WorldWideScience

Sample records for situ plant conservation

  1. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  2. Ex situ Conservation Effort through the Inventory of Plant Diversity in Mount Seblat, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Seblat, as part a of Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP, is a pristine and natural mountain, particularly from disturbances and destructions by human activities. Nevertheless, the richness of biological resources especially plant diversity.in this area has not been more explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct an inventory of plant diversity and to determine the plant species composition. The inventory activities were conducted by plants collection along the ascent route. The results were then be maintained through ex situ conservation method in Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG. The study was conducted by exploratory method, from Seblat Ulu Village (641 m asl up to altitude of 1,037 m asl. There were 18 points of plant sample observation with an area of 5 x 5 square meters per point. Plant collection obtained 380 specimens. Five groups of most collected plants were Lauraceae (18 species, Rubiaceae (8 species, Anacardiaceae (6 species, Annonaceae (5 species, and Fagaceae (4 species. In order to enrich the plants collection as well as conduct the ex situ conservation effort, plants from Orchidaceae were also collected which resulted in 33 species. These results were an important initial inventory of plant diversity of Mount Seblat, considering that there was no record as well as very limited current information. When the environment disturbance tends to increase, this information may act as a reference and an initial database to develop plants conservation effort and strategy in the future.

  3. Plant conservation progress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri Havens; Andrea Kramer; Ed. Guerrant

    2017-01-01

    Effective national plant conservation has several basic needs, including: 1) accessible, up-to-date information on species distribution and rarity; 2) research and management capacity to mitigate the impact of threats that make plants rare; 3) effective networks for conserving species in situ and ex situ; 4) education and training to make sure the right people are...

  4. Distribution patterns of long-lived individuals of relict plants around Fanjingshan Mountain in China: Implications for in situ conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mountain areas in south-central China are widely recognized as refugia of relict plants during the late Neogene and Quaternary periods. In this paper, we try to explore the distribution patterns of natural habitats and to exactly locate the refugia of relict species around Fanjingshan Mountain using dendrological data of long-lived individuals (≥ 100 years old. Six typical relict plants were found around the mountain, i.e. Cyclocarya paliurus, Ginkgo biloba, Liriodendron chinense, Pinus massoniana, Podocarpus macrophyllus, and Taxus chinensis. The long-lived individuals were divided into three classes according to their ages: Class-I (≥ 500 years, Class-II (300–499 years, and Class-III (100–299 years. Our results showed that the south-west region to the mountain was the main distribution area of Class-I trees of G. biloba and T. chinensis, most of which occurring in the same small village (Yangliu Village of Yinjiang County. The north-east region harboured all the six relict species. Floristic analyses also indicated these two regions were very similar in tree growth as measured by DBH (diameter at breast height of 1.3 m. Thus, these two areas would have provided long-term suitable habitats for relict species. The south-west region, especially the small village Yangliu, should be given highest priority for in situ conservation of relict species and other rare and endangered plants. Attention should also be paid to the north-east region for its very high species diversity of relict species.Las áreas montañosas de la región centro-sur de China están ampliamente reconocidas por su papel como refugio de plantas relictas durante la última etapa del Neógeno y el Cuaternario. En el presente trabajo se intentan explorar los patrones de distribución de los hábitats naturales y la localización exacta de los refugios para especies vegetales relictas en los alrededores de la montaña Fanjinshan, mediante el empleo de datos dendrol

  5. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  6. Missouri botanical garden’s support of ex-situ conservation with living collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gunn; Meg Engelhardt; Derek. Lyle

    2017-01-01

    The Missouri Botanical Garden’s living collections are critical for supporting its multi-disciplinary strategy of integrated plant conservation. The Garden is increasing ex-situ collections of plants in need of conservation to build species diversity into its displays for visitor education. Current areas of focus include native Missouri species and International Union...

  7. Keeping All the PIECES: Phylogenetically Informed Ex Situ Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Daniel J; Jacobi, Sarah K; Hipp, Andrew L; Kramer, Andrea T

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation in germplasm and living collections is a major focus of global plant conservation strategies. Prioritizing species for ex situ collection is a necessary component of this effort for which sound strategies are needed. Phylogenetic considerations can play an important role in prioritization. Collections that are more phylogenetically diverse are likely to encompass more ecological and trait variation, and thus provide stronger conservation insurance and richer resources for future restoration efforts. However, phylogenetic criteria need to be weighed against other, potentially competing objectives. We used ex situ collection and threat rank data for North American angiosperms to investigate gaps in ex situ coverage and phylogenetic diversity of collections and to develop a flexible framework for prioritizing species across multiple objectives. We found that ex situ coverage of 18,766 North American angiosperm taxa was low with respect to the most vulnerable taxa: just 43% of vulnerable to critically imperiled taxa were in ex situ collections, far short of a year-2020 goal of 75%. In addition, species held in ex situ collections were phylogenetically clustered (P species been drawn at random. These patterns support incorporating phylogenetic considerations into ex situ prioritization in a manner balanced with other criteria, such as vulnerability. To meet this need, we present the 'PIECES' index (Phylogenetically Informed Ex situ Conservation of Endangered Species). PIECES integrates phylogenetic considerations into a flexible framework for prioritizing species across competing objectives using multi-criteria decision analysis. Applying PIECES to prioritizing ex situ conservation of North American angiosperms, we show strong return on investment across multiple objectives, some of which are negatively correlated with each other. A spreadsheet-based decision support tool for North American angiosperms is provided; this tool can be customized to

  8. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J.; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species’ persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.

  10. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species' persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

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    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  12. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  13. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  14. Genetic approaches refine ex situ lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Lalonde, Danielle R; Quse, Viviana; Shoemaker, Alan; Russello, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ex situ conservation management remains an important tool in the face of continued habitat loss and global environmental change. Here, we use microsatellite marker variation to evaluate conventional assumptions of pedigree-based ex situ population management and directly inform a captive lowland tapir breeding program within a range country. We found relatively high levels of genetic variation (N(total) = 41; mean H(E) = 0.67 across 10 variable loci) and little evidence for relatedness among founder individuals (N(founders) = 10; mean relatedness = -0.05). Seven of 29 putative parent-offspring relationships were excluded by parentage analysis based on allele sharing, and we identified 2 individuals of high genetic value to the population (mk situ conservation.

  15. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  16. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  17. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  18. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  19. Can ex situ plant collections differ in effectiveness, even 1 between closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of imperiled plant species often requires ex situ (offsite) living collections. Protocols for developing these collections most often emphasize sampling depth, but little is known about the genetics of such collections. This study compares how well a single collecting protocol can captu...

  20. Quantifying progress toward a conservation assessment for all plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Steven P; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M; Rivers, Malin C

    2018-06-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) set an ambitious target to achieve a conservation assessment for all known plant species by 2020. We consolidated digitally available plant conservation assessments and reconciled their scientific names and assessment status to predefined standards to provide a quantitative measure of progress toward this target. The 241,919 plant conservation assessments generated represent 111,824 accepted land plant species (vascular plants and bryophytes, not algae). At least 73,081 and up to 90,321 species have been assessed at the global scale, representing 21-26% of known plant species. Of these plant species, at least 27,148 and up to 32,542 are threatened. Eighty plant families, including some of the largest, such as Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, and Rubiaceae, are underassessed and should be the focus of assessment effort if the GSPC target is to be met by 2020. Our data set is accessible online (ThreatSearch) and is a baseline that can be used to directly support other GSPC targets and plant conservation action. Although around one-quarter of a million plant assessments have been compiled, the majority of plants are still unassessed. The challenge now is to build on this progress and redouble efforts to document conservation status of unassessed plants to better inform conservation decisions and conserve the most threatened species. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of

  2. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  3. Ex Situ Conservation Method for Clerodendrum inerme : A medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clerodendrum inerme L. (Verbenaceae), commonly known as vanajai or garden quinine is a perennial shrub. Leaves and roots of the plant are used in rheumatism and skin diseases. In Indian classical literature the plant is also reported as a substitute of quinine. Since root of the plant is used as drug, whole plant has to be ...

  4. Plant diversity in a changing world: Status, trends, and conservation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Corlett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of plants has not generated the sense of urgency—or the funding—that drives the conservation of animals, although plants are far more important for us. There are an estimated 500,000 species of land plants (angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, lycophytes, and bryophytes, with diversity strongly concentrated in the humid tropics. Many species are still unknown to science. Perhaps a third of all land plants are at risk of extinction, including many that are undescribed, or are described but otherwise data deficient. There have been few known global extinctions so far, but many additional species have not been recorded recently and may be extinct. Although only a minority of plant species have a specific human use, many more play important roles in natural ecosystems and the services they provide, and rare species are more likely to have unusual traits that could be useful in the future. The major threats to plant diversity include habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species, pollution, and anthropogenic climate change. Conservation of plant diversity is a massive task if viewed globally, but the combination of a well-designed and well-managed protected area system and ex situ gap-filling and back-up should work anywhere. The most urgent needs are for the completion of the global botanical inventory and an assessment of the conservation status of the 94% of plant species not yet evaluated, so that both in and ex situ conservation can be targeted efficiently. Globally, the biggest conservation gap is in the hyperdiverse lowland tropics and this is where attention needs to be focused.

  5. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  6. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  7. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits.

  8. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Mir Ajab; Hussain, Mazhar; Mujtaba, Ghulam

    2014-09-01

    The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.

  9. In situ conservation and landscape genetics in forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín L.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of forest genetic resources is essential for sustaining the environmental and productive values of forests. One of the environmental values is the conservation of the diversity that is assessed through the amount of genetic diversity stored by forests, their structure and dynamics. The current need for forest conservation and management has driven a rapid expansion of landscape genetics discipline that combines tools from molecular genetics, landscape ecology and spatial statistics and is decisive for improving not only ecological knowledge but also for properly managing population genetic resources. The objective of this study is to show the way to establish the safeguard of genetic diversity through this approach using the results obtained in sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. that has provided a better understanding on the species genetic resources. In this respect, we will show how the information provided by different types of molecular markers (genomic and genic offer more accurate indication on the distribution of the genetic diversity among and within populations assuming different evolutionary drivers.

  10. Conservation of boundary extension mechanisms between plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Jaideep

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion clearly sets plants and animals apart. However, recent studies in higher plants reveal cell-biological and molecular features similar to those observed at the leading edge of animal cells and suggest conservation of boundary extension mechanisms between motile animal cells and nonmotile plant cells.

  11. Re-resection rates and risk characteristics following breast conserving surgery for breast cancer and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryh, C G; Pietersen, C A; Rahr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of re-resections and describe risk characteristics: invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ (CIS), palpability of the lesion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: 1703 breast conserving surgeries were performed: 1575 primary breast conserving surgeries (BCS...

  12. Water Conservation Study, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  13. Water Conservation Study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  14. Planning priority conservation areas under climate change for six plant species with extremely small populations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP has been employed to guide conservation of threatened plant species in China. Climate change has a high potential to threaten PSESP. As a result, it is necessary to integrate climate change effects on PSESP into conservation planning in China. Here, ecological niche modelling is used to project current and future habitat distributions of six PSESP in China under climate change scenarios and conservation planning software is applied to identify priority conservation areas (PCAs for these PSESP based on habitat distributions. These results were used to provide proposals for in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures directed at PSESP. It was found that annual precipitation was important for habitat distributions for all six PSESP (with the percentage contribution to habitat distributions ranging from 18.1 % to 74.9 % and non-climatic variables including soil and altitude have a large effect on habitat suitability of PSESP. Large quantities of PCAs occurred within some provincial regions for these six PSESP (e.g. Sichuan and Jilin for the PSESP Cathaya argyrophylla, Taxus cuspidata, Annamocarya sinensis and Madhuca pasquieri, indicating that these are likely to be appropriate areas for in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures directed at these PSESP. Those nature reserves with large quantities of PCAs were identified as promising sites for in-situ conservation measures of PSESP; such reserves include Yangzie and Dongdongtinghu for C. argyrophylla, Songhuajiangsanhu and Changbaishan for T. cuspidata and Shiwandashanshuiyuanlian for Tsoongiodendron odorum. These results suggest that existing seed banks and botanical gardens occurring within identified PCAs should allocate more resources and space to ex-situ conservation of PSESP. In addition, there should be additional botanical gardens established for ex-situ conservation of PSESP in PCAs outside existing nature reserves. To

  15. 77 FR 5403 - Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 670 Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, The National Science Foundation (NSF) is amending its regulations to reflect newly designated...

  16. When Are Native Species Inappropriate for Conservation Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agencies and organizations are generally reluctant to encourage the use of invasive plant species in conservation programs. Harsh lessons learned in the past have resulted in tougher screening protocols for non-indigenous species introductions and removal of many no...

  17. Caractéristiques, menaces et nécessité de conservation in situ du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To know Husbandry practices, morpho-biometric characteristics, biological and zootechnical, breeding performance of Baoulé taurine cattle, to show its socio-cultural and economic role, the threats to its survival and understand the need for its conservation in situ in the South-West savannahs of Burkina Faso.

  18. Seed conservation in ex situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, M.; Vogel, H.; Landjeva, S.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Lohwasser, U.; Scholz, U.; Börner, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the danger due to a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide

  19. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  20. Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ conservation Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity

  1. A case for conserving imperiled plants by ecological area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Povilitis

    2001-01-01

    Imperiled plants are sometimes protected as endangered or threatened species at state and national levels. However, politically based geographic units fall short for conservation purposes. For example, only 19 percent of plant species considered imperiled in the San Juan region of Colorado and New Mexico appeared on recent state or federal endangered species lists....

  2. Introgression from cultivated rice alters genetic structures of wild relative populations: implications for in situ conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ping; Li, Chen; Cai, Xingxing; Rong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China. Thirty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 34 insertion/deletion markers were used to genotype the wild rice populations and two sets of rice cultivars (O. sativa), corresponding to the two types of molecular markers. Shared alleles and STRUCTURE analyses suggested a variable level of crop-wild introgression and admixture. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses indicated differentiation of wild rice populations, which was associated with the spatial distances to cultivated rice fields. The level of overall genetic diversity was comparable between wild rice populations and rice cultivars, but a great number of wild-specific alleles was detected in the wild populations. We conclude based on the results that crop-wild introgression can considerably alter the pattern of genetic structure and relationships of CWR populations. Appropriate measures should be taken for effective in situ conservation of CWR species under the scenario of crop-wild introgression. PMID:29308123

  3. DNA barcoding applied to ex situ tropical amphibian conservation programme reveals cryptic diversity in captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Cruz, Catalina; Griffith, Edgardo; Ross, Heidi; Ibáñez, Roberto; Lips, Karen R; Driskell, Amy C; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crump, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Amphibians constitute a diverse yet still incompletely characterized clade of vertebrates, in which new species are still being discovered and described at a high rate. Amphibians are also increasingly endangered, due in part to disease-driven threats of extinctions. As an emergency response, conservationists have begun ex situ assurance colonies for priority species. The abundance of cryptic amphibian diversity, however, may cause problems for ex situ conservation. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach to survey mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in captive populations of 10 species of Neotropical amphibians maintained in an ex situ assurance programme at El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center (EVACC) in the Republic of Panama. We combined these mtDNA sequences with genetic data from presumably conspecific wild populations sampled from across Panama, and applied genetic distance-based and character-based analyses to identify cryptic lineages. We found that three of ten species harboured substantial cryptic genetic diversity within EVACC, and an additional three species harboured cryptic diversity among wild populations, but not in captivity. Ex situ conservation efforts focused on amphibians are therefore vulnerable to an incomplete taxonomy leading to misidentification among cryptic species. DNA barcoding may therefore provide a simple, standardized protocol to identify cryptic diversity readily applicable to any amphibian community. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  5. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Smith, Lacy M; Steel, Zachary L

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  6. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  7. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  8. In-situ solidification cleans up old gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, A.D.; Dennis, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    A manufactured gas plant site in Columbus, Georgia, was the location of an environmental cleanup in 1992. Manufactured gas was produced at this site from 1854 to 1931 with the availability of natural gas from a transmission pipeline causing its demise. However, waste products, primarily coal tar from the earlier years of plant operation, remained with the site. In-situ solidification was chosen as the cleanup method. Post monitoring activities show that the project was successful and the site is now a park and a leading part of river front development

  9. Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, S.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ conservation Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity on-farm. The second concerns the more recent phenomenon of Research & Development (R&D) interventions which aim to support in-situ conservation by farmers. In this study, farmer-driven in-sit...

  10. The reproductive biology of Calligonum L. in relation to ex situ conservation in a botanical garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we observed the flowering phenology, breeding system, pollination and seed germination of four species of Calligonum (C. calliphysa, C. rubicundum, C. densum and C. ebinuricum in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, China. Our results showed that the species had overlapping flowering phenologies and were pollinated by similar pollination agents. Their breeding systems were self-compatible, and with signs of outbreeding, but not of hybridization with each other; the main isolation mechanism was post-zygotic isolation and they also had high seed germination rates. Therefore, they are suited to ex situ conservation in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, and can supply sufficient seeds for renewal populations and the conservation of germplasm resources. Furthermore, these results provide theoretical support for the construction of a national germplasm resource garden of Calligonum, and for the introduction to the garden of other eremophyteplants and their conservation.

  11. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Carolyn J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

  12. Conservation and Promotion of Indigenous Plants and Trees in Meru

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the former were acquired over several generations and allowed the locals to use, manage and conserve wild resources in a sustainable mode. In the teams' observation, society's emphasis on a monetary system has seen a shift in plant value systems. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  13. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in situ experimental program for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will be a facility to demonstrate the environmental and operational safety of storing radioactive wastes in a deep geologic bedded salt facility. The WIPP will be located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 30 miles east of the city of Carlsbad. The major focus of the pilot plant operation involves ERDA defense related low and intermediate-level transuranic wastes. The scope of the project also specifically includes experimentation utilizing commercially generated high-level wastes, or alternatively, spent unreprocessed fuel elements. WIPP HLW experiments are being conducted in an inter-related laboratory, bench-scale, and in situ mode. This presentation focuses on the planned in situ experiments which, depending on the availability of commercially reprocessed waste plus delays in the construction schedule of the WIPP, will begin in approximately 1985. Such experiments are necessary to validate preceding laboratory results and to provide actual, total conditions of geologic storage which cannot be adequately simulated. One set of planned experiments involves emplacing bare HLW fragments into direct contact with the bedded salt environment. A second set utilizes full-size canisters of waste emplaced in the salt in the same manner as planned for a future HLW repository. The bare waste experiments will study in an accelerated manner waste-salt bed-brine interactions including matrix integrity/degradation, brine leaching, system chemistry, and potential radionuclide migration through the salt bed. Utilization of full-size canisters of HLW in situ permits us to demonstrate operational effectiveness and safety. Experiments will evaluate corrosion and compatibility interactions between the waste matrix, canister and overpack materials, getter materials, stored energy, waste buoyancy, etc. Using full size canisters also allows us to demonstrate engineered retrievability of wastes, if necessary, at the end of experimentation

  15. Plant DNA banks for genetic resources conservation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of gene­tic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximi­zing their potential.

  16. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-10-01

    Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.

  17. Genome Analysis of Conserved Dehydrin Motifs in Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Malik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins, a large family of abiotic stress proteins, are defined by the presence of a mostly conserved motif known as the K-segment, and may also contain two other conserved motifs known as the Y-segment and S-segment. Using the dehydrin literature, we developed a sequence motif definition of the K-segment, which we used to create a large dataset of dehydrin sequences by searching the Pfam00257 dehydrin dataset and the Phytozome 10 sequences of vascular plants. A comprehensive analysis of these sequences reveals that lysine residues are highly conserved in the K-segment, while the amino acid type is often conserved at other positions. Despite the Y-segment name, the central tyrosine is somewhat conserved, but can be substituted with two other small aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine or histidine. The S-segment contains a series of serine residues, but in some proteins is also preceded by a conserved LHR sequence. In many dehydrins containing all three of these motifs the S-segment is linked to the K-segment by a GXGGRRKK motif (where X can be any amino acid, suggesting a functional linkage between these two motifs. An analysis of the sequences shows that the dehydrin architecture and several biochemical properties (isoelectric point, molecular mass, and hydrophobicity score are dependent on each other, and that some dehydrin architectures are overexpressed during certain abiotic stress, suggesting that they may be optimized for a specific abiotic stress while others are involved in all forms of dehydration stress (drought, cold, and salinity.

  18. Divergence and Conservative Evolution of XTNX Genes in Land Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and Nucleotide-binding site (NBS domains are two major components of the TIR-NBS-leucine-rich repeat family plant disease resistance genes. Extensive functional and evolutionary studies have been performed on these genes; however, the characterization of a small group of genes that are composed of atypical TIR and NBS domains, namely XTNX genes, is limited. The present study investigated this specific gene family by conducting genome-wide analyses of 59 green plant genomes. A total of 143 XTNX genes were identified in 51 of the 52 land plant genomes, whereas no XTNX gene was detected in any green algae genomes, which indicated that XTNX genes originated upon emergence of land plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ancestral XTNX gene underwent two rounds of ancient duplications in land plants, which resulted in the formation of clades I/II and clades IIa/IIb successively. Although clades I and IIb have evolved conservatively in angiosperms, the motif composition difference and sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggest that functional divergence may have occurred since the separation of the two clades. In contrast, several features of the clade IIa genes, including the absence in the majority of dicots, the long branches in the tree, the frequent loss of ancestral motifs, and the loss of expression in all detected tissues of Zea mays, all suggest that the genes in this lineage might have undergone pseudogenization. This study highlights that XTNX genes are a gene family originated anciently in land plants and underwent specific conservative pattern in evolution.

  19. Conservative Treatment Seems the Best Choice in Adenocarcinoma In Situ of the Cervix Uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalbergen, Astrid; Molijn, Anco C; Quint, Wim G V; Smedts, Frank; Helmerhorst, Theo J M

    2015-07-01

    To study diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, outcomes, and follow-up in a large series of women with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix and investigate if human papillomavirus (HPV) typing among women with negative cytology reports would have helped with early AIS detection. Records of 132 AIS cases diagnosed between 1989 and 2012 were retrieved. Clinical and pathological data were reviewed and analyzed. Mean age at diagnosis was 37 years. Seventy-two percent (n = 95) of all patients were asymptomatic; diagnosis was established using cytology and biopsy. Primary treatment for 124 patents was cold knife cone or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Positive margins were found in 18% of those women treated with CKC versus 40% in those treated with LEEP. The mean follow-up time was 62 months (range, 2-217 months; median, 46 months). Three recurrences were found after conservative treatment in 86 patients. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) positivity was detected in 115 (96%) of 120 patients, with HPV-18 being the most commonly occurring subtype (51%). There is a small risk of relapse after conservative therapy with cold knife cone or LEEP when resection margins are negative in women with AIS. Patients should be given the options of hysterectomy or conservative therapy with strict follow-up.

  20. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  1. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  2. Subclinical ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: treatment with conservative surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Richetti, A; Zini, G; Rigon, A; Antonello, M; Roncadin, M; Coghetto, F; Valdagni, R; Fasan, S; Maluta, S; Di Marco, A; Neri, S; Vidali, C; Panizzoni, G; Aristei, C

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the fact that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a frequently encountered clinical problem, there is no consensus about the optimal treatment of clinically occult (i.e., mammographic presentation only) DCIS. Interest in breast conservation therapy has recently increased. Few data are available in Italy on the conservative treatment with surgery and adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy. A retrospective multi-institutional study was performed in 15 Radiation Oncology Departments in northern Italy involving 112 women with subclinical DCIS of the breast treated between 1982 and 1993. Age of the patients ranged between 32 and 72 years (median, 50 years). All of them underwent conservative surgery: quadrantectomy in 89, tumorectomy in 11, and wide excision in 12 cases. The most common histologic subtype was comedocarcinoma (37%). The median pathologic size was 10 mm (range 1 to 55 mm). Axillary dissection was performed in 83 cases: all the patients were node negative. All the patients received adjunctive radiation therapy with 60Co units (77%) or 6 MV linear accelerators (23%) for a median total dose to the entire breast of 50 Gy (mean, 49.48 Gy; range, 45-60 Gy). Seventy-six cases (68%) received a boost to the tumor bed at a dose of 8-20 Gy (median 10 Gy) for a minimum tumor dose of 58 Gy. At a median follow-up of 66 months, 8 local recurrences were observed, 4 intraductal and 4 invasive. All recurrent patients had a salvage mastectomy and are alive and free of disease at this writing. The 10-year actuarial overall, cause-specific, and recurrence-free survival was of 98.8%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The retrospective multicentric study, with a local control rate of more than 90% at 10 years with 100% cause-specific survival, showed that conservative surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy is a safe and efficacious treatment for patients with occult, non-palpable DCIS.

  3. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  4. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  6. Local Recurrences After Conservative Treatment of Ductal Carcinoma-In-Situ of the Breast Without Radiotherapy: The Effect of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten van der Velden, A.P.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Koot, V.C.M.; Hennipman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The main goal in treatment of ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) of the breast is to prevent local recurrences. Radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery has been shown to decrease the recurrence rate, although whether all patients should be treated with radiotherapy remains a topic

  7. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  8. Sustaining plants and people: traditional Q'eqchi' Maya botanical knowledge and interactive spatial modeling in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants for culturally relative holistic health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Todd; Abramiuk, Marc; Garagic, Denis; Fini, Nick; Meerman, Jan; Cal, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to locate culturally important, regionally scarce, and disappearing medicinal plants via a novel participatory methodology which involves healer-expert knowledge in interactive spatial modeling to prioritize conservation efforts and thus facilitate health promotion via medicinal plant resource sustained availability. These surveys, conducted in the Maya Mountains, Belize, generate ethnobotanical, ecological, and geospatial data on species which are used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers in practice. Several of these mountainous species are regionally scarce and the healers are expressing difficulties in finding them for use in promotion of community health and wellness. Based on healers' input, zones of highest probability for locating regionally scarce, disappearing, and culturally important plants in their ecosystem niches can be facilitated by interactive modeling. In the present study, this is begun by choosing three representative species to train an interactive predictive model. Model accuracy was then assessed statistically by testing for independence between predicted occurrence and actual occurrence of medicinal plants. A high level of accuracy was achieved using a small set of exemplar data. This work demonstrates the potential of combining ethnobotany and botanical spatial information with indigenous ecosystems concepts and Q'eqchi' Maya healing knowledge via predictive modeling. Through this approach, we may identify regions where species are located and accordingly promote for prioritization and application of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to protect them. This represents a significant step toward facilitating sustained culturally relative health promotion as well as overall enhanced ecological integrity to the region and the earth.

  9. Center for Plant Conservation's Best Practice Guidelines for the reintroduction of rare plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joyce Maschinski; Matthew A. Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that one-fifth of botanical species worldwide are considered at risk of becoming extinct in the wild. One available strategy for conserving many rare plant species is reintro-duction, which holds much promise especially when carefully planned by following guidelines and when monitored long-term. We review the Center for Plant Conservation Best Reintroduction Practice Guidelines and highlight important components for planning plant reintroductions. Before attempting reintro-ductions practitioners should justify them, should consider alternative conservation strategies, under-stand threats, and ensure that these threats are absent from any recipient site. Planning a reintroduction requires considering legal and logistic parameters as well as target species and recipient site attributes. Carefully selecting the genetic composition of founders, founder population size, and recipient site will influence establishment and population growth. Whenever possible practitioners should conduct rein-troductions as experiments and publish results. To document whether populations are sustainable will require long-term monitoring for decades, therefore planning an appropriate monitoring technique for the taxon must consider current and future needs. Botanical gardens can play a leading role in devel-oping the science and practice of plant reintroduction.

  10. Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Gray

    2013-08-01

    Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that management may need to re-evaluate their approach to controlling woody plant encroachment.

  11. Using in situ management to conserve biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Owen; Mossman, Hannah L; Suggitt, Andrew J; Curtis, Robin J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-06-01

    Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise. Our focus is on practical methods whereby the local environmental conditions experienced by organisms can be made more suitable.Many studies suggest that manipulating vegetation structure can alter the temperature and moisture conditions experienced by organisms, and several demonstrate that these altered conditions benefit species as regional climatic conditions become unsuitable. The effects of topography on local climatic conditions are even better understood, but the alteration of topography as a climate adaptation tool is not ingrained in conservation practice. Trials of topographic alteration in the field should therefore be a priority for future research.Coastal systems have the natural capacity to keep pace with climate change, but require sufficient sediment supplies and space for landward migration to do so. There is an extensive literature on managed realignment. While the underlying rationale is simple, successful implementation requires careful consideration of elevation and past land use. Even with careful management, restored habitats may not attain the physical and biological attributes of natural habitats. Synthesis and applications . The recent literature provides a compelling case that some of the adverse effects of climate change can be offset by appropriate management. However, much of the evidence for this is indirect and too few studies provide empirical tests of the long-term effectiveness of these management interventions. It is clear

  12. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  13. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  14. Improved Outcomes of Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients With Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Sreedhara, Meera [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brock, Jane E., E-mail: jebrock@partners.org [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiation therapy (RT) at our center from 1976 to 1990 had a 15% actuarial 10-year local recurrence (LR) rate. Since then, improved mammographic and pathologic evaluation and greater attention to achieving negative margins may have resulted in a lower risk of LR. In addition, clinical implications of hormone receptor and HER-2 status in DCIS remain unclear. We sought to determine the following: LR rates with this more modern approach; the relation between LR and HER-2 status; and clinical and pathologic factors associated with HER-2{sup +} DCIS. Methods and Materials: We studied 246 consecutive patients who underwent BCS and RT for DCIS from 2001 to 2007. Of the patients, 96 (39%) were Grade III and the median number of involved tissue blocks was 3. Half underwent re-excision and 222 (90%) had negative margins (>2 mm). All received whole-breast RT (40-52 Gy) and 99% (244) received a tumor bed boost (8-18 Gy). Routine estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER-2 immunohistochemistry was instituted in 2003. Results: With median follow-up of 58 months, there were no LRs. Seven patients (3%) developed contralateral breast cancer (4 invasive and 3 in situ). Among 163 patients with immunohistochemistry, 124 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup -}, 27 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup +}, 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup +}, and 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup -}. On univariable analysis, HER-2{sup +}was significantly associated with Grade III, ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}, central necrosis, comedo subtype, more extensive DCIS, and postmenopausal status. On multivariable analysis, Grade III and postmenopausal status remained significantly associated with HER-2{sup +}. Conclusions: In an era of mammographically identified DCIS, larger excisions, widely negative margins and the use of a tumor bed boost, we observed no LR regardless of ER/PR/HER-2 status. Factors associated

  15. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  16. Applications of in situ hybridization to plant-improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful method for characteristic alien addition and substitution lines. RFLP analysis can identify the presence of a particular individual chromosome, but whether they are as a pair or as a single chromosome cannot be determined. In situ hybridization has become established as an essential method in cell and molecular biology. It is able to link DNA sequences with their organization and physical position. The rate of technology-development in the field of in situ hybridization has been rapid: radioactive probes are now rarely used, while labeling methods, fluorochromes, chromosomes and tissue-preparation methods, microscope and imaging technology have all useful in functional genomics and localization of transgenes on the chromosomes. (author)

  17. Application of hydraulic fracturing to determine virgin in situ stress state around Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out in horizontal drillholes in rock salt in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. It was determined that the virgin in situ stress field is isotropic or nearly isotropic. The inferred magnitude of the isotropic in situ stress falls between bounds of 14.28 MPa and 17.9 MPa for the average breakdown/reopening pressures and driving pressures. The best estimate from instantaneous shut-in pressures is 16.61 MPa. Given some uncertainties about the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in salt, all of the foregoing values are in acceptable agreement with an average calculated isotropic in situ stress of 14.9 MPa at an average depth of 657 m below surface. Interpretations of breakdown and reopening pressures are based on finite element analyses of the relaxed stress field around a borehole in salt. This stress field varies little between approximately 50 and 200 days after drilling. The finite element analyses were also used to interpret the observed stable pressure-time signatures with little or no pressure drops during primary breakdown of the salt formation. The conclusion about the isotropic nature of the virgin in situ stress field is supported by observations of the induced fracture patterns. The report includes a comparison of the hydrofrac data in the WIPP with the published results of hydraulic fracturing tests in salt at three other locations. 75 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  18. State of the art knowledge in adrenocortical and behavioral responses to environmental challenges in a threatened South American ratite: Implications to in situ and ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Navarro Joaquín; Lèche, Alvina; Costa, Natalia S Della; Cortez, Marilina Vera; Marin, Raúl H; Martella, Mónica B

    2018-04-12

    The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) is an endemic ratite to South America, whose wild populations have undergone a remarkable decrease due to habitat degradation and fragmentation by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, poaching and predation by dogs. Anthropogenic perturbations in wild environments, as well as the management in captivity, can generate different stress responses in this species, thus, the monitoring of adrenocortical and behavioral activities are considered primary assessment tools with both conservation and welfare implications. In this review we analyze and integrate the different measurements of glucocorticoids (in plasma, feces, and yolk) carried out in different captive and wild populations, taking into account the diverse predictable and unpredictable conditions to which the Greater Rhea responds in each of those environments. In addition, the translocation of this bird is presented as an application of stress physiology in field ecology for conservation purposes, in which we evaluated how this species responds when it is released into a novel environment. Our results indicate that this ratite has a striking high sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis compared to that of other bird species and shows a wide variety of adrenocortical responses depending on the environment in which it lives. This suggests that its HPA axis has a phenotypic plasticity that enables the rhea to cope with the environmental challenges. In this sense, we propose that one of the routes of this plasticity could be mediated by the maternal transfer of steroid hormones to the egg. Finally, we discuss the importance of integrating the monitoring of the adrenocortical response along with the environmental variables that define the life history of the species, in management and conservation programs ex-situ and in situ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A conserved pattern in plant-mediated interactions between herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Jing; Robert Christelle A. M.; Lou Yonggen; Erb Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plant?mediated interactions between herbivores are important determinants of community structure and plant performance in natural and agricultural systems. Current research suggests that the outcome of the interactions is determined by herbivore and plant identity, which may result in stochastic patterns that impede adaptive evolution and agricultural exploitation. However, few studies have systemically investigated specificity versus general patterns in a given plant system by varyi...

