over 60 years of age. Here, we present evidence that engagement into social and cultural activities is associated with higher well-being and resilience, in particular in females over 60 years of age.

  14. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  15. Design of a fast in situ infrared diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hest, van M.F.A.M.; Klaver, A.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopes cannot be used to perform real time in situ IR reflection absorption spectroscopy at monolayer sensitivity for high deposition rates (a couple of tens to hundreds of nm/s) which can be obtained when using an expanding thermal deposition plasma.

  16. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Thermal Behaviour of clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described

  18. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  19. Geothermal in situ experiments in the Asse salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.; Jung, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents design and results of in situ experiments carried out by the Bundesanstat fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, F.R. of Germany) in the Asse salt-mine. With reference to model calculations of the temperature field which is produced in salt formations by radioactive waste, temperature measurements in the area of electrical heating elements and in situ measurements of thermal conductivity have been performed. The measured temperatures are in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Preliminary results of the thermal conductivity measurements correspond with the data of single NaCl crystals published by Birch and Clark. At present a heating experiment is being conducted in the Asse mine to investigate thermo-mechanical effects of a cylindrical heat source upon the surrounding rock salt. Possible thermal induced fractures monitored by permeability changes and seismoacoustical phenomena are the main objects of this experiment

  20. In situ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  1. Prevalence surveys as part of a strategic plan to prevent healthcare associated infections. The experience of the University Hospital "Federico II" of Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, E; Triassi, M; Bellopede, R; Reis, W; Palladino, R; Di Silverio, P

    2014-01-01

    The care-associated infections (HAI) are the most serious complication associated with medical care. They are the cause of diseases for patients and economic damage to public health. The University "Federico II" of Naples decided to monitor the HAI, repeating the prevalence survey conducted earlier in 2011 in order to analyze the phenomenon of infection and to evaluate the possible correlation with risk factors. The Survey was conducted according to ECDC criteria. Considered that the study carried out in 2011 was conducted following the same methodology, to compare the results of the year 2012 the prevalence rates of both years were standardized. For the year 2012, the number of patients enrolled in the study and stratification of patients by age and sex were similar to data collected in 2011. It was very interesting to find the prevalence of HAI standardized reduced in 2012 compared to 2011. As a matter of fact, in fact, that the standardized prevalence of HAI for the year 2012 was 3.1%, one percentage point lower than in 2011 (4.4%). The practical training and direct regarded as the most appropriate approach in order to make health professionals aware in the field of health care-associated infections, as well as the system of selfcontrol peripheral for the correct application of the procedures, as well as epidemiological surveillance active, measured through rates of incidence, at the same time allow the monitoring of the phenomenon is infectious and the application of corrective measures that prevent its onset. The choice to make again an epidemiological study of prevalence with the same methodology ensures, in fact, two advantages: the comparability of the data, both at intra-company both at regional, national and international evaluation of the effectiveness of corrective actions.

  2. Molecular diversity in irregular or refugee immigrant patients with HBV-genotype-E infection living in the metropolitan area of Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Coppola, Nicola; Minichini, Carmine; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Starace, Mario; Alessio, Loredana; Macera, Margherita; Cella, Eleonora; Gualdieri, Luciano; Caprio, Nunzio; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2017-06-01

    In a recent testing in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy, on 945 irregular immigrants or refugees, 87 HBsAg chronic carriers were identified, 53 of whom were infected by HBV-genotype E. The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic diversity of HBV-genotype E in these 53 immigrants. The 53 immigrant patients with HBV-genotype-E infection were born in Africa, central or eastern Asia, eastern Europe or Latin America. These patients had been seen for a clinical consultation at one of the four first-level units from January 2012 to 2013. The first dataset contained 53 HBV-S gene isolates plus 128 genotype/subgenotype specific reference sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The second dataset, comprising the 53 HBV-S gene isolates, previously classified as HBV-genotype E, was used to perform the time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction using a Bayesian approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 53 HBV-S isolates belonged to HBV-genotype E. Bayes factor analysis showed that the relaxed clock exponential growth model fitted the data significantly better than the other models. The time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the second dataset showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1990 (95% HPD:1984-2000). Four statistically supported clusters were identified. Cluster A dated back to 2012 (95% HPD:1997-2012); cluster B dated back to 2008 (95% HPD:2001-2015); cluster C to 2006 (95% HPD:1999-2013); cluster D to 2004 (95% HPD:1998-2011). This study disclosed the genetic evolution and phylogenesis in a group of HBV-genotype-E-infected immigrants. J. Med. Virol. 89:1015-1024, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A General Model of Dioxin Contamination in Breast Milk: Results from a Study on 94 Women from the Caserta and Naples Areas in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivezzi, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Prisco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Armando; Diletti, Gianfranco; Migliorati, Giacomo; Ceci, Roberta; Rivezzi, Giulia; Cirasino, Lorenzo; Carideo, Pietro; Black, Dennis M.; Garzillo, Carmine; Giani, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19–32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8–19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5–24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. PMID:24217180

  4. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  5. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In situ observation techniques of protective oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takashi; Adachi, Takeharu; Usuki, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In situ analyzing techniques for investigating a surface and interface change during corrosion and oxidation of metals by using Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are present. The Raman spectra revealed that a crystal structure and distribution of corrosion products varied during corrosion progress at elevated temperature and high pressure electrolyte. Time dependent XRD measurements made clear the behavior of the electrochemical reduction of a rust and the iso thermal transformation of a scale on a steel. It was demonstrated that XPS was capable of the in-situ measurements for initial stage of high temperature oxidation. (author)

  7. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  8. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  9. Liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pedrazzoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide are investigated. Graphene oxide (GO was first synthesized by the Hummers method, and the kinetics of its thermal reduction was assessed. GO layers were then homogeneously dispersed in a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer matrix (Vectran®, and an in-situ thermal reduction of GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO was performed. Even at low rGO amount, the resulting nanocomposites exhibited an enhancement of both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability. Improvements of the creep stability and of the thermo-mechanical behavior were also observed upon nanofiller incorporation. Furthermore, in-situ thermal reduction of the insulating GO into the more electrically conductive rGO led to an important surface resistivity decrease in the nanofilled samples.

  10. Strategies to take into account variations in extreme rainfall events for design storms in urban area: an example over Naples (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, P.; Rianna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Eminent works highlighted how available observations display ongoing increases in extreme rainfall events while climate models assess them for future. Although the constraints in rainfall networks observations and uncertainties in climate modelling currently affect in significant way investigations, the huge impacts potentially induced by climate changes (CC) suggest adopting effective adaptation measures in order to take proper precautions. In this regard, design storms are used by engineers to size hydraulic infrastructures potentially affected by direct (e.g. pluvial/urban flooding) and indirect (e.g. river flooding) effects of extreme rainfall events. Usually they are expressed as IDF curves, mathematical relationships between rainfall Intensity, Duration, and the return period (frequency, F). They are estimated interpreting through Extreme Theories Statistical Theories (ETST) past rainfall records under the assumption of steady conditions resulting then unsuitable under climate change. In this work, a methodology to estimate future variations in IDF curves is presented and carried out for the city of Naples (Southern Italy). In this regard, the Equidistance Quantile Matching Approach proposed by Sivrastav et al. (2014) is adopted. According it, daily-subdaily maximum precipitation observations [a] and the analogous daily data provided by climate projections on current [b] and future time spans [c] are interpreted in IDF terms through Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) approach. After, quantile based mapping approach is used to establish a statistical relationship between cumulative distribution functions resulting by GEV of [a] and [b] (spatial downscaling) and [b] and [c] functions (temporal downscaling). Coupling so-obtained relations permits generating IDF curves under CC assumption. To account for uncertainties in future projections, all climate simulations available for the area in Euro-Cordex multimodel ensemble at 0.11° (about 12 km) are considered under