  20. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Otarola Rojas; Sean Collins; Victor Cal; Francisco Caal; Kevin Knight; John Arnason; Luis Poveda; Pablo Sanchez-Vindas; Todd Pesek

    2010-01-01

    The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for futu...

  1. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense

    OpenAIRE

    Huffaker, Alisa; Pearce, Gregory; Veyrat, Nathalie; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C. J.; Sartor, Ryan; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Alborn, Hans T.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates antiherbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families, peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that a member of the maize (Zea mays) plant elicitor peptide (Pep) family, ZmPep3, regulates responses against herbivores. Consistent with being a signal, expression o...

  2. An in situ survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    An in situ survey of the area surrounding the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant was conducted between May 17 and 24, 1990. The survey consisted of in situ measurements and of ground sampling. A High Purity Germanium detector was used for the in situ measurements. The ground samples were taken to the, laboratory at EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., in Santa Barbara, California, for a radionuclide assay on a laboratory system. Results of the in situ measurements found evidence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137 from international fallout, and some evidence of anomalous uranium-238. The soil sampling results show only the presence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137, and also anomalous uranium-238

  3. In-situ calibration of RTDs and pressure sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    New techniques have been developed and validated for in-situ calibration of pressure transmitters as installed in nuclear power plants. These new techniques originate from a desire within the nuclear industry to monitor the calibration of pressure sensors during normal power operation by monitoring the DC output of the sensors for any significant draft and other anomalies. Currently, the calibration of pressure sensors is performed once every fuel cycle (18-24 months). The work involves significant manpower, radiation exposure to plant personnel, and potential damage to the plant equipment. In-situ calibration offers the potential to identify the sensors that need to be replaced or require calibration during normal plant operation, and reduce the calibration effort during outages to those sensors that need to be calibrated, as opposed to calibrating all the sensors

  4. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  5. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for phytoplasma and endophytic bacteria localization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Faoro, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we developed a rapid and efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization assay (FISH) in non-embedded tissues of the model plant Catharanthus roseus for co-localizing phytoplasmas and endophytic bacteria, opening new perspectives for studying the interaction between these microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecology and conservation of threatened plants in Tapkeshwari Hill ranges in the Kachchh Island, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Joshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted in Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR areas, wherever threatened plant species were said to exist, based on secondary information in literature. Thirteen plant species categorized as ‘Threatened’ by the World Conservation Monitoring centre (WCMC 1994 and also listed under various threat categories in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Nayar & Sastry 1988 were surveyed in the THR. All the RET plants reported from the study area occupied eight major habitat types. Thorn mixed forests harbored the highest number of individuals (560 of all RET plants, followed by open scrubs (345 individuals, Acacia senegal forests (328 and thorn mixed scrubs (293. Field observations showed that except Helichrysum cutchicum, all the other RET plant species were reported with very low seedlings and regeneration ratio. This paper discusses the status, distribution and threats faced and the conservation implications at border regions of some of the threatened plants of the arid Kachchh district.

  8. How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese flora occupies a unique position in global plant diversity, but is severely threatened. Although biodiversity conservation in China has made significant progress over the past decades, many wild plant species have extremely small population sizes and therefore are in extreme danger of extinction. The concept of plant species with extremely small populations (PSESPs, recently adopted and widely accepted in China, lacks a detailed description of the methodology appropriate for conserving PSESPs. Strategies for seed sampling, reintroduction, protecting PSESP locations, managing interactions with the local human population, and other conservation aspects can substantially differ from those commonly applied to non-PSESPs. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed conservation methodology with realistic and easy-to-follow guidelines for PSESPs in China.

  9. Comparative genomics reveals conservative evolution of the xylem transcriptome in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

    2010-06-21

    Wood is a valuable natural resource and a major carbon sink. Wood formation is an important developmental process in vascular plants which played a crucial role in plant evolution. Although genes involved in xylem formation have been investigated, the molecular mechanisms of xylem evolution are not well understood. We use comparative genomics to examine evolution of the xylem transcriptome to gain insights into xylem evolution. The xylem transcriptome is highly conserved in conifers, but considerably divergent in angiosperms. The functional domains of genes in the xylem transcriptome are moderately to highly conserved in vascular plants, suggesting the existence of a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. Compared to the total transcriptome derived from a range of tissues, the xylem transcriptome is relatively conserved in vascular plants. Of the xylem transcriptome, cell wall genes, ancestral xylem genes, known proteins and transcription factors are relatively more conserved in vascular plants. A total of 527 putative xylem orthologs were identified, which are unevenly distributed across the Arabidopsis chromosomes with eight hot spots observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that evolution of the xylem transcriptome has paralleled plant evolution. We also identified 274 conifer-specific xylem unigenes, all of which are of unknown function. These xylem orthologs and conifer-specific unigenes are likely to have played a crucial role in xylem evolution. Conifers have highly conserved xylem transcriptomes, while angiosperm xylem transcriptomes are relatively diversified. Vascular plants share a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. The xylem transcriptomes of vascular plants are more conserved than the total transcriptomes. Evolution of the xylem transcriptome has largely followed the trend of plant evolution.

  10. Computational evidence for hundreds of non-conserved plant microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2005-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small (20-25 nt) non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through interaction with mRNA in plants and metazoans. A few hundred miRNAs are known or predicted, and most of those are evolutionarily conserved. In general plant miRNA are different from...

  11. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  12. Conservation choice on the rare endangered plants Glehnia littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanxia; Chu, Jianmin; Yang, Hongxiao

    2018-01-01

    The coastal herbs Glehnia littoralis have been domesticated as traditional medicines for many centuries. The domestication may have caused changes or declines of cultivated G. littoralis (CGL) relative to wild G. littoralis (WGL). By comparing fruit properties of CGL and WGL, we tested the hypothesis that domesticated G. littoralis have suffered major declines, and human cultivation cannot be sufficient to conserve this species. We collected fruits of CGL and WGL in the Shandong peninsula, China, and compared their buoyancy in seawater, germination potential after seawater immersion, and thousand-grain weights. Float rates of the WGL and CGL fruits were 95.6 (mean) ± 2.6% (standard deviation) and 30.0 ± 7.1%, respectively. The germination potential of CGL was significantly reduced, although the thousand-grain weights of CGL (21.85 ± 0.17 g) were higher than those of the WGL fruits (14.73 ± 0.21 g). These results suggest that the CGL have experienced significant declines relative to the WGL, presumably due to the loss of seawater inundation, selection and dispersal. These declines disfavour the persistence of CGL, and human domestication and cultivation are believed to be insufficient for conserving G. littoralis . Sand coasts where WGL still persists should be designated timely as nature reserves to conserve this species.

  13. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  15. Caractéristiques, menaces et nécessité de conservation in situ du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... Le contrôle et la limitation de son absorption par le sang zébu sont ... breeding performance of Baoulé taurine cattle, to show its ... zones de savane et dans une moindre mesure ...... conservation et de la gestion des stocks.

  16. Seed plant features, distribution patterns, diversity hotspots, and conservation gaps in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The flora in Xinjiang is unique. Decisions about biodiversity conservation and management based on seed plant diversity hotspots and conservation gaps in Xinjiang are essential to maintain this unique flora. Based on a species distribution dataset of seed plants, we measured seed plant diversity using species richness and phylogenetic diversity indices. Five percent of Xinjiang’s total land area with the highest biodiversity was used to identify hotspots for each index. In total, eight hotspots were identified. Most hotspots were located in mountainous areas, mainly in the Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains. Furthermore, we detected conservation gaps for Xinjiang’s seed flora hotspots by overlaying nature reserve maps on to maps of identified hotspots and we designated priority conservation gaps for hotspots by overlaying global biodiversity hotspot maps on to hotspot conservation gaps maps. Most of Xinjiang’s seed plant hotspots are poorly protected; only 10.45% of these hotspots were covered by nature reserves. We suggest that it is essential to promote network function of nature reserves within these hotspots in Xinjiang to conserve this unique flora.

  17. Conservation assessment of the endemic plants from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaku Fadil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen endemic plant taxa were selected from Kosovo, according to the IUCN standards and for each taxon the risk assessment and threat category has been assigned. The taxa were compared with their previous status from fifteen years ago. From sixteen plant taxa, which were included in this work, four are Balkan endemics, whereas, eight of them are local endemics and four of the taxa are stenoendemics. Six of the taxa are grown exclusively on serpentine soils, five of them on limestone substrate, four of them in carbonate substrate, yet only one in silicate substrate. The work has been done based on the standard working methodologies of the IUCN (Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria – Version 8.1. The most threatened plant taxa is Solenanthus krasniqii – which after its observance has only 20 mature individuals. As a result of the wild collection of the medicinal and aromatic plants, from the local population, Sideritis scardica is about to be completely go extinct. The aim of this study was to assess the state of endemics in the threats possessed to them during the previous times, present and predicting the trends for the upcoming years.

  18. Influence of the saline formulation in the conservation of in vitro plants of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis García-Águila

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as aim to determine the saline formulation and its ideal concentration, as well as the culture temperature for the conservation of in vitro plants of sugar cane fran the variaty somaclonal IBP 87-100. Different concentrations of the saline formulations were studied MS (25, 50, 75, 100% and White (75, 100, 125% associated with two culture temperatures, 18 and 26 ±2ºC. The percentage of survival and the physiological condition of the plants during the period of conservation were decided. The conservation of the plants during six consecutive months was obtained as result when using the formulation MS reduced to 25 and 50%, associated with a culture temperature at 18ºC. This way the growth of the plants was slow and minor the physiological hurts, with values of survival between 58.3 and 69.2%. Whereas the formulation White did not favour the prolongation of conservation period and the plants only could be supported during two months with more than 50% of the foliate area dried. This behaviour could response due to the low levels of nitrogen that contains this formulation. Key words: culture temperature, in vitro conservation, saline concentration, survival

  19. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reoperation Rates in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ vs Invasive Breast Cancer After Wire-Guided Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Talman, Maj-Lis M

    2017-01-01

    Importance: New techniques for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions may decrease the reoperation rate in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with rates after surgery with the standard wire-guided localization. However, a valid reoperation rate for this procedure needs...... to be established for comparison, as previous studies on this procedure include a variety of malignant and benign breast lesions. Objectives: To determine the reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with histologically verified nonpalpable invasive breast cancer (IBC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS......) and to examine whether the risk of reoperation is associated with DCIS or histologic type of the IBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide study including women with histologically verified IBC or DCIS having wire-guided BCS performed between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, used data from...

  1. Energy conservation in methanol plant using CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Marjan; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of turbo expander integration with an industrial plant was studied. • Combined pinch-exergy analysis was used to achieve optimum performance of process. • Generation of power led to profitability of gas turbine integrated plant. - Abstract: Today, the efficient use of energy is a significant critical issue in various industries such as petrochemical industries. Hence, it seems essential to apply proper strategies to reduce energy consumption in such processes. A methanol production plant at a live Petrochemical Complex was selected as the case study in this research. The plant was first evaluated with combined pinch and exergy analysis from exergetic dissipation point of view. Owing to high temperature and pressure of reactor outlet stream, methanol synthesis reactor products contain considerable content of exergy. For the purpose of the present survey, the available content of exergy was used for power production by integrating a turbine expander with methanol reactor product. Utilization of reactor product’s high pressure in turbine reduces the temperature of turbine outlet stream to levels lower than those required for heating demands of existing streams in methanol synthesis cycle. Therefore, to keep the stream thermally balanced, the required hot utility of the process is increased and to compensate this increase, the heat exchanger network of the process was retrofitted based on pinch analysis concepts. The results showed that in gas turbine integrated scheme, approximately a net power of 7.5 MW is produced. Also, the total investment of turbine, compressor and heat exchangers area equals to 18.2 × 10 6 US$, and the annual saving value is about 6.1 × 10 6 US$/y. Based on economic data, payback period is estimated to be 3 years.

  2. Floristic inventory of vascular plant in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ho Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The floristic inventory of vascular plants in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area was conducted to understand the plant diversity in the northern area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. From the joint field surveys between Korean and Laos experts conducted during 2015–2017, it was found that there are 64 families, 145 genera, and 189 species distributed in the Nam Ba National Biodiversity Conservation Area, and a total of 56 families, 117 genera, and 148 species which comprise more than 78% of the total species were identified as endemic plants to the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Considering the usage of the plants, there are 91 species of medicinal plants, 33 species of ornamental plants, eight species of edible plants, and 16 species of economic plants. In addition, it was found out that Dalbergia balansae and Cinnamomum macrocarpum are categorized as vulnerable in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red list, and 13 more species are categorized as the least concern.

  3. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Mitchell A; McMahon, Michael B; Bonde, Morris R; Palmer, Cristi L; Luster, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate pathogens with multiple life stages often including different spore types and multiple plant hosts. While individual rust pathogens are often associated with specific plants, a wide range of plant species are infected with rust fungi. To study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants, one must be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplished using the In situ hybridization (ISH) protocol described here. To validate reproducibility using the ISH protocol, samples of Chrysanthemum × morifolium infected with Puccinia horiana, Gladiolus × hortulanus infected with Uromyces transversalis and Glycine max infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi were tested alongside uninfected leaf tissue samples. The results of these tests show that this technique clearly distinguishes between rust pathogens and their respective host plant tissues. This ISH protocol is applicable to rust fungi and potentially other plant pathogenic fungi as well. It has been shown here that this protocol can be applied to pathogens from different genera of rust fungi with no background staining of plant tissue. We encourage the use of this protocol for the study of plant pathogenic fungi in paraffin embedded sections of host plant tissue.

  4. Conservation, genetic characterization, phytochemical and biological investigation of black calla lily: A wild endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists continue to search for and conserve plants whose medicinal properties have become crucial in the fight against diseases. Moreover, lessons from folk medicine, indigenous knowledge and Chinese medicine on crude extracts points to possible findings of novel promising and strong pharmaceutically bioactive constituents. Arum palaestinum, commonly known as black calla lily, is one of the most important medicinal plants belonging to the family Araceae, which has not been well studied. Little is known about its pharmaceutically bioactive constituents and the effective conservation through the use of biotechnology. Thus, Arum Palaestinum is selected and reviewed for its phytochemical analysis and biological activities. Besides, the tissue culture and genetic characterization developed for effective conservation of the plant were also summarized.

  5. Leaving the placenta in situ versus conservative and radical surgery in the treatment of placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuk, Mehmet S; Ak, Mehmet; Ozgun, Mahmut T

    2018-03-01

    To compare different treatment methods in the management of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. In a retrospective cohort study, medical records were retrieved for patients who underwent elective surgery at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more after a diagnosis of PAS disorder (creta, increta, or percreta) at a center in Turkey between May 2, 2010, and August 10, 2016. The final analysis included patients whose diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively and for whom complete data were available. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 included those who underwent hysterectomy without placental removal, group 2 included patients whose placenta was left in situ, and group 3 included those who underwent placental removal and conservative surgery. Among 79 included patients (33 creta, 18 increta, 28 percreta), 27 (34%) were in group 1, 15 (19%) in group 2, and 37 (47%) in group 3. Total blood loss and the amounts of blood products transfused were lowest in group 2; significant differences between groups were noted (all P ≤ 0.001). Surgical complication rates were similar between groups (4/27 [15%], 1/15 [7%], and 11/37 [30%], respectively; P=0.119). Overall uterine preservation rates were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3 (14/15 [93%] vs 33/37 [89%]; P>0.99). Leaving the placenta in situ could become the treatment of choice for PAS disorders. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  7. Detection of Methylobacterium radiotolerans IMBG290 in potato plants by in situ hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Pirttila A. M.; Kozyrovska N. O.; Ovcharenko L. P.; Podolich O. V.

    2009-01-01

    A new bacterial strain of pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph (M. radiotolerans IMBG290) which was previously isolated from in vitro grown potato plantlets after their inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens IMBG163 was detected in tissues by in situ hybridization method (ISH/FISH). The presence of Methylobacterium rRNA was observed in leaves and stems of potato plantlets, whereas no signal was detected in potato roots. The signal was less abundant in the untreated plants than in the pla...

  8. Using dark diversity and plant characteristics to guide conservation and restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Clausen, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    more often than others, although this is important knowledge for restoration and conservation actions. 2. We applied the concept to a massive national (Danish) plant diversity data base, containing 236 923 records from 15 160 surveys involving 564 species. This enabled the first geographically...... comprehensive (43 000 km2) assessment of dark diversity, at a spatial resolution relevant for conservation and restoration planning (78 m2) across multiple terrestrial habitats, thereby maximising the practical applications of this concept. The probability for a given plant species to belong to the dark...

  9. Temporal evaluation of the Conservation Priority Index for medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André dos Santos Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated, through a temporal comparison, the extraction of non-timber forest resources by quantitatively analyzing the Conservation Priority Index (CPI. The study focused on the Fulni-ô Indigenous Territory, in the municipality of Águas Belas, PE (Northeast Brazil, which is characterized by caatinga vegetation (seasonal dry forest. Information on the availability of the exploited resources and the reported use of the species were obtained from vegetation sampling and semi-structured interviews, respectively. Our results demonstrated a reduction in species richness overtime, which may be due to continued resource extraction in the area, and that some species with low densities were even more affected. The species reported as being at high risk in the current study apparently did not differ from their status in the previous study, which supports the idea that these species are most evident in this situation more for their high potential of use than for their high densities. When we associate these events together with the disappearance of some rare species, we can conclude that the CPI was not efficient in predicting changes, and that the combination of variables used with the biological variables of the species needs to be adjusted.

  10. Conservative treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ: results of an Italian multi-institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidali, Cristiana; Neri, Stefano; Pietta, Nicoletta; Caffo, Orazio; Aristei, Cynthia; Bertoni, Filippo; Bonetta, Alberto; Guenzi, Marina; Iotti, Cinzia; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Mussari, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly in recent decades. In the past, mastectomy was the primary treatment for patients with DCIS, but as with invasive cancer, breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) has become the standard approach. We present the final results of a multi-institutional retrospective study of an Italian Radiation Oncology Group for the study of conservative treatment of DCIS, characterized by a very long period of accrual, from February 1985 to March 2000, and a median follow-up longer than 11 years. A collaborative multi-institutional study was conducted in Italy in 10 Radiation Oncology Departments. A consecutive series of 586 women with DCIS histologically confirmed, treated between February 1985 and March 2000, was retrospectively evaluated. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range: 29–84); 32 patients were 40 years old or younger. All women underwent conservative surgery followed by whole breast RT. Irradiation was delivered to the entire breast, for a median total dose of 50 Gy; the tumour bed was boosted in 295 cases (50%) at a median dose of 10 Gy. After a median follow-up of 136 months (range: 16–292 months), 59/586 patients (10%) experienced a local recurrence: invasive in 37 cases, intraductal in 20 and not specified in two. Salvage mastectomy was the treatment of choice in 46 recurrent patients; conservative surgery in 10 and it was unknown in three patients. The incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher in women younger than 40 years (31.3%) (p= 0.0009). Five patients developed distant metastases. Furthermore 40 patients developed a contralateral breast cancer and 31 a second primary tumour in a different site. The 10-year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 95.5% and the 10-year actuarial disease-specific survival (DSS) was 99%. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature. In particular it has been defined the importance of young age (40

  11. Relationship of family history and outcome after breast conservation therapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Schultz, Delray J.; Peters, Christopher A.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and outcome after breast-conserving surgery and radiation in women presenting with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods and Materials: A total of 146 consecutive women with a pathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as their first diagnosis of any breast cancer were identified; 28 (19%) had a positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, 27 (19%) had a positive family history in a second-degree relative, and 91 (62%) had no family history. Pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors, and clinical outcomes for each family history group were compared. Cosmesis and complications were recorded at each follow-up. Patients were treated between 1978 and 1995, and the median follow-up was 7.1 years. Results: Patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative each had an 8% incidence of local failure at 10 years, while the negative family history group demonstrated a 16% local failure rate (p = 0.33). Overall survival at 10 years for patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative was 100% and for those with a negative family history was 91% (p = 0.08). The negative family history group had a higher median age that may account for the difference in overall survival. Cause-specific survival (CSS) was 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, at 10 years (p = 0.25). There were no differences in the cosmetic results or complication rates between women with a positive or negative family history. Conclusion: We have shown that a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer is not associated with an adverse outcome for women treated with breast conservation therapy for DCIS. Local recurrence, cause-specific survival, overall survival, cosmesis, and complication rates were comparable to that of similarly treated women with

  12. Ten-year results of treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast with conservative surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Richetti, A; Zini, G; Rigon, A; Antonello, M; Arcicasa, M; Coghetto, F; Valdagni, R; Maluta, S; Di Marco, A

    1997-09-01

    The optimal treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has not yet been established. The effectiveness of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy after conservative surgery is debated. Few data are available in Italy on the combined treatment. A collaborative multi-institutional study on this issue in 10 radiation oncology departments of the north-east of Italy was conducted. One hundred and thirty nine women with DCIS of the breast were treated between 1980 and 1990. Age ranged between 28 and 88 years (median 50 years). Surgical procedures were: quadrantectomy in 108, lumpectomy in 22 and wide excision in 9 cases. The axilla was surgically staged in 97 cases: all the patients were node-negative. Radiation therapy was delivered with 60Co units (78%) or 6 MV linear accelerators (22%) for a median total dose to the entire breast of 50 Gy (mean 49.48 Gy; range 45-60 Gy). The tumour bed was boosted in 109 cases (78%) at a dose of 4-30 Gy (median 10 Gy) for a minimum tumour dose of 58 Gy. Median follow-up was 81 months. Thirteen local recurrences were recorded, 7 intraductal and 6 invasive. All recurrent patients had a salvage mastectomy and are alive and free of disease. Actuarial overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival at 10 years are of 93%, 100% and 86%, respectively. The results of this retrospective multicentric study substantiate the favourable data reported in the literature and confirm the efficacy of the breast-conserving treatment of DCIS employing conservative surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy.

  13. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  14. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  15. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation Assessment... Mexico Ecological Services Field Office, 2105 Osuna NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113; by telephone at 505-761... guided by the 1982 Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1982) (recovery plan...

  16. Large-scale patterns of plant diversity and conservation priorities in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, S.T.; Brummitt, N.A.; Kok, de R.P.J.; Utteridge, T.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a complete floristic inventory, conservation priorities within South East Asia must often be based on incomplete knowledge or a rough approximation of diversity such as habitat cover. To help overcome this, a database containing distribution data for all 3 523 known flowering plant

  17. Climate change as an ecosystem architect: implications to rare plant ecology, conservation, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in earth system sciences have revealed significant new information relevant to rare plant ecology and conservation. Analysis of climate change at high resolution with new and precise proxies of paleotemperatures reveals a picture over the past two million years of oscillatory climate change operating simultaneously at multiple timescales. Low-frequency...

  18. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S. [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, I-06121 (Italy); Monarca, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Moretti, M., E-mail: massimo.moretti@unipg.i [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  19. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  20. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  1. Water conservation by 3 R's - case histories of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Hiremath, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    The basics of water conservation revolve around three R's of Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse. The Heavy Water Plants are an excellent example of water savings, and these case studies will be of interest to the chemical industry. The issues involved with water conservation and re-use in different Heavy Water Plants are of different nature. In H 2 S-H 2 O process plants the water consumption has been substantially decreased as compared to the design water needs. To quote the figures HWP (Kota) was designed to consume 2280 m 3 /hr water, which included 453 m 3 /hr water as feed for deuterium extraction. Today the plant operates with only 1250 m 3 /hr water while processing 500 m 3 /hr feed; and is headed to decrease the total water consumption to 700 m 3 /hr. Similarly at HWP (Manuguru) the design had provided 5600 m 3 /hr water consumption, which is today operating with only 1750 m 3 /hr and poised to operate with 1600 m 3 /hr. The issues of water conservation in Ammonia Hydrogen exchange plants have an additional dimension since water losses mean direct loss of heavy water production. In adjoining ammonia plants deuterium shifts to steam in the reformer and shift converter, and this excess steam is condensed as rich condensate. It becomes incumbent on the fertilizer plant to maintain a tight discipline for conserving and re-using the rich condensate so that deuterium concentration in the synthesis gas is maintained. Efforts are also underway to utilize rich condensate of GSFC in the newly developed technology of water ammonia exchange at HWP (Baroda) and we are targeting 20% production gains by implementation of this scheme and with no increase in the pollution load. These case histories will be of interest to Chemical Process Industry. (author)

  2. Preservation of cosmesis with low complication risk after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Janete M.; Schultz, Delray J.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the clinical outcome after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy has been well documented, little data has been reported on cosmetic outcome or treatment complications. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate cosmesis and complications after breast-conservation treatment for DCIS and to analyze various factors that might affect cosmesis and predispose to complications. Methods and Materials: The records of 90 patients who were alive without evidence of disease with a 3-year minimum follow-up were evaluated for cosmetic results and treatment complications following breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy for DCIS. Complete gross excision of the primary tumor had been performed in all patients. Additionally, 24 patients had undergone an axillary lymph node dissection in the earlier years of the study. The majority of the patients had received 50-50.4 Gy to the whole breast followed by an electron boost for a total dose of 60-66 Gy. Results: The cosmetic results of 90 evaluable patients at 3 years were: excellent in 69 (77%), good in 19 (21%), and fair in 2 (2%). The cosmetic results of 64 evaluable patients at 5 years were: excellent in 46 (72%), good in 16 (25%), and fair in 2 (3%). Factors associated with worse cosmetic results were an increased volume of tissue excised (>70 cm 3 ) and a negative ipsilateral breast biopsy after radiotherapy. Complications in the 24 patients with an axillary dissection were: arm edema (n = 6), cellulitis of the arm (n = 5), and axillary vein thrombosis (n = 1). Complications in the 66 patients without an axillary dissection were: cellulitis of the arm (n = 1) and cellulitis of the breast (n = 1). Discussion: Breast-conservation surgery followed by radiation therapy achieved excellent or good cosmetic results in 98 and 97% of patients at 3 years and 5 years, respectively. Complications were associated primarily with axillary

  3. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jon McIlroy

    Full Text Available An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized.

  4. Hyperspectral and in situ data fusion for the steering of plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    Plant production systems are governed by biotic and a-biotic factors and by management practices. Some of the relevant parameters have already been identified and incorporated as inputs into existing models for production assessment, early-warning, and process management. These parameters originate nowadays primarily from in-situ measurements and observations. Non-invasive remotely sensed data, the diagnostic tools of excellence where it concerns the interaction of solar energy with biomass, have seldom been included and if so, mostly to support yield assessment and harvest monitoring only. The availability of new-generation hyperspectral/hypertemporal signatures will greatly facilitate their integration into full-fledged plant production model either via direct use, forcing, assimilation or re-initialization strategies. The main objective of IS-HS (Integration of In Situ data and HyperSpectral remote sensing for plant production modeling) is to set up a multidisciplinary research platform to deepen our system understanding and to develop production-oriented schemes to steer capital-intensive vegetation scenarios. Real-time steering in a 10-15 year timeframe is envisaged, where current system state is monitored, and steered towards an ideal state in terms of production quantity and quality. IS-HS focuses on hyperspectral sensor design, time series analysis tools for remote sensing data of vegetation systems, on the establishment of two stream communication between satellite and ground sensors, on the development of citrus plant production systems, and on the design of in-situ data sensor networks. The general framework of this system approach will be presented. In time, this integration should allow to cross the bridge from post-harvest assessment to near real-time potential and actual yield monitoring in terms of crop.

  5. Assessing shortfalls and complementary conservation areas for national plant biodiversity in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Huber, Patrick R; Lee, Dongkun; Quinn, James F

    2018-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are often considered the most important biodiversity conservation areas in national plans, but PAs often do not represent national-scale biodiversity. We evaluate the current conservation status of plant biodiversity within current existing PAs, and identify potential additional PAs for South Korea. We modeled species ranges for 2,297 plant species using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines and compared the level of mean range representation in South Korea's existing PAs, which comprise 5.7% of the country's mainland area, with an equal-area alternative PA strategy selected with the reserve algorithm Marxan. We also used Marxan to model two additional conservation scenarios that add lands to approach the Aichi Biodiversity Target objectives (17% of the country). Existing PAs in South Korea contain an average of 6.3% of each plant species' range, compared to 5.9% in the modeled equal-area alternative. However, existing PAs primarily represent a high percentage of the ranges for high-elevation and small range size species. The additional PAs scenario that adds lands to the existing PAs covers 14,587.55 km2, and would improve overall plant range representation to a mean of 16.8% of every species' range. The other additional PAs scenario, which selects new PAs from all lands and covers 13,197.35 km2, would improve overall plant range representation to a mean of 13.5%. Even though the additional PAs that includes existing PAs represents higher percentages of species' ranges, it is missing many biodiversity hotspots in non-mountainous areas and the additional PAs without locking in the existing PAs represent almost all species' ranges evenly, including low-elevation ones with larger ranges. Some priority conservation areas we identified are expansions of, or near, existing PAs, especially in northeastern and southern South Korea. However, lowland coastal areas and areas surrounding the capital city, Seoul, are also critical for biodiversity

  6. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  7. Results of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, B.; Hanlon, A.L.; Fein, D.A.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Patchefsky, A.; Kessler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The role of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected DCIS is controversial. In particular, there is a paucity of data for outcome with radiation in a group of patients comparable to those treated with local excision and surveillance (mammographically detected DCIS ≤2.5 cm, negative resection margins, negative post-biopsy mammogram). The purpose of this study is to report long term outcome of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected DCIS with emphasis on the results in patients (pts.) considered candidates for excision alone. Materials and Methods: From 1983 to 1992, 110 women with mammographically detected DCIS (calcifications 72%, mass ± calcifications 27%) and no prior history of breast cancer underwent needle localization biopsy followed by radiation. The median age of the patient population was 56 yrs. (range 37-81). The median followup was 5.3 yrs. (range .5-12). Re-excision was performed in 55%. Final margins of resection were negative in 62%, positive 7%, close 11%, and unknown 20%. Axillary dissection was performed in 31 pts. and all had negative nodes. 31% had a positive family history of breast cancer (1 affected relative-25 pts., two-7 pts., three-2 pts.). The most common predominant histologic subtype was comedo (54%) followed by cribriform (22%). The median pathologic tumor size was 8 mm (range 2 mm to 5 cm). A post-biopsy mammogram prior to radiation was performed in 46% of the patients. Radiation consisted of treatment to the entire breast (median 5000 cGy) with a boost to the primary site (97%) of an additional 1000 cGy. The median total dose to the primary site was 6040 cGy (range 5000 to 6660). Results: Three patients developed a recurrence in the treated breast at 52, 106, and 107 months. All 3 recurrences were invasive ductal cancers and all were treated with mastectomy. The location of the recurrence was in the same quadrant as the primary in 1 pt. and in a separate quadrant in 2 pts

  8. In situ calibration of nuclear plant resistance thermometers using Johnson noise. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Roberts, M.J.; Shepard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Methods have been demonstrated in operating nuclear plants for the in situ calibration of resistance thermometers with agreement between measured noise temperatures and dc calibration temperatures well within these required by the plant. A comparison of the results of Johnson noise power testing results and uncertainties, the requirements for accuracy, and PRT calibration tolerances is shown. The methods use Johnson noise measurements and provide an absolute calibration independent of the prior dc calibration. The methods include techniques for characterization of the installed extension cables and the quantitative determination of induced EMI and its effect on the calibration. The techniques are applicable to ordinary 4-wire platinum resistance thermometers operating over their entire design temperature range and to extension cables of about 100 ft length. Careful attention needs to be paid to the choice or cables, location of terminal boxes, and grounding and shielding practices in the plant installation to achieve comparable results

  9. San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Rare Plant Monitoring Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlik, Bruce M.; Rebman, Jon; Sutter, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the south part of San Diego County, under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 (California Department of Fish and Game) and the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1531-1544.) The Program is on the leading edge of conservation, as it seeks to both guide development and conserve at-risk species with the oversight of both State and Federal agencies. Lands were identified for inclusion in the MSCP based on their value as habitat for at-risk plants or plant communities (Natural Community Conservation Planning, 2005). Since its inception in the mid-1990s the Program has protected over 100,000 acres, involving 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in the conservation of 87 taxa. Surveys for covered species have been conducted, and management and monitoring have been implemented at some high priority sites. Each jurisdiction or agency manages and monitors their conservation areas independently, while collaborating regionally for long-term protection. The San Diego MSCP is on the forefront of conservation, in one of the most rapidly growing urban areas of the country. The planning effort that developed the MSCP was state-of-the-art, using expert knowledge, spatial habitat modeling, and principles of preserve design to identify and prioritize areas for protection. Land acquisition and protection are ahead of schedule for most jurisdictions. Surveys have verified the locations of many rare plant populations known from earlier collections, and they provide general information on population size and health useful for further conservation planning. Management plans have been written or are in development for most MSCP parcels under jurisdictional control. Several agencies are developing databases for implementation

  10. Conservation of lily plants. Energy conservation by decreasing circulation; Bewaring van lelieplantgoed. Energiebesparing door vermindering van de circulatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J.; Gude, H. Sector Bloembollen, Bomen en Fruit, Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Lisse (Netherlands)); Braam, G.; Vasen, R.; Van Diepen, G. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    By far the most important energy consuming aspect in cultivating lilies is the use of electricity for refrigeration and circulation during storage in the period November until April. The aim of this study is to arrive at standards for refrigeration and ventilation that result in maximum energy conservation without affecting the quality of the lily plants. As for reduced circulation, a comparison has also been made of the on/off control and the frequency control [Dutch] De veruit belangrijkste energiepost bij de teelt van lelies is het verbruik van elektriciteit voor koeling en circulatie tijdens de bewaring van november t/m april. Doel van dit onderzoek is om voor circulatie en ventilatie tot normen te komen waarmee maximaal op energie wordt bespaard zonder dat dit ten koste gaat van de kwaliteit van het lelieplantgoed. Voor de verminderde circulatie is hierbij ook een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de aan/uit regeling en de frequentieregeling.

  11. The integrated in situ testing program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.

    1987-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project in southeastern New Mexico as a research and development (R and D) facility for examining the response of bedded (layered) salt to the emplacement of radioactive wastes generated from defense programs. The WIPP Experimental Program consists of a technology development program, including laboratory testing and theoretical analysis activities, and an in situ testing program that is being done 659 m underground at the project site. This experimental program addresses three major technical areas that concern (1) thermal/structural interactions, (2) plugging and sealing, and (3) waste package performance. To ensure that the technical issues involved in these areas are investigated with appropriate emphasis and timing, an in situ testing plan was developed to integrate the many activities and tasks associated with the technical issues of waste disposal. 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  13. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo

    2011-12-06

    The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1) variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2) changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3) ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per

  14. The context and development of a global framework for plant conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter Wyse; Sharrock, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    A new international initiative for plant conservation was first called for as a resolution of the International Botanical Congress in 1999. The natural home for such an initiative was considered to be the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the CBD agreed to consider a Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) at its 5th meeting in 2000. It was proposed that the GSPC could provide an innovative model approach for target setting within the CBD and, prior to COP5, a series of inter-sessional papers on proposed targets and their justification were developed by plant conservation experts. Key factors that ensured the adoption of the GSPC by the CBD in 2002 included: (1) ensuring that prior to and during COP5, key Parties in each region were supportive of the Strategy; (2) setting targets at the global level and not attempting to impose these nationally; and (3) the offer by Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) to support a GSPC position in the CBD Secretariat for 3 years, which provided a clear indication of the support for the GSPC from non-governmental organizations (NGO).

  15. Identification of Bottlenecks in the Plant Life Cycle for Sustainable Conservation of Rare and Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Aronne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term survival of a species relies on maintenance of genetic variability and natural selection by means of successful reproduction and generation turnover. Although, basic to monitor the conservation status of a plant species, life history data are rarely available even for threatened species due to the gap between the large amount of information required and the limits in terms of time and available economic resources to gather these data. Here, the focus on bottlenecks in life-cycle of rare endangered plant species is proposed as a resolving approach to address the challenges of feasible conservation actions. Basic considerations for this approach are: (a all biological and ecological studies on plant species can be scientifically important, but not all of them are equally relevant to conservation planning and management requirements; (b under a changing environment, long term survival of a species relies on generation turnover; (c for conservation purposes, priority should be given to studies aimed to focus on bottlenecks in the succession of generations because they prevent, or slow down natural selection processes. The proposed procedure, named Systematic Hazard Analysis of Rare-endangered Plants (SHARP, consists of a preliminary survey of the already available information on the species and two main components. The first component is the identification of the bottlenecks in the life cycle by means of field surveys. The second is the diagnosis of the causes of the bottleneck by appropriate experimental methods. The target is to provide researchers, managers and practitioners with substantiated indications for sustainable conservation measures.

  16. Quality of life in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Arcicasa, M; Roncadin, M; Lora, O; Rigon, A; Zini, G; Armaroli, L; Coghetto, F; Zorat, P; Neri, S; Teodorani, N

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QL) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation. A self-completed questionnaire covering many disease-, symptom-, and treatment-specific issues was administered to 106 conservatively treated patients affected by non-infiltrating breast cancer. The questionnaire was based on a series of 34 items assessing five main fields of post-treatment adjustment: physical well being, sexual adaptation, aesthetic outcome, emotional/psychological well being, relational behaviour. Furthermore, the patients were requested to evaluate the degree of information provided by the medical staff concerning surgical procedures and radiation therapy, and to evaluate the effects of the treatment on their social and overall life. The questionnaire was completed by 83 patients (78%), who had a median follow-up of 54.5 months. This final sample had a median age of 50 years (range 29-88) at the time of treatment and 54 years (range 32-94) at the time of study. The patients claimed to be in good physical condition. Data relating to sexual life were provided by 93% of the sample. Some limitations in sexuality, some interference with sexual desire, and some modifications during intercourse were reported by 5, 6, and 5 patients, respectively. The subjective evaluations of the cosmetic results of the therapies were generally good. Only 13 patients (16%) reported the perception of a worsened body image. Forty-six percent of the sample (38 patients) declared that they felt tense, 48% (39 patients) nervous, 29% (38 patients) lonely, 59% (41 patients) anxious, and 41% (34 patients) depressed. Only seven patients (8%) declared that the treatment had had a bad effect on their social life, and 15 (18%) thought that their current life had been affected by the treatment. The amount of information received concerning the disease and treatment (surgery and radiotherapy) was considered sufficient by 79

  17. Detection of Methylobacterium radiotolerans IMBG290 in potato plants by in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirttila A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new bacterial strain of pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph (M. radiotolerans IMBG290 which was previously isolated from in vitro grown potato plantlets after their inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens IMBG163 was detected in tissues by in situ hybridization method (ISH/FISH. The presence of Methylobacterium rRNA was observed in leaves and stems of potato plantlets, whereas no signal was detected in potato roots. The signal was less abundant in the untreated plants than in the plantlets infected with M. radiotolerans IMBG290.

  18. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  19. Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation.

  20. Conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabodh; Singh, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Three riparian plant species viz. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum bengalensis Retz. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were selected from the riparian zone of Kali river at Aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). Experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. Selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservation values for soil and water from 47.11 to 95.22% and 44.06 to 72.50%, respectively on artificial slope and from 44.53 to 95.33% and 48.36 to 73.15%, respectively on natural slope. Conservation values for phosphorus and nitrogen ranged from 40.83 to 88.89% and 59.78 to 82.22%, respectively on artificial slope and from 50.01 to 90.16% and 68.07 to 85.62%, respectively on natural slope. It was observed that Cynodon dactylon was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff.

  1. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reine, R.; Barrantes, O.; Chocarro, C.; Juarez, A.; Broca, A.; Maestro, M.; Ferrer, C.

    2014-06-01

    In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV), phyto sociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV). We identified two main types of meadows: (i) those that had more intensive management, relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii) those that had less intensive management, distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in other forbs, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that other forbs have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood. (Author)

  2. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Reiné

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV, phytosociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV. We identified two main types of meadows: (i those that had “more intensive management,” relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii those that had “less intensive management,” distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in “other forbs”, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that “other forbs” have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood.

  3. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  4. Intraspecific chromosome number variation: a neglected threat to the conservation of rare plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M; Liston, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    The effectiveness of rare plant conservation will increase when life history, demographic, and genetic data are considered simultaneously. Inbreeding depression is a widely recognized genetic concern in rare plant conservation, and the mixing of genetically diverse populations in restoration efforts is a common remedy. Nevertheless, if populations with unrecognized intraspecific chromosome variation are crossed, progeny fitness losses will range from partial to complete sterility, and reintroductions and population augmentation of rare plants may fail. To assess the current state of cytological knowledge of threatened and endangered plants in the continental United States, we searched available resources for chromosome counts. We also reviewed recovery plans to discern whether recovery criteria potentially place listed species at risk by requiring reintroductions or population augmentation in the absence of cytological information. Over half the plants lacked a chromosome count, and when a taxon did have a count it generally originated from a sampling intensity too limited to detect intraspecific chromosome variation. Despite limited past cytological sampling, we found 11 plants with documented intraspecific cytological variation, while 8 others were ambiguous for intraspecific chromosome variation. Nevertheless, only one recovery plan addressed the chromosome differences. Inadequate within-species cytological characterization, incomplete sampling among listed taxa, and the prevalence of interspecific and intraspecific chromosome variation in listed genera, suggests that other rare plants are likely to have intraspecific chromosome variation. Nearly 90% of all recovery plans called for reintroductions or population augmentation as part of recovery criteria despite the dearth of cytological knowledge. We recommend screening rare plants for intraspecific chromosome variation before reintroductions or population augmentation projects are undertaken to safeguard

  5. The Conservation Efforts of Wood Apple, An Identity Plant of Rembang Regency, Based on Ethnobotany Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feronia limonia (L. Swingle better known as wood apple is an identity plant of Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. However, the population is very limited. In order to identify the conservation efforts, this ethnobotany study was aimed to determine traditional knowledge on the existence, economic value, utility, breeding technique and conservation of wood apple. The survey was conducted on a total of 102 local people from 10 sub-districts which were determined by proportionally stratified random sampling. Data were collected by questionnaires and individual interviews and then were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that all of respondents knew the figure of wood apple, but only 79.50% understood its status as an identity plant. Most of respondents (96% stated that the fruits have low economic value, 80.39% respondents have utilized ripe fruit as ingredients of beverages and stems as firewood. This utilization was only equal to 29.72% compared to the potential usability based on research results. It was concluded that the traditional knowledge about the existence, economic value, and breeding technique were good and on the contrary, the knowledge about the plant’s usability was bad. The results will form a basic knowledge for in-depth studies to provide a government policy of Rembang Regency in order to develop an efficient strategy of management and conservation of wood apple as plant identity.

  6. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  7. Breast-conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: the French Cancer Centers' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, Bruno; Cohen-Solal-le Nir, Christine; Lafontan, Brigitte de; Mignotte, Herve; Fichet, Virginie; Fay, Renaud; Servent, Veronique; Giard, Sylvia; Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Lemanski, Claire; Auvray, Hugues; Jacquot, Stephane; Charpentier, Jean-Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term outcome for women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated in current clinical practice by conservative surgery with or without definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 705 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ treated between 1985 and 1995 in nine French regional cancer centers; 515 underwent conservative surgery and radiotherapy (CS+RT) and 190 CS alone. The median follow-up was 7 years. Results: The 7-year crude local recurrence (LR) rate was 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4-15.8) and 32.4% (95% CI 25-39.7) for the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively (p<0.0001). The respective 10-year results were 18.2% (95% CI 13.3-23) and 43.8% (95% CI 30-57.7). A total of 125 LRs occurred, 66 and 59 in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively. Invasive or microinvasive LRs occurred in 60.6% and 52% of the cases in the same respective groups. The median time to LR development was 55 and 41 months. Nine (1.7%) and 6 (3.1%) nodal recurrences occurred in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively. Distant metastases occurred in 1.4% and 3% of the respective groups. Patient age and excision quality (final margin status) were both significantly associated with LR risk in the CS+RT group: the LR rate was 29%, 13%, and 8% among women aged ≤40, 41-60, and ≥61 years (p<0.001). Even in the case of complete excision, we observed a 24% rate of LR (6 of 25) in women <40 years. Patients with negative, positive, or uncertain margins had a 7-year crude LR rate of 9.7%, 25.2%, and 12.2%, respectively (p=0.008). RT reduced the LR rate in all subgroups, especially in those with comedocarcinoma (17% vs. 59% in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively, p<0.0001) and mixed cribriform/papillary tumors (9% vs. 31%, p<0.0001). In the multivariate Cox regression model, young age and positive margins remained significant in the CS+RT group (p=0.00012 and p=0.016). Finally, the relative LR risk in the CS+RT group compared with the CS group

  8. Cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy following conservative surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, W. Warren; Hillner, Bruce E.; Pierce, Lori J.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and materials: A Markov model was constructed for a theoretical cohort of 55-year-old women with DCIS over a life-time horizon. Probability estimates for local noninvasive (N-INV), local invasive (INV), and distant recurrences were obtained from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-17. Utilities for eight nonmetastatic health states were collected from both healthy women and DCIS patients. Direct medical (2002 Medicare fee schedule) and nonmedical costs (time and transportation) of RT were ascertained. Results: For BCS + RT vs. BCS alone, the estimated N-INV and INV rates at 12 years were 9% and 8% vs. 16% and 18%, respectively. The incremental cost of adding RT was $3300 despite an initial RT cost of $8700 due to higher local recurrence-related salvage costs incurred with the BCS alone strategy. An increase of 0.09 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) primarily reflected the lower risk of INV with RT, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $36,700/QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed the ICER to be affected by baseline probability of a local recurrence, relative efficacy of RT in preventing INV, negative impact of an INV on quality of life, and cost of initial RT. Cost of salvage BCS + RT and source of utilities (healthy women vs. DCIS patients) influenced the ICER albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions: Addition of RT following BCS for patients with DCIS should not be withheld because of concerns regarding its cost-effectiveness

  9. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fuh Yong, E-mail: fuhyong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Fuqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Chen, John Ju [Department of Cancer Informatics, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Chiew Har [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Puay Hoon [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation.

  10. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fuh Yong; Wang, Fuqiang; Chen, John Ju; Tan, Chiew Har; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation

  11. Conserved Responses in a War of Small Molecules between a Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, Joseph E; Wiemann, Philipp; Baccile, Joshua A; Venkatesh, Nandhitha; Schumacher, Julia; Schroeder, Frank C; Sanchez, Laura M; Keller, Nancy P

    2018-05-22

    Small-molecule signaling is one major mode of communication within the polymicrobial consortium of soil and rhizosphere. While microbial secondary metabolite (SM) production and responses of individual species have been studied extensively, little is known about potentially conserved roles of SM signals in multilayered symbiotic or antagonistic relationships. Here, we characterize the SM-mediated interaction between the plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the two plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium fujikuroi and Botrytis cinerea We show that cellular differentiation and SM biosynthesis in F. fujikuroi are induced by the bacterially produced lipopeptide ralsolamycin (synonym ralstonin A). In particular, fungal bikaverin production is induced and preferentially accumulates in fungal survival spores (chlamydospores) only when exposed to supernatants of ralsolamycin-producing strains of R. solanacearum Although inactivation of bikaverin biosynthesis moderately increases chlamydospore invasion by R. solanacearum , we show that other metabolites such as beauvericin are also induced by ralsolamycin and contribute to suppression of R. solanacearum growth in vitro Based on our findings that bikaverin antagonizes R. solanacearum and that ralsolamycin induces bikaverin biosynthesis in F. fujikuroi , we asked whether other bikaverin-producing fungi show similar responses to ralsolamycin. Examining a strain of B. cinerea that horizontally acquired the bikaverin gene cluster from Fusarium , we found that ralsolamycin induced bikaverin biosynthesis in this fungus. Our results suggest that conservation of microbial SM responses across distantly related fungi may arise from horizontal transfer of protective gene clusters that are activated by conserved regulatory cues, e.g., a bacterial lipopeptide, providing consistent fitness advantages in dynamic polymicrobial networks. IMPORTANCE Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous neighbors in many environments, including

  12. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  13. Efforts on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, and perhaps as early as Neanderthal man, people have used plants as medicine. Evidence indicates that people used plants to cure themselves, e.g. Chinese Emperor (2800 BC); Babylon (1770 BC); Ancient Egypt (1550 BC). Islamic and Indian physicians also wrote many works prior to 1100 AD and the Seals from the Harappan site in Pakistan (2000 BC) also indicate use of plants. New aspects of medicinal plants need to be studied. For example, we should address the question w hy plant diversity declines, when plants with weedy traits become more abundant . This is consequently followed by, species that have traits permitting their persistence in degraded and species-poor cosystems which are likely to carry high pathogen and vector burdens. Indigenous communities of Pakistan play a vital role in conservation of medicinal plants. Intentionally or unintentionally, people have evolved strategies for doing so in the form of rituals, beliefs and taboos. Various traditional harvesting methods described in one of the study suggest that they were efficient to utilize the natural resources. Our efforts are towards not only providing food security, nutrition and health care to the tribal people, but also to recover, record and diffuse local botanical knowledge and wisdom. (author)

  14. Field demonstration of ex situ biological treatability of contaminated groundwater at the Strachan gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Stepan, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-phase study was conducted to deal with the issues of groundwater and soil contamination by sour gas processing plants in Alberta. Phase One consisted of a review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Canadian Clean Water Act. The current phase involves the development, evaluation and demonstration of selected remediation technologies to address subsurface contamination of sediments and groundwater at sour gas treatment plants with special attention to the presence of natural gas condensate in the subsurface. Results are presented from a pilot-scale biological treatability test that was performed at the Gulf Strachan Natural Gas Processing Plant in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, where contaminated groundwater from the plant was being pumped to the surface through many recovery wells to control contaminant migration. The recovered groundwater was directed to a pump-and-treat system that consisted of oil-water separation, iron removal, hardness removal, and air stripping, before being reinjected. The pilot-scale biological treatability testing was conducted to evaluate process stability in treating groundwater without pretreatment for iron and hardness reduction and to evaluate the removal of organic contaminants. Results of a groundwater characterization analysis are discussed. Chemical characteristics of the groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant showed that an ex situ remediation technology would address the dissolved volatile and semi-volatile organic contamination from natural gas condensates, as well as the nitrogenous compounds resulting from the use of amine-based process chemicals. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of the rare and threatened plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Bekim; Abdullai, Kasamedin; Sota, Valbona; Kongjika, Efigjeni

    2015-01-01

    Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae are rare and endemo relict plant species from Balkan Peninsula. An efficient micro propagation and in vitro conservation method via direct and indirect organogenesis from seed and leaf explants, respectively, was established in this study. The seed of both Ramonda species were collected from different populations in Kosovo, and were germinated in nutrient media JG-B without any phytohormone. The highest number of shoots and multiplication rate was observed on JG-B medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (0.5 mg l(-1) each), whereas the highest number of leaves per plantlets was found on WPM and RA medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each). During this stage of micro propagation some significant differences were observed in plantlets from different populations. The indirect organogenesis from parts of leaves of natural plants was not successful due to unavailability of established protocol for disinfections of the plant material. On other hand, parts of leaves from micro propagated plantlets, cultured on MS medium supplemented with different ratio of BAP and NAA, resulted in the highest efficiency for shoot regeneration. In vitro conservation of micro propagated plants at the lower temperature (4 °C) had a significantly positive effect for storage of more than 12 months.

  16. Rational sub-division of plant trypanosomes (Phytomonas spp.) based on minicircle conserved region analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Nancy R; Dollet, Michel; Lukes, Julius; Campbell, David A

    2007-09-01

    The sequences of minicircle conserved regions from various plant trypanosomatids have been determined and analyzed. The goal of this study was to add another tool to the arsenal of molecular probes for distinguishing between the different trypanosomatids occurring in plants: systemic trypanosomatids multiplying in the sap, those from the laticiferous tubes, and those developing in fruits, seeds or flowers but not in the plant itself and that are frequently considered as opportunistic insect trypanosomatids. As some plant intraphloemic trypanosomatids are the causative agents of important diseases, a clear definition of the different types of trypanosomatids is critical. The conserved region of the mitochondrial minicircle provides several specific features in a small sequence region containing three functionally elements required for minicircle replication. Trees generated from the analysis recapitulated trees drawn from analyses of isoenzymes, RAPD, and particular gene sequences, supporting the validity of the small region used in this work. Three groups of isolates were significant and in accordance with previous work. The peculiarity of phloem-restricted trypanosomatids associated with wilts of coconut and oil palm in Latin America - group H - is confirmed. In agreement with previous studies on their biological and serological properties the results highlighted this group called 'phloemicola'. It always differentiated from all other latex and fruit isolates or opportunistic trypanosomatids, like insect trypanosomatids. We can assert that phloemicola is the only well-defined taxon among all plant trypanosomatids. A group of non-pathogenic latex isolates from South American euphorbs (G), and a heterogenous group (A) including one fruit, one possible latex and one insect isolate are clearly distinct groups. The group of Mediterranean isolates from latex (D), even with a low boostrap, stood out well from other groups. The remainder of the isolates fell into a

  17. Microreactor System Design for a NASA In Situ Propellant Production Plant on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeGrotenhuis, W. E.; Wegeng, R. S.; Vanderwiel, D. P.; Whyatt, G. A.; Viswanathan, V. V.; Schielke, K. P.; Sanders, G. B.; Peters, T. A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program is planning near-term missions to Mars that will include chemical processes for converting the carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly water from the Martian environment to propellants, oxygen, and other useful chemicals. The use of indigenous resources reduces the size and weight of the payloads from Earth significantly, representing enormous cost savings that make human exploration of Mars affordable. Extraterrestrial chemical processing plants will need to be compact, lightweight, highly efficient under reduced gravity, and extraordinarily reliable for long periods. Microchemical and thermal systems represent capability for dramatic reduction in size and weight, while offering high reliability through massive parallelization. In situ propellant production (ISPP), one aspect of the ISRU program, involves collecting and pressurizing atmospheric CO2, conversion reactions, chemical separations, heat exchangers, and cryogenic storage. A preliminary system design of an ISPP plant based on microtechnology has demonstrated significant size, weight, and energy efficiency gains over the current NASA baseline. Energy management is a strong driver for Mars-based processes, not only because energy is a scarce resource, but because heat rejection is problematic; the low pressure environment makes convective heat transfer ineffective. Energy efficiency gains are largely achieved in the microchemical plant through extensive heat recuperation and energy cascading, which has a small size and weight penalty because the added micro heat exchangers are small. This leads to additional size and weight gains by reducing the required area of waste heat radiators. The microtechnology-based ISPP plant is described in detail, including aspects of pinch analysis for optimizing the heat exchanger network. Three options for thermochemical compression Of CO2 from the Martian atmosphere, adsorption, absorption, and cryogenic freezing, are presented

  18. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, E.S.; Pickert, R.; Dolan, R.W.; Yahr, R.; Gordon, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri), we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL), to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  20. Energy audit and conservation opportunities for pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, G.; Abubakar, A.I.; El-Nafaty, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement production process has been highly energy and cost intensive. The cement plant requires 8784 h per year of the total operating hours to produce 640,809 tonnes of clinker. To achieve effective and efficient energy management scheme, thermal energy audit analysis was employed on the pyroprocessing unit of the cement plant. Fuel combustion generates the bulk of the thermal energy for the process, amounting to 95.48% (4164.02 kJ/kg cl ) of the total thermal energy input. Thermal efficiency of the unit stands at 41%, below 50-54% achieved in modern plants. The exhaust gases and kiln shell heat energy losses are in significant quantity, amounting to 27.9% and 11.97% of the total heat input respectively. To enhance the energy performance of the unit, heat losses conservation systems are considered. Waste heat recovery steam generator (WHRSG) and Secondary kiln shell were studied. Power and thermal energy savings of 42.88 MWh/year and 5.30 MW can be achieved respectively. Financial benefits for use of the conservation methods are substantial. Environmental benefit of 14.10% reduction in Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions could be achieved.

  1. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered species richness and abundance, taxonomic distinctness and species composition, using both old and new analytical approaches. Results have shown how: (1 the forest type dominated by Fagus sylvatica is characterized by high complexity, with marked compositional, structural and biodiversity differences; (2 beech forests of Pigelleto di Piancastagnaio and Valle della Corte show the highest plants diversity values. The ecological characteristics of these areas, which sustain high diversity values, are unique and of great conservation interest; (3 the use of species richness as the only diversity measure have not allowed an efficient differentiation between studied areas. Indeed, the use of different indexes and analytical methods is required to detect multiple characteristics of biological diversity, as well as to carry out efficient biodiversity surveys aimed to develop optimal conservation strategies. In the future, we plan to apply the sampling methodology and the analytical approach used in this paper to characterize plants diversity of similar forest types.

  2. Energy audit and conservation opportunities for pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, G.; Abubakar, A.I.; El-Nafaty, U.A. [Chemical Engineering Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P. M. B. 0248, Bauchi (Nigeria)

    2010-03-15

    Cement production process has been highly energy and cost intensive. The cement plant requires 8784 h per year of the total operating hours to produce 640,809 tonnes of clinker. To achieve effective and efficient energy management scheme, thermal energy audit analysis was employed on the pyroprocessing unit of the cement plant. Fuel combustion generates the bulk of the thermal energy for the process, amounting to 95.48% (4164.02 kJ/kg{sub cl}) of the total thermal energy input. Thermal efficiency of the unit stands at 41%, below 50-54% achieved in modern plants. The exhaust gases and kiln shell heat energy losses are in significant quantity, amounting to 27.9% and 11.97% of the total heat input respectively. To enhance the energy performance of the unit, heat losses conservation systems are considered. Waste heat recovery steam generator (WHRSG) and Secondary kiln shell were studied. Power and thermal energy savings of 42.88 MWh/year and 5.30 MW can be achieved respectively. Financial benefits for use of the conservation methods are substantial. Environmental benefit of 14.10% reduction in Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions could be achieved. (author)

  3. Prognostic Significance of Clinicopathologic Features in Patients With Breast Ductal Carcinoma-in-Situ Who Received Breast-Conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Lo, Chiao; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lien, Huang-Chun; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Chiun-Sheng

    2018-04-10

    To identify whether a certain group of breast ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) patients can be treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) alone; to analyze the clinicopathologic features of DCIS and tamoxifen administration in patients treated with BCS who developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Data for 375 women with breast DCIS who underwent BCS at our institute between June 2003 and October 2010 were analyzed. The patients were divided into different categories according to the recurrence risk predicted using the California/Van Nuys Prognostic Index (USC/VNPI) score (4-6, 7-9, and 10-12), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) E5194 criteria, or combined risk features with USC/VNPI score and ECOG E5194 criteria. The IBTR and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic effects of age, tumor size, tumor grade, margin width, estrogen receptor status, USC/VNPI score, low-risk characteristics, and tamoxifen use were evaluated by log-rank tests. Of the patients, 168 were treated with breast irradiation after BCS and 207 were not. The patients who were treated with radiotherapy (RT) tended to be younger (USC/VNPI scores (7-9), and to meet the ECOG E5194 non-cohort 1 criteria. The 7-year risk of IBTR was 6.2% (n = 11) in the patients who received irradiation and 9.0% (n = 22) in those who did not. DFS rates were better in the patients who underwent RT than in those who did not (93.3% vs. 88.5%, P = .056). Among the patients who underwent BCS alone, age ≥ 40 years, margin width > 10 mm, USC/VNPI scores 4-6, ECOG E5194 cohort 1 criteria, estrogen receptor-positive status, and tamoxifen use predicted lower IBTR and better DFS rates. In the multivariate analysis, combined low-risk characteristics (USC/VNPI scores 4-6 and meeting the ECOG E5194 cohort 1 criteria) were identified as an independent prognostic factor of lower IBTR (P = .028) and better DFS (P = .005). RT reduces the risk of IBTR after

  4. Sustainable utilization and conservation of plant biodiversity in montane ecosystems: the western Himalayas as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Page, Sue E; Ahmad, Habib; Harper, David M

    2013-08-01

    Conservation of the unique biodiversity of mountain ecosystems needs trans-disciplinary approaches to succeed in a crowded colloquial world. Geographers, conservationists, ecologists and social scientists have, in the past, had the same conservation goals but have tended to work independently. In this review, the need to integrate different conservation criteria and methodologies is discussed. New criteria are offered for prioritizing species and habitats for conservation in montane ecosystems that combine both ecological and social data. Ecological attributes of plant species, analysed through robust community statistical packages, provide unbiased classifications of species assemblages and environmental biodiversity gradients and yield importance value indices (IVIs). Surveys of local communities' utilization of the vegetation provides use values (UVs). This review suggests a new means of assessing anthropogenic pressure on plant biodiversity at both species and community levels by integrating IVI and UV data sets in a combined analysis. Mountain ecosystems are hot spots for plant conservation efforts because they hold a high overall plant diversity as communities replace each other along altitudinal and climatic gradients, including a high proportion of endemic species. This review contributes an enhanced understanding of (1) plant diversity in mountain ecosystems with special reference to the western Himalayas; (2) ethnobotanical and ecosystem service values of mountain vegetation within the context of anthropogenic impacts; and (3) local and regional plant conservation strategies and priorities.

  5. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  6. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien S Wulff

    Full Text Available New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of "Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism" (HPNE. Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt. The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work.

  7. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  8. Selaginella moellendoffii telomeres: conserved and unique features in an ancient land plant lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Shakirov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the essential terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of G-rich DNA repeats bound by a plethora of associated proteins. While the general pathways of telomere maintenance are evolutionarily conserved, individual telomere complex components show remarkable variation between eukaryotic lineages and even within closely related species. The recent genome sequencing of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendoffii and the availability of an ever-increasing number of flowering plant genomes provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the molecular and functional evolution of telomere components from the early evolving non-seed plants to the more developmentally advanced angiosperms. Here we analyzed telomere sequence in S. moellendorffii and found it to consist of TTTAGGG repeats, typical of most plants. Telomere tracts in S. moellendorffii range from 1-5.5 kb, closely resembling Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified several S. moellendorffii genes encoding sequence homologues of proteins involved in telomere maintenance in other organisms, including CST complex components and the telomere-binding proteins POT1 and TRFL. Notable sequence similarities and differences were uncovered among the telomere-related genes in some of the plant lineages. Taken together, the data indicate that comparative analysis of the telomere complex in early diverging land plants such as S. moellendorffii and green algae will yield important insights into the evolution of telomeres and their protein constituents.