  11. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  12. A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14 by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Natale Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ethnobotanical Collection from the Libyan territories of the botanist Alessandro Trotter is included in the Oratio Comes Botanical Museum at the Faculty of Agraria at the University Federico II in Naples. Trotter explored different territories of Libya, mainly Tripolitania, between 1912-1924, collecting plant specimens and the drugs most frequently sold in the markets. The Libyan herbarium currently includes over 2300 sheets of mounted and accessioned plants. The drugs, mostly acquired by Trotter from Tripolitanian markets, were identified and packed in 87 paper sheets or boxes. Trotter added ethnobotanical information for each species when available. Methods A database of the herbarium species and the drugs has been carried out, after a taxonomic update. Nomenclature has been revised according to the African flowering plants database and the World Checklist of selected plant families, and a comparison with currently available ethnopharmacological data from North African has been attempted. Results In this study, ethnopharmacological data related to about 80 species of flowering plants and to 4 lichens are presented. The plants are mainly from Mediterranean or Sub-Saharan habitats and belong to 37 different families; Lamiaceae was the most cited family, with 10 accessions. Generally, the aerial parts of the plants are the most frequently used (28 species, followed by leaves (15 species, flowers and seeds (9 species, fruits (7 species and hypogean organs (roots, rhizomes, tubers: 5 species. Plants were generally processed in very simple ways: infusion or decoction of the plants were prepared and orally administered or used for topical applications. A wide range of conditions was treated, ranging from mental disorders to skin affections. All the organs of human body are considered, but the pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory system and those related to traumatic accidents were the most frequently mentioned

  13. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  14. In situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah J; Johnson, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins. After incubation MMP activity can be observed as black holes in the fluorescent background due to proteolysis of the matrix protein. Alternatively frozen sections can be incubated with matrix proteins conjugated to quenched fluorescein. Proteolysis of the substrate by MMPs leads to the release of fluorescence. This technique can be combined with immunohistochemistry to enable co-location of proteins such as cell type markers or other proteins of interest. Additionally, this technique can be adapted for use with cell cultures, permitting precise location of MMP activity within cells, time-lapse analysis of MMP activity and analysis of MMP activity in migrating cells.

  15. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological

  16. Thermal conductivity measurements of pacific illite sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, C. E.; McVey, D. F.; Miller, J. B.; Olson, L. O.; Silva, A. J.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported for effective thermal conductivity measurements performed in situ and in core samples of illite marine sediment. The measurements were obtained during a recent oceanographic expedition to a study site in the north central region of the Pacific Ocean. This study was undertaken in support of the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Project, the purpose of which is to investigate the scientific feasibility of using the fine-grained sediments of the sea floor as a repository for high-level nuclear waste. In situ measurements were made and 1.5-m-long hydrostatic piston cores were taken, under remote control, from a platform that was lowered to the sea floor, 5844 m below sea level. The in situ measurement of thermal conductivity was made at a nominal depth of 80 cm below the sediment surface using a specially developed, line-source, needle probe. Thermal conductivity measurements in three piston cores and one box core (obtained several kilometers from the study site) were made on shipboard using a miniature needle probe. The in situ thermal conductivity was approximately 0.91 W · m-1 · K-1. Values determined from the cores were within the range 0.81 to 0.89 W · m-1 · K-1.

  17. Thermal conductivity measurements of Pacific illite sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, C.E.; McVey, D.F.; Miller, J.B.; Olson, L.O.; Silva, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported for effective thermal conductivity measurements performed in situ and in core samples of illite marine sediment. The measurements were obtained during a recent oceanographic expedition to a study site in the north central region of the Pacific Ocean. This study was undertaken in support of the US Subseabed Disposal Project, the purpose of which is to investigate the scientific feasibility of using the fine grained sediments of the sea floor as a repository for high level nuclear waste. In situ measurements were made and 1.5-meter long hydrostatic piston cores were taken, under remote control, from a platform that was lowered to the sea floor, 5844 m below sea level. The in situ measurement of thermal conductivity was made at a nominal depth of 80 cm below the sediment surface using a specially developed, line source, needle probe. Thermal conductivity measurements in three piston cores and one box core (obtained several kilometers from the study site) were made on shipboard using a miniature needle probe. The in situ thermal conductivity was approximately 0.91 W/m.K. Values determined from the cores were within the range 0.81 to 0.89 W/m.K

  18. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste management by in-situ melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the in-situ melting concept as an ultimate waste disposal option shows that the placement of solidifed, high-level radioactive wastes in an in-situ melting cavity with a crushed rock backfill not only eliminates the major deficiencies inherent in other in-situ melting schemes, but also satisfies reasonable criteria for ultimate disposal. In-situ melting reduces the waste isolation time requirements to several hundred years. Calculated spent fuel and processing waste afterheat values assess the role of actinide and cladding material nuclides in creating the total afterheat and provide quantitative variation with time for these values for contamporary and advanced-design fission reactors. The dominant roles of 134 Cs in thermal spectrum reactor afterheats during the first decade of cooling of the actinide nuclides in all typical waste after-heats following a century or two of cooling are identified. The spatial and temporal behavior of a spherically symmetric waste repository experiencing in-situ melting in an equal density, homogeneous medium for silicate rock and salt is controlled primarily by the overall volumetric thermal source strength, the time-dependent characteristics of the high-level wastes, and the thermophysical properties of the surrounding rock environment. Calculations were verified by experimental data. The hazard index for typical high-level wastes is dominated by the fission product nuclides for the first three centuries of decay. It is then controlled by the actinides, especially americium, which dominates for 10,000 years. With in-situ melting, the hazard index for the re-solidifed rock/waste matrix deepunderground falls below the hazard index of naturally occurring uranium ore bodies within a few hundred years, whether or not the more hazardous actinide nuclides are selectively removed from the wastes prior to storage

  20. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Attique, Fahmida

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate (Y(C5H11CO2)3)·xH2O in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction at a laboratory Cu-tube source and in-situ experiments at a synchrotron radiation source as well as hot...

  1. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...

  2. Synthesis and thermal decomposition study of dysprosium trifluoroacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opata, Y. A.; Grivel, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    A study of the thermal decomposition process of dysprosium trifluoroacetate hydrate under flowing argon is presented. Thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, evolved gas analysis and ex-situ x-ray diffraction techniques have been employed in the investigation. Three main stages were...

  3. Thermally-assisted Magma Emplacement Explains Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Acocella, V.

    2017-12-01

    Many calderas show repeated unrest over centuries. Though probably induced by magma, this unique behaviour is not understood and its dynamics remains elusive. To better understand these restless calderas, we interpret deformation data and build thermal models of Campi Flegrei, Italy, which is the best-known, yet most dangerous calderas, lying to the west of Naples and restless since the 1950s at least.Our elaboration of the geodetic data indicates that the inflation and deflation of magmatic sources at the same location explain most deformation, at least since the build-up of the last 1538 AD eruption. However, such a repeated magma emplacement requires a persistently hot crust.Our thermal models show that the repeated emplacement was assisted by the thermal anomaly created by magma that was intruded at shallow depth 3 ka before the last eruption and, in turn, contributed to maintain the thermal anomaly itself. This may explain the persistence of the magmatic sources promoting the restless behaviour of the Campi Flegrei caldera; moreover, it explains the crystallization, re-melting and mixing among compositionally distinct magmas recorded in young volcanic rocks.Available information at other calderas highlights similarities to Campi Flegrei, in the pattern and cause of unrest. All monitored restless calderas have either geodetically (Yellowstone, Aira Iwo-Jima, Askja, Fernandina and, partly, Long Valley) or geophysically (Rabaul, Okmok) detected sill-like intrusions inducing repeated unrest. Some calderas (Yellowstone, Long Valley) also show stable deformation pattern, where inflation insists on and mimics the resurgence uplift. The common existence of sill-like sources, also responsible for stable deformation patterns, in restless calderas suggests close similarities to Campi Flegrei. This suggests a wider applicability of our model of thermally-assisted sill emplacement, to be tested by future studies to better understand not only the dynamics of restless

  4. Municipal Development Plan, Acerra (Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Benevolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Development Plan (Piano Urbanistico Comunale - PUC of Acerra has been drafted by a group of young professionals and researchers, led by Leonardo Benevolo, in accordance with the guidelines laid out by Regional Law no. 16 of 2004. Its complex drafting process was compressed into a brief, nine-month period in 2008 and 2009, at the end of which its initial adoption (or “predisposizione” – “preparation” or “predisposition” – in Italian legal terms was ratified by the municipal council. This article reconstructs the key moments, illustrating the main elements of the plan and how the debate about it took shape both inside and outside the municipal administration.

  5. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  6. New technology of In-Situ-Alcohol-Flushing (ISAF) for mobilizing residual LNAPL in the subsurface by using swelling alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, U.; Tranckner, S.; Luckner, L. [GFI Groundwater research centre, Dresden (Germany); Zschiedrich, K. [LMBV Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Infiltration of liquid hydrocarbons, the so-called non aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), into the subsurface is a common problem. Our research is focused on light NAPL (LNAPL), which are often trapped as a residual immobile phase (residuals) on the soil matrix. Due to the low solubility of NAPL components in water these residuals form long-term sources of pollution in groundwater. During the last years surfactants (surface active agents) were usually used to increase the efficiency of pump-and-treat aquifer remediation of those contaminated sites. Surfactants increase the solubility of NAPL- components in the aqueous phase, so that the these NAPL-components and surfactants highly contaminate the groundwater. Therefore their application leads to significant costs for treatment of the extracts. Above the critical concentration (critical micelle concentration) surfactants assemble into dynamic clusters called micelles, which are described as droplets of oil with an ionic or polar coating. At concentrations below the CMC surfactants form ad-micelles or hemi-micelles, which are adsorbed on the solid soil matrix. In this way also surfactant-NAPL compounds can be re-adsorbed on the soil matrix. Based on these disadvantages a new technology was developed with the research project 'Investigation for LNAPL - mobilization / solubilization in the subsurface'. This technology for mobilizing residual LNAPL in the subsurface by using swelling alcohol avoids the solution of LNAPL components in the groundwater. Using this new technology the problems arising with the CMC are not relevant. As part of this project, this paper reports results of a field test in Schwarze Pumpe, a former centre of carbo-chemical industry, located in Germany on the border between Saxony and Brandenburg and which covers an area of about 4.5 km{sup 2}. There are three primary contaminated locations and some hot spots, causing considerable groundwater contamination with large plumes. In the centre

  7. New technology of In-Situ-Alcohol-Flushing (ISAF) for mobilizing residual LNAPL in the subsurface by using swelling alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, U.; Tranckner, S.; Luckner, L.; Zschiedrich, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Infiltration of liquid hydrocarbons, the so-called non aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), into the subsurface is a common problem. Our research is focused on light NAPL (LNAPL), which are often trapped as a residual immobile phase (residuals) on the soil matrix. Due to the low solubility of NAPL components in water these residuals form long-term sources of pollution in groundwater. During the last years surfactants (surface active agents) were usually used to increase the efficiency of pump-and-treat aquifer remediation of those contaminated sites. Surfactants increase the solubility of NAPL- components in the aqueous phase, so that the these NAPL-components and surfactants highly contaminate the groundwater. Therefore their application leads to significant costs for treatment of the extracts. Above the critical concentration (critical micelle concentration) surfactants assemble into dynamic clusters called micelles, which are described as droplets of oil with an ionic or polar coating. At concentrations below the CMC surfactants form ad-micelles or hemi-micelles, which are adsorbed on the solid soil matrix. In this way also surfactant-NAPL compounds can be re-adsorbed on the soil matrix. Based on these disadvantages a new technology was developed with the research project 'Investigation for LNAPL - mobilization / solubilization in the subsurface'. This technology for mobilizing residual LNAPL in the subsurface by using swelling alcohol avoids the solution of LNAPL components in the groundwater. Using this new technology the problems arising with the CMC are not relevant. As part of this project, this paper reports results of a field test in Schwarze Pumpe, a former centre of carbo-chemical industry, located in Germany on the border between Saxony and Brandenburg and which covers an area of about 4.5 km 2 . There are three primary contaminated locations and some hot spots, causing considerable groundwater contamination with large plumes. In the centre of pollution

  8. In-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

  9. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs

  10. Thermal conductivity of microPCMs-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Su, J.F.; Wang, X.Y; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.H.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The thermal conductivity of these microPCMs/matrix composites is an important property need to be considered. In this study, a series of microPCMs have been fabricated using the in situ polymerization with various core/shell ratio and average diameter; the thermal conductivity of microPCMs/epoxy composites were investigated in detai...

  11. Feasibility testing of in situ vitrification of uranium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuse, H.; Tsuchino, S.; Tasaka, H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    Process feasibility studies using in situ vitrification (ISV) were successfully performed on two different uranium-contaminated wastes. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soils into durable glass and crystalline form. Of the two different wastes, one waste was uranium mill tailings, while the other was uranium-contaminated soils which had high water contents. Analyses of the data from the two tests are presented

  12. In-situ vitrification: a large-scale prototype for immobilizing radioactively contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.G.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing the technology of in situ vitrification, a thermal treatment process for immobilizing radioactively contaminated soil. A permanent remedial action, the process incorporates radionuclides into a glass and crystalline form. The transportable procss consists of an electrical power system to vitrify the soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system and cooling system, and a process control station. Large-scale testing of the in situ vitrification process is currently underway

  13. Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Safa; Tonchev, Dan

    The chapter provides a summary of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the heat capacity C P, thermal conductivity κ, and thermal expansion coefficient α L of materials. The C P, κ, and α of various classes of materials, namely, semiconductors, polymers, and glasses, are reviewed, and various typical characteristics are summarized. A key concept in crystalline solids is the Debye theory of the heat capacity, which has been widely used for many decades for calculating the C P of crystals. The thermal properties are interrelated through Grüneisen's theorem. Various useful empirical rules for calculating C P and κ have been used, some of which are summarized. Conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful and convenient thermal analysis technique that allows various important physical and chemical transformations, such as the glass transition, crystallization, oxidation, melting etc. to be studied. DSC can also be used to obtain information on the kinetics of the transformations, and some of these thermal analysis techniques are summarized. Temperature-modulated DSC, TMDSC, is a relatively recent innovation in which the sample temperature is ramped slowly and, at the same time, sinusoidally modulated. TMDSC has a number of distinct advantages compared with the conventional DSC since it measures the complex heat capacity. For example, the glass-transition temperature T g measured by TMDSC has almost no dependence on the thermal history, and corresponds to an almost step life change in C P. The new Tzero DSC has an additional thermocouple to calibrate better for thermal lags inherent in the DSC measurement, and allows more accurate thermal analysis.