  9. Results of conservative treatment with surgery and radiation therapy of 132 non-palpable ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast; Resultats du traitement par chirurgie conservatrice et irradiation de 132 carcinomes canalaires in situ non palpables du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amalric, R.; Brandone, H.; Dubau, A.; Hans, D.; Brandone, J.M.; Robert, F.; Pollet, J.F.; Amalric, F.; Rouah, Y.; Thomassin, L.; Giraud, D.; Henric, A.; Martin, P.M.; Romain, S. [Academie mediterraneenne d`oncologie clinique, Polyclinique Clairval, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of results of treatment of 132 subclinical ductal carcinomas in situ, non-palpable. Patients were treated with limited surgery and 70 Gy radiation therapy (70 Gy). With a median follow-up of 7 years, the total recurrence rate was 6 % and the actuarial rate at 5 years 4 % and at 10 years 13 % at. These have no influence on recurrence on the specific actuarial survival rate which was 100 % at 10 years. In spite of five infiltrating recurrences of seven, no metastasis appeared 48 months after the salvage surgery. The global rate of breast. The global rate of breast preservation was 92 % at 7 years. Therapeutic indications were developed taking into account the present analysis and a literature review (2,338 in situ ductal carcinomas, palpable or not, treated with conservative surgery, with or without adjuvant radio-therapy). (author)

  10. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  11. Optimizing Conservation Strategies for a Threatened Tree Species: In Situ Conservation of White Ash (Fraxinus americana L. Genetic Diversity through Insecticide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Flower

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources face numerous threats that require costly management. Hence, there is an increasing need for data-informed strategies to guide conservation practices. The introduction of the emerald ash borer to North America has caused rapid declines in ash populations (Fraxinus spp. L.. Natural resource managers are faced with a choice of either allowing ash trees to die, risking forest degradation and reduced functional resilience, or investing in conserving trees to preserve ecosystem structure and standing genetic diversity. The information needed to guide these decisions is not always readily available. Therefore, to address this concern, we used eight microsatellites to genotype 352 white ash trees (Fraxinus americana L. across 17 populations in the Allegheny National Forest; a subset of individuals sampled are part of an insecticide treatment regimen. Genetic diversity (number of alleles and He was equivalent in treated and untreated trees, with little evidence of differentiation or inbreeding, suggesting current insecticidal treatment is conserving local, neutral genetic diversity. Using simulations, we demonstrated that best practice is treating more populations rather than more trees in fewer populations. Furthermore, through genetic screening, conservation practitioners can select highly diverse and unique populations to maximize diversity and reduce expenditures (by up to 21%. These findings will help practitioners develop cost-effective strategies to conserve genetic diversity.

  12. Bumble bee nest abundance, foraging distance, and host-plant reproduction: implications for management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Jennifer C; Strange, James P; Galenj, Candace

    2015-04-01

    Recent reports of global declines in pollinator species imply an urgent need to assess the abundance of native pollinators and density-dependent benefits for linked plants. In this study, we investigated (1) pollinator nest distributions and estimated colony abundances, (2) the relationship between abundances of foraging workers and the number of nests they represent, (3) pollinator foraging ranges, and (4) the relationship between pollinator abundance and plant reproduction. We examined these questions in an alpine ecosystem in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, focusing on four alpine bumble bee species (Bombus balteatus, B. flavifrons, B. bifarius, and B. sylvicola), and two host plants that differ in their degrees of pollinator specialization (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi). Using microsatellites, we found that estimated colony abundances among Bombus species ranged from ~18 to 78 colonies/0.01 km2. The long-tongued species B. balteatus was most common, especially high above treeline, but the subalpine species B. bifarius was unexpectedly abundant for this elevation range. Nests detected among sampled foragers of each species were correlated with the number of foragers caught. Foraging ranges were smaller than expected for all Bombus species, ranging from 25 to 110 m. Fruit set for the specialized plant, Trifolium parryi, was positively related to the abundance of its Bombus pollinator. In contrast, fruit set for the generalized plant, T. dasyphyllum, was related to abundance of all Bombus species. Because forager abundance was related to nest abundance of each Bombus species and was an equally effective predictor of plant fecundity, forager inventories are probably suitable for assessing the health of outcrossing plant populations. However, nest abundance, rather than forager abundance, better reflects demographic and genetic health in populations of eusocial pollinators such as bumble bees. Development of models incorporating the parameters we have measured

  13. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  14. In-Situ and Ex-Situ status of the Javan Gibbon and the role of zoos in conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch is confined to the last remnants of rainforest on the island of Java, Indonesia. As of 2002, the species has been recorded in 29 forest areas, and the wild population is conservatively estimated at 4100-4500 individuals. Over 95% of the gibbons are in populations of

  15. Medicinal plants at Rio Jauaperi, Brazilian Amazon: Ethnobotanical survey and environmental conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrollo, Camilo Tomazini; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Shepard, Glenn; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-06-20

    The Amazon basin is a mosaic of different environments. Flooded riparian and upland forests play a significant role for the establishment of human settlements. Riparian communities in the Amazon have evolved depending on the use of plants applied for therapeutic purposes, thus developing important knowledge about their management and preparation. This paper describes and analyzes the use and management of medicinal plants in order to establish links to environmental conservation. The categorization of habitats of occurrence and categories of diseases were held in five riparian communities at Rio Jauaperi, in the border between Roraima and Amazonas states in Brazil. The study sight is poorly investigated in terms of scientific research. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including observations, individual and focus group discussions, individual interviews, preference ranking by free listing tasks, guided tours and community mapping were applied. Sutrop's cognitive salience index was applied in order to check the most important ethnospecies and diseases. The survey was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 62 informants were interviewed, resulting in 119 botanical species documented. The most salient medicinal species are usually wide distributed and recognized transculturally. Arboreal habit was the most important corresponding to 47% of total species used. The most frequent accessed environments were terra-firme (upland forest), vargeado (flooded forest), poultry (regenerating forest) and restinga (seasonally flooded forest) which together provides 59% of the total medicinal plant species. Exotic species played a secondary role with only 20% of the total. Thirty seven percent of the species were cultivated. Plants at homegardens are usually associated with children's or women's disease. Xixuaú is the community with improved ability to environmental preservation using more forestry species. The most

  16. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-06-11

    . This research could be the basis for the design of a recovery plan, showing the pertinence of more holistic research approaches to plant conservation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  17. Resolving whether botanic gardens are on the road to conservation or a pathway for plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2015-06-01

    A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future

  18. Medicinal, Aromatic and Cosmetic (MAC) plants for community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Liesbeth Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of this ethno-botanical study is to document, describe and analyse the Balinese community members’ knowledge, belief and practices with regard to medicinal, aromatic and cosmetic (MAC) plants in relation to community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation of MAC plants. This

  19. Phytosociology and plant community utilisation by vervet monkeys of the Blydeberg Conservancy, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barret

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities of the Blydeberg Conservancy were investigated as part of a research project on the foraging ecology of vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus (senso lato in mixed lowveld bushveld and sour lowveld bushveld areas. To date there are no formal management plans for vervet monkeys. This is attributed to the limited knowledge of vervets and their utilisation of and impacts on ecosystems. From a TWINSPAN classification refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, ten plant communities that can be placed into four major groups were identified. A classification and description of these communities, including a vegetation map are presented. Diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. Of the ten available plant communities, the vervets utilised only six during the study period. There was an abundant supply of various food sources throughout the year, with movement patterns mostly coinciding with the fruiting times of several tree and other plant species.

  20. Sample sequencing of vascular plants demonstrates widespread conservation and divergence of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; de Fátima Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor; De Paoli, Emanuele; Accerbi, Monica; Rymarquis, Linda A; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Meyers, Blake C; Green, Pamela J; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-04-23

    Small RNAs are pivotal regulators of gene expression that guide transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing mechanisms in eukaryotes, including plants. Here we report a comprehensive atlas of sRNA and miRNA from 3 species of algae and 31 representative species across vascular plants, including non-model plants. We sequence and quantify sRNAs from 99 different tissues or treatments across species, resulting in a data set of over 132 million distinct sequences. Using miRBase mature sequences as a reference, we identify the miRNA sequences present in these libraries. We apply diverse profiling methods to examine critical sRNA and miRNA features, such as size distribution, tissue-specific regulation and sequence conservation between species, as well as to predict putative new miRNA sequences. We also develop database resources, computational analysis tools and a dedicated website, http://smallrna.udel.edu/. This study provides new insights on plant sRNAs and miRNAs, and a foundation for future studies.

  1. The evolutionarily conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase AtCHIP contributes to plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to recognize and respond to microbial threats in their environment. The level of immune signaling must be tightly regulated so that immune responses can be quickly activated in the presence of pathogens, while avoiding autoimmunity. HSP90s, along with their diverse array of co-chaperones, forms chaperone complexes that have been shown to play both positive and negative roles in regulating the accumulation of immune receptors and regulators. In this study, we examined the role of AtCHIP, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that was known to interact with chaperones including HSP90s in multicellular organisms including fruit fly, C. elegans, plants and human. Atchip knockout mutants display enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen, and overexpression of AtCHIP causes enhanced disease resistance at low temperature. Although CHIP was reported to target HSP90 for ubiquitination and degradation, accumulation of HSP90.3 was not affected in Atchip plants. In addition, protein accumulation of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat domain immune receptor (NLR SNC1 is not altered in Atchip mutant. Thus, while AtCHIP plays a role in immunity, it does not seem to regulate the turnover of HSP90 or SNC1. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the exact mechanism behind AtCHIP’s role in regulating plant immune responses.

  2. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively.

  3. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, H.; Ali, H.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional

  4. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  5. Application of the Red List Index for conservation assessment of Spanish vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan Carlos Moreno; Lozano, Felipe Domínguez; Gómez, Manuel Marrero; Baudet, Ángel Bañares

    2015-06-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI) is used to measure trends in extinction risk of species over time. The development of 2 red lists for Spanish vascular flora during the past decade allowed us to apply the IUCN RLI to vascular plants in an area belonging to a global biodiversity hotspot. We used the Spanish Red Lists from 2000 and 2010 to assess changes in level of threat at a national scale and at the subnational scales of Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, and peninsular Spain. We assigned retrospective IUCN categories of threat to 98 species included in the Spanish Red List of 2010 but absent in the Spanish Red List of 2000. In addition, we tested the effect of different random and taxonomic and spatial Spanish samples on the overall RLI value. From 2000 to 2010, the IUCN categories of 768 species changed (10% of Spanish flora), mainly due to improved knowledge (63%), modifications in IUCN criteria (14%), and changes in threat status (12%). All measured national and subnational RLI values decreased during this period, indicating a general decline in the conservation status of the Spanish vascular flora. The Canarian RLI value (0.84) was the lowest, although the fastest deterioration in conservation status occurred on peninsular Spain (from 0.93 in 2000 to 0.92 in 2010). The RLI values based on subsamples of the Spanish Red List were not representative of RLI values for the entire country, which would discourage the use of small areas or small taxonomic samples to assess general trends in the endangerment of national biotas. The role of the RLI in monitoring of changes in biodiversity at the global and regional scales needs further reassessment because additional areas and taxa are necessary to determine whether the index is sufficiently sensitive for use in assessing temporal changes in species' risk of extinction. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  7. ADAPTATION OF THE OBTAINED in vitro Gentiana lutea L. PLANTS TO ex vitro AND in situ CONDITIONS

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    О. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop the technology of introduction of the obtained by microclonal propagation Gentiana lutea L. plants into conditions in situ. Methods of cultivation of plant objects in vitro were used. There were chosen optimal conditions for rooting G. lutea shoots obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro: МS/2 medium with twice decreased concentration of NH4NO3 without vitamins and sucrose supplemented with 3 g/l of mannite and 0.05 mg/l kinetin, and agar (4 mg/l in combination with perlite (16 g/l used as a maintaining substrate; or the nutrient medium (MS/2 without vitamins and smaller concentration of N4NO3 with gradual decrease of carbohydrates from 10 g/l to 2 g/l, and further rooting experimental shoots in tap water. Rooted plants were adapted to conditions ex vitro through planting them into flowerpots with soil and gradual changing hothouse regime for exposed one. The share of adapted to in situ conditions plants (21% after a year of planting proves the suggested method to be efficient and promising. There was suggested this technology is the most efficient ones for revival of disturbed G. lutea populations that includes repatriation of rooted and adapted to ex vitro conditions plants obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro.

  8. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  9. Natural activity and element content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiatutadawiah Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to determined the natural radioactivity concentration and the elemental content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak. For the determination of radioactivity concentration samples were filled into the counting bottle according to the height of the standard samples. Samples were then kept for 30 days to reach the secular equilibrium. After 30 days samples were counted directly using gamma spectrometry. For the determination of the elemental content samples were digested using acidic solution until the solution became clear. Samples were then diluted to 100 ml using distilled water and 10 ml aliquots were introduce to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that the radioactivity concentration of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226 and K-40 in soil were in the range of 40.02 ± 12.50 Bq/ kg - 184.8± 11.40 Bq/ kg, 31.76 ± 1.84 Bq/ kg - 66.12 ± 4.30 Bq/ kg, 11.0 ± 0.48 Bq/ kg - 29.71 ± 1.64 Bq/ kg and 27.53 ± 6.93 Bq/ kg - 184.01 ± 8.64 Bq/ kg respectively. In this study 20 elements were found both in soil and plant. Iron showed the highest concentration in soil (22178.92 ± 8826.77 mg/ kg) while Potassium showed the highest concentration in plants (64052.33 ± 14958.16 mg/ kg). (author)

  10. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  11. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  12. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P=0.044, P=0.014, and P=0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P<0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P<0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P=0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. (author)

  13. In situ bioremediation (natural attenuation) at a gas plant waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginn, J.S.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A former manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste site in New York was evaluated with regard to natural attenuation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Parent-compound concentrations of PAHs within an aquifer plume were observed to decrease with time subsequent to source removal of coal tar. Biotransformation-potential studies indicated that indigenous microorganisms in soil from the site were capable of degrading naphthalene and phenanthrene. A biochemical metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1H2NA), was tentatively characterized in coal-tar-contaminated soil from the site-based on liquid chromatographic retention time. Kinetic information was developed for the disappearance of phenanthrene and 1H2NA in nonspiked contaminated soil at the site. The Microtox trademark bioassay was used to evaluate toxicity trends in contaminated soil at the site. Results from the Microtox trademark indicated a decreasing trend in toxicity with respect to time in contaminated site soil. Research results were evaluated with regard to the National Research Council's guidelines for evaluating in situ bioremediation, and were used to enhance site characterization and monitoring information for evaluating the role of bioremediation as part of natural attenuation of PAHs at coal-tar-contaminated sites

  14. Developing a data acquisition system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's in situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlmoyle, J.T.; Matalucci, R.V.; Ogden, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes from US defense programs. The in situ tests associated with this facility (659 m below the surface) address technical issues of thermal/structural interaction, waste package performance, and plugging and sealing. Data from these tests are collected by a Data Acquisition System (DAS) consisting of two distinct entities that use the IEEE-488 bus for communication. Up to 5000 data channels can be recorded every 4 hr from extensometers, stressmeters, thermocouples, closure gages, and other special gages. The DAS consists of a multitasking and multiuser ModComp computer housed in a surface trailer that converts the data to engineering units, stores the data in raw and converted form, and provides quick-look plots and data listings. The other part of the DAS consists of the seven underground remote enclosed instrument stations (sheds) located near each test room and up to 1800 m from the surface trailer that contains the instruments and signal conditioning to operate and monitor the tests. The ModComp system manages data acquisition and supports concurrently 12 on-line terminals and two dial-up access lines for data access, gage diagnostics, data handling and updating, and software development. Data are currently acquired from over 4000 gages with 15,000 defined measurands; the system can be expanded to 65,534 measurands. 4 refs., 7 figs

  15. In situ measurement of dynamic characteristics of atomic power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.S.; Gupta, S.P.; Shrivastava, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    For the realistic assessment of stiffness and damping, full scale free vibration tests have been carried out on various pieces of equipment located in plant buildings both during the construction stage and after they are erected. Initial displacement or initial velocity was used to excite the free vibrations. Initial displacement was imparted by means of steel rope pulled with chain pulley block. The sudden release was achieved by means of a clutch system. Acceleration transducer with amplifier and ink writting oscillograph was used for recording the vibrations. Frequency and damping was evaluated from the acceleration records. Observed values for some equipment are given. For some equipment, it has been possible to obtain the values with and without pipe connections. The frequency of L.P. Heater in longitudinal and transverse directions without pipe connection were 17.86 and 10.04 Hz but with pipe connections the values increased to 26.74 and 17.85 Hz. Similarly there has been increase in the damping values too. Thus both the frequency and damping increases substantially with the addition of pipe connections. Moreover, their values are quite different in the two principal directions, pointing out to the importance of in situ measurements on prototype equipment

  16. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY SOME OF THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF PANCHET SOIL CONSERVATION DIVISION, BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debatri Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Traditional knowledge (ITK is scientifically and culturally significant. This article focuses on the documentation of ITK of medicinal plants that are used against different diseases by the tribal people of Panchet Soil Conservation Division of Bankura district, West Bengal. A comprehensive survey was carried out between July 2014–January 2016 in 19 different locations of Panchet Soil Conservation Division. Data were obtained through semi–structured questionnaires, participant observation and plant walks with 33 respondents. A total of 12 plants belonging to 11 families were documented for 19 different disorders. Out of 12 plants 10 have been reported as new uses for the first time. It is expected that the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge will further promote bio-prospecting and pharmaceutical research.

  17. Conserving a geographically isolated Charaxes butterfly in response to habitat fragmentation and invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. Crous

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, much of the forest biome is vulnerable to human-induced disturbance. The forest-dwelling butterfly Charaxes xiphares occidentalis is naturally confined to a small forest region in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Most of the remaining habitat of this species is within a fragmented agricultural matrix. Furthermore, this geographical area is also heavily invaded by alien plants, especially Acacia mearnsii. We investigated how C. x. occidentalis behaviourally responds to different habitat conditions in the landscape. We were particularly interested in touring, patrolling and settling behaviour as a conservation proxy for preference of a certain habitat configuration in this agricultural matrix. Remnant forest patches in the agricultural matrix showed fewer behavioural incidents than in a reference protected area. Moreover, dense stands of A. mearnsii negatively influenced the incidence and settling pattern of this butterfly across the landscape, with fewer tree settlings associated with more heavily invaded forest patches. This settling pattern was predominantly seen in female butterflies. We also identified specific trees that were settled upon for longer periods by C. x. occidentalis. Distance to a neighbouring patch and patch size influenced behavioural incidences, suggesting that further patch degradation and isolation could be detrimental to this butterfly. Conservation implications: We highlight the importance of clearing invasive tree species from vulnerable forest ecosystems and identify key tree species to consider in habitat conservation and rehabilitation programmes for this butterfly. We also suggest retaining as much intact natural forest as possible. This information should be integrated in local biodiversity management plans.

  18. Plant diversity patterns in neotropical dry forests and their conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-R, Karina; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Dexter, Kyle G; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Oliveira-Filho, Ary; Prado, Darién; Pullan, Martin; Quintana, Catalina; Riina, Ricarda; Rodríguez M, Gina M; Weintritt, Julia; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Adarve, Juan; Álvarez, Esteban; Aranguren B, Anairamiz; Arteaga, Julián Camilo; Aymard, Gerardo; Castaño, Alejandro; Ceballos-Mago, Natalia; Cogollo, Álvaro; Cuadros, Hermes; Delgado, Freddy; Devia, Wilson; Dueñas, Hilda; Fajardo, Laurie; Fernández, Ángel; Fernández, Miller Ángel; Franklin, Janet; Freid, Ethan H; Galetti, Luciano A; Gonto, Reina; González-M, Roy; Graveson, Roger; Helmer, Eileen H; Idárraga, Álvaro; López, René; Marcano-Vega, Humfredo; Martínez, Olga G; Maturo, Hernán M; McDonald, Morag; McLaren, Kurt; Melo, Omar; Mijares, Francisco; Mogni, Virginia; Molina, Diego; Moreno, Natalia Del Pilar; Nassar, Jafet M; Neves, Danilo M; Oakley, Luis J; Oatham, Michael; Olvera-Luna, Alma Rosa; Pezzini, Flávia F; Dominguez, Orlando Joel Reyes; Ríos, María Elvira; Rivera, Orlando; Rodríguez, Nelly; Rojas, Alicia; Särkinen, Tiina; Sánchez, Roberto; Smith, Melvin; Vargas, Carlos; Villanueva, Boris; Pennington, R Toby

    2016-09-23

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are distributed across Latin America and the Caribbean and are highly threatened, with less than 10% of their original extent remaining in many countries. Using 835 inventories covering 4660 species of woody plants, we show marked floristic turnover among inventories and regions, which may be higher than in other neotropical biomes, such as savanna. Such high floristic turnover indicates that numerous conservation areas across many countries will be needed to protect the full diversity of tropical dry forests. Our results provide a scientific framework within which national decision-makers can contextualize the floristic significance of their dry forest at a regional and continental scale. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  20. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri, we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL, to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  1. Biotechnology for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity is the basis of human life and food security. Nepal with 577 cultivated species possesses huge diversity at varietal as well as landrace levels. In most agricultural crops the rapid genetic erosion due to several reasons is a common phenomenon. Thus, considering the importance of agricultural biodiversity declared by Convention on Biological Diversity for sustainable food production, National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC has been established for conservation and sustainable utilization of agricultural biodiversity. This paper thus delineates the application of biotechnological tools adopted by NAGRC for effective and efficient conservation and use of agricultural plant genetic resources (APGRs. Among the adopted technologies, tissue bank using shoot tip culture of vegetatively propagating and recalcitrant crops eg potato, sugarcane, banana, sweet potato, etc are in function. Under the molecular marker technology, currently random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been used for developing DNA profiles, identifying duplicates in the collections, assessing genetic diversity and screening accessions against economic traits. DNA bank has also been created for storing DNA of indigenous crops and these DNA can be accessed for research and study. Genotypic database has been developed for chayote, finger millet, wheat and maize for identification and selection of the accessions.

  2. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Inula racemosa Hook. F. an Endangered Medicinal Plant of Temperate Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa is an endangered medicinal plant. It is commonly known as Pushkarmool, Pushkar and Manu. The great sage Charaka has characterized it as Hikka magrahana (stops hiccups and Savasahara (helpful in asthma. Also, he has cited it as the best medicament for pleurisy along with cough and asthma (http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/charaka-samhita. Due to the fragile nature of its habitat and exploitation due to its commercial medicinal properties, the species are facing the onslaught of indiscriminate over-exploitation. So far, this plant has not got the required attention from researchers, hence, except for a few efforts, not much work has been done for its cultivation and conservation. Plant tissue culture offers an attractive and quick method for its multiplication and further conservation. In the present investigation, effective procedures for micropropagation and in vitro conservation by vitrification were developed. In vitro propagation using aseptically grown seedlings and in vitro conservation via vitrification were standardized. The in vitro conserved material could be retrieved and multiplied normally on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 medium fortified with 1.00 mg l-1BA (benzyl adenine which has been recorded as the best performing medium for in vitro shoot multiplication. The conserved shoots showed normal in vitro propagation and after retrieval from vitrification, platelets were hardened and successfully established in the experimental fields under Nauni (Solan, HP conditions at an elevation of around 1275 meters above mean sea level.

  4. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil

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    MARIA O. SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a “Caatinga” area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the “snowball” technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  5. Complementarities of two existing intermediate conservation approaches

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    Sergei Volis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for integration of ex situ and in situ approaches in conservation of plants has long been recognized. However, ex situ collections have numerous limitations that reduce their utility for conservation, necessitating the introduction of new, more appropriate, flexible and less costly approaches. Two new approaches that can be called “intermediate” between in situ and ex situ, and bridging them in some way have been proposed over the last two decades. In these approaches material collected in natural populations is planted and maintained outside the original location, but with a different purpose. While the purpose of the inter situs approach is reintroduction, the concern of the quasi in situ approach is long-term storage of species genetic diversity. I view these two approaches as complementary and necessary components of conservation-oriented restoration. In restoration of a degraded habitat using threatened species (i.e. inter situs, quasi in situ collections can serve an important role in providing long-term preservation of these species’ genetic diversity and production of seeds needed for restoration.

  6. In situ DNA-RNA hybridization using in vitro 125I-labeled ribosomal RNA of higher plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi; Ishida, M.R.; Tanaka, Ryuso.

    1975-01-01

    In situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled ribosomal RNA was applied to plant cells. Cytoplasmic 25 s rRNA, which was eluted from acrylamide gels after electrophoretic separation, was labeled in vitro with carrier-free 125 I and hybridized with the interphase nuclei in root tips of Vicia faba. In most of the preparations, the nucleoli were more heavily labeled than the other regions within nuclei, and several types of grain distribution were observed on the nucleoli. From these results, it was confirmed that in situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled rRNA can be used very effectively to detect the annealing sites of different molecular species of rRNA within the nuclei of plant cells, for which it is not as easy to obtain high specific radioactive rRNA in vivo as it is in the case of cultured animal cells. (auth.)

  7. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2013-01-01

    conservation outcomes. Alternative risk measures generally resulted in the allocation of conservation funds to the same priority clusters of cacao (Criollo and Curaray). However, the use of the number of locally common alleles as an alternative to the original Weitzman diversity measure produced a markedly...... different result, prioritising the Purús cluster in Western Amazonia. The Curaray cluster was highly prioritised under both diversity measures, indicating its distinctiveness relative to both the Criollo and Purús clusters. We conclude that the Weitzman approach can indeed allow diversity comparisons...

  8. Ex Situ gene conservation in high elevation white pine species in the United States-a beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Anna Schoettle; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler; David Conklin; Andrew Bower; Chris Jensen; Rob Mangold; Doug Daoust; Gary Man

    2011-01-01

    The eight white pine species native to the western United States face an array of biotic and abiotic challenges that impact the viability of populations or the species themselves. Well-established programs are already in place to conserve and restore Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges....

  9. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP

  10. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.

  11. Functional conservation of coenzyme Q biosynthetic genes among yeasts, plants, and humans.

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    Kazuhiro Hayashi

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q (CoQ is an essential factor for aerobic growth and oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport system. The biosynthetic pathway for CoQ has been proposed mainly from biochemical and genetic analyses of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, the biosynthetic pathway in higher eukaryotes has been explored in only a limited number of studies. We previously reported the roles of several genes involved in CoQ synthesis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we expand these findings by identifying ten genes (dps1, dlp1, ppt1, and coq3-9 that are required for CoQ synthesis. CoQ10-deficient S. pombe coq deletion strains were generated and characterized. All mutant fission yeast strains were sensitive to oxidative stress, produced a large amount of sulfide, required an antioxidant to grow on minimal medium, and did not survive at the stationary phase. To compare the biosynthetic pathway of CoQ in fission yeast with that in higher eukaryotes, the ability of CoQ biosynthetic genes from humans and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana to functionally complement the S. pombe coq deletion strains was determined. With the exception of COQ9, expression of all other human and plant COQ genes recovered CoQ10 production by the fission yeast coq deletion strains, although the addition of a mitochondrial targeting sequence was required for human COQ3 and COQ7, as well as A. thaliana COQ6. In summary, this study describes the functional conservation of CoQ biosynthetic genes between yeasts, humans, and plants.

  12. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  13. The invasive alien plants threatened the balance of ecosystem in conservative area in Ontoloe Island, Flores-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius Mboka Segu Wake, Ignatius; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    Invasive alien plants threaten to biodiversity, particularly in small island with high endemicity values such as Ontoloe Island, a tourist destination area of Riung Seventeen Island in Flores. The study aims to characterized the invasive plants have attacked the conservative area in Ontoloe Island. The method used by combining the line method and the plot method with three observation stations in utilization block and four observation station in protection block. Plot of 1mx1m was used for the observation of ground cover plants and seedling, 5mx5m for the observation in stake level, 10mx10m for the observation in pole level, 20mx20m for the observation in tree level. The data level of the plants obtained then analyzed with Important Value Index (IVI). Result showed that Lamtoro plants (Leuchaena leucocephala) is the invasive alien species which has the highest IVI in both of utilization block and protection block in each level of tree, stake, and pole. There are other invasive alien plants such as Tembeleken (Lantana camara) and Bidara (Zizipus mauritiana) dominated in stake level and Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dominated in seedling level. All the native plants in Ontoloe Island will be threatened their existing because of the less control of invasive alien plants. Therefore, needs serious handling by the government in order to keep the balanced of the ecosystems in Ontoloe Island to be maintained especially to not deviated from management objectives area of Komodo Dragons conservation (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912).

  14. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  15. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  16. History and conservation of wild and cultivated plant diversity in Uganda: Forest species and banana varieties as case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Hamilton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of wild and cultivated plant diversity in Uganda is reviewed, taking forest species and bananas as examples. Palynological research into past human influences on forests is reassessed. The evidence suggests that crops were first introduced into the country at about 1000 BCE, farming communities practicing slash and burn agriculture started to significantly influence the floristic composition of forests during the 1st millennium BCE and there was a major episode of forest reduction at about 1000 CE related to socio-economic change. Bananas were probably introduced in the early centuries CE. The colonial era from 1894 saw the introduction of new concepts of land ownership and the establishment of forest reserves and agricultural stations. Forests and banana diversity are currently under threat, Uganda having a very high rate of deforestation and endemic banana varieties proving susceptible to introduced pests and diseases. It is suggested that, under these circumstances, conservationists take an opportunistic approach to field engagement, making use of favourable local conditions as they arise. Partnerships should be sought with elements of society concerned with sustainable use, provision of ecosystem services and cultural survival to widen the social base of plant conservation. International organisations involved in conservation of plant genetic resources and wild plant species should collaborate with one another to develop the conceptual basis of plant conservation, to make it more relevant to countries like Uganda.

  17. An adaptive decision framework for the conservation of a threatened plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Shea, Katriona; Lah, Kristopher J.; McKenzie, Paul M.; Ball, Lianne C.; Runge, Michael C.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Mead's milkweed Asclepias meadii, a long-lived perennial herb of tallgrass prairie and glade communities of the central United States, is a species designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Challenges to its successful management include the facts that much about its life history is unknown, its age at reproductive maturity is very advanced, certain life stages are practically unobservable, its productivity is responsive to unpredictable environmental events, and most of the known populations occur on private lands unprotected by any legal conservation instrument. One critical source of biological uncertainty is the degree to which fire promotes growth and reproductive response in the plant. To aid in its management, we developed a prototype population-level state-dependent decision-making framework that explicitly accounts for this uncertainty and for uncertainties related to stochastic environmental effects and vital rates. To parameterize the decision model, we used estimates found in the literature, and we analyzed data from a long-term monitoring program where fates of individual plants were observed through time. We demonstrate that different optimal courses of action are followed according to how one believes that fire influences reproductive response, and we show that the action taken for certain population states is informative for resolving uncertainty about competing beliefs regarding the effect of fire. We advocate the use of a model-predictive approach for the management of rare populations, particularly when management uncertainty is profound. Over time, an adaptive management approach should reduce uncertainty and improve management performance as predictions of management outcome generated under competing models are continually informed and updated by monitoring data.

  18. Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, H C; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase A (POX A) enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula), fruits (Vitis vinifera), cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa), trees (Populus trichocarpa), and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon) species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

  19. Approaches to gene pool conservation of medicinal plant Oxytropis lanata (Pall. DC. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kholina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve the gene pool of medicinal plant Oxytropis lanata (Pall. DC. we analyzed allozyme polymorphism and identified reliable and informative marker enzyme systems of this species; also we studied the response of seeds to deep freezing in liquid nitrogen (–196 ºС. Population has an average level of polymorphism (P95 = 41,2 %, P99 = 52,9 %, A = 1,58, Ho = 0,158, He = 0,171 in general typical for herbaceous legumes, and can serve as a source of material for gene pool conservation of the species. Deep freezing has not led to the death of the seeds; it was marked stimulatory effect of ultralow temperatures, expressed as an acceleration of germination and sharp increase of germinability (98,6 ± 2,3 % compared to the control (12,0 ± 3,5 % that is associated with overcoming physical dormancy. There were no abnormalities in the development of seedlings from seeds passed cryopreservation.

  20. Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Rawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and peroxidase A (POX A enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, fruits (Vitis vinifera, cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa, trees (Populus trichocarpa, and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

  1. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi infect a wide range of plant species making them of particular interest to plant pathologists. In order to study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants it is useful to be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplish...

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  3. Lobular carcinoma in situ as a component of breast cancer: the long-term outcome in patients treated with breast-conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena; Haffty, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients with a component of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pathology reports of all patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy at our institution prior to 1992 were reviewed to identify patients who had LCIS as a histologic component. A total of 51 patients were identified. Primary histology of the 51 patients was as follows: 53% infiltrating lobular, 20% invasive and intraductal, 18% invasive ductal, 10% intraductal. There were no patients treated who had LCIS only. One thousand forty-five patients treated conservatively during the same time interval without LCIS served as a control group. All patient characteristics, staging, treatment and outcome variables were entered into a computer database. Results: As of (3(96)), the median follow-up for the LCIS-containing group and control group was 10.6 and 11.4 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in age of presentation, clinical stage, nodal status, estrogen receptor status, or adjuvant therapy received between the two groups. Twenty-two patients (43%) in the LCIS group underwent reexcision. Of those, 69% had residual LCIS in the reexcision specimen. LCIS was characterized as focal in 29%, diffuse in 25%, and not specified in all other cases. The primary histology of the two populations differed significantly with a larger percentage of infiltrating lobular primaries in the LCIS group (53 vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The LCIS group also differed from the control group with respect to the percentage of patients with bilateral disease (17 vs. 8%, p = 0.05), and the percentage of patients with 'false negative' mammograms (20 vs. 10%, p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference between the LCIS group and control group in the 10-year overall survival (67 vs. 72%), distant disease-free survival (62 vs

  4. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galápagos tortoise identified in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Russello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not unusual to find captive relicts of species lost in the wild, rarely are presumed extinct species rediscovered outside of their native range. A recent study detected living descendents of an extinct Galápagos tortoise species (Chelonoidis elephantopus once endemic to Floreana Island on the neighboring island of Isabela. This finding adds to the growing cryptic diversity detected among these species in the wild. There also exists a large number of Galápagos tortoises in captivity of ambiguous origin. The recently accumulated population-level haplotypic and genotypic data now available for C. elephantopus add a critical reference population to the existing database of 11 extant species for investigating the origin of captive individuals of unknown ancestry.We reanalyzed mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes of 156 captive individuals using an expanded reference database that included all extant Galápagos tortoise species as well as the extinct species from Floreana. Nine individuals (six females and three males exhibited strong signatures of Floreana ancestry and a high probability of assignment to C. elephantopus as detected by Bayesian assignment and clustering analyses of empirical and simulated data. One male with high assignment probability to C. elephantopus based on microsatellite genotypic data also possessed a "Floreana-like" mitochondrial DNA haplotype.Historical DNA analysis of museum specimens has provided critical spatial and temporal components to ecological, evolutionary, taxonomic and conservation-related research, but rarely has it informed ex situ species recovery efforts. Here, the availability of population-level genotypic data from the extinct C. elephantopus enabled the identification of nine Galápagos tortoise individuals of substantial conservation value that were previously misassigned to extant species of varying conservation status. As all captive individuals of C

  5. Seed plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness in conservation planning within a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yu, Haiying; Li, Heng

    2015-12-01

    One of the main goals of conservation biology is to understand the factors shaping variation in biodiversity across the planet. This understanding is critical for conservation planners to be able to develop effective conservation strategies. Although many studies have focused on species richness and the protection of rare and endemic species, less attention has been paid to the protection of the phylogenetic dimension of biodiversity. We explored how phylogenetic diversity, species richness, and phylogenetic community structure vary in seed plant communities along an elevational gradient in a relatively understudied high mountain region, the Dulong Valley, in southeastern Tibet, China. As expected, phylogenetic diversity was well correlated with species richness among the elevational bands and among communities. At the community level, evergreen broad-leaved forests had the highest levels of species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region. Evergreen broad-leaved forests were phylogenetically overdispersed, whereas other vegetation types tended to be phylogenetically clustered. We suggest that communities with high species richness or overdispersed phylogenetic structure should be a focus for biodiversity conservation within the Dulong Valley because these areas may help maximize the potential of this flora to respond to future global change. In biodiversity hotspots worldwide, we suggest that the phylogenetic structure of a community may serve as a useful measure of phylogenetic diversity in the context of conservation planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Coevolution Pattern and Functional Conservation or Divergence of miR167s and their targets across Diverse Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Suvakanta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sarkar Das, Shabari; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Singh, Sharmila; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2015-10-13

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenously produced small non-coding RNAs of 20-21 nt length, processed from precursor miRNAs, regulate many developmental processes by negatively regulating the target genes in both animals and plants. The coevolutionary pattern of a miRNA family and their targets underscores its functional conservation or diversification. The miR167 regulates various aspects of plant development in Arabidopsis by targeting ARF6 and ARF8. The evolutionary conservation or divergence of miR167s and their target genes are poorly understood till now. Here we show the evolutionary relationship among 153 MIR167 genes obtained from 33 diverse plant species. We found that out of the 153 of miR167 sequences retrieved from the "miRBase", 27 have been annotated to be processed from the 3' end, and have diverged distinctively from the other miR167s produced from 5' end. Our analysis reveals that gma-miR167h/i and mdm-miR167a are processed from 3' end and have evolved separately, diverged most resulting in novel targets other than their known ones, and thus led to functional diversification, especially in apple and soybean. We also show that mostly conserved miR167 sequences and their target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) have gone through parallel evolution leading to functional diversification among diverse plant species.

  7. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Fiedler, Anna K; Landis, Douglas; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-06-01

    Addition of floral resources to agricultural field margins has been shown to increase abundance of beneficial insects in crop fields, but most plants recommended for this use are non-native annuals. Native perennial plants with different bloom periods can provide floral resources for bees throughout the growing season for use in pollinator conservation projects. To identify the most suitable plants for this use, we examined the relative attractiveness to wild and managed bees of 43 eastern U.S. native perennial plants, grown in a common garden setting. Floral characteristics were evaluated for their ability to predict bee abundance and taxa richness. Of the wild bees collected, the most common species (62%) was Bombus impatiens Cresson. Five other wild bee species were present between 3 and 6% of the total: Lasioglossum admirandum (Sandhouse), Hylaeus affinis (Smith), Agapostemon virescens (F.), Halictus ligatus Say, and Ceratina calcarata/dupla Robertson/Say. The remaining wild bee species were present at wild bees; 9 were highly attractive, and 20 were moderately attractive. Honey bees visited 24 of the 43 plant species at least once. Floral area was the only measured factor accounting for variation in abundance and richness of wild bees but did not explain variation in honey bee abundance. Results of this study can be used to guide selection of flowering plants to provide season-long forage for conservation of wild bees.

  8. Lobular carcinoma in-situ as a component of breast cancer: the long term outcome in patients treated with breast conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: There is a paucity of data regarding prognostic implications of having LCIS as a histologic component of invasive breast carcinomas or ductal carcinoma in situ. The purpose of this study is to assess the long term outcome of patients with breast carcinoma with a component of LCIS, treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The pathology reports of all patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy at our institution prior to 1993 were reviewed to identify patients who had LCIS as a histologic component. A total of 51 patients were identified. Primary histology of the 51 patients were as follows: 53% infiltrating lobular, 20% invasive and intraductal, 18% invasive ductal, 10% intraductal. There were no patients treated who had LCIS only. 1023 patients treated conservatively during the same time interval without LCIS served as a control group. All patient characteristics, staging, treatment and outcome variables were entered into a computer database. Overall survival, disease-free survival, local-regional relapse and distant metastasis rates were calculated from the date of diagnosis to the most recent follow-up. Results: As of (3(96)), the median follow-up for the LCIS containing group and control group was 10.6 and 11.4 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in age of presentation, clinical stage, nodal status, estrogen receptor status, or adjuvant therapy received between the two groups. Twenty-two patients (43%) in the LCIS group underwent re-excision. Of those, 68% had residual LCIS in the re-excision specimen. LCIS was characterized as focal in 29%, diffuse in 25%, and not specified in all other cases. Forty-one percent of patients with LCIS containing tumors had a positive family history. The primary histology of the two populations differed significantly with a larger percentage of infiltrating lobular primaries in the LCIS group (53% vs. 4%, p<.001). The LCIS group also

  9. Plant management and biodiversity conservation in Náhuatl homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Carolina; Casas, Alejandro; Vallejo, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel; Blancas, José

    2013-11-06

    The Tehuacán Valley is one of the areas of Mesoamerica with the oldest history of plant management. Homegardens are among the most ancient management systems that currently provide economic benefits to people and are reservoirs of native biodiversity. Previous studies estimated that 30% of the plant richness of homegardens of the region are native plant species from wild populations. We studied in Náhuatl communities the proportion of native plant species maintained in homegardens, hypothesizing to find a proportion similar to that estimated at regional level, mainly plant resources maintained for edible, medicinal and ornamental purposes. We analysed the composition of plant species of homegardens and their similarity with surrounding Cloud Forest (CF), Tropical Rainforest (TRF), Tropical Dry forest (TDF), and Thorn-Scrub Forest (TSF). We determined density, frequency and biomass of plant species composing homegardens and forests through vegetation sampling of a total of 30 homegardens and nine plots of forests, and documented ethnobotanical information on use, management, and economic benefits from plants maintained in homegardens. A total of 281 plant species was recorded with 12 use categories, 115 ornamental, 92 edible, and 50 medicinal plant species. We recorded 49.8 ± 23.2 (average ± S.D.) woody plant species (shrubs and trees) per homegarden. In total, 34% species are native to the Tehuacán Valley and nearly 16% are components of the surrounding forests. A total of 176 species were cultivated through seeds, vegetative propagules or transplanted entire individual plants, 71 tolerated, and 23 enhanced. The highest species richness and diversity were recorded in homegardens from the CF zone (199 species), followed by those from the TRF (157) and those from the TDF (141) zones. Homegardens provide a high diversity of resources for subsistence of local households and significantly contribute to conservation of native biodiversity. The highest diversity was

  10. Molecular Genetic Variability of Commercial and Wild Accessions of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.) Targeting ex Situ Conservation and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  11. Genetic variation within native populations of endemic silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer from Northeast India indicates need for in situ conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tunginba Singh

    Full Text Available A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR and simple sequence repeats (SSR were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (H(i = 0.25; H(S = 0.28; H(E = 0.42 and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (H(i = 0.19; H(S = 0.18; H(E = 0 were genetically distinct (F(ST = 0.38 with both marker systems from insects of Lower Assam (H(i =0.24; H(S =0.25; H(E = 0.3. Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed.

  12. In vitro propagation of Rubus macrocarpus Benth. and Rubus bogotensis Kunth, as an ex situ conservation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Adriana Pérez-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate techniques for in vitro multiplication and rooting and ex vitro adaptation of wild blackberry plants (Rubus bogotensis Benth. and Rubus macrocarpus Kunth. In in vitro phases, the influence of culture media was evaluated based on Murashige & Skoog (MS composition, with or without a 50% reduction in salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented or not with benzylaminopurine (BAP, indole acetic acid (IAA, L-cysteine, agar, peat, perlite, and vermiculite. The ex vitro phase was based on a soil, rice husks, peat, and perlite substrate management. After two months of evaluation of the in vitro phases, it was determined that the MS medium at 50% salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented with sucrose (15000 mg.l-1 and agar (5000 mg.l-1 was the most suitable for obtaining the highest values of apical length (cm, shoot number, rooting percentage, and root number. In ex vitro adaptation, the acclimation subphase, evaluated during three months, allowed to determine survival rates of 83.33% and 75% for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, respectively. The average increase in stem length (cm was 2.35 cm and 1.30 cm, respectively. In the greenhouse subphase, evaluated for four months, 100% plant survivorship was obtained, and 2.75 cm and 5.31 cm increases in average stem length (cm for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, were determined.

  13. In-situ calibration of nuclear-plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Methods for in situ calibration of reactor plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise measurements were tested in the laboratory and in two operating reactors: Diablo Canyon and Sequoyah. The Johnson noise methods provide an absolute measurement of the thermometer temperature and can be compared with the dc calibration of the thermometers to confirm their calibration without removing the thermometers from the plant coolant loops. Inaccuracies of less than 0.1% were obtained with these methods for ideal situations where the noise measuring equipment could be connected directly to the installed thermometer terminals. For measurements made at the ends of long extension cables, inaccuracies were 0.5 to 1.0%, at best. Extension cables must be optimized and well characterized electrically to achieve such accuracies. Other factors that affect the accuracy of these methods were evaluated

  14. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  15. Cryopreservation of sperm of an indigenous endangered fish species Nandus nandus (Hamilton, 1822) for ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, M Rafiqul Islam; Sarker, M F Monowar; Saha, Shankar K

    2012-12-01

    This study dealt with the development of cryopreservation protocol for Nandus nandus, which entailed a number of experiments. Sperm was collected by sacrificing males. The collected sperm was suspended in extenders. Activation of sperm motility was evaluated in different osmolalities of NaCl. Motility of sperm decreased as the osmolality of the extender increased and was completely inhibited at almost 319 mOs mol/kg. To evaluate the toxicity of cryoprotectant, sperm was incubated with DMSO, methanol and ethanol at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations, respectively, for 5-35 min. Five and ten percent of cryoprotectants produced better motility during 5 and 10 min incubation. Sperm incubated with 15% cryoprotectant seemed to be toxic and this concentration was excluded in the subsequent trials. Three extenders, namely, Alsever's solution, egg-yolk citrate and urea egg-yolk and three cryoprotectants, DMSO, methanol and ethanol were employed to preserve the sperm. Alsever's solution with 10% DMSO showed best performance producing 90.0±1.8% and 75.0±2.5% equilibration and post-thaw motility followed by that of 82.5±4.2% and 62.5±5.5% with Alsever's solution plus methanol, respectively. Between two diluents, sperm preserved with Alsever's solution plus DMSO produced highest fertilization (76.7±3.3%) and hatching (43.8±7.9%) while fresh sperm yielded 83.3±6.7% and 64.0±10.4% fertilization and hatching, respectively. The protocol developed through the study can be applied for long-term conservation of genetic materials of the endangered fish N. nandus and the cryopreserved sperm can be used in artificial breeding for generating new individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Fielder

    Full Text Available Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  17. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Hannah; Brotherton, Peter; Hosking, Julian; Hopkins, John J; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Maxted, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  18. In-Situ atomic force microscopic observation of ion beam bombarded plant cell envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Brown, I.G.; Seprom, C.; Vilaithong, T.

    2007-01-01

    A program in ion beam bioengineering has been established at Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand, and ion beam induced transfer of plasmid DNA molecules into bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) has been demonstrated. However, a good understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved is lacking. In parallel work, onion skin cells have been bombarded with Ar + ions at energy 25 keV and fluence1-2 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 , revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures on the cell wall that could serve as channels for the transfer of large macromolecules into the cell interior. An in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system has been designed and installed in the CMU bio-implantation facility as a tool for the observation of these microcraters during ion beam bombardment. Here we describe some of the features of the in-situ AFM and outline some of the related work

  19. Implementing China's national energy conservation policies at state-owned electric power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofan; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Guideline identified energy conservation as one of the country's fundamental policies and established a mandatory target: 20% reduction in national average energy intensity by 2010. Despite the various policies, laws, and administrative reforms to support energy conservation, China fell behind schedule for meeting its conservation targets in 2006 and 2007. Using a combination of available literature and an interview-based case study, this paper examines the implementation of energy conservation and investigates impediments to achieving China's conservation goal in the electric power generation sector. Three key impediments are detailed: (1) municipal governments' incentives to overlook conservation-related central directives primarily because of budget pressures linked to financial decentralization, (2) procedural obstacles in the form of time required to obtain project approvals for high-efficiency power generation units, and (3) financial obstacles making it difficult for power generation enterprises to raise capital for energy conservation projects. An interview-based case study of a state-owned coal-fired electric power generation company demonstrates the influence of the aforementioned obstacles. While procedural obstacles are notable, they can be managed. However, electricity pricing reforms and/or stronger subsidy programs will be needed to address the financial obstacles facing Chinese power generation companies.

  20. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Stoll, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-04-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc (')) than in the dark (Tc). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Vögel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO. NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software, which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica growing adjacent to maize fields.

  2. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  3. Exploratory Project: Rigid nanostructured organic polymer monolith for in situ collection and analysis of plant metabolites from soil matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharayil, Nishanth [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Plant metabolites released from litter leachates and root exudates enable plants to adapt and survive in a wide range of habitats by facilitating resource foraging and plant-organismal interactions, and could influence soil carbon storage. The biological functions of these plant inputs and the organismal interactions they facilitate in soil are strictly governed by their composition and molecular identity. Our current understanding about the molecular identity of exudates is based on physiological studies that are done in soil-less axenic cultures. On the other hand, ecological studies that rely on isotope labeling to track the fluxes of carbon from plants to soil have found the complexities of soil-microbe matrices as an insurmountable barrier to undertake any meaningful molecular level characterization of plant inputs. Although it is constantly advocated to undertake a molecular level identification of the dynamicity of plant metabolites in soils, the complexity of soil system has thus far prevented any such endeavors. We developed polymeric probes through in-situ polymerization of poly(styrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) to elucidate the chemical environment of the soil to which the plant roots are exposed. Hypercrosslinking of the polymeric probes through an in-situ Friedel-Crafts alkylation significantly increased the surface area and the sorption capacity of the probes. Surface functionalization of the probes using a hybrid approach was also attempted. The efficacy of these probes was tested using batch equilibration. Scanning electron microscopy revealed extensive modification of the surface of the probes through hypercrosslinking. The probes exhibited a lower site specific sorption (slope of Freundlich adsorption isotherm close to unity) and percent recovery of the sorbed compounds from the probes were >70, indicating a predominance of reversible sorption. Further we imparted specificity to this copolymer matrix by using molecular

  4. Feasibility study on environmental improvement and energy conservation of a mercury/diaphram cell chlor-alkali plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to facilities of Azerchimia, state concern, in Sumgait City, Azerbaijan, an investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction by converting the caustic soda plant from the mercury process to the ion exchange process. The facilities of Azerchimia are badly superannuated and consume much more electric power than those in the newest technology. Moreover, the soil pollution by the plant using the mercury process is becoming a big problem. By carrying out this project, energy conservation can be achieved by reducing the amount of purchased power from thermal power plants outside. As a result of the study, the amount of the fuel used at the power plant was reduced to 40,700 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas emission was reduced to 131,000 t-CO2/y. In the study of the profitability, the internal earning rate of investment after tax was 8.6% and the internal earning rate of fund was 40% in the case of soft loans. In the case of commercial loans, however, they were 8.6% and 9.4%, respectively, which indicated that the materialization of the project was low. (NEDO)

  5. Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy: Implications for Optimal Follow-up Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ye Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Advanced Diagnostics Laboratory, Redford, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Pontiac, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Pontiac, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To determine 20-year rates of local control and outcome-associated factors for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: All DCIS cases receiving BCT between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Patient demographics and pathologic factors were analyzed for effect on outcomes, including ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and survival. Results: One hundred forty-five cases were evaluated; the median follow-up time was 19.3 years. IBTR developed in 25 patients, for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial rates of 9.9%, 12.2%, 13.7%, and 17.5%, respectively. One third of IBTRs were elsewhere failures, and 68% of IBTRs occurred <10 years after diagnosis. Young age and cancerization of lobules predicted for IBTR at <10 years, and increased slide involvement and atypical ductal hyperplasia were associated with IBTR at later time points. Conclusions: Patients with DCIS treated with BCT have excellent long-term rates of local control. Predictors of IBTR vary over time, and the risk of recurrence seems highest within 10 to 12 years after diagnosis.

  6. Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy: Implications for Optimal Follow-up Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Kestin, Larry L.; Ye Hong; Goldstein, Neal S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine 20-year rates of local control and outcome-associated factors for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: All DCIS cases receiving BCT between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Patient demographics and pathologic factors were analyzed for effect on outcomes, including ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and survival. Results: One hundred forty-five cases were evaluated; the median follow-up time was 19.3 years. IBTR developed in 25 patients, for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial rates of 9.9%, 12.2%, 13.7%, and 17.5%, respectively. One third of IBTRs were elsewhere failures, and 68% of IBTRs occurred <10 years after diagnosis. Young age and cancerization of lobules predicted for IBTR at <10 years, and increased slide involvement and atypical ductal hyperplasia were associated with IBTR at later time points. Conclusions: Patients with DCIS treated with BCT have excellent long-term rates of local control. Predictors of IBTR vary over time, and the risk of recurrence seems highest within 10 to 12 years after diagnosis.

  7. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  8. Long-duration conservation of a nuclear power plant unit under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, C.; Long, A.; Saurin, P.; Liquette, A.

    1994-01-01

    The experience described is that of the Chooz B1 NPP unit, which had to be put into a state of conservation for one and one-half years with the reactor coolant system and auxiliary systems having been completely erected and internally cleaned. Erection of the secondary systems had been 80% completed. The dry conservation technique was adopted for all of the fluid systems and components, except for the injection and leakoff lines of the four reactor coolant pump no. 1 seals, for which wet conservation was employed. For the buildings themselves, Electricite de France (EdF) took measures to facilitate conservation, including ventilation and heating, limiting the entry of atmospheric air, and evacuating the dehumidifier regeneration air to the atmosphere via a collector and a fan. This conservation required the installation of 20 dry air generators, which enabled continuously circulating dry air through the systems and components. Monthly or bimonthly relative humidity checks, depending on the systems, were carried out. The results of these checks showed that the relative humidity remained below 50% throughout the NPP unit conservation period. For the steam generators, in addition to dry air circulation, humidity detectors as well as corrosion test coupons were installed on the tube sheet. (authors). 5 figs

  9. Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations Require Conservation and Reintroduction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Hongfang Lu; Hongxiao Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hai’ou Bao

    2012-01-01

    China is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, with more than 30000 vascular plant species that include many endemic genera, species of ancient origin, and cultivated plants (Yang et al. 2005). Because of rapid economic development, population growth, pollution, and continuing resource exploitation, China’s plant diversity faces severe threats. According to the Chinese...

  10. System for In-Situ Detection of Plant Exposure to Trichloroethylene (TCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark D. (Inventor); Anderson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Newman, Lee A. (Inventor); Keith, Amy G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A system detects a plant's exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) through plant leaf imaging. White light impinging upon a plant's leaf interacts therewith to produce interacted light. A detector is positioned to detect at least one spectral band of the interacted light. A processor coupled to the detector performs comparisons between photonic energy of the interacted light at the one or more spectral bands thereof and reference data defining spectral responses indicative of leaf exposure to TCE. An output device coupled to the processor provides indications of the comparisons.

  11. Early in-situ measurements program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wowak, W.E.

    1979-06-01

    The technical basis and description of measurements for the early in-situ measurements program at the WIPP are described and a proposed organizational structure is presented. Measurements are needed for verification of design predictions and also for a prelude to the main experiment program. The design verification measurements will be concentrated in the first shaft and the underground support and access areas. Early experiments will be concentrated in the test drifts on the storage horizons. Recommendations are made to DOE for appropriate division of responsibility among Bechtel, the technical support contractor, the instrumentation contractor, and Sandia

  12. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining...

  13. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for in situ analysis of endogenous molecules in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Zhang, Yawen; Liu, Yaqin; He, Huixin; Han, Manman; Li, Yanyan; Zeng, Maomao; Wang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-17

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) as a label-free and powerful imaging technique enables in situ evaluation of a tissue metabolome and/or proteome, becoming increasingly popular in the detection of plant endogenous molecules. The characterization of structure and spatial information of endogenous molecules in plants are both very important aspects to better understand the physiological mechanism of plant organism. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a commonly-used tissue imaging technique, which requires matrix to assist in situ detection of a variety of molecules on the surface of a tissue section. In previous studies, MALDI-MSI was mostly used for the detection of molecules from animal tissue sections, compared to plant samples due to cell structural limitations, such as plant cuticles, epicuticular waxes, and cell walls. Despite the enormous progress that has been made in tissue imaging, there is still a challenge for MALDI-MSI suitable for the imaging of endogenous compounds in plants. This review summarises the recent advances in MALDI-MSI, focusing on the application of in situ detection of endogenous molecules in different plant organs, i.e. root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and seed. Further improvements on instrumentation sensitivity, matrix selection, image processing and sample preparation will expand the application of MALDI-MSI in plant research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Seidler, R.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1993-06-01

    The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

  15. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization to Detect Transgene Integration into Plant Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzacher, Trude

    Fluorescent chromosome analysis technologies have advanced our understanding of genome organization during the last 30 years and have enabled the investigation of DNA organization and structure as well as the evolution of chromosomes. Fluorescent chromosome staining allows even small chromosomes to be visualized, characterized by their composition and morphology, and counted. Aneuploidies and polyploidies can be established for species, breeding lines, and individuals, including changes occurring during hybridization or tissue culture and transformation protocols. Fluorescent in situ hybridization correlates molecular information of a DNA sequence with its physical location on chromosomes and genomes. It thus allows determination of the physical position of sequences and often is the only means to determine the abundance and distribution of DNA sequences that are difficult to map with any other molecular method or would require segregation analysis, in particular multicopy or repetitive DNA. Equally, it is often the best way to establish the incorporation of transgenes, their numbers, and physical organization along chromosomes. This chapter presents protocols for probe and chromosome preparation, fluorescent in situ hybridization, chromosome staining, and the analysis of results.

  16. Canopy Vegetation Indices from In situ Hyperspectral Data to Assess Plant Water Status of Winter Wheat under Powdery Mildew Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Qi, Shuangli; Heng, Yarong; Zhou, Yi; Wu, Yapeng; Liu, Wandai; He, Li; Li, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant disease and pests influence the physiological state and restricts the healthy growth of crops. Physiological measurements are considered the most accurate way of assessing plant health status. In this paper, we researched the use of an in situ hyperspectral remote sensor to detect plant water status in winter wheat infected with powdery mildew. Using a diseased nursery field and artificially inoculated open field experiments, we detected the canopy spectra of wheat at different developmental stages and under different degrees of disease severity. At the same time, destructive sampling was carried out for physical tests to investigate the change of physiological parameters under the condition of disease. Selected vegetation indices (VIs) were mostly comprised of green bands, and correlation coefficients between these common VIs and plant water content (PWC) were generally 0.784-0.902 ( p powdery mildew stress. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) was sensitive to physiological response influenced by powdery mildew, and the relationships of PRI with chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), and the potential activity of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fo) were good with R 2 = 0.639, 0.833, 0.808, respectively. Linear regressions showed PRI demonstrated a steady relationship with PWC across different growth conditions, with R 2 = 0.817 and RMSE = 2.17. The acquired PRI model of wheat under the powdery mildew stress has a good compatibility to different experimental fields from booting stage to filling stage compared with the traditional water signal vegetation indices, WBI, FWBI 1 , and FWBI 2 . The verification results with independent data showed that PRI still performed better with R 2 = 0.819 between measured and predicted, and corresponding RE = 8.26%. Thus, PRI is recommended as a potentially reliable indicator of PWC in winter wheat with powdery mildew stress. The results will help to understand the physical state of

  17. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  18. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  19. In-situ metallography for damage assessment and life extension in power plants- a few case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, N.; Muralidharan, N.G.; Jayakumar, T.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection of components in power plants is necessary for damage assessment, life prediction and extension. The useful life of some of the components like pipelines are most crucial in case they are exposed to the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Periodic inservice inspection by means of non-destructive testing to obtain information on damage assessment is carried out as a routine and mandatory procedure. During these inspections, only reduction in localised and uniform wall thickness are measured. However, the microstructural degradation due to both normal and abnormal temperatures occurring conditions are not revealed by conventional non-destructive test methods during this routine inspection. For life prediction and extension programme, the information on microstructural degradation is essential and the same can be studies in an effective manner through in-situ metallography technique. (author)

  20. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  1. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lasfargues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  2. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  3. Plant composition in oak savanna and woodland restoration at Prairie Fork Conservation Area in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek; Jamie Coe; Warren Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The wooded areas of the Prairie Fork Conservation Area in central Missouri are typical of the oak/hickory forest/prairie transition zone that will require active management to restore pre-settlement, grass dominated savannas and open woodlands to improve habitat for wildlife. We initiated a management program to restore savannas and woodlands by reducing the midstory (...

  4. Special issue on Ecology, evolution, and conservation of plants in China: Introduction and some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, J. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has one of the world’s richest floras with around 33,000 vascular plants, of which up to 17,000 are endemic. Besides these astonishing figures, the Chinese flora is very interesting from the point of view of evolution, as it shows a strong relictual character with some truly “living fossils” such as Ginkgo biloba or Metasequoia glyptostroboides. At the same time, China probably harbours the most important ‘‘evolutionary front’’ of the world’s temperate flora, the Hengduan Mountains. Unfortunately, the flora of China also includes a high number of threatened species (with nearly 4000, mostly due to the destruction of natural habitats and the over-exploitation of natural resources. This special issue, which corresponds to volume 34 of Collectanea Botanica, is aimed to contribute to the knowledge of Chinese flora through a series of contributions (seven full-length articles and one short note spanning several topics such as biogeography, conservation, demography, ecology, evolution, and plant-animal interactions.China tiene una de las floras más ricas del mundo con alrededor 33.000 plantas vasculares, de las cuales hasta 17.000 son endémicas. Además de estas cifras asombrosas, la flora china es muy interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución, ya que muestra un fuerte carácter relictual con algunos auténticos «fósiles vivientes» como Ginkgo biloba o Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Al mismo tiempo, China probablemente alberga el «frente evolutivo» más importante de las floras templadas del mundo, las montañas Hengduan. Por desgracia, la flora de China también destaca por el elevado número de especies amenazadas (casi 4000, sobre todo debido a la destrucción de los hábitats y la sobreexplotación de los recursos naturales. Este número especial, que corresponde al volumen 34 de Collectanea Botanica, tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de China a través de una serie de contribuciones

  5. [Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone and its implication for conservation in Shennongjia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingxi; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

    2002-11-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, more and more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone, and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, forty sampling belts (10 m x 100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. Fourteen species of rare plants were found in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of total rare plant species in Shennongjia area. The main distribution range of the fourteen rare plant species was the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. Fourteen rare plant species could be divided into three groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation group. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  6. Breast-conserving surgery with or without radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Paola G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether Radiation therapy (RT should follow breast conserving surgery in women with ductal carcinoma in situ from breast cancer (DCIS with objective of decreased mortality, invasive or non invasive recurrence, distant metastases and contralateral breast cancer rates. We have done a meta-analysis of these results to give a more balanced view of the total evidence and to increase statistical precision. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing RT treatment for DCIS of breast cancer to observation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were searched. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. Results The reviewers identified four large RCTs, yielding 3665 patients. Pooled results from this four randomized trials of adjuvant radiotherapy showed a significant reduction of invasive and DCIS ipsilateral breast cancer with odds ratio (OR of 0.40 (95% CI 0.33 – 0.60, p Conclusion The conclusion from our meta-analysis is that the addition of radiation therapy to lumpectomy results in an approximately 60% reduction in breast cancer recurrence, no benefit for survival or distant metastases compared to excision alone. Patients with high-grade DCIS lesions and positive margins benefited most from the addition of radiation therapy. It is not yet clear which patients can be successfully treated with lumpectomy alone; until further prospective studies answer this question, radiation should be recommended after lumpectomy for all patients without contraindications.

  7. Energy conservation measures adopted in heavy water plants (Paper No. 1.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Energy use can be significantly reduced in the process plants by systematically reviewing the original design and operating practices. While designing a chemical process plant, sometimes the designers go for high margin in certain areas anticipating to suit process conditions which finally result in wastage of energy if those conditions are not realised in the actual operation of the plant. Similarly some of the operating practices evolved since commissioning, might be resulting in uneconomical use of energy when they are not checked by the regular review of the operating practices. This paper deals with the various efforts made by Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin, in identifying the potential energy losses and steps taken to minimise them, which not only resulted in substantial energy savings but also helped in debottle-necking of the plant. (author)

  8. Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmahon, C.A.; Fegan, M.; Wong, J.; Long, S.C.; Mckittrick, L.; Thomas, K.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, are used in this paper to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the western Irish Sea and from the Irish Sea to the west coast of Ireland. The results obtained are discussed in the paper and the transfer times estimated for particle-reactive radionuclides (plutonium isotopes) compared with those obtained for more conservative radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 99 Tc). Transfer factors (calculated as the ratio between observed concentrations in the environment and an average discharge rate τ years earlier, where τ is the transport time) are also presented. (author)

  9. Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant-Pollinator Interactions and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C R V; O'Dell, S; Bryant, R B; Euliss, N H; Bush, R M; Smart, M D

    2017-06-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant-pollinator interaction data collected from 2012-2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant-pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera-Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. In situ corrosion testing of various nickel alloys at Måbjerg waste incineration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hansson, A. N.; Jensen, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    overlay material currently being used to give improved corrosion resistance. In order to assess the use of alternative nickel alloys, test panels have been manufactured and inserted into Måbjerg waste incineration plant. Inconel 625 as a 50% weld overlay, two layered weld overlay and as a spiral weld......The majority of waste in Denmark is disposed via waste to energy (WTE) incineration plants which are fabricated from carbon steel. However, due to the increasing corrosiveness of waste over the years, more corrosion resistant alloys are required. In Denmark, Inconel 625 (UNSN06625) is the weld...... overlay was exposed. Other nickel materials exposed were weld overlay Alloy 686, Alloy 50 and Sumitomo Super 625 coextruded tube. Exposure has been undertaken from 2003 to 2009 in the first pass and 2005–2009 in the second pass, and sections have been removed and investigated during this period...

  11. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts.

  12. Application of electrical capacitance measurement for in situ monitoring of competitive interactions between maize and weed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseresnyés, I.; Takács, T.; Füzy, A.; Végh, K.R.; Lehoczky, E.