  14. In situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

  15. Improving Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Overweight and Inactive Patients Through an Educational and Motivational Intervention Addressing Diet and Physical Activity: A Prospective Study in Naples, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Cirella, Assunta; Di Dio, Mirella; Miele, Alessandra; Spinosa, Tiziana; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition and physical activity are key elements in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. A community-based, multidisciplinary educational intervention aimed to improve quality of life and disease self-management in sedentary, overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients was implemented in Naples, South Italy. The 9-month intervention included a motivational program, a nutrition program, and an exercise program. Satisfaction, worry, and embarrassment regarding their condition, together with disease-related behaviors and propensity towards physical activity, were evaluated through a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention; health status perception was evaluated through the short-form 12 questionnaire. Changes in HbA1c level and weight were also checked. A significant improvement (p management of hypoglycemic crisis and food choice; in nearly all the items related to living with the disease (p System.

  16. Rock properties and their effect on thermally-induced displacements and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Hood, M.; Board, M.

    1980-02-01

    A discussion is given of the importance of material properties in the finite-element calculations for thermally induced displacements and stresses resulting from a heating experiment in an in-situ granitic rock, at Stripa, Sweden. Comparisons are made between field measurements and finite element method calculations using (1) temperature independent, (2) temperature dependent thermal and thermomechanical properties and (3) in-situ and laboratory measurements for Young's modulus. The calculations of rock displacements are influenced predominantly by the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient, whereas the dominant factor affecting predictions for rock stresses is the in-situ modulus

  17. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ungki; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. → The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. → Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C 12 -MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C 12 -MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

  18. In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and feasible method was developed to fabricate in-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite (GO-PVA coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as an in-situ reductant to transform GO into reduced GO. Contiguous and uniform GO-PVA coatings were prepared on magnesium substrates by dip-coating method, and were further thermally treated at 120 °C under ambient condition to obtain in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings. Owing to the reducing effect of PVA, thermal treatment at low temperature led to effective in-situ reduction of GO as confirmed by XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS tests. The corrosion current density of magnesium substrates in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution could be lowered to its 1/25 when using in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings as protective layers.

  19. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  20. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  1. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  2. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  3. Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes Using In-Situ Air Sparging—A 2-D Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Adams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ air sparging has evolved as an innovative technique for soil and groundwater remediation impacted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including chlorinated solvents. These may exist as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL or dissolved in groundwater. This study assessed: (1 how air injection rate affects the mass removal of dissolved phase contamination, (2 the effect of induced groundwater flow on mass removal and air distribution during air injection, and (3 the effect of initial contaminant concentration on mass removal. Dissolved-phase chlorinated solvents can be effectively removed through the use of air sparging; however, rapid initial rates of contaminant removal are followed by a protracted period of lower removal rates, or a tailing effect. As the air flow rate increases, the rate of contaminant removal also increases, especially during the initial stages of air injection. Increased air injection rates will increase the density of air channel formation, resulting in a larger interfacial mass transfer area through which the dissolved contaminant can partition into the vapor phase. In cases of groundwater flow, increased rates of air injection lessened observed downward contaminant migration effect. The air channel network and increased air saturation reduced relative hydraulic conductivity, resulting in reduced groundwater flow and subsequent downgradient contaminant migration. Finally, when a higher initial TCE concentration was present, a slightly higher mass removal rate was observed due to higher volatilization-induced concentration gradients and subsequent diffusive flux. Once concentrations are reduced, a similar tailing effect occurs.

  4. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Materials Research, 51147 Cologne (Germany); Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Karlsson, Anette M. [Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  5. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  6. Production of mullite-zirconia ceramics composites by 'In situ' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.A.; Piorino Neto, F.; Devezas, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Mullita-zirconia ceramic composites were produced by 'In situ' reaction of alumina and brazilian zircon. The ideal curve of thermal treatment (reaction + sinterization) was determined for the obtention of composites of maximum mechanical resistence. The retained fraction of tetragonal fase was evaluated by X-ray difraction and correlated with the values of mechanical resistence obtained by different treatment curves. The performance of the developed composites under corrosion and thermal shock was evaluated by glass casting. (Author) [pt

  7. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)

  8. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  9. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  10. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  11. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  12. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  13. First use of in situ vitrification on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlds, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-temperature method for containing hazardous wastes, which was first developed in the 1980s, is being adapted for the in situ treatment of buried radioactive wastes by the US DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), following its recent report on successful preliminary tests. The method, called in situ vitrification (ISV), is an electrically induced thermal process that melts and fuses soil and wastes into a glass-like material at least as strong as natural obsidian or granite. Gases released during the process are captured and treated by an off-gas treatment system. After the wastes are vitrified, they could be left in place, or the mass could be broken up and transported to a disposal site. The glass-like substance would be chemically and physically similar to obsidian and from 4 to 10 times more durable than typical borosilicate glasses used to immobolize high-level nuclear wastes

  14. In situ nanocalorimetry of thin glassy organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gutierrez, E.; Garcia, G.; Lopeandía, A. F.; Fraxedas, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we describe the design and first experimental results of a new setup that combines evaporation of liquids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with in situ high sensitivity thermal characterization of thin films. Organic compounds are deposited from the vapor directly onto a liquid nitrogen cooled substrate, permitting the preparation and characterization of glassy films. The substrate consists of a microfabricated, membrane-based nanocalorimeter that permits in situ measurements of heat capacity under ultrafast heating rates (up to 105 K/s) in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Three glass forming liquids—toluene, methanol, and acetic acid—are characterized. The spikes in heat capacity related to the glass-transition temperature, the fictive temperature and, in some cases, the onset temperature of crystallization are determined for several heating rates.

  15. Thermal properties of the Cobourg Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michelle

    The underground storage of used nuclear fuel in Deep Geologic Repositories (DGRs) has been a subject of research in Canada for decades. One important technical aspect of repository design is the accommodation of the mechanical impacts of thermal inputs (heating) from the fuel as it goes through the remainder of its life cycle. Placement room spacing, a major factor in project cost, will be determined by the ability of the host rock to dissipate heat. The thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion will determine the evolution of the temperature and thermally-induced stress fields. Thermal processes must be well understood to design a successful DGR. This thesis examines the thermal properties of rocks, how they are influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, mineralogy, porosity, and saturation; and common methods for calculating and/or measuring these properties. A brief overview of thermal and thermally-coupled processes in the context of DGRs demonstrates the degree to which they would impact design, construction, and operation of these critical structures. Several case histories of major in situ heating experiments are reviewed to determine how the lessons learned could be applied to a Canadian Underground Demonstration Facility (UDF). A mineralogy investigation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examines samples of the Cobourg Limestone from the Bowmanville and Bruce sites, and demonstrates geographical variability within the Cobourg Formation. The thermal properties of samples from the Bowmanville site are determined. A divided bar apparatus was constructed and used to measure thermal conductivity. The temperature measurement component of the divided bar apparatus was used to measure linear thermal expansion. Finally, the past investigations into the thermal impact of a DGR are reviewed, and the implications of the laboratory testing results on similar analyses are discussed.

  16. Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN; Naples (Italy; October 12-15, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN; Naples (Italy; October 12-15, 2016 LECT 1. LUNG RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND EARLY SURFACTANT IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. PRESENTATION OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL: EFFICACY OF A NEW TECHNIQUE (IN-REC-SUR-E IN PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROMEG. Vento, R. Pastorino, L. Boni, F. Cota, V. Carnielli, F. Cools, C. Dani, F. Mosca, J. Pillow, G. Polglase, P. Tagliabue, A.H. van Kaam, M.L. Ventura, C. RomagnoliLECT 2. CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIAF. CiralliLECT 3. CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE AND NEONATAL COMPLICATIONSY. SadouLECT 4. THE EPIGENETIC ROLE IN NEONATAL GROWTHG. Banderali, R. Giacchero, S. El Oksha, F. Betti, A. Lops, E. VerduciLECT 5. GENETIC BASES OF NEONATAL INFECTIONS A. Borghesi, I. Mazzucchelli, S. Longo, M. Angelini, J. Fellay, M. StronatiLECT 6. MALFORMATIVE SYNDROMES IN NICU: MANAGEMENT AND GENETIC COUNSELING B. Drera, C. PoggianiLECT 7. NEWBORNS OF MOTHERS WITH AUTOIMMUNE DISEASEM. Motta, A. Tincani, A. Lojacono, G. ChiricoLECT 8. PROTECTED DISCHARGE FOR HEALTHY AND SICK NEWBORNS. SWEET HOME, GOOD CAREG. Gentile, S. Gentile, A. PaganoLECT 9. THE NEW INTERNATIONAL GROWTH STANDARDS FOR PRETERM INFANTSE. Bertino, F. Giuliani, P. Di Nicola, M. Raia, A. CosciaLECT 10. HOW AND WHEN TO TREAT THE PDAW.E. Benitz, Ph. SunshineLECT 11. HEMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS: TIMING AND DIAGNOSTIC PATHWAYSS. Fiocchi, S. MartinelliLECT 12. STANDARDS OF CARE AND TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR THE SAFETY OF THE NEONATAL EMERGENCY TRANSPORT SERVICE (NETSM. Gente, R. Agostino, R. AufieriLECT 13. THE CARE OF CRITICALLY ILL INFANTS IN THE NICU: FROM NICU TO PICU C. Moretti, P. Papoff, F. MidullaLECT 14. MANAGEMENT OF SEPTIC SHOCK IN NEONATESL. Decembrino, C. Achille, M. StronatiLECT 15. OUTCOME OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY IN A TERTIARY CENTER IN CATANIA: A CLINICAL

  17. Stabilization of contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is an emerging technology developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for potential in-place immobilization of radioactive wastes. The contaminated soil is stabilized and converted to an inert glass form. This conversion is accomplished by inserting electrodes in the soil and establishing an electric current between the electrodes. The electrical energy causes a joule heating effect that melts the soil during processing. Any contaminants released from the melt are collected and routed to an off-gas treatment system. A stable and durable glass block is produced which chemically and physically encapsulates any residual waste components. In situ vitrification has been developed for the potential application to radioactive wastes, specifically, contaminated soil sites; however, it could possibly be applied to hazardous chemical and buried munitions waste sites. The technology has been developed and demonstrated to date through a series of 21 engineering-scale tests [producing 50 to 1000 kg (100 to 2000 lb) blocks] and seven pilot-scale tests [producing 9000 kg (20,000 lb) blocks], the most recent of which illustrated treatment of actual radioactively contaminated soil. Testing with some organic materials has shown relatively complete thermal destruction and incineration. Further experiments have documented the insensitivity of in situ vitrification to soil characteristics such as fusion temperature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and moisture content. Soil inclusions such as metals, cements, ceramics, and combustibles normally present only minor process limitations. Costs for hazardous waste applications are estimated to be less than $175/m 3 ($5.00/ft 3 ) of material vitrified. For many applications, in situ vitrification can provide a cost-effective alternative to other disposal options. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  18. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learmont, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  19. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  20. In Situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, H

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of in situ TE for vascular and valvular purposes were tested with the use of different materials, and animal models. First, the feasibility of a decellularized biological scaffold (pSIS-ECM) as pulmonary heart valve prosthesis is examined in sheep (Chapter 2). Next,

  1. First applications of the EXTASE thermal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2003-04-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the MUPUS (Rosetta Lander) thermal probe, both funded by DLR. The thermal probe will be tested in various environments and fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost, monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, ground truth for remote sensing etc. The probe is a glass-fibre tube of 1cm diameter, about 32 cm long and carries of 16 sensors for measuring temperature profiles. Each of the sensors can also be heated for in situ measurements of the thermal diffusivity of the penetrated layers, from which we can derive the thermal conductivity. All necessary connections and the sensors itself are printed on a foil which is rolled and glued to the inner wall of the tube. This design results in the significant advantage that the measurements can be done in-situ. No excavation of material is required to measure the thermal conductivity, for instance. Presently we are concentrating on soil science and snow research.We made several measurements in different conditions with prototypes of the probe so far. Among other things, we measured soil temperatures together with meteorological boundary conditions in cooperation with the local Institute of Agrophysics in Lublin (Poland). The first measurements in snow under natural conditions were made on Svalbard (Spitzbergen) together with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in Bremerhaven (Germany). First results of the measuring campaigns are shown.

  2. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  3. Preparation of Ti-aluminide reinforced in situ aluminium matrix composites by reactive hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.; Ghosh, S.; Basumallick, A.; Basu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium based metal matrix composites reinforced with in situ Ti-aluminide and alumina particles were prepared by reactive hot pressing a powder mix of aluminium and nanosized TiO 2 powders. The reinforcements were formed in situ by exothermal reaction between the TiO 2 nano crystalline powder and aluminium. The thermal characteristics of the in situ reaction were studied with the aid of Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to study the microstructural architecture of the composites as a function of hot pressing temperature and volume percent reinforcement. Microhardness measurements on the as prepared in situ aluminium matrix composites exhibit significant increase in hardness with increase in hot pressing temperature and volume fraction of reinforcement

  4. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  5. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  6. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. An Equation-of-State Compositional In-Situ Combustion Model: A Study of Phase Behavior Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, M. G.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2009-01-01

    phase behavior sensitivity for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. For the one-dimensional model we first study the sensitivity to numerical discretization errors and provide grid density guidelines for proper resolution of in situ combustion behavior. A critical condition for success...... to ignition. For a particular oil we show that the simplified approach overestimates the required air injection rate for sustained front propagation by 17% compared to the equation of state-based approach....