    2016-11-01

    Applicability of root electrical capacitance (EC) measurement for monitoring of crop–weed competition was studied in a pot experiment. Maize (Zea mays L.) was grown both alone and with Echinochloa crus-galli or Abutilon theophrasti in different densities with regular measurement of root EC. Plants were harvested 42 days after planting to determine above- and belowground biomass. Depending on weed density, E. crus-galli-A. theophrasti interaction reduced the root EC of maize by 22–66% and 3–57%, respectively. Competitive effect of crop on weeds and intraspecific competition among weeds could also be detected by EC values: E. crus-galli was less sensitive both to the presence of maize and to intraspecific competition than A. theophrasti. Strong linear correlations between root dry mass and root EC for crop and weeds (with R2 from 0.901 to 0.956) were obtained by regression analyses at the end of the experiment. EC monitoring informed us on the emergence time of competition: E. crus-galli interfered with maize root growth a week earlier then A. theophrasti, and increasing weed densities accelerated the emergence of competition. In conclusion, the simple, non-destructive EC method should be considered a potential in situ technique for pot studies on crop–weed competition, which may partially substitute the intrusive techniques commonly used in agricultural researches. (Author)

  13. Correlation of clinical and pathologic features with outcome in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Neesha; Carter, Darryl; Dillon, Deborah; Parisot, Nicole; Choi, Doo Ho; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) has become a standard treatment option for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast, risk factors for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in these patients remain an active area of investigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical and pathologic features on long-term outcome in a cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery plus RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1998, 230 patients with DCIS were treated with breast-conserving surgery plus RT at our institution. All patients were treated by local excision followed by RT to the breast to a total median tumor bed dose of 64 Gy. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was used in only 20 patients (9%). All available clinical, pathologic, and outcome data, including ipsilateral and contralateral events, were entered into a computerized database. The clinical and pathologic variables evaluated included detection method, mammographic appearance, age, family history, histologic subtype, presence of necrosis, nuclear grade, final margin status, and use of adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: As of December 15, 2000, with a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 17 patients had developed a recurrence in the ipsilateral breast, resulting in a 5- and 10-year IBTR rate of 5% and 13%, respectively. Contralateral breast cancer developed in 8 patients, resulting in a 10-year contralateral recurrence rate of 5%. Patient age, family history, histologic subtype, margin status, and tumor grade were not significantly associated with recurrence on univariate analysis. A significantly higher rate of local relapse was observed in patients with the presence of necrosis. The 10-year relapse rate was 22% in 88 patients with necrosis compared with 7% in 142 patients without necrosis (p <0.01). In multivariate analysis, the presence of necrosis remained a significant predictor of local relapse. No breast relapses

  14. Energy conservation and management plan for plant facilities at the Livermore site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, W.; Szybalski, S.; Kerr, W. H.; Meyer, H. J.

    1976-03-15

    An energy conservation and management plan for the Livermore site of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is presented. The plan defines the energy-conservation goals for the next 10 years and proposes the ways and means of attaining them. The main features contained in this plan are as follows: development of the criteria and underlying assumptions required for long range planning, including energy growth rates and the case for using the concept of the technical-fix energy growth rate, LLL energy outlook and fuel cost projections, and life-cycle-cost criteria; targets of the long-range plan include between 1975 and 1985, an annual energy usage growth equal to 5.8 percent of the 1975 energy consumption, 1985 and thereafter, zero energy growth, a change from the current dependence on natural gas to the use of other fuels for heating, and a doubling of the 30-day strategic oil storage capacity; and cost schedule for the next 10 years.

  15. Threatened plant species in the river ports of Central Europe: a potential for nature conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehlík, V.; Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2016), s. 999-1012 ISSN 1083-8155 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Central Europe * plant species richness * waterway Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2016

  16. Conservation and Multiplication of Endangered Plants :1. Leptophonia Reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Jitendra K.; Kasera, Pawan K.; Chawan, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The present communication deals with the vegetative propagation through air layering technique in L. reticluata, know as Jivanti in Ayurvedic medicinal plant, The results reveal tat ceradik treated twigs produced profuse and earl rooting with higher survival percentage

  17. Effect of two plant growth regulators and illumination conditions in the germination of conserved seeds of Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Quintana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds viability lost in the seed legume bank of Research Institute of Pastures and Forages (IIPF led to the aim of the work it was to determine the effect of two plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid; GA3 and naphthalene acetic acid; ANA and illumination conditions on the germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds. One experiment was performed with two-factor completely randomized design with four replications Five different levels of growth regulators (factor A and two illumination conditions (factor B were evaluated. The variables measured were: total germination percentage (PTG and angular transformation, days to 50% PTG (G50 and the days between 10 and 90% PTG (G10-90. In addition, morphological variables were evaluated. It was found that the addition of plant growth regulators (GA3 and NAA was effective in increasing germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds, but not the illumination conditions tested. Combination GA3 (1 mg l-1 and NAA (0.1 mg l-1 to stimulate germination was recommended. Key words: GA3, germplasm, legume, NAA, photoperiod.

  18. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  19. The conservation value of karst dolines for vascular plants in woodland habitats of Hungary: refugia and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bátori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone (karst surfaces in Hungary are rich in dolines, in which many endangered vascular plant species occur. To date, the majority of studies dealing with doline vegetation have focused on the local rather than the landscape level, without using comparative data from other areas. However, in this study we aimed to compare the vegetation pattern and species composition of dolines under different climate regimes of Hungary with regard to regional species pools. The fieldwork was carried out between 2005 and 2012. Twenty dolines were selected in the Mecsek Mountains (southern Hungary and nine dolines in the Aggtelek Karst area (northern Hungary. More than 900 vascular plants and more than 2000 plots were included in the study. The moving split window (MSW technique, nestedness analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA were used to reveal the vegetation patterns in dolines. Although we found remarkable differences between the species composition of the two regions, dolines of both regions play a similar role in the preservation of different groups of species. Many plants, in particular mountain species, are restricted to the bottom of dolines where appropriate environmental conditions exist. In addition, depending on the doline geometry, many species of drier and warmer forests have colonized the upper slopes and rims. Thus, we can conclude that karst dolines of Hungary can be considered as reservoirs for many vascular plant species, therefore they are particularly important from a conservation point of view. Moreover, these dolines will likely become increasingly indispensable refugia for biodiversity under future global warming.

  20. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

  2. Conservation of the 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) biosynthesis pathway between plants and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Kevin M; Marchant, Alan

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is driving efforts in the development of new antibacterial agents. This includes a resurgence of interest in the Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis enzymes as drug targets. The six carbon acidic sugar 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) is a component of the lipid A moiety of the LPS in Gram-negative bacteria. In most cases the lipid A substituted by Kdo is the minimum requirement for cell growth, thus presenting the possibility of targeting either the synthesis or incorporation of Kdo for the development of antibacterial agents. Indeed, potent in vitro inhibitors of Kdo biosynthesis enzymes have been reported but have so far failed to show sufficient in vivo action against Gram-negative bacteria. As part of an effort to design more potent antibacterial agents targeting Kdo biosynthesis, the crystal structures of the key Kdo biosynthesis enzymes from Escherichia coli have been solved and their structure based mechanisms characterized. In eukaryotes, Kdo is found as a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in the plant primary cell wall. Interestingly, despite incorporating Kdo into very different macromolecules the Kdo biosynthesis and activation pathway is almost completely conserved between plants and bacteria. This raises the possibility for plant research to exploit the increasingly detailed knowledge and resources being generated by the microbiology community. Likewise, insights into Kdo biosynthesis in plants will be potentially useful in efforts to produce new antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The “Hidden Diversity” of Medicinal Plants in Northeastern Brazil: Diagnosis and Prospects for Conservation and Biological Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Deyvson Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    Increases in ethnobotanical studies and knowledge in recent decades have led to a greater and more accurate interpretation of the overall patterns related to the use of medicinal plants, allowing for a clear identification of some ecological and cultural phenomena. “Hidden diversity” of medicinal plants refers in the present study to the existence of several species of medicinal plants known by the same vernacular name in a given region. Although this phenomenon has previously been observed in a localized and sporadic manner, its full dimensions have not yet been established. In the present study, we sought to assess the hidden diversity of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil based on the ethnospecies catalogued by local studies. The results indicate that there are an average of at least 2.78 different species per cataloged ethnospecies in the region. Phylogenetic proximity and its attendant morphological similarity favor the interchangeable use of these species, resulting in serious ecological and sanitary implications as well as a wide range of options for conservation and bioprospecting. PMID:24228056

  4. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  5. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  6. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  7. Long-term Outcomes of Hypofractionation Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalani, Nafisha; Paszat, Lawrence; Sutradhar, Rinku; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Done, Susan J.; Miller, Naomi; Youngson, Bruce; Tuck, Alan; Sengupta, Sandip; Elavathil, Leela; Chang, Martin C.; Jani, Prashant A.; Bonin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-breast radiation therapy (XRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may decrease the risk of local recurrence, but the optimal dose regimen remains unclear. Past studies administered 50 Gy in 25 fractions (conventional); however, treatment pattern studies report that hypofractionated (HF) regimens (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) are frequently used. We report the impact of HF (vs conventional) on the risk of local recurrence after BCS for DCIS. Methods and Materials: All women with DCIS treated with BCS and XRT in Ontario, Canada from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatment and outcomes were assessed through administrative databases and validated by chart review. Survival analyses were performed. To account for systematic differences between women treated with alternate regimens, we used a propensity score adjustment approach. Results: We identified 1609 women, of whom 971 (60%) received conventional regimens and 638 (40%) received HF. A total of 489 patients (30%) received a boost dose, of whom 143 (15%) received conventional radiation therapy and 346 (54%) received HF. The median follow-up time was 9.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-65 years). On univariate analyses, the 10-year actuarial local recurrence–free survival was 86% for conventional radiation therapy and 89% for HF (P=.03). On multivariable analyses, age <45 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.4; P<.0001), high (HR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-7.3; P=.02) or intermediate nuclear grade (HR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6; P=.04), and positive resection margins (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; P=.05) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. HF was not significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence compared with conventional radiation therapy on multivariate analysis (HR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2; P=.34). Conclusions: The risk of local recurrence among individuals treated with HF regimens

  8. Long-term Outcomes of Hypofractionation Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalani, Nafisha; Paszat, Lawrence [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sutradhar, Rinku; Thiruchelvam, Deva [Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; Slodkowska, Elzbieta [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Miller, Naomi; Youngson, Bruce [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tuck, Alan [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre and Saint Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario (Canada); Sengupta, Sandip [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Elavathil, Leela [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Juravinski Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Chang, Martin C. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jani, Prashant A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, Michel [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Whole-breast radiation therapy (XRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may decrease the risk of local recurrence, but the optimal dose regimen remains unclear. Past studies administered 50 Gy in 25 fractions (conventional); however, treatment pattern studies report that hypofractionated (HF) regimens (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) are frequently used. We report the impact of HF (vs conventional) on the risk of local recurrence after BCS for DCIS. Methods and Materials: All women with DCIS treated with BCS and XRT in Ontario, Canada from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatment and outcomes were assessed through administrative databases and validated by chart review. Survival analyses were performed. To account for systematic differences between women treated with alternate regimens, we used a propensity score adjustment approach. Results: We identified 1609 women, of whom 971 (60%) received conventional regimens and 638 (40%) received HF. A total of 489 patients (30%) received a boost dose, of whom 143 (15%) received conventional radiation therapy and 346 (54%) received HF. The median follow-up time was 9.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-65 years). On univariate analyses, the 10-year actuarial local recurrence–free survival was 86% for conventional radiation therapy and 89% for HF (P=.03). On multivariable analyses, age <45 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.4; P<.0001), high (HR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-7.3; P=.02) or intermediate nuclear grade (HR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6; P=.04), and positive resection margins (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; P=.05) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. HF was not significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence compared with conventional radiation therapy on multivariate analysis (HR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2; P=.34). Conclusions: The risk of local recurrence among individuals treated with HF regimens

  9. Outcome and prognostic factors for local recurrence in mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Julia; Levine, Alan; Gustafson, Gregory; Wimbish, Kathryn; Ingold, John; Pettinga, Jane; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Vicini, Frank

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: We have retrospectively reviewed our institution's experience treating a predominantly mammographically detected population of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CSRT) to determine outcome and prognostic factors for local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Between January 1, 1982 and December 31, 1988, 52 consecutive cases of DCIS of the breast were treated with CSRT at William Beaumont Hospital. Forty-six (88%) were mammographically detected nonpalpable lesions. All patients underwent at least an excisional biopsy and 28 (54%) were reexcised. The axilla was surgically staged in 41 (79%) and all were N0. The entire breast was irradiated to 45-50 Gy over 5-6 weeks. The tumor bed was boosted in 49 (94%) so that the minimum dose was 60 Gy. The three patients not boosted received a minimum dose of 50 Gy to the entire breast. Pathologic materials were reviewed by one of the authors. Results: The predominant DCIS pattern was comedo in 40%, cribriform in 28%, solid in 17%, and micropapillary in 15%. The predominant nuclear grade was Grade I in 51%, Grade II in 49%, and Grade III in 0%. The median follow-up is 68 months. There have been three recurrences in the treated breast at a median time to failure of 30 months. The 5- and 8-year actuarial local recurrence rate is 6%. One patient recurred with invasive ductal cancer at 28 months, and the other two recurrences were DCIS at 30 and 50 months. All three patients were treated with salvage mastectomy. The patient who recurred locally with an invasive cancer developed metastasis and died at 64 months. The 5- and 8-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates are 100% and 97%, respectively. The following pathologic factors were analyzed for an association with local recurrence: predominant DCIS histology, predominant nuclear grade, and highest nuclear grade. Of these, the predominant nuclear grade was the best predictor of local recurrence (p = 0.070). No

  10. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  11. A strategy for maximizing native plant material diversity for ecological restoration, germplasm conservation and genecology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta Youtie; Nancy Shaw; Matt Fisk; Scott Jensen

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps in planning a restoration project is careful selection of ecologically adapted native plant material. As species-specific seed zone maps are not available for most species in the Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) ecoregion in the Great Basin, USA, we are employing a provisional seed zone map based on annual...

  12. Plant diversity patterns in neotropical dry forests and their conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Banda-R; A. Delgado-Salinas; K. G. Dexter; R. Linares-Palomino; A. Oliveira-Filho; D. Prado; M. Pullan; C. Quintana; R. Riina; G. M. Rodriguez M.; J. Weintritt; P. Acevedo-Rodriguez; J. Adarve; E. Alvarez; A. Aranguren B.; J. C. Arteaga; G. Aymard; A. Castano; N. Ceballos-Mago; A. Cogollo; H. Cuadros; F. Delgado; W. Devia; H. Duenas; L. Fajardo; A. Fernandez; M. A. Fernandez; J. Franklin; E. H. Freid; L. A. Galetti; R. Gonto; R. Gonzalez-M.; R. Graveson; E. H. Helmer; A. Idarraga; R. Lopez; H. Marcano-Vega; O. G. Martinez; H. M. Maturo; M. McDonald; K. McLaren; O. Melo; F. Mijares; V. Mogni; D. Molina; N. d. P. Moreno; J. M. Nassar; D. M. Neves; L. J. Oakley; M. Oatham; A. R. Olvera-Luna; F. F. Pezzini; O. J. R. Dominguez; M. E. Rios; O. Rivera; N. Rodriguez; A. Rojas; T. Sarkinen; R. Sanchez; M. Smith; C. Vargas; B. Villanueva; R. T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are distributed across Latin America and the Caribbean and are highly threatened, with less than 10% of their original extent remaining in many countries. Using 835 inventories covering 4660 species of woody plants, we show marked floristic turnover among inventories and regions, which may be higher than...

  13. Uses and conservation of plant diversity in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Van Sam

    2009-01-01

    Ben En National Park is one of the 30 National Parks in Vietnam. In this study its botanical wealth has been comprehensively inventoried as well as the very important roles that plants play in the daily life and economy of the people inhabiting the Park. Floristic diversity - In our survey 1389

  14. Longterm changes in plant diversity of grasslands under agricultural and conservation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Naus, N.; Verhulst, J.; Ruijven, van J.; Schaffers, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Question In many industrialized countries biodiversity is declining. Although changes in species composition and species richness have been documented for many individual systems, little long-term research has been done on a regional scale. We compared the temporal patterns of plant diversity over

  15. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  16. The implications of ritual practices and ritual plant uses on nature conservation: a case study among the Naxi in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanfei; Hu, Guoxiong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Shi, Yinxian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-10-25

    Conservation of biodiversity is primary important of today's critically vulnerable environment. Efficient conservation can be possible only with the long-term participation and understanding of the communities. Ritual beliefs of the indigenous people are one of the important tools to understand the local communities and aid the nature conservation. In this paper, we documented contemporary ritual practices and ritual plant uses among the Naxi people and discussed the importance of traditional knowledge on ritual practice in the conservation of plants in the mountains presenting a case study of the Dongba culture. This study was carried out from July in 2013 to July in 2014. To document and analyze the present state of the ritual plant used by the Naxi people we conducted an ethnobotanical survey. We interviewed local people including Dongba priests using the semi-structured questionnaire. During the field study, we participated in the local religious activities to witness the use of different plants in ritual activities of the Naxi people. We interviewed twenty-two key informants and eleven of them were male. All the specimens of documented species were collected and deposited at the herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany. The survey results revealed the Naxi people possessed sound knowledge of the traditional ritual plants and great diversity of plants used in many of Naxi rituals and festivals. From the survey, we documented 32 ritual plant species belonging to 24 genera of 17 families used in various ritual activities. The ritual plants were grouped into two categories, namely those burned as incense, and those used for decoration. The incense plants like Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Pistacia weinmanniifolia were probably promising natural aromatic resource. Plants of genus Quercus were the most frequently used species. The places for ritual activities were diverse, such as the incense burners inside and outside the house and sacred trees at the

  17. Trade potential and conservation issues of medicinal plants in district Swat, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmad, H.; Yousif, M.

    2012-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for various health disorders is a common practice especially in rural areas. Poor economic condition and lack of modern health care facilities in remote areas are the major reasons for adopting traditional medicine. Mingora is considered as the main center of trade of medicinal plants not only of Swat but of the entire Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region of Pakistan. The city was analyzed for the trade potential of local medicinal plants. The present study reported trade and marketing profile of 99 species collected locally and sold in the national and international markets. A total of 99 taxa were collected belonging to 55 families and 80 genera. Helvellaceae was at the top among the largest families with 9 taxa, followed by Asteraceae and Solanacea with 8 and 6 taxa respectively. Among the life form Chamaephyte was at the top with 27 taxa (27.27%), followed by Hemicryptophyte, Phanerophyte, Therophyte, Geophyte and Parasite with 25 (25.25%), 24 (24.24%), 17 (20.20%), 2 (2.02%) and 1 taxa (1.01%), respectively. Market analysis revealed that annual production and its share to the market was 8.056 and 6.644 million kg during the years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 whereas, it gave rise to the circulation of Rs. 4475.00 and Rs. 5084.70 millions, respectively. Thus quantity traded decreased due to the unsustainable collection in the wild, while amount circulated increased due to rise in price kg/sup -1/ as a result of increased demand from the national and international market. According to an estimate approximately 99,840 individuals (i.e. 8% of the total population of Swat) are associated with the collection or trade of these important medicinal plants in the valley. The study also revealed that availability of medicinal plants decreased day by day and this process is continued for the last two decades. According to local elders, most of the medicinal plants reported were abundant in the vicinities some 20 years back. However, their population was

  18. Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2013-03-15

    With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

  19. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh HB

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur. A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur, involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-. The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal

  20. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  2. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In-situ removal and characterisation of uranium-containing particles from sediments surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. G.; Griffiths, I.; Jones, C. P.; Stitt, C. A.; Davies-Milner, M.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Yamashiki, Y.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-03-01

    Traditional methods to locate and subsequently study radioactive fallout particles have focused heavily on autoradiography coupled with in-situ analytical techniques. Presented here is the application of a Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope with both backscattered electron and energy dispersive spectroscopy detectors, along with a micromanipulator setup and electron-hardening adhesive to isolate and remove individual particles before synchrotron radiation analysis. This system allows for a greater range of new and existing analytical techniques, at increased detail and speed, to be applied to the material. Using this method, it was possible to erform detailed energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation characterisation of material likely ejected from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant found within a sediment sample collected from the edge of the 30 km exclusion zone. Particulate material sub-micron in maximum dimension examined during this work via energy dispersive spectroscopy was observed to contain uranium at levels between 19.68 and 28.35 weight percent, with the application of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy confirming its presence as a major constituent. With great effort and cost being devoted to the remediation of significant areas of eastern Japan affected by the incident, it is crucial to gain the greatest possible understanding of the nature of this contamination in order to inform the most appropriate clean-up response.

  4. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  5. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  6. Conservation between higher plants and the moss Physcomitrella patens in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid: a proteomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2010-08-01

    accumulation levels as a result of treatment with ABA. Detailed analysis these protein functions showed that physiological and molecular responses to the plant hormone ABA appear to be conserved among higher plant species and bryophytes.

  7. The hydroelectric power plant of the Widemann cotton mill (San Germano Chisone, Turin: perspectives of knowledge, conservation and enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rudiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys Pellice, Chisone and Germanasca, at whose feet lies the town of Pinerolo (TO, were among the first most industrialized areas of the Savoy state, vocation still spotted in the wide network of material evidences, such as production complexes, social facilities built for the working class, water channeling, electrification system. About the latter, there are still many active structures in the production of electricity. Some of them are dismantling, others are in operation, others are in the process of being transformed. This contribution will be focused on the case of the hydroelectric power plant of Widemann cotton mill in San Germano Chisone (TO, where the analysis of the existing structures and a diachronic reading of the archive documents has allowed to reconstruct its history and has provided the basis for some suggestions related to its conservation and enhancement.

  8. Surviving a Dry Future: Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Mediated Plant Mechanisms for Conserving Water under Low Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate. Here, we review current understanding of the genetic mechanisms underpinning ABA-mediated stomatal closure, a key means for conserving water under dry conditions, examine how these mechanisms evolved, and discuss what remains to be investigated. PMID:29113039

  9. Osmia species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae from the southeastern United States with modified facial hairs: taxonomy, host plants, and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rightmyer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe females and males of Osmia (Melanosmia calaminthae sp. n., an apparent floral specialist on Calamintha ashei (Lamiaceae, and provide observations on the behavior of female bees on flowers of this plant. We also provide diagnostic information for Osmia (Diceratosmia conjunctoides Robertson, stat. n., and synonymize O. (Diceratosmia subfasciata miamiensis Mitchell with O. conjunctoides syn. n. Females of both O. calaminthae and O. conjunctoides are unique among North American Osmia forshort, erect, simple facial hairs, which are apparent adaptations for collecting pollen from nototribic flowers. Osmia calaminthae is currently only known from sandy scrub at four nearby sites in the southern Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, USA, while O. conjunctoides is known from limited but widespread sites in the southeastern USA. We discuss the conservation status of both species based on known or speculated floral associates and distributions.

  10. Agro-environmental scheme for segetal plant conservation in Wallonia (Belgium: an assessment in conventional and organic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine, C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Segetal plant species are highly threatened in arable land. They are an integral part of agricultural history and biodiversity in Western Europe. In Wallonia (southern Belgium, an agro-environmental scheme (AES has been adopted for their conservation. It consists of strips on a field margin, with at least 60% cereals in crop rotation, and proscribes spraying and fertilisation. Objectives. This paper assessed the impact of an AES on segetal species conservation. Method. In eight organic fields and six conventional fields, a vegetation survey was performed on an AES strip and on a control margin of each field. Evenness, richness, cover and species composition for both total and segetal species were compared between AES strips and their corresponding control margins. Also, a cover of pernicious weeds was considered to be a factor in the rejection of AES by farmers. Results. In conventional agriculture, species richness (total and segetal and cover (total and segetal were higher in the AES than in the respective control; however, pernicious weed cover was also enhanced. In organic fields, total species richness was higher and pernicious weed cover was lower in the AES than in the respective control. Total evenness was higher in organic than in conventional fields, due to the co-dominance of several species. Under the AES, species composition and abundance remained different between conventional and organic fields. In all cases, rare species were hardly found in our survey. Conclusions. AES promote plant diversity in both organic and conventional fields. Sowing AES strips with uncleaned seeds from well-preserved fields, or species introduction, are recommended to enhance rare species recovery.

  11. High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Petukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.

  12. In vitro propagation and conservation of Satureja avromanica Maroofi-an indigenous threatened medicinal plant of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Vafaee, Yavar; Karami, Edris

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and rapid in vitro propagation system for Satureja avromanica, a rare and endangered folk medicinal plant of Iran was developed through the shoot tip and leaf disc explants. Nodal and leaf explants from wild plants were established on MS and WPM media supplemented with BA, BAP and TDZ (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 mgl(-1)) alone or by application of BA and TDZ (0, 2, 5 and 10 mgl(-1)) in combination with IBA and 2,4-D (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mgl(-1)), respectively. Based on results, the highest mean shoot number (6.21) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2 mgl(-1) BA. Regarding the shoot elongation, MS supplemented with 2 mgl(-1) TDZ and MS containing 5 mgl(-1) BA showed the longest shoots (4.82 and 4.39 cm, respectively) after 6 weeks of culture. As a matter of fact, increasing all three tested cytokinins levels led to enhancement of explant response frequency and regenerated shoot number. On the other side, WPM medium supplemented with 0.1 mgl(-1) IBA was found suitable for rooting of regenerated shoots. RAPD molecular analysis revealed genetic stability of in vitro raised plants. In conclusion, individual application of BA, BAP and TDZ were in favor of S. avromanica direct shoot regeneration while treatment media with a combination of IBA and BA as well as 2,4-D and TDZ resulted in callogenesis in most explants. Finally, the in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in the greenhouse conditions. Our developed protocol can be employed for the large-scale micropropagation and conservation of S. avromanica as a threatened medicinal plant.

  13. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2. Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2 suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices.

  14. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amy; Halsey, Kirstie; Lovegrove, Alison; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast “yeast-like” growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2). Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2) suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices. PMID:29020037

  15. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  16. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification / procedural changes adopted for safe and smooth operation of Heavy Water Plant, Hazira for maximising productivity and resulting in energy conservation (Paper No. 6.6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Hazira is based on monothermal ammonia-hydrogen exchange process. The plant is built in two stream for isotopic exchange and enrichment with common facilities for interconnections with fertilizer plant, synthesis unit, amide preparation, utilities and final product, identical to HWP, Thal unit. This plant is built after incorporating some of the improvement effected from operating experiences gained from Baroda, Tuticorin and Thal plants. Plant erection was completed without a single casualty/mishap well within the time schedule and commissioning was completed within six months from charging of synthesis gas and ammonia in the plant. A few modifications of minor/major nature have been incorporated both in the design and during the course of operation. Some procedural changes have also been adopted for flexibility of operation, improved productivity and energy conservation. (author). 2 figs

  18. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  19. Diversity of Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Saudi Arabia 3: An inventory of 15 Plant Families and their Conservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of medicinal species diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made for 15 angiosperm families, viz., Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Molluginaceae, Papavaraceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Tamaricaceae, Tiliaceae, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae and Vitaceae, and 61 species of medicinal plants are recognized. These families are represented in the flora by a total of 393 species of which 15.52% are medicinal. Among the families, the Fabaceae is found to be represented by 23 medicinal species which is highest and 37.70% of the total species. Of these 61 medicinal species, 72.13% exhibits herbaceous life form while remaining 13.11% and 14.75% exhibit shrubs and trees respectively. An enumeration of these medicinal species is presented, each with current nomenclature, Arabic name, English name, medicinal uses, pharmacological properties and status of occurrence in the flora. The communication is aimed at emphasizing the planning and implementation of national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the medicinal plants of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11091 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 312-320

  20. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Rojas; Maritza Reyes; Naivy Pérez-Alonso; María I. Olóriz; Laisyn Posada-Pérez; Bárbara Ocaña; Orelvis Portal; Borys Chong-Pérez; Jorge L. Pérez Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol). In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend ...

  1. In situ measurement of some gamma-emitting radionuclides in plant communities of the South Carolina coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Tanner, B.K.; Coleman, R.N.; Palms, J.M.; Wood, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken in nine scrub oak forests and nine old fields to determine the applicability of in situ analysis in the coastal plain. Data collected at each of the 18 sites included a 2-hr count, soil density and moisture estimates, and vegetation measurements. Samples returned to the laboratory for radiometric analysis included litter and herbaceous vegetation and soil cores. Analysis of the gamma-emitter detection frequencies, concentrations, and burdens showed good to excellent agreement between laboratory and in situ methods. Generally, forests were determined to be superior in situ sampling systems. Laboratory analysis of collected samples may be a superior technique for gamma emitters with low energies, low concentrations, or nonuniform distributions in the soil. Three potential uses of in situ Ge(Li) spectrometers were identified and discussed in terms of their limits and of the replicate ecosystems appropriate for in situ analyses. Although the variety and the biogeochemical cycling regimes of southeastern coastal plain ecosystems complicate in situ analyses, it was concluded that comparable and probably accurate results can be achieved using in situ technology

  2. In-situ marine monitoring and environmental management of SWRO concentrate discharge: A case study of the KAUST SWRO plant

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-06-01

    Concentrate (when discharged to the ocean) may have chronic/acute impacts on marine ecosystems, particularly in the mixing zone around outfalls. The environmental impact of the desalination plant discharges is very site- and volumetric specific, and depends to a great extent on the salinity tolerance of the specific marine microbial communities as well as higher order organisms inhabiting the water column in and around this extreme discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to grant insight into possible impacts of concentrate discharge are very important, in order to understand how this may affect different marine species when exposed to elevated salinity levels or residual chemicals from the treatment process in the discharge site. The objective of this PhD research was to investigate the potential environmental effects of the concentrate discharge in the near-field area around the submerged discharge of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant by a combination of biological and hydrological studies. Possible changes in microbial abundance were assessed by using flow cytometric (FCM) analysis on a single-cell level in 107 samples, taken from the discharge area, the feed-water intake area and two control sites. Results indicate that changes in microbial abundance in the near-field area of the KAUST SWRO outfall are minor and appear to bethe result of a dilution effect rather than a direct impact of the concentrate discharge. In order to also investigate potential impacts on higher order organisms, a longterm in-situ salinity tolerance test at the discharge site was conducted on the coral Fungia granulosa and its photophysiology. The corals were exposed to elevated levels of salinity as a direct result of concentrate discharge. Their photosynthetic response after exposure to extreme salinity conditions around the full-scale operating SWRO desalination discharge was measured. A pulse amplitude

  3. Negative impacts of invasive plants on conservation of sensitive desert wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Berger, Andrew J.; Custer, Nathan; Waters, Shannon C.; Johnson, Jay D.; Miles, A. Keith; Lewison, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from development, resource extraction, off-road vehicle use, and energy development ranks highly among threats to desert systems worldwide. In the Mojave Desert, United States, these disturbances have promoted the establishment of nonnative plants, so that native grasses and forbs are now intermixed with, or have been replaced by invasive, nonnative Mediterranean grasses. This shift in plant composition has altered food availability for Mojave Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally listed species. We hypothesized that this change in forage would negatively influence the physiological ecology, immune competence, and health of neonatal and yearling tortoises. To test this, we monitored the effects of diet on growth, body condition, immunological responses (measured by gene transcription), and survival for 100 captive Mojave tortoises. Tortoises were assigned to one of five diets: native forbs, native grass, invasive grass, and native forbs combined with either the native or invasive grass. Tortoises eating native forbs had better body condition and immune functions, grew more, and had higher survival rates (>95%) than tortoises consuming any other diet. At the end of the experiment, 32% of individuals fed only native grass and 37% fed only invasive grass were found dead or removed from the experiment due to poor body conditions. In contrast, all tortoises fed either the native forb or combined native forb and native grass diets survived and were in good condition. Health and body condition quickly declined for tortoises fed only the native grass (Festuca octoflora) or invasive grass (Bromus rubens) with notable loss of fat and muscle mass and increased muscular atrophy. Bromus rubens seeds were found embedded in the oral mucosa and tongue in most individuals eating that diet, which led to mucosal inflammation. Genes indicative of physiological, immune, and metabolic functions were transcribed at lower levels for individuals fed B

  4. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ökmen, B.; Collemare, J.; Griffiths, S.A.; Burgt, van der A.; Cox, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. ¿cfwor1

  5. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Syphard, Alexandra D; Franklin, Janet; Anderson, Kurt E; Akçakaya, H Resit; Mizerek, Toni; Winchell, Clark; Regan, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    Most species face multiple anthropogenic disruptions. Few studies have quantified the cumulative influence of multiple threats on species of conservation concern, and far fewer have quantified the potential relative value of multiple conservation interventions in light of these threats. We linked spatial distribution and population viability models to explore conservation interventions under projected climate change, urbanization, and changes in fire regime on a long-lived obligate seeding plant species sensitive to high fire frequencies, a dominant plant functional type in many fire-prone ecosystems, including the biodiversity hotspots of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. First, we investigated the relative risk of population decline for plant populations in landscapes with and without land protection under an existing habitat conservation plan. Second, we modeled the effectiveness of relocating both seedlings and seeds from a large patch with predicted declines in habitat area to 2 unoccupied recipient patches with increasing habitat area under 2 projected climate change scenarios. Finally, we modeled 8 fire return intervals (FRIs) approximating the outcomes of different management strategies that effectively control fire frequency. Invariably, long-lived obligate seeding populations remained viable only when FRIs were maintained at or above a minimum level. Land conservation and seedling relocation efforts lessened the impact of climate change and land-use change on obligate seeding populations to differing degrees depending on the climate change scenario, but neither of these efforts was as generally effective as frequent translocation of seeds. While none of the modeled strategies fully compensated for the effects of land-use and climate change, an integrative approach managing multiple threats may diminish population declines for species in complex landscapes. Conservation plans designed to mitigate the impacts of a single threat are likely to fail if additional

  6. Conservation des pollens de deux plantes mellifères (Vitellaria paradoxa et Steganotaenia araliacea de la région de l'Adamaoua Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youmbi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of Pollens of Two Honey Species (Vitellaria paradoxa and Steganotaenia araliaceae in the Region of Adamawa (Cameroon. The Adamaoua Region of Cameroon is a significant apiculture zone. The threats on the plant bioversity of this zone calls for the conservation of pollens, which in turn is necessary for the improvement and conservation of melliferous plants. Permanent maintenance of the flora is essential in research where pollens serve as base of plant material. In order to optimize conservation parameters of pollens of the two melliferous plants threatened (Vitellaria paradoxa and Steganotaenia araliaceae, in vitro tests (base medium, sucrose concentration, temperature, pH, dehydration time, and then storage of pollens in the fridge (+ 10 °C as well as in the freezer (- 20 °C were carried out. According to the results, pollen of the two plant species showed high germination rate in the Heslop-Harrison medium supplemented with 10 and 15% sucrose respectively for V. paradoxa and S. araliaceae. The optimum germination rates (39% and 20% were obtained respectively at pH 5.6 and 5.9 while optimum temperature was at 30 °C. Pollen of S. araliaceae were more tolerant to dehydration 8 weeks after drying in a desiccator containing silice grains. Pollen of two species still germinated more than 1% after 8 weeks of storage in the freezer. One week dehydration considerably extended storage period of pollens of the two plant species compared to the control. In the defined conditions, pollen grains of the two species can be stored for future use in plant breeding programs.