  8. Passive thermal management using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Yash Yogesh

    The trend of enhanced functionality and reducing thickness of mobile devices has. led to a rapid increase in power density and a potential thermal bottleneck since. thermal limits of components remain unchanged. Active cooling mechanisms are not. feasible due to size, weight and cost constraints. This work explores the feasibility. of a passive cooling system based on Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for thermal. management of mobile devices. PCMs stabilize temperatures due to the latent heat. of phase change thus increasing the operating time of the device before threshold. temperatures are exceeded. The primary contribution of this work is the identification. of key parameters which influence the design of a PCM based thermal management. system from both the experiments and the numerical models. This work first identifies strategies for integrating PCMs in an electronic device. A. detailed review of past research, including experimental techniques and computational. models, yields key material properties and metrics to evaluate the performance of. PCMs. Subsequently, a miniaturized version of a conventional thermal conductivity. measurement technique is developed to characterize thermal resistance of PCMs. Further, latent heat and transition temperatures are also characterized for a wide. range of PCMs. In-situ measurements with PCMs placed on the processor indicate that some. PCMs can extend the operating time of the device by as much as a factor of 2.48. relative to baseline tests (with no PCMs). This increase in operating time is investigated. by computational thermal models that explore various integration locations, both at the package and device level.

  9. Numerical analysis of passive strategies for energy retrofit of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate: thermal mass and natural ventilation combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcerano Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of coupling natural ventilation and thermal storage systems to improve hygrothermal comfort and reduce energy consumption during summer season in an existing building in the Mediterranean. It aims at bridging the knowledge gap between designers, researchers and building scientists, fostering a multidisciplinary approach and promoting numerical simulation of the energy performance of buildings within architectural professional practice. The study analyses the interaction between six natural ventilation systems (single sided ventilation through facade openings; cross ventilation through facade openings, inlet wind tower, thermal chimney, evaporative cool tower, earth pipes and with two thermal storage typology (heavy and medium-light within four strategic Italian location (Rome, Naples, Messina and Catania. For each interaction we perform a numerical dynamic simulation of indoor comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption during the summer period, on a reference building model corresponding to the most common Italian typology. Results show that the use of the chosen systems ensures significant reductions of discomfort hours and energy consumption in all configurations. The study also highlights the high efficiency of non invasive systems (single-sided and cross ventilation with automatic control present discomfort hours reduction and energy consumption reduction above 68% for all combinations and the significant influence of the daily thermal range value on the performance of systems without air pre-treatment.

  10. [The Essen-based steel producer Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) as a reader of the flora and fauna of the Gulf of Naples. A look at the relationship of Anton Dohrn (1840-1909) to the house Krupp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    A unfavourable notice written by industrial magnate Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) has been discovered on the posterior cover sheet of the first volume of the monumental series Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, edited by the Zoological Station at Naples (1880) Krupp's handwritten statement affords the opportunity to discuss in more detail the intricate relationship between the founder of the first marine biology station, Anton Dohrn (1840-1909), and the owner of the greatest steel factory in Europe, the Krupp-family at Essen. Although Anton Dohrn did not know about Krupp's disapproving comment he had a fine unerring instinct for the mentality of his negotiating partner, whose way of thinking rather aimed at the practical success and completion of armament factory, preventing thus a the serious rapprochement between the two personalities. Even when the Krupp-heir, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, later devoted to questions about marine biology in his new built house at Capri, and was willing to support the Zoological Station with high sponsoring, Anton Dohrn maintained a reserved attitude towards the Krupp's offer to support the marine research financially. Likewise, he remained unimpressed, when the steel magnate was shook by the smear campaign in Capri that ultimately led to Krupp's death in November 1902.

  11. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the “Villa con ingresso a protiro”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Archaeometric investigations of ancient marbles from underwater environment. • Distinguish the different variety of marbles by using minero-petrographic and geochemical-isotopic investigations. • Compare the results with literature data allowing to broaden the existing database. - Abstract: This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  12. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the “Villa con ingresso a protiro”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Michela, E-mail: michela.ricca@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); De Buergo, Monica Alvarez [Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, planta 7, despacho 17.4c/José Antonio Nováis 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Archaeometric investigations of ancient marbles from underwater environment. • Distinguish the different variety of marbles by using minero-petrographic and geochemical-isotopic investigations. • Compare the results with literature data allowing to broaden the existing database. - Abstract: This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  13. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Novel Magnetic-to-Thermal Conversion and Thermal Energy Management Composite Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic materials have elicited increasing interest due to their high-efficiency magnetothermal conversion. However, it is difficult to effectively manage the magnetothermal energy due to the continuous magnetothermal effect at present. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel Fe3O4/PEG/SiO2 composite phase change material (PCM that can simultaneously realize magnetic-to-thermal conversion and thermal energy management because of outstanding thermal energy storage ability of PCM. The composite was fabricated by in situ doping of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoclusters through a simple sol–gel method. The synthesized Fe3O4/PEG/SiO2 PCM exhibited good thermal stability, high phase change enthalpy, and excellent shape-stabilized property. This study provides an additional promising route for application of the magnetothermal effect.

  15. Thermal remote sensing data for estimating evapotranspiration on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an alternative to in-situ hydro -physical measurements, theoretical and computer-based models, a method that applies thermal infrared band (6) of Landsat TM data for the estimation of ET on a basin-wide scale is presented. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) , Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2, 2000, pp. 98 - 107 ...

  16. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  17. Determination of thermal conductivities of some topsoils using block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the determination of In situ measurement of the top soil layer, despite non-homogeneity of natural soils caused by changes in their water content, texture and structure. Thermal Conductivities of clay, loam and sand soils were determined using improved Block method with and without the use of ...

  18. A Bacillus sp. isolated from sediments of the Sarno River mouth, Gulf of Naples (Italy) produces a biofilm biosorbing Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepi, Milva; Borra, Marco [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Tamburrino, Stella [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero UOS Capo Granitola, Palermo (Italy); Saggiomo, Maria [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Viola, Alfio [Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy); Biffali, Elio; Balestra, Cecilia [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Sprovieri, Mario [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero UOS Capo Granitola, Palermo (Italy); Casotti, Raffaella, E-mail: raffaella.casotti@szn.it [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A Pb-resistant bacterial strain (named hereinafter Pb15) has been isolated from highly polluted marine sediments at the Sarno River mouth, Italy, using an enrichment culture to which Pb(II) 0.48 mmol l{sup −1} were added. 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Sanger) allowed assignment of the isolate to the genus Bacillus, with Bacillus pumilus as the closest species. The isolate is resistant to Pb(II) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.8 mmol l{sup −1} and is also resistant to Cd(II) and Mn(II) with MIC of 2.22 mmol l{sup −1} and 18.20 mmol l{sup −1}, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) showed that Pb inoculated in the growth medium is absorbed by the bacterial cells at removal efficiencies of 31.02% and 28.21% in the presence of 0.48 mmol l{sup −1} or 1.20 mmol l{sup −1} Pb(II), respectively. Strain Pb15 forms a brown and compact biofilm when grown in presence of Pb(II). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirm that the biofilm contains Pb, suggesting an active biosorption of this metal by the bacterial cells, sequestering 14% of inoculated Pb as evidenced by microscopic analyses. Altogether, these observations support evidence that strain Pb15 has potentials for being used in bioremediation of its native polluted sediments, with engineering solutions to be found in order to eliminate the adsorbed Pb before replacement of sediments in situ. - Highlights: • The strain is able to sequester Pb by biosorption in a biofilm. • A Pb-resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from marine polluted sediments. • The strain is proposed as a tool for bioremediation of Pb-polluted marine sediments.

  19. A Bacillus sp. isolated from sediments of the Sarno River mouth, Gulf of Naples (Italy) produces a biofilm biosorbing Pb(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepi, Milva; Borra, Marco; Tamburrino, Stella; Saggiomo, Maria; Viola, Alfio; Biffali, Elio; Balestra, Cecilia; Sprovieri, Mario; Casotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    A Pb-resistant bacterial strain (named hereinafter Pb15) has been isolated from highly polluted marine sediments at the Sarno River mouth, Italy, using an enrichment culture to which Pb(II) 0.48 mmol l −1 were added. 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Sanger) allowed assignment of the isolate to the genus Bacillus, with Bacillus pumilus as the closest species. The isolate is resistant to Pb(II) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.8 mmol l −1 and is also resistant to Cd(II) and Mn(II) with MIC of 2.22 mmol l −1 and 18.20 mmol l −1 , respectively. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) showed that Pb inoculated in the growth medium is absorbed by the bacterial cells at removal efficiencies of 31.02% and 28.21% in the presence of 0.48 mmol l −1 or 1.20 mmol l −1 Pb(II), respectively. Strain Pb15 forms a brown and compact biofilm when grown in presence of Pb(II). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirm that the biofilm contains Pb, suggesting an active biosorption of this metal by the bacterial cells, sequestering 14% of inoculated Pb as evidenced by microscopic analyses. Altogether, these observations support evidence that strain Pb15 has potentials for being used in bioremediation of its native polluted sediments, with engineering solutions to be found in order to eliminate the adsorbed Pb before replacement of sediments in situ. - Highlights: • The strain is able to sequester Pb by biosorption in a biofilm. • A Pb-resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from marine polluted sediments. • The strain is proposed as a tool for bioremediation of Pb-polluted marine sediments.

  20. Large-scale in situ heater tests for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Wilder, D.G.; Nitao, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analyses indicate that the ambient hydrological system will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. In situ heater tests are required to provide an understanding of coupled geomechanical-hydrothermal-geochemical behavior in the engineered and natural barriers under repository thermal loading conditions. In situ heater tests have been included in the Site Characterization Plan in response to regulatory requirements for site characterization and to support the validation of process models required to assess the total systems performance at the site. Because of limited time, some of the in situ tests will have to be accelerated relative to actual thermal loading conditions. We examine the trade-offs between the limited test duration and generating hydrothermal conditions applicable to repository performance during the entire thermal loading cycle, including heating (boiling and dry-out) and cooldown (re-wetting). For in situ heater tests to be applicable to actual repository conditions, a minimum heater test duration of 6-7 yr (including 4 yr of full-power heating) is required

  1. Decomposition of thin titanium deuteride films: thermal desorption kinetics studies combined with microstructure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; Kaszkur, Zbigniew; Smithers, M.A.; Smithers, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal evolution of deuterium from thin titanium films, prepared under UHV conditions and deuterated in situ at room temperature, has been studied by means of thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) and a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy

  2. Design and optimization of hybrid ex situ/in situ steam generation recovery processes for heavy oil and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.; Gates, I.D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Larter, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience]|[Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Hybrid steam-air based oil recovery techniques were investigated using advanced 3-D reactive thermal reservoir simulations. The hybrid techniques combined ex situ steam and in situ steam generation processes in order to raise efficiency, lower natural gas consumption, and reduce gas emissions. The steam-air based processes used 70 per cent of the energy of conventional steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) techniques to recover the same amount of oil. The process used an SAGD wellpair arrangement, where steam and air were injected through the top injection well. The kinetic parameters used in the study were developed by history matching a combustion tube experiments with Athabasca bitumen conducted to predict cumulative bitumen and gas production volumes and compositions. A total of 6 SAGD and 6 in situ combustion simulations were conducted with steam oxygen volume ratios set at 50 per cent steam and 50 per cent oxygen. Various case studies were considered over a 5 year period. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also measured as well as cumulative water and methane consumption rates. Results of the study were used to develop an optimized hybrid operation that consisted of a SAGD well pair arrangement operating with cyclic steam-oxygen injection at high pressures. It was concluded that the high pressure operation increased the steam partial pressure within the reservoir and enhanced combustion performance. A 29 per cent improvement in the cumulative energy to oil ratio was obtained. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Characterization of alginate-brushite in-situ hydrogel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, Seyed Mohammad Hossein [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, and System Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Lagazzo, Alberto; Barberis, Fabrizio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Farokhi, Mehdi [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Finochio, Elisabetta [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Pastorino, Laura [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, and System Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    In the present study alginate-brushite composite hydrogels were in-situ synthetized and characterized with respect to preparation parameters. Specifically, the influence of initial pH value and initial concentration of phosphate precursor on the in-situ fabrication of the composite hydrogel were taken into account. The composite hydrogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TGA, DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Finally, the cell viability tests were carried out (MTT) over the incubation time period of 3, 7, and 14 days. The results revealed that the formation and the crystalline stability of brushite were highly dependent on the initial pH value. It was shown that as the pH reached to the value of 6, characteristics peaks of brushite appeared in the FTIR spectra. Besides, the XRD and thermal analysis results were in a good accordance with those of FTIR. In addition, the SEM images demonstrated that the plate like brushite was formed inside the alginate matrix. Also, a considerable impact of pH variation on the biocompatibility of samples was noticed so that the majority of samples especially those prepared in the acidic conditions were toxic. - Highlights: • Alginate-brushite hydrogel composites were obtained through an in-situ process • The brushite crystals started forming at pH value of 6 • The increase in the initial concentration of phosphate precursor resulted in more crystalline structure • Samples prepared at pH value of 8 had the most stable crystalline structure • Brushite crystals promoted the biocompatibility of alginate.

  4. Four Models of In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Krogh, Kristian; Paltved, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest that there are f......Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest...... that there are four fruitful approaches to in situ simulation: (1) In situ simulation informed by reported critical incidents and adverse events from emergency departments (ED) in which team training is about to be conducted to write scenarios. (2) In situ simulation through ethnographic studies at the ED. (3) Using...... the following processes: Transition processes, Action processes and Interpersonal processes. Design and purpose This abstract suggests four approaches to in situ simulation. A pilot study will evaluate the different approaches in two emergency departments in the Central Region of Denmark. Methods The typology...

  5. Thermal stress mitigation by Active Thermal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soldati, Alessandro; Dossena, Fabrizio; Pietrini, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an Active Thermal Control (ATC) of power switches. Leveraging on the fact that thermal stress has wide impact on the system reliability, controlling thermal transients is supposed to lengthen the lifetime of electronic conversion systems. Indeed in some environments...... results of control schemes are presented, together with evaluation of the proposed loss models. Experimental proof of the ability of the proposed control to reduce thermal swing and related stress on the device is presented, too....

  6. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  7. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  8. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  9. In Situ Hybridization Pada Kanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Witari, Ni Putu

    2014-01-01

    Kesulitan yang dijumpai pada penanganan kanker payudara adalah terjadinya kekambuhan atau relaps. Deteksi status HER2 pada pasien merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mendeteksi terjadinya relaps dan juga untuk menentukan jenis terapi yang ada diberikan. Ekspresi protein HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan immunohistochemistry (IHC), sedangkan mutasi gen HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan teknik in situ hybridization baik berupa fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ataupun chromogenic in situ hy...