  7. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  8. Ethnobotany, therapeutic value, phytochemistry and conservation status of Bowiea volubilis: A widely used bulbous plant in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-11-04

    Bowiea volubilis Harv. ex Hook.f. (Family: Asparagaceae) is a bulbous medicinal plant widely used against numerous ailments including headache, muscular pains, infertility, cystitis and venereal diseases in southern Africa. To provide a critical and updated review of Bowiea volubilis with regards to its abundance, medicinal importance, conservation status and potential means to sustain its availability for future generations. A comprehensive literature search using online databases such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and Springerlink as well as ethnobotanical literature was done in order to obtain, collate, synthesize and critically analyze available information on Bowiea volubilis. On the basis of its wide distribution in many Provinces in South Africa, Bowiea volubilis has a long history of applications among the different ethnic groups. These applications include its uses as purgatives and for the treatment or relief of microbial infections, skin disorders, pains and inflammation. Scientific validation of its diverse uses in traditional medicine has been demonstrated via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and toxicity assays. Available results indicate a general poor antimicrobial activity especially with the bulb extracts while the anti-inflammatory activity appears promising. Phytochemical screenings revealed that Bowiea volubilis contains cardiac glycosides and related compounds while reports of other classes of compounds are unavailable. In line with its usage in traditional medicine, the majority of available studies on the species have focused on the use of different solvent extracts from the bulbs. The destructive harvesting of bulbs has led to a continuous decimation of wild populations. Consequently, there are increasing conservational concerns on the sustainability of this species for continuous supply to meet escalating demands. Bowiea volubilis remains a widely used medicinal plant and available but limited scientific evidence indicates its

  9. A novel plant-based-sea water culture media for in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the halophyte microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Saleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant-based-sea water culture medium is introduced to in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the microbiome of halophytes. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was used, in the form of juice and/or dehydrated plant powder packed in teabags, to supplement the natural sea water. The resulting culture medium enjoys the combinations of plant materials as rich source of nutrients and sea water exercising the required salt stress. As such without any supplements, the culture medium was sufficient and efficient to support very good in vitro growth of halotolerant bacteria. It was also capable to recover their in situ culturable populations in the phyllosphere, ecto-rhizosphere and endo-rhizosphere of halophytes prevailing in Lake Mariout, Egypt. When related to the total bacterial numbers measured for Suaeda pruinosa roots by quantitative-PCR, the proposed culture medium increased culturability (15.3–19.5% compared to the conventional chemically-synthetic culture medium supplemented with (11.2% or without (3.8% NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, representative isolates of halotolerant bacteria prevailed on such culture medium were closely related to Bacillus spp., Halomonas spp., and Kocuria spp. Seed germination tests on 25–50% sea water agar indicated positive interaction of such bacterial isolates with the germination and seedlings’ growth of barley seeds.

  10. Mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation: long-term outcome and prognostic significance of patient age and margin status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Haffty, Bruce; Taylor, Marie; McCormick, Beryl; McNeese, Marsha; Pierce, Lori J.; Landmann, Christine; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Borger, Jacques; Kim, Jung-Soo; Rochefordiere, Anne de la; Schultz, Delray J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the long-term outcome for women with mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 422 mammographically detected intraductal breast carcinomas in 418 women from 11 institutions in North America and Europe. All patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation. The median follow-up time was 9.4 years (mean, 9.4 years; range, 0.1-19.8 years). Results: The 15-year overall survival rate was 92%, and the 15-year cause-specific survival rate was 98%. The 15-year rate of freedom from distant metastases was 94%. There were 48 local failures in the treated breast, and the 15-year rate of any local failure was 16%. The median time to local failure was 5.0 years (mean, 5.7 years; range, 1.0-15.2 years). Patient age at the time of treatment and final pathology margin status from the primary tumor excision were both significantly associated with local failure. The 10-year rate of local failure was 31% for patient age ≤ 39 years, 13% for age 40-49 years, 8% for age 50-59 years, and 6% for age ≥ 60 years (p=0.0001). The 10-year rate of local failure was 24% when the margins of resection were positive, 9% when the margins of resection were negative, 7% when the margins of resection were close, and 12% when the margins of resection were unknown (p=0.030). Patient age ≤ 39 years and positive margins of resection were both independently associated with an increased risk of local failure (p=0.0006 and p=0.023, respectively) in the multivariable Cox regression model. Conclusions: The 15-year results from the present study demonstrated high rates of overall survival, cause-specific survival, and freedom from distant metastases following the treatment of mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the

  11. Genomic profiling of rice sperm cell transcripts reveals conserved and distinct elements in the flowering plant male germ lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wong, Chui E; Wang, Xinkun; Yuan, Tong; Wei, Xiaoping; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2012-08-01

    Genomic assay of sperm cell RNA provides insight into functional control, modes of regulation, and contributions of male gametes to double fertilization. Sperm cells of rice (Oryza sativa) were isolated from field-grown, disease-free plants and RNA was processed for use with the full-genome Affymetrix microarray. Comparison with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) reference arrays confirmed expressionally distinct gene profiles. A total of 10,732 distinct gene sequences were detected in sperm cells, of which 1668 were not expressed in pollen or seedlings. Pathways enriched in male germ cells included ubiquitin-mediated pathways, pathways involved in chromatin modeling including histones, histone modification and nonhistone epigenetic modification, and pathways related to RNAi and gene silencing. Genome-wide expression patterns in angiosperm sperm cells indicate common and divergent themes in the male germline that appear to be largely self-regulating through highly up-regulated chromatin modification pathways. A core of highly conserved genes appear common to all sperm cells, but evidence is still emerging that another class of genes have diverged in expression between monocots and dicots since their divergence. Sperm cell transcripts present at fusion may be transmitted through plasmogamy during double fertilization to effect immediate post-fertilization expression of early embryo and (or) endosperm development. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  13. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  14. Automatic non-destructive three-dimensional acoustic coring system for in situ detection of aquatic plant root under the water bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Mizuno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Digging is necessary to detect plant roots under the water bottom. However, such detection is affected by the transparency of water and the working skills of divers, usually requires considerable time for high-resolution sampling, and always damages the survey site. We developed a new automatic non-destructive acoustic measurement system that visualizes the space under the water bottom, and tested the system in the in situ detection of natural plant roots. The system mainly comprises a two-dimensional waterproof stage controlling unit and acoustic measurement unit. The stage unit was electrically controlled through a notebook personal computer, and the space under the water bottom was scanned in a two-dimensional plane with the stage unit moving in steps of 0.01 m (±0.0001 m. We confirmed a natural plant root with diameter of 0.025–0.030 m in the reconstructed three-dimensional acoustic image. The plant root was at a depth of about 0.54 m and the propagation speed of the wave between the bottom surface and plant root was estimated to be 1574 m/s. This measurement system for plant root detection will be useful for the non-destructive assessment of the status of the space under the water bottom.

  15. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjiang Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  16. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokela Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues.

  17. Planning, developing, and fielding of thermal/structural interactions in situ tests for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    Large-scale, well-instrumented underground tests to determine in situ thermal/structural response of bedded salt are being constructed in the WIPP facility in southeastern New Mexico. These tests are an essential component of a broad research and development program to resolve thermal/structural issues, to validate long-term prediction methods, and to develop a design basis for a future repository. They are the result of an extensive planning and evaluation procedure to determine the appropriate test configuration. All details of the tests, including background, decisions, design, site operations, and testing organization are explained. These procedures may be useful in developing other in situ tests

  18. In situ responses of a biological indicator Mytilus edulis L. to the variations of radionuclide discharges from a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Michel; Leon, Rene; Miramand, Pierre; Germain, Pierre.

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of 10 lots of 100kg of mussels in La Hague waters made it possible to investigate the in situ uptake kinetics of 106 Ru + 106 Rh released by the fuel reprocessing plant of La Hague during 1 year. Equilibrium was reached within 1 - 3 months, whatever the time of introduction and the amounts released. The removal of the mussels labelled at La Hague to a remote aera made it possible to calculate the biological half-life of 106 Ru + 106 Rh, viz from 16 to 18 days [fr

  19. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  20. In-Situ Analysis Of Metal(loid)s In Plants: State Of The Art And Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metals and metalloids play important roles in plant function and metabolism. Likewise, plants subsequently introduce vital dietary nutrition to people and animals. Understanding the transport, localisation and speciation of these elements is critical for understanding availabil...

  1. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  2. FY 2000 report on the survey on energy conservation technology of large plant using ultra high corrosion resistant materials; 2000 nendo chokotaishokusei zairyo wo mochiita ogata plant no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving remarkable energy conservation/resource conservation in large plants, the paper carried out an investigational survey of effects obtained in case of applying amorphous super metal which is the newest corrosion resistant material. Amorphous alloys as an ultra high corrosion resistant material are a peculiar material which shows the extremely excellent corrosion resistance even in much strong acid by containing passivated elements with the needed concentration. The corrosion resistant amorphous alloy applied to large plants need the thickness and diameter of more than several millimeters as a bulk material. The subjects are scaling-up of bulk materials and stabilization of characteristics. Even under the tough dew point corrosion environment of the waste power plant, etc., heat recovery from exhaust gas is made possible by heat exchanger applied with ultra high corrosion resistant materials. Effects of the annual heat recovery from the nationwide refuse incinerators and coal thermal power plants are estimated to be approximately 5.2 million kL toe, that is, to be equal to energy conservation of 6 x a million kW class power plant. (NEDO)

  3. ''In situ'' migration tests at the Berrocal site with conservative isotopic tracers: laboratory and field results from phase I of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, M.; Mousty, F.; Guimera, J.; Yllera de Llano, A.

    1996-01-01

    Cross-hole migration tests were performed between two boreholes connected by a fracture in the granite aquifer of the El Berrocal site. The suitability of a natural isotopic tracer (''79BR) as hydrological marker of groundwater movement, was evaluated on the basis of laboratory and field tests. Small scale infiltration experiments with granite cored columns and repacked columns of crushed granite showed that the change of the natural isotopic ratio ''79Br/''81Br with time can be used to monitor the tracer breakthrough. Comparison was made with other non-sorbing tracers, such as tritiated water, chloride and iodide. The difference in travel time of halides was ascribed to anion exclusion and ion size effects. The in-situ migration test demonstrated the feasibility of the described technique for monitoring the groundwater movement without altering the geochemistry of the site. The following approach has been chosen: 1) a first preliminary test demonstrating the feasibility of using the enriched isotopic tracer technique for ''in-situ''tests. 2) Preliminary assessment of the parameters necessary to plan a radial-flow migration test directed to characterize the permeable system through the definition of the hydrodynamic parameters of the fracture. (Author)

  4. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  5. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] in situ room closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured WIPP in situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program

  7. Two Pilot Plant Reactors Designed for the In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorobenzene-contaminated Ground Water: Hydrogeological and Chemical Characteristics and Bacterial Consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten, E-mail: vogt@umb.ufz.de; Alfreider, Albin [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology (Germany); Lorbeer, Helmut [University of Technology Dresden, Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment (Germany); Ahlheim, Joerg; Feist, Bernd [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Industrial and Mining Landscapes (Germany); Boehme, Olaf [GFE GmbH Halle (Germany); Weiss, Holger [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Industrial and Mining Landscapes (Germany); Babel, Wolfgang; Wuensche, Lothar [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology (Germany)

    2002-05-15

    The SAFIRA in situ pilot plant in Bitterfeld, Saxonia-Anhalt, Germany, currently serves as the test site for eight different in situ approaches to remediate anoxic chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated ground water. Two reactors, both filled with original lignite-containing aquifer material, are designed for the microbiological in situ remediation of the ground water by the indigenous microbial consortia. In this study, the hydrogeological, chemical and microbiological conditions of the in flowing ground water and reactor filling material are presented,in order to establish the scientific basis for the start of the bioremediation process itself. The reactors were put into operation in June 1999. In the following, inflow CB concentrations in the ground water varied between 22 and 33 mg L{sup -1}; a chemical steady state for CB in both reactors was reached after 210 till 260 days operation time. The sediments were colonized by high numbers of aerobic, iron-reducing and denitrifying bacteria, as determined after 244 and 285 days of operation time. Furthermore, aerobic CB-degrading bacteria were detected in all reactor zones. Comparative sequence analysis of16S rDNA gene clone libraries suggest the dominance of Proteobacteria (Comamonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Gallionella group, Acidithiobacillus) and members of the class of low G+C gram-positive bacteria in the reactor sediments. In the inflowing ground water, sequences with phylogenetic affiliation to sulfate-reducing bacteria and sequences not affiliated with the known phyla of Bacteria, were found.

  8. Two Pilot Plant Reactors Designed for the In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorobenzene-contaminated Ground Water: Hydrogeological and Chemical Characteristics and Bacterial Consortia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Carsten; Alfreider, Albin; Lorbeer, Helmut; Ahlheim, Joerg; Feist, Bernd; Boehme, Olaf; Weiss, Holger; Babel, Wolfgang; Wuensche, Lothar

    2002-01-01

    The SAFIRA in situ pilot plant in Bitterfeld, Saxonia-Anhalt, Germany, currently serves as the test site for eight different in situ approaches to remediate anoxic chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated ground water. Two reactors, both filled with original lignite-containing aquifer material, are designed for the microbiological in situ remediation of the ground water by the indigenous microbial consortia. In this study, the hydrogeological, chemical and microbiological conditions of the in flowing ground water and reactor filling material are presented,in order to establish the scientific basis for the start of the bioremediation process itself. The reactors were put into operation in June 1999. In the following, inflow CB concentrations in the ground water varied between 22 and 33 mg L -1 ; a chemical steady state for CB in both reactors was reached after 210 till 260 days operation time. The sediments were colonized by high numbers of aerobic, iron-reducing and denitrifying bacteria, as determined after 244 and 285 days of operation time. Furthermore, aerobic CB-degrading bacteria were detected in all reactor zones. Comparative sequence analysis of16S rDNA gene clone libraries suggest the dominance of Proteobacteria (Comamonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Gallionella group, Acidithiobacillus) and members of the class of low G+C gram-positive bacteria in the reactor sediments. In the inflowing ground water, sequences with phylogenetic affiliation to sulfate-reducing bacteria and sequences not affiliated with the known phyla of Bacteria, were found

  9. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  10. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  11. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Othmar; STOLL, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, R hododendron ferrugineum, S enecio incanus and R anunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), which rem...

  12. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-José, Azucena de Lourdes; Aguilar, Beatriz Rendón

    2012-07-12

    Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a) to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b) to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67%) have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role for local people in many

  13. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  14. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  15. Phyto-constituents, Pharmacological Properties and Biotechnological Approaches for Conservation of the Anti-diabetic Functional Food Medicinal Plant Salacia: A Review Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bagnazari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Genus Salacia L. (Celastraceae is a woody climbing medicinal plant consisting of about 200 species with many endangered species located throughout the world’s tropical areas. Various parts of the plant as food, functional food additive and tea have been extensively used to treat a variety of ailments like diabetes and obesity as well as inflammatory and skin diseases. The present work reviews the phytochemical properties, pharmacological activities, biotechnological strategy for conservation and safety evaluation of this valuable genus.Results and Conclusion: More efforts are needed to isolate new phytoconstituents from this important medicinal plant. The  echanism of anti-diabetic action has not been done at molecular and cellular levels, thus the fundamental biological understanding is required for future applications. Though the safety of plant species has been well documented and has been confirmed by many toxicological studies, further toxicity research and clinical trials arerecommended. In order to sustain harvest and conservation, agronomic practices for cultivation have to be developed. Establishment of more efficient protocols for in vitro propagation is necessary too. Approaches like genetic manipulation, hairy root culture, media standardization, and use of inducers/precursors for elevation of secondary metabolite levels could also be attractive.Conflict of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

  16. Conservation of AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3 homolog gene regulation by salt stress in evolutionarily distant plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eD'Orso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-rich tandem zinc-finger proteins (RR-TZF participate in a wide range of plant developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic stress, such as cold, salt and drought. This study investigates the conservation of the genes AtTZF1-5 at the level of their sequences and expression across plant species. The genomic sequences of the two RR-TZF genes TdTZF1-A and TdTZF1-B were isolated in durum wheat and assigned to chromosomes 3A and 3B, respectively. Sequence comparisons revealed that they encode proteins that are highly homologous to AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3. The expression profiles of these RR-TZF durum wheat and Arabidopsis proteins support a common function in the regulation of seed germination and responses to abiotic stress. In particular, analysis of plants with attenuated and overexpressed AtTZF3 indicate that AtTZF3 is a negative regulator of seed germination under conditions of salt stress. Finally, comparative sequence analyses establish that the RR-TZF genes are encoded by lower plants, including the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The regulation of the Physcomitrella AtTZF1-2-3-like genes by salt stress strongly suggests that a subgroup of the RR-TZF proteins has a function that has been conserved throughout evolution.

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF MATING PATTERNS FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED PLANT ERIOGONUM OVALIFOLIUM VAR. VINEUM (POLYGONACEAE). (R826102)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating patterns have direct application to: conservation because of their influence on structuring genetic diversity within and among populations and on maintaining that diversity over time. We measured population and family outcrossing rates, biparental inbreeding correlation of...

  18. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-José Azucena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67% have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role

  19. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  20. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledile Mankga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species, either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health.

  1. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Conversion of raw materials in fertilizer plants and energy conservation in India; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Indo hiryo plant genryo tenkan to shoene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As a project contributing to reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions by introducing energy conservation technology of Japan to India and to sustainable economic development in India, study of 'conversion of raw materials in fertilizer plants in India' was made, and the results were reported. The Indian government has been controlling the retail price of fertilizer by the subsidy policy for the protection of the domestic fertilizer production. Therefore, plants, which use coal/heavy oil/naphtha with much greenhouse gas emission as raw materials, have been behind improvement and now have no competitive force in the international market. In this project, concerning ZIL's fertilizer plant, the ammonia production capacity was set at 750 t/d and the urea production capacity at 1,300 t/d, and the energy conservation technology and the conversion of raw materials from naphtha to natural gas were studied. As a result, the amount of energy conservation was 55,705 toe/y, and the amount of CO2 reduction was 245,139 t-CO2/y. Further, this project indicated that profits were expected to increase and the cash flow would change for the better. (NEDO)

  2. Fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) in plant germ cells and the fertilized ovule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    First evidence on gene function and regulation is provided by the cellular expression pattern in complex tissues. However, to understand the activity of a specific gene, it is essential to analyze the regulatory network, which controls the spatio-temporal translation pattern during the entire life span of the transcribed mRNA. To explore mechanisms which control mRNA abundance and localization in space and time, it is necessary to visualize mRNAs quantitatively with a subcellular resolution, without sectioning the tissues. We have adapted and optimized a protocol for colorimetric whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (WISH) using egg cell-specific digoxigenin (DIG) labeled probes (Hejátko et al., 2006) [1] on ovules and early seeds of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we established a fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) protocol, which allows mRNA visualization on a subcellular level. The polar localized mRNA of SBT4.13, encoding a subtilase, was identified using this protocol. Both methods are described and discussed in detail. Additionally a (F)-WISH flow-chart is provided along with a troubleshooting table. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish

    2014-01-01

    synthases within the large GDSL superfamily. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution‐state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily...... of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL‐motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin...... linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross‐linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors....

  4. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abzazou, Tarik; Araujo, Rosa M.; Auset, María; Salvadó, Humbert

    2016-01-01

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L"−"1), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH_4"+ removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  5. Revisiting plant conservation on wooded shrines by a transversal approach: "Core" vs. "satellite" species and anthropological knowledge in Bwaba land, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fournier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on plant conservation in sacred groves provide mixed results, with some showing their effectiveness while others do not. We argue that beyond the variety of field cases, studies usually suffer from overrating rare species and insufficient consideration of societal data. The sacred sites of Bondoukuy department in Bwaba cultural area (Burkina Faso were geo-referenced and measured; the most abundant ligneous species were listed and their abundance recorded. Their conservation status and dynamics were assessed based on the core vs. satellite species model of Hanski. Data interpretations relied on the phytogeographical affinities of abundant species and on anthropological knowledge of the Bwaba society. The vast majority of shrines were less than 1 ha, located in or near villages in specific landscape features, and covered with trees. The most abundant species of shrines belonged mostly to local phytochories, but were subject to rather high anthropisation. The results support the concept that wooded shrines preserve local biodiversity, but indicate threats from an invasive alien species. The location and condition of shrines appeared to be constitutive features: the Bwaba system of thought involves a series of sacred sites (with and without trees located in remarkable features of the landscape, and their way of life has resulted in the proximity of these sites to the villages. The beliefs that promote plant cover conservation do so only to a certain extent and regardless of the species content, which raises the concern that alien species may upset the established communities. These beliefs have led the Bwaba to choose the most humid environments in which to set up their wooded shrines, which is interesting from a conservation perspective. The study advocates for a better consideration of social data to identify the key elements of the dynamics of the vegetation of sacred groves.

  6. The impact of lobular carcinoma in situ in association with invasive breast cancer on the rate of local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Shruti; Kestin, Larry L.; Goldstein, Neal S.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The significance of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) associated with invasive breast cancer in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT) remains controversial. We examined the impact of the presence and extent of LCIS associated with invasive breast cancer on clinical outcome in BCT patients. Methods and Materials: From 1980 to 1996, 607 cases of invasive breast cancer were treated with BCT. All slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. Positive margin was defined as presence of invasive carcinoma/ductal carcinoma in situ at the inked margin. Multiple clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed for their association with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and true recurrence/marginal miss (TR/MM). Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Results: Fifty-six patients (9%) had LCIS in association with invasive cancer. On univariate analysis, positive final margin, positive/no reexcision, smaller maximum specimen dimension, and the presence of LCIS predicted for IBTR. The 10-year IBTR rate was 14% for cases with LCIS vs. 7% without LCIS (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, positive margin (p < 0.01), positive/no reexcision (p = 0.04), and presence of LCIS (p = 0.02) remained independently associated with IBTR; positive margin (p < 0.01) and LCIS (p = 0.04) were also associated with TR/MM failure. When examining only cases with negative final margins, the presence of LCIS remained associated with higher IBTR and TR/MM rates (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The presence of LCIS was independently associated with higher rate of IBTR and TR/MM after BCT for invasive breast cancer. LCIS may have significant premalignant potential and progress to an invasive IBTR at the site of index lesion. The adequacy of excision of LCIS associated with invasive carcinoma should be considered in patients undergoing BCT

  7. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991

  8. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  9. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  10. In Situ 3D Segmentation of Individual Plant Leaves Using a RGB-D Camera for Agricultural Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Xia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a challenging task of 3D segmentation of individual plant leaves from occlusions in the complicated natural scene. Depth data of plant leaves is introduced to improve the robustness of plant leaf segmentation. The low cost RGB-D camera is utilized to capture depth and color image in fields. Mean shift clustering is applied to segment plant leaves in depth image. Plant leaves are extracted from the natural background by examining vegetation of the candidate segments produced by mean shift. Subsequently, individual leaves are segmented from occlusions by active contour models. Automatic initialization of the active contour models is implemented by calculating the center of divergence from the gradient vector field of depth image. The proposed segmentation scheme is tested through experiments under greenhouse conditions. The overall segmentation rate is 87.97% while segmentation rates for single and occluded leaves are 92.10% and 86.67%, respectively. Approximately half of the experimental results show segmentation rates of individual leaves higher than 90%. Nevertheless, the proposed method is able to segment individual leaves from heavy occlusions.

  11. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, A; Gregorc, B; Gale, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatolicje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  12. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant]/SRL in situ tests: Part 2, Pictorial history of MIIT [Materials Interface Interactions Tests] and final MIIT matrices, assemblies, and sample listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Weinle, M.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In situ testing of Savannah River Plant [SRP] waste glass is an important component in ensuring technical and public confidence in the safety and effective performance of the wasteforms. Savannah River Laboratory [SRL] is currently involved in joint programs involving field testing of SRP waste in Sweden, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Most recently, this in situ effort has been expanded to include the first field tests to be conducted in the United States, involving burial of a variety of simulated nuclear waste systems. This new effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT, is a program jointly conducted by Sandia National Laboratory/Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] and SRL. Over 1800 samples, supplied by the United States, France, West Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the United Kingdom, were buried approximately 650m below the earth's surface in the salt geology at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program is one of the largest cooperative efforts ever undertaken in the waste management field; the data produced from these tests are designed to benefit a wide cross-section of the waste management community. An earlier document provided an overview of the WIPP MIIT program and described its place in the waste glass assessment program at Savannah River. This document represents the second in this series and its objectives include: (1) providing a pictorial history of assembly and installation of wasteforms, metals, and geologic samples in WIPP; (2) providing 'finalized and completed' sample matrices for the entire 7-part MIIT program; (3) documenting final sample assemblies by the use of schematic drawings, including each sample, its orientation, and its environment; and (4) providing a complete listing of all samples and the means for managing analyses and resulting data

  13. Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities : a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Bekker, RM; Van Andel, J

    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were

  14. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.R.; Croft, S.; van Loon, E.E.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  15. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Croft, S.; Loon, van E.E.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  16. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  17. Alleviation of Salt Stress by Enterobacter sp. EJ01 in Tomato and Arabidopsis Is Accompanied by Up-Regulation of Conserved Salinity Responsive Factors in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways. PMID:24598995

  18. Efficient somatic embryogenesis and molecular marker based analysis as effective tools for conservation of red-listed plant Commiphora wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK KUMAR PARMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined and high efficiency protocol for in vitro regeneration of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed medicinal plant of medicinal importance, has been developed through optimized somatic embryogenesis pathway. Cultures from immature fruits were induced and proliferated on B5 medium supplemented with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Embryogenic calli were obtained and then maintained for extended periods by alternately subculturing on modified MS medium supplemented with 1.11 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IBA and with 0.5% activated charcoal or without PGR every 3-4 weeks. Cyclic embryogenesis was obtained. Late torpedo and early cotyledonary stages somatic embryos were regularly harvested from PGR-free modified MS medium. It was found that percent moisture available in culture containers play a critical role in maturation and subsequent germination of somatic embryos of C. wighti. Maximum germination of more than 80% was achieved through media recycling. Somatic embryo derived plants (emblings were acclimatized. After 5 months, acclimatized plants were out-planted in experimental field. These morphologically normal plants have been surviving for over 3 years. Molecular polymorphism was clearly evident when these plants were tested using RAPD primers, making the plants suitable for use in its species restoration program.

  19. In-situ biochar application conserves nutrients while simultaneously mitigating runoff and erosion of an Fe-oxide-enriched tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, Huan-Hsuan; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Jien, Shih-Hao; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-04-01

    Climate change gives rise to rapid degradation of rural soils in sloping subtropical and tropical areas and might further threaten environmental sustainability. In this study, we conducted an integrated evaluation of the effects of wood biochar (WB) application mixed with a green waste dreg compost (GWC) on runoff quality, soil losses, and agricultural productivity for a highly weathered tropical soil. A conventional agriculture method, in which soils are treated with anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was also conducted for comparison. The amounts of runoff and soil loss, and nutrient retention were evaluated a year after WB application. Soil fertility was also investigated through a year pot experiment with rape (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation. Our results showed that the WB application not only effectively increased soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC) and exchangeable K + but also increased the production of rape plants. Significant reduction of runoff and the increases of inorganic nitrogen (IN) and total phosphorus (TP) were found in the WB-treated soil. Compared to the control, the co-application of WB and GWC, particularly for the WB at 4%, decreased runoff by 16.8%, soil loss by 25%, and IN loss (via runoff) by 41.8%. Meanwhile, compared to the control and PAM treatments, the co-application of WB and GWC improved soil acidity and the contents of SOC, IN, TP, and exchangeable K + . The co-application of WB and GWC could be an alternative agricultural strategy to obtain benefits to agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of tomato plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene family suggests a mycorrhiza-mediated regulatory mechanism conserved in diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Liu, Jianjian; Chen, Aiqun; Ji, Minjie; Chen, Jiadong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Xu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In plants, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (HA) is considered to play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and respoding to environment stresses. Multiple paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of HA have been identified and characterized in several model plants, while limited information of the HA gene family is available to date for tomato. Here, we describe the molecular and expression features of eight HA-encoding genes (SlHA1-8) from tomato. All these genes are interrupted by multiple introns with conserved positions. SlHA1, 2, and 4 were widely expressed in all tissues, while SlHA5, 6, and 7 were almost only expressed in flowers. SlHA8, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal or nutrient-/salt-stress growth conditions, was strongly activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. Extreme lack of SlHA8 expression in M161, a mutant defective to AM fungal colonization, provided genetic evidence towards the dependence of its expression on AM symbiosis. A 1521-bp SlHA8 promoter could direct the GUS reporter expression specifically in colonized cells of transgenic tobacco, soybean, and rice mycorrhizal roots. Promoter deletion assay revealed a 223-bp promoter fragment of SlHA8 containing a variant of AM-specific cis-element MYCS (vMYCS) sufficient to confer the AM-induced activity. Targeted deletion of this motif in the corresponding promoter region causes complete abolishment of GUS staining in mycorrhizal roots. Together, these results lend cogent evidence towards the evolutionary conservation of a potential regulatory mechanism mediating the activation of AM-responsive HA genes in diverse mycorrhizal plant species.

  1. Comparative interactomics: analysis of arabidopsis 14-3-3 complexes reveals highly conserved 14-3-3 interactions between humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Liu, Li; McClung, Scott; Laughner, Beth; Chen, Sixue; Ferl, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    As a first step in the broad characterization of plant 14-3-3 multiprotein complexes in vivo, stringent and specific antibody affinity purification was used to capture 14-3-3s together with their interacting proteins from extracts of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures. Approximately 120 proteins were identified as potential in vivo 14-3-3 interacting proteins by mass spectrometry of the recovered complexes. Comparison of the proteins in this data set with the 14-3-3 interacting proteins from a similar study in human embryonic kidney cell cultures revealed eight interacting proteins that likely represent reasonably abundant, fundamental 14-3-3 interaction complexes that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interaction data set was also compared to a yeast in vivo 14-3-3 interaction data set. Four 14-3-3 interacting proteins are conserved in yeast, humans, and Arabidopsis. Comparisons of the data sets based on biochemical function revealed many additional similarities in the human and Arabidopsis data sets that represent conserved functional interactions, while also leaving many proteins uniquely identified in either Arabidopsis or human cells. In particular, the Arabidopsis interaction data set is enriched for proteins involved in metabolism.