  10. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  11. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  12. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  13. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of temperature and stresses during friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Feng, Zhili; Wang, Xun-Li; Brown, D.W.; Clausen, B.; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R.; David, Stan A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of temperature and thermal stresses during friction stir welding of Al6061-T6 was investigated by means of in-situ, time-resolved neutron diffraction technique. A method is developed to deconvolute the temperature and stress from the lattice spacing changes measured by neutron diffraction. The deep penetration capability of neutrons made it possible for the first time to obtain the temperature and thermal stresses inside a friction stir weld

  14. Performance analysis of a lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochen; Ma, Rong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The manned deep-space exploration is a hot topic of the current space activities. The continuous supply of thermal and electrical energy for the scientific equipment and human beings is a crucial issue for the lunar outposts. Since the night lasts for periods of about 350 h at most locations on the lunar surface, massive energy storage is required for continuous energy supply during the lengthy lunar night and the in-situ resource utilization is demanded. A lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage is presented in this paper. The performance analysis is carried out by the finite-time thermodynamics to take into account major irreversible losses. The influences of some key design parameters are analyzed for system optimization. The analytical results shows that the lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage can meet the requirement of the continuous energy supply for lunar outposts. - Highlights: • A lunar based solar thermal power system with regolith thermal storage is presented. • The performance analysis is carried out by the finite-time thermodynamics. • The influences of some key design parameters are analyzed.

  15. Evaluation of NIPER thermal EOR research, state-of-the-art and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.; Mahmood, S.M.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1993-06-01

    The Thermal Oil Production Research Group at NIPER has conducted research on behalf of the US Department of Energy on thermal methods of oil production (steam and for 1 year, in situ combustion) since 1983. Research projects performed by this group have attempted to adapt to the needs and direction of the DOE`s oil research program and that of industry. This report summarizes the research that has been conducted, analyses the contributions of the research, describes how the technology was transferred to potential users, analyzes current trends in thermal research and thermal oil production, and makes suggestions for future research where NIPER could contribute to advances in thermal oil production.

  16. Hydrogen production by thermal water splitting using a thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudesocque, N.; Lafon, C.; Girold, C.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA has been working for more than 10 years in plasma technologies devoted to waste treatment: incineration, vitrification, gases and liquid treatment. Based on this experience, CEA experiments since several years an innovative route for hydrogen production by thermal water splitting, using a plasma as heat source. This new approach could be considered as an alternative to electrolysis for massive hydrogen production from water and electricity. This paper presents a brief state of the art of water thermal plasmas, showing the temperatures and quench velocity ranges technologically achievable today. Thermodynamic properties of a water plasma are presented and discussed. A kinetic computational model is presented, describing the behavior of splitted products during the quench in a plasma plume for various parameters, such as the quench rate. The model results are compared to gas analysis in the plasma plume obtained with in-situ sampling probe. The plasma composition measurements are issued from an Optical Emission Spectroscopic method (OES). The prediction of 30 % H 2 recovery with a 108 K.s -1 quench rate has been verified. A second experimentation has been performed: mass gas analysis, flowrate measurement and OES to study the 'behavior' and species in underwater electrical arc stricken between graphite electrodes. With this quench, a synthesis gas was produced with a content 55 % of hydrogen. (authors)

  17. Thermalization of squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Starting with a thermal squeezed state defined as a conventional thermal state based on an appropriate Hamiltonian, we show how an important physical property, the signal-to-noise ratio, is degraded, and propose a simple model of thermalization (Kraus thermalization)

  18. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    decreased survival rate was found in diabetics (p useful in the treatment of critical ischaemia of the lower limb in diabetic patients. The overall results in diabetic patients, whether insulin-dependent or not, were equal to those in non-diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... = 0.005). Critical limb-ischaemia was more often present in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (DM:57%, NDM:36%, p = 0.0002). Diabetic patients had a significantly lower distal anastomosis than non-diabetic patients (p = 0.00001). There were no differences among diabetic and non-diabetic patients...

  19. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  20. Laser Based In Situ Techniques: Novel Methods for Generating Extreme Conditions in TEM Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Lagrange, T; Reed, B; Armstrong, M; Campbell, G; DeHope, W; Kim, J; King, W; Masiel, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-25

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM to as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.

  1. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The csub(p) of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation. (author)

  2. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation

  3. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.E.; Talbourdet, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal coupler assembly mounted to the coldfinger of a cryogenic cooler which provides improved thermal transfer between the coldfinger and the detector assembly mounted on the dewar endwell. The thermal coupler design comprises a stud and spring-loaded cap mounted on the coldfinger assembly. Thermal transfer is made primarily through the air space between the cap and coldwell walls along the radial surfaces. The cap is spring loaded to provide thermal contact between the cap and endwell end surfaces

  4. PRINS and in situ PCR protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosden, John R

    1997-01-01

    ... mapping of DNA sequences on chromosomes and location of gene expression followed the invention and refinement of in situ hybridization. Among the most recent technical developments has been the use of oligonucleotide primers to detect and amplify or extend complementary sequences in situ, and it is to this novel field that PRINS and In S...

  5. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  6. Dominierende Prozesse bei der thermischen In-situ-Sanierung (TISS) kontaminierter Geringleiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Uwe; Bieber, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants such as chlorinated, aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CHC, BTEX, PAH) or mineral oil hydrocarbons (TPH) constitute a prevalent threat to water resources. The significant storage capacity of low permeable soils (aquitards) leads to their long-term contamination. In situ thermal remediation (ISTR) proved to work successfully in treating these soils. Thus, the area of ISTR application grew continuously over the past 10 years. The dominating processes during the remediation can vary considerably, depending on hydrogeological and geological boundary conditions and the contamination itself. This article summarizes the application for in-situ thermal remediation (ISTR) in low permeable soils and aquitards for soil and groundwater treatment. Dominating remediation processes during volatile organic compound (VOC) and residual oil phase recovery are presented. The processes are illustrated by project examples.

  7. [In Situ Polymerization and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane Implanted Material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Muqing; Xiao, Fengjuan; Liang, Ye; Yue, Lin; Li, Song; Li, Lanlan; Feng, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of hydroxyapatite/polyurethane implanted material and dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the polyurethane matrix, we in the present study synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composites by in situ polymerization. We then characterized and analyzed the fracture morphology, thermal stability, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties. We seeded MG63 cells on composites to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composites. In situ polymerization could improve the interfacial bonding strength, ameliorate dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the properties of the composites. After adding 20 wt% hydroxyapatite into the polyurethane, the thermal stability was improved and the glass transition temperatures were increased. The tensile strength and maximum elongation were 6.83 MPa and 861.17%, respectively. Compared with those of pure polyurethane the tensile strength and maximum elongation increased by 236.45% and 143.30%, respectively. The composites were helpful for cell adhesion and proliferation in cultivation.

  8. Compositional Simulation of In-Situ Combustion EOR: A Study of Process Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Priyanka; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of the influence of reservoir process characteristics in In-Situ combustion modeling and advance the work of Kristensen et al. in this domain; a fully compositional In-