  2. Conservation strategy for Pelargonium sidoides DC: Phenolic profile and pharmacological activity of acclimatized plants derived from tissue culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2013), s. 557-561 ISSN 0378-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * Antioxidant * Medicinal plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2013

  3. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant

  4. Feasibility study on energy conservation through modernization of cement plant (Sichuan Double Horse Cement Group Co. Ltd.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  5. Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs maintain functional compatibility and conserved interaction interfaces throughout evolution despite frequent loss of RGS proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Dieter; McKain, Michael R; Lee, Soon Goo; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; McCann, Tyler; Schreier, Spencer; Harkess, Alex; Pires, J Chris; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Jez, Joseph M; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Pandey, Sona

    2017-10-01

    Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants. Our results show that RGS proteins are widely distributed in the monocot lineage, despite their frequent loss. There is no support for the adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS protein pair based on single amino acid substitutions. RGS proteins interact with, and affect the activity of, Gα proteins from species with or without endogenous RGS. This cross-functional compatibility expands between the metazoan and plant kingdoms, illustrating striking conservation of their interaction interface. We propose that additional proteins or alternative mechanisms may exist which compensate for the loss of RGS in certain plant species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. OsCESA9 conserved-site mutation leads to largely enhanced plant lodging resistance and biomass enzymatic saccharification by reducing cellulose DP and crystallinity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengcheng; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Ran; Li, Yu; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yanting; Li, Ao; Li, Xukai; Xia, Tao; Qu, Chengcheng; Hu, Fan; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-09-01

    Genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification. Since cellulose synthase (CESA) gene was first identified, several dozen CESA mutants have been reported, but almost all mutants exhibit the defective phenotypes in plant growth and development. In this study, the rice (Oryza sativa) Osfc16 mutant with substitutions (W481C, P482S) at P-CR conserved site in CESA9 shows a slightly affected plant growth and higher biomass yield by 25%-41% compared with wild type (Nipponbare, a japonica variety). Chemical and ultrastructural analyses indicate that Osfc16 has a significantly reduced cellulose crystallinity (CrI) and thinner secondary cell walls compared with wild type. CESA co-IP detection, together with implementations of a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) and two distinct cellulose inhibitors (Calcofluor, CGA), shows that CESA9 mutation could affect integrity of CESA4/7/9 complexes, which may lead to rapid CESA proteasome degradation for low-DP cellulose biosynthesis. These may reduce cellulose CrI, which improves plant lodging resistance, a major and integrated agronomic trait on plant growth and grain production, and enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification by up to 2.3-fold and ethanol productivity by 34%-42%. This study has for the first time reported a direct modification for the low-DP cellulose production that has broad applications in biomass industries. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. KAJIAN PERILAKU BEKANTAN (Nasalis larvatus PADA KONSERVASI EKS SITU DI PT INDOCEMENT TARJUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Iman Basoeki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was aimed to study the behavior of Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus in ex-situ conservation at PT Indocement Tarjun. The research of Bekantan’s behavior used several methodology. Firstly, it was observed several kinds and compositions of daily food which was consumed by Bekantan. Secondly, it was also observed the average daily behavior such as : the movement, the visual body condition and the growth in weight and height of Bekantan. The Observations were done for 2 months in 4 sample of the research. The results were compared to the Bekantan’s behavior which lived in its nature habitat. The results showed that there was no difference of its behavior in the study of food composition between the  Bekantan in ex-situ conservation compare to the Bekantan in its nature habitat. In average,  Bekantan in ex-situ conservation ate 76% leaves’tip. It was also investigated that several kinds of food eaten by Bekantan in ex-situ conservation, such as : “balaran” leaf ( Ipomea sp , “kacangan” leaf ( Calopogonium caerulium, which are usually planted as cover crop, and “ketapang’s” tip of leaf ( T. catappa . The daily activity of Bekantan’s behavior in ex-situ conservation was shown that there was no difference of its behavior compare to the Bekantan in its nature habitat. The Bekantan in its nature habit was mainly doing no activity, except resting and sleeping. The Bekantan in ex-situ conservation had more activity of movement. They moved, jumped, swinged, and walking using 2 or 4 feet. The conclusion of this research was found a similar eating habits of Bekantan in ex-situ conservation at PT Indocement Tarjun and Bekantan which lived in its habit. The investigation of food compositions showed that about 76% of both Bekantan ate leaves. The leaves’s tip could get from both tips of tree leaf or vegetables. There was a changing of Bekantan’s behavior in term of its movement. Bekantan in ex-situ conservation moved with jumping

  8. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  9. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abzazou, Tarik, E-mail: tabzazou@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Araujo, Rosa M., E-mail: raraujo@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Auset, María, E-mail: maria.auset.vallejo@acciona.com [ACCIONA AGUA, S.A., Av de les Garrigues 22, El Prat de Llobregat, 08820 Barcelona (Spain); Salvadó, Humbert, E-mail: hsalvado@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L{sup −1}), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  10. The relationship between the presence and extent of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and the risk of local recurrence (LR) in patients with infiltrating cancer of the breast treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abner, A.; Schnitt, S.; Connolly, J.; Recht, A.; Bornstein, B.; Nixon, A.; Hetelekidis, S.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Lobular carcinoma in situ, when found in an otherwise benign breast biopsy, is associated with an increased risk of developing a subsequent invasive breast cancer. Among patients with an infiltrating cancer resected without margin assessment, the extent of ductal carcinoma in situ is an established risk factor for LR after CS and RT. However, the association between the presence and extent of LCIS and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with CS and RT for infiltrating breast cancer remains at issue. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1625 patients with clinical stage T1 and T2 invasive breast cancer were treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy with complete gross tumor excision and RT to a total of ≥60 Gy. Of these, 1160 had infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC), infiltrating lobular cancer (ILC), or mixed IDC/ILC (IMC) and sufficient pathologic material for review by the study pathologists (SS and JC) to establish the presence or absence of LCIS and were evaluable at 10 years. LCIS was present adjacent to the invasive cancer in (43(1027)) IDC (4%), and either within or adjacent to the infiltrating tumor in (70(82)) ILC (85%) and (26(51)) IMC (51%). Margins were evaluable in 35% of LCIS-positive patients and 33% of LCIS-negative patients. The median follow-up time was 153 months for surviving patients. Results: The 10-year crude risk of recurrence by first site of failure for all patients was as follows: Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the extent of the LCIS adjacent to the invasive tumor and the LR risk: The 10-year crude risk of contralateral breast cancer was 7% for the patients with LCIS and 7% for those without LCIS. CONCLUSION: We conclude that neither the presence nor the extent of LCIS is related to the risk of LR in patients with invasive breast cancer treated with CS and RT. Thus, LCIS should not be considered a contraindication to breast conservation with CS and RT

  11. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  12. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  13. Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present case studies supporting management of two rare plant species in tidal wetlands of the San Francisco Estuary. For an annual hemiparasite, we used demographic analyses to identify factors to enhance population establishment, survivorship and fitness, and to compare reintroduced with natura...

  14. Role of eucalypt and other planted forests in biodiversity conservation and the provision of biodiversity-related services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Silvio F.B. Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Forests provide important habitat for much of the world’s biodiversity, and the continuing global deforestation is one of our greatest environmental concerns. Planted forests represent an increasing proportion of the global forest area and partly compensate for the loss of natural forest in terms of forest area, habitat for biodiversity and ecological function. At...

  15. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins that are delivered to the apoplast, as well as...

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  17. 12种林下地被植物水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation of Twelve Under-forest Cover Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪乔; 袁小环

    2017-01-01

    To study the soil and water conservation function of cover plants on the forest floor,the water absorption of stem and leaves,the soil anti-erodibility and the soil permeability were measured with 12 cover plants using the indoor leaf immersion method,the hydrostatic collapse method,and the bicyclic knife method,respectively.The results showed that Calamagrostis brachytricha and Phalaris arundinacea var.picta had the highest water absorption over 40% of the stem and leaves weight;Phalaris arundinacea var.Picta,Carex lanceolata and Carex leucochlora best increased the soil anti-erodibility;the cover plants decreased the soil bulk density and generally increased the soil permeability,and the permeability of soils planted with Phalaris arundinacea var.picta,Pennisetum alopecuroides,C.brachytricha,C.leucochlora,C.lanceolata and Cosmos sulphureus extremely significantly differed from the control.Therefore,C.leucochlora,C.Lanceolata,P.arundinacea var.picta and C.brachytricha have the higher integrated soil and water conservation function and fit to be planted under the forest.%为了研究林下地被植物的水土保持功能,分别运用室内茎叶浸泡法、静水崩析法、双环刀法对12种地被植物的茎叶截留雨水能力、土壤抗蚀性和渗透性进行了测定.结果表明:茎叶截留雨水最强的为拂子茅(Calamagrostis brach ytricha)和玉带草(Phalaris arundinacea var.picta),超过自身质量的40%;玉带草、披针叶苔草(Carex lanceolata)和青绿苔草(Carex leucochlora)最大地提高了土壤抗蚀性;种植地被植物普遍地降低了土壤容重,提高了土壤的渗透系数,其中玉带草、狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)、拂子茅、青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、硫华菊效果极显著.青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、玉带草、拂子茅的综合水土保持功能较强,适合林下栽植.

  18. An effective approach for annotation of protein families with low sequence similarity and conserved motifs: identifying GDSL hydrolases across the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Bielen, Ana; Paradžik, Tina; Biđin, Siniša; Goldstein, Pavle; Vujaklija, Dušica

    2016-02-18

    The massive accumulation of protein sequences arising from the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing, coupled with automatic annotation, results in high levels of incorrect annotations. In this study, we describe an approach to decrease annotation errors of protein families characterized by low overall sequence similarity. The GDSL lipolytic family comprises proteins with multifunctional properties and high potential for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. The number of proteins assigned to this family has increased rapidly over the last few years. In particular, the natural abundance of GDSL enzymes reported recently in plants indicates that they could be a good source of novel GDSL enzymes. We noticed that a significant proportion of annotated sequences lack specific GDSL motif(s) or catalytic residue(s). Here, we applied motif-based sequence analyses to identify enzymes possessing conserved GDSL motifs in selected proteomes across the plant kingdom. Motif-based HMM scanning (Viterbi decoding-VD and posterior decoding-PD) and the here described PD/VD protocol were successfully applied on 12 selected plant proteomes to identify sequences with GDSL motifs. A significant number of identified GDSL sequences were novel. Moreover, our scanning approach successfully detected protein sequences lacking at least one of the essential motifs (171/820) annotated by Pfam profile search (PfamA) as GDSL. Based on these analyses we provide a curated list of GDSL enzymes from the selected plants. CLANS clustering and phylogenetic analysis helped us to gain a better insight into the evolutionary relationship of all identified GDSL sequences. Three novel GDSL subfamilies as well as unreported variations in GDSL motifs were discovered in this study. In addition, analyses of selected proteomes showed a remarkable expansion of GDSL enzymes in the lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii. Finally, we provide a general motif-HMM scanner which is easily accessible through

  19. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft

  20. Vascular plants diversity of El Aribabi Conservation Ranch: A private natural protected area in northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Denise Z. Avila-Jimenez; David A. Delgado-Zamora; Liliana Armenta-Cota; Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia. Reina-Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    In northeastern Sonora, isolated Sky Island mountain ranges with desertscrub, desert grassland, oak woodland, and pine-oak forest have high biodiversity. El Aribabi Conservation Ranch in the Sierra Azul (from 30°51’13”N, 110°41’9”W to 30°46’38”N, 110°32’3”W) was designated a Private Protected Natural Area by the Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas in March...

  1. Feasibility study on implementing energy conservation measures in an iron and steel plant in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emission, a project has been discussed to introduce a gas turbine combined cycle power generation system for effective waste heat utilization and a pellet coating facility into the direct reduction steel making plant of Ahwaz Steel Complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The project will have a waste heat boiler installed at the outlet of the MIDREX plant waste heat recovery device to link it with a gas turbine combined cycle power plant to structure a 42-MW power generation system. In addition, productivity enhancement was attempted by applying the raw material pellets with coating to raise the reduction gas blow-in temperature. The energy saving effect expected from this project would be saving of 63,140 tons of crude oil equivalent annually, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 173,790 t-CO2 annually. Although the investment will require about 3.16 billion yen, the cost reduction amount in association with power generation is small because of the power purchase unit cost being as very low as 1.9 yen/kWh, making the investment recovery period 10.2 years. Therefore, the project will not be realizable economically. (NEDO)

  2. Heterogeneity in Ethnoecological Knowledge and Management of Medicinal Plants in the Himalayas of Nepal: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Ghimire

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance accorded to ethnoecological knowledge for suggesting new paths in scientific research, understanding ecological processes, and designing sustainable management of natural resources has grown in recent years. However, variation in knowledge and practices, both within and across cultures, has not been given much attention in resource management nor in developing scientific understanding of the ecological status of key resources. In this paper, we discuss the heterogeneity and complexity of local ecological knowledge in relation to its practical and institutional context with respect to management of Himalayan medicinal plants. We show factors affecting this variation, and discuss how knowledge is put into action. We assessed variation in knowledge relating to the diversity of medicinal plant species, their distribution, medicinal uses, biological traits, ecology, and management within and between two culturally different social groups living in villages located in the Shey-Phoksundo National Park and its buffer zone in northwestern Nepal. Heterogeneity in levels of knowledge and in practices both within and between these groups corresponds to differences in level of specialization in relation to medicinal plants, to socio-cultural and institutional contexts, and to extra-local factors that govern people's activities. We argue that understanding the heterogeneity of knowledge and practices within a given area is crucial to design management practices that build on the intricate links between knowledge, practices, and institutional context. It is also important to develop ecological studies that will best inform management.

  3. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  4. In-situ chemical analyses of trans-polyisoprene by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in a rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-10-01

    The localization of polyisoprene in young stem tissues of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver was investigated by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The fibrous structures were stained with Oil Red O. FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis proved that the fibrous structures were trans-polyisoprene. Granular structures stained with the dye, and characteristic absorptions at 2,960 cm(-1) and 1,430 cm(-1) in FT-IR suggested that trans-polyisoprene accumulated in the vicinity of the cambium layer. We have thus successfully shown for the first time the localization of trans-polyisoprene in plant tissues, and our histological investigation allowed us to presume the main sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of trans-rubber. Furthermore, a new technical approach, the preparation of sections using an electronic freezing unit and the in situ analysis of polyisoprene using FT-IR microspectroscopy, is demonstrated to be a promising method for determining the accumulation of polyisoprene as well as other metabolites.

  5. Extreme conservation of the psaA/psaB intercistronic spacer reveals a translational motif coincident with the evolution of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Elena L; Les, Donald H; King, Ursula M; Benoit, Lori K

    2012-12-01

    Although chloroplast transcriptional and translational mechanisms were derived originally from prokaryote endosymbionts, chloroplasts retain comparatively few genes as a consequence of the overall transfer to the nucleus of functions associated formerly with prokaryotic genomes. Various modifications reflect other evolutionary shifts toward eukaryotic regulation such as posttranscriptional transcript cleavage with individually processed cistrons in operons and gene expression regulated by nuclear-encoded sigma factors. We report a notable exception for the psaA-psaB-rps14 operon of land plant (embryophyte) chloroplasts, where the first two cistrons are separated by a spacer region to which no significant role had been attributed. We infer an important function of this region, as indicated by the conservation of identical, structurally significant sequences across embryophytes and their ancestral protist lineages, which diverged some 0.5 billion years ago. The psaA/psaB spacers of embryophytes and their progenitors exhibit few sequence and length variants, with most modeled transcripts resolving the same secondary structure: a loop with projecting Shine-Dalgarno site and well-defined stem that interacts with adjacent coding regions to sequester the psaB start codon. Although many functions of the original endosymbiont have been usurped by nuclear genes or interactions, conserved functional elements of embryophyte psaA/psaB spacers provide compelling evidence that translation of psaB is regulated here by a cis-acting mechanism comparable to those common in prokaryotes. Modeled transcripts also indicate that spacer variants in some plants (e.g., aquatic genus Najas) potentially reflect ecological adaptations to facilitate temperature-regulated translation of psaB.

  6. Plant-conservative agriculture of acid and degraded Raña-grassland enhances diversity of the common soil mites (Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorrín, J.; González-Fernández, P.

    2016-11-01

    The seminatural prairie of the Raña of Cañamero (Spain) is a degraded and unproductive agrosystem with acid and stony soils, and low coverage of xerophytic grasses. In a project about secondary reconversion of the raña-prairie to a more productive cropland, an experimental field (EF) was established to assess the effect on plot-productivity of the interaction between correction of soil pH (liming) with three cropping systems: a no-tilled and annually fertilized and improved prairies, and a conventionally-tilled forage crop. The EF model of management was designed as plant-conservative, because no herbicide was applied after seeding to preserve the post-emergence of wild herbs and the natural grass diversity of the prairie. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed the effect of managing factors (initial conventional-tillage, fertilization, liming and cropping) and agricultural predictors (pH, C:N ratio, soil bulk density and herbaceous biomass) on the alpha(α)-diversity of one of the major group of soil animals, the oribatids. In relation to the raña-prairie, all EF-plots improved their soil bulk density (ρs) and herbaceous biomass (t/ha), and enhanced desirable α-diversity values (richness, abundance and community equity). We conclude that the plant-conservative model: i) do not affect statistically the species richness of the prairie; ii) the desirable α-diversity responses are negatively correlated with soil bulk density and positively with herbaceous biomass, and iii) the low input or minimum intervention model, of an initial and conventional till and annual fertilisation, is the threshold and optimal model of agricultural management to improving oribatids diversity of the raña-soil. (Author)

  7. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  8. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  9. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  10. Ecological consequences, genetic and chemical variations in fragmented populations of a medicinal plant, justicia adhatoda and implications for its conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Watanabe, K.N.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Justicia adhatoda from Kohat Plateau was selected for genetic diversity studies, due to its fragmented habitat, importance in traditional and pharmaceutical medicine and a lack of population structure studies. We had two hypotheses: that habitat loss posed a greater threat to populations than loss of genetic diversity, and that chemical diversity would be higher among different populations than within populations. Genetic diversity within and among populations was evaluated using PBA (P450 based analogue) markers. AMOVA analysis revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within populations (90%) than among populations (10%). No genetic drift was observed, i.e., genetic diversity within populations was maintained despite fewer numbers of individuals in fragmented populations. Surveys of J. adhatoda populations revealed that they were growing in harsh conditions and were imperiled due to extensive harvesting for commercial and domestic purposes. Chemical diversity was evaluated by GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry) analysis of 90% methanol and 1:2 chloroform:methanol extracts. GC-MS analysis of both the extracts showed nine and 18 chemical compounds, respectively, with higher chemical variations among populations. It is therefore recommended that efforts for the conservation of severely fragmented populations of J. adhatoda must be carried out along with sustainable harvesting. (author)

  11. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 14: plants of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ann; Das, Adrian; Wenk, Rebecca; Haultain, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the California Floristic Province, which has been named one of world‘s hotspots of endemic biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). The California Floristic Province is the largest and most important geographic floristic unit in California and extends from the Klamath Mountains of southwestern Oregon to the northwestern portion of Baja California (Hickman 1993). The Sierra Nevada, one of six regions that make up the California Floristic Province, covers nearly 20% of the land in California yet contains over 50% of its flora. Within the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sierra supports more Sierran endemic and rare plant taxa than the central and northern portions of the region (Shevock 1996). Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) encompass roughly 20% of the southern Sierra Nevada region. The parks overlap three floristic subregions (central Sierra Nevada High, southern Sierra Nevada High, and southern Sierra Nevada Foothills), and border the Great Basin Floristic Province. The parks support a rich and diverse vascular flora composed of over 1,560 taxa. Of these, 150 taxa are identified as having special status. The term special status is applied here to include taxa that are state or federally listed, rare in California, or at risk because they have a limited distribution. Only one species from these parks is listed under the state or federal Endangered Species Acts (Carex tompkinsii, Tompkins‘ sedge, is listed as a rare species under the California Endangered Species Act), and one species is under review for federal endangered listing (Pinus albicaulis, whitebark pine). However, an absence of threatened and endangered species recognized by Endangered Species Acts is not equivalent to an absence of species at risk. There are 83 plant taxa documented as occurring in SEKI that are considered imperiled or vulnerable in the state by the California Department of Fish and Game‘s California Natural Diversity

  12. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  13. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  14. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  15. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  16. The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess; Chaves, Arielle; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Anderson, Charles T.; Roberts, Alison W.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2015-12-08

    Cellulose synthases (CESAs) synthesize the β-1,4-glucan chains that coalesce to form cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. In addition to a large cytosolic (catalytic) domain, CESAs have eight predicted transmembrane helices (TMHs). However, analogous to the structure of BcsA, a bacterial CESA, predicted TMH5 in CESA may instead be an interfacial helix. This would place the conserved FxVTxK motif in the plant cell cytosol where it could function as a substrate-gating loop as occurs in BcsA. To define the functional importance of the CESA region containing FxVTxK, we tested five parallel mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana CESA1 and Physcomitrella patens CESA5 in complementation assays of the relevant cesa mutants. In both organisms, the substitution of the valine or lysine residues in FxVTxK severely affected CESA function. In Arabidopsis roots, both changes were correlated with lower cellulose anisotropy, as revealed by Pontamine Fast Scarlet. Analysis of hypocotyl inner cell wall layers by atomic force microscopy showed that two altered versions of Atcesa1 could rescue cell wall phenotypes observed in the mutant background line. Overall, the data show that the FxVTxK motif is functionally important in two phylogenetically distant plant CESAs. The results show that Physcomitrella provides an efficient model for assessing the effects of engineered CESA mutations affecting primary cell wall synthesis and that diverse testing systems can lead to nuanced insights into CESA structure–function relationships. Although CESA membrane topology needs to be experimentally determined, the results support the possibility that the FxVTxK region functions similarly in CESA and BcsA.

  17. Impact of effluents from Tihange nuclear plant on the Meuse ecosystem: a five year in situ study and experimental approach 1976 -1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clercq-Versele, H. de; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-07-01

    The aim of present multidisciplinary study, started in 1975, was to evaluate the influence of liquid effluent releases from a PWR-type nuclear reactor on the ecosystem of running water. The Tihange-1 nuclear power plant, along the Meuse river near Liege, has been selected as site for this study, which situates in the general context of the industrial and urban pollution of this region. The in situ biological research dealt with phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and bryophytic populations on the one hand, and with zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish on the other hand. The impact of the releases on certain aquatic organisms has been studied with the help of experimental devices (pools and rafts). Laboratory research has been carried out on an alga type representative of Meuse phytoplankton. It could be concluded that a temperature increase of the Meuse water (generally 2 to 3 0 C), although it has no detectable qualitative influence on the various links of the Meuse ecosystem, seems to promote the development of more temperature-tolerant species and to influence biological parameters such as growth and reproduction of aquatic animals. Although the legal limit (namely 0.3 mg/l in the water downstream the releases) is always respected, chlorination of the Meuse water gives rise to a decrease of the photosynthetic activity in aquatic mosses and creates asphyxiation phenomena in fish and crayfish. The utility of certain animal organisms of the Meuse biocenose as bio-indicators of the radionuclides present in the releases, has been confirmed. The alga cultures are also very adequate for the evaluation of the biological availability of some radioisotopes such as tritium. (author)

  18. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  19. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  20. Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  2. Cactus Nurseries and Conservation in a Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Pulido

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Documenting how socio-ecosystem conservation knowledge and practice arise and are modified are issues of ethnobiological interest. In the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM, plant nurseries, some of which were created as Environmental Management Units (UMAs, have been established to grow and conserve cacti. This paper describes these nurseries, their role in cactus conservation, and the benefits and limitations for the people managing them. The nurseries have helped decrease illegal traffic in cacti and have enabled ex situ conservation of 22 cacti species. Cactus management has changed from extraction to cultivation, as a result of the knowledge and actions of multiple actors. The main limitation is marketing, a recurring problem for non-timber forest products (NTFP. Greater coordination among stakeholders is recommended, such as involvement by non-governmental organizations to improve their probability of success, as well as learning from the experience of other cactus UMAs. Improving the market for cacti is an issue that needs an immediate solution; otherwise conservation efforts could relapse.

  3. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-02-25

    Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may

  4. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. Copyright © 2014 ISA. All rights reserved.

  5. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  6. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Yousaf, Muhammad; Manan, Sehrish; Siddique, Rabeea; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a "sixth" mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  7. Experimental and mathematical simulation techniques for determining an in-situ response testing method for neutron sensors used in reactor power plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, A.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical neutron sensor response model and methods for transient response measurements of neutron sensors (compensated ionization chamber), including possible in-situ techniques have been developed and evaluated to meet the provisions of Draft Standard ISA Sd67.06, IEEE 338-1977, and NRC Guide 1.118. One in-situ method requires the perturbation of the high voltage detector (sensor) power supply and measurement of the sensor response. The response to a perturbation of the power supply is related to the response of the sensor to a transient change in neutron flux. Random signal analysis is another in-situ technique to monitor the neutron sensor response. In this method the power spectrum of the inherent fluctuations from the neutron sensor output (current in CIC) are measured and evaluated. Transient response techniques (including in-situ methods) are experimentally and analytically evaluated to identify the mechanisms which may cause degradation in the response of the neutron sensors. The objective of the experimental evaluation was to correlate the measured response time using transient radiation flux changes and power supply perturbation. The objective of the analytical model of the different sensor response was to predict response time and degradation mechanisms

  8. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  9. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  10. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  12. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  13. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by potential native plants and their microscopic observation of root growing on stabilised distillery sludge as a prospective tool for in situ phytoremediation of industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg -1 ) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L., Achyranthes sp., Dhatura stramonium, Sacchrum munja and Croton bonplandianum were noted as root accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn, while S. munja, P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, C. album, T. dioica, D. stramonium, B. lacera, B. alba, Kalanchoe pinnata and Achyranthes sp. were found as shoot accumulator for Fe. In addition, A. spinosus L. was found as shoot accumulator for Zn and Mn. Similarly, all plants found as leaf accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn except A. spinosus L. and Ricinus communis. Further, the BCF of all tested plants were noted 1. This revealed that metal bioavailability to plant is poor due to strong complexation of heavy metals with organic pollutants. This gives a strong evidence of hyperaccumulation for the tested metals from complex distillery waste. Furthermore, the TEM observations of root of P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, Solanum nigrum and R. communis showed formation of multi-nucleolus, multi-vacuoles and deposition of metal granules in cellular component of roots as a plant adaptation mechanism for phytoextraction of heavy metal-rich polluted site. Hence, these native plants may be used as a tool for in situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of industrial waste-contaminated site.

  14. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  15. Tracing in situ amino acid uptake in plants and microbes with15N13C labelled compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    amino acids. Furthermore, tannin addition tended to reduce plant uptake of label. By combining data on 15N recovery after 1 day in shoots and roots (fine and coarse) of the dominant heathland plants: the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the graminoid Deschampsia flexuosa, in soil...... microorganisms (chloroform fumigation extraction) and in soil water, we discuss the relative importance of free amino acids and ammonium as plant nutrients and microbial substrates in natural N-limited ecosystems with a high proportion of soil N held in tannin-N complexes. ...

  16. Plant-mediated CH4 transport and C gas dynamics quantified in-situ in a Phalaris arundinacea-dominant wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Askær; Elberling, Bo; Friborg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    passive. Thus, diurnal variations are less important in contrast to wetland vascular plants facilitating convective gas flow. Despite of plant-dominant CH4 transport, net CH4 fluxes were low (–0.005–0.016 µmol m-2 s-1) and annually less than 1% of the annual C-CO2 assimilation. This is considered a result......±35% of ecosystem CH4 emissions were plant-mediated, but data show no evidence of significant diurnal variations related to convective gas flow regardless of season or plant growth stages. Therefore, despite a high percentage of arenchyma, P. arundinacea-mediated CH4 transport is interpreted to be predominantly...

  17. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  18. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  19. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  20. Comparison of laboratory, in situ, and rock mass measurements of the hydraulic conductivity of metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1980-01-01

    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures, but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus, laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied

  1. Drug Development and Conservation of Biodiversity in West and Central Africa: Performance of Neurochemical and Radio Receptor Assays of Plant Extracts Drug Discovery for the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Erythrophleum guineensis 1909 MeOH --/38 --/52 P. nitida SU1905 MeOH --/50 4 Scoparia dulcis (whole plant) SU1912 MeOH 10 --/64 182... Scoparia dulcis SU 1913 CH2Cl2 12 11 --/74 Triumfetta tomentosa SU Aneilema umbrosum (whole plant) SU2302 CH2Cl2 10/45 --/77... Scoparia dulcis and Cissus quandrangularis. Studies of P. zenkeri were initiated because this plant is used by cattle herders in parts of Cameroon as

  2. In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2008-12-15

    Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods--(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe--were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used.

  3. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  4. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway is a central signaling cascade that transmits extracellular stimuli and governs cell responses through the second messenger cAMP. The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal biology has been well documented. Two key conserved components, adenylate cyclase (AC) and ca...

  5. Delineating landscape-scale processes of hydrology and plant dispersal for species-rich fen conservation : the Operational Landscape Unit approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Beltman, Boudewijn; Janssen, Ron; Soons, Merel B.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and conservation of species-rich nature reserves requires inclusion of landscape-scale connections and transport processes such as hydrologic flows and species dispersal. These are important because they provide suitable habitat conditions and an adequate species pool. This study aimed

  6. Accumulation pattern of endogenous cytokinins and phenolics in different organs of 1-year-old cytokinin pre-incubated plants: implications for conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Grúz, Jiří; Bíba, Ondřej; Šubrtová, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2015), s. 1146-1155 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acclimatisation * conservation * meta-topolins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2015

  7. Energetic retrofitting of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of enhancing the efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants; Energetische Modernisierung industrieller Waermeversorgungssysteme. Moeglichkeiten der Effizienzsteigerung und der Energieeinsparung an grossen feuerungstechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on an energetic modernization of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of an enhancement of the energetic efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants are described. After an introduction to this theme, the author of this contribution provides an overview of the optimization of heat supply systems, and reports on the following aspects: Optimisation of the heat demand; energy efficient heat generation; heat recovery; energy efficient conversion technology and generation technology; associate partners for more energy efficiency in industry and commerce; best practice examples.

  8. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  9. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  10. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  11. Steam oxidation of X20CrMoV121: Comparison of laboratory exposures and in situ exposure in power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, M.; Hansson, A. N.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    X20CrMoV121 is a 12% Cr martensitic steel which has been used in power plants in Europe for many decades. Specimens have been removed from superheater tubes to investigate long‐term exposure with respect to steam oxidation. These tubes have been exposed for various durations up to 135 000 h...... in power plants in Denmark at steam temperatures varying from 450–565 °C. This paper collates the data, compares oxide morphologies and assesses to what extent parabolic kinetics can be used to describe the oxidation rate. The steam oxidation behaviour has been investigated in the laboratory in an Ar‐46%H2...

  12. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  13. Obtaining apple haploid plants (Malus X domestica Borkh.) from in situ parthenogenesis induced by irradiated pollen and in vitro culture of immature seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Lespinasse, Y.; Chevreau, E.

    1988-01-01

    Two apple varieties, ''Erovan'' and ''Lodi'', have been pollinated with pollen carrying the marker gene R irradiated by gamma rays from Cobalt 60 with doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 Gy. By in vitro cultures of the immature seeds removed 7 to 13 weeks after pollination, haploid plants (2n=x=17) have been obtained from ''Erovan'' [fr

  14. Composition and structure of an in situ Middle Pennsylvanian peat-forming plant assemblage buried in volcanic ash, Radnice Basin (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Pšenička, J.; Libertín, M.; Bek, Jiří; Dašková, Jiřina; Šimůnek, Z.; Drábková, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 11/12 (2009), s. 726-746 ISSN 0883-1351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : palaeoecology * taphonomy * palynology * fossil plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2009

  15. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T

    2007-01-01

    from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze beta-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants......, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced...... they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall...

  16. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  17. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement and energy conservation at Uong Bi power plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Uong Bi hatsudensho no koritsuka to sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on energy conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emission through efficiency improvement at the Uong Bi coal burning power plant in Vietnam. The Uong Bi power plant, which has become using coal of lower quality than the design value, has had incomplete combustion, resulting in increase of unburned components in ash, and decrease of the boiler efficiency to 65 to 70%. Clinker hopper troubles have been occurring frequently, causing plant shutdown at a number of times. The turbine efficiency also shows as very low value as 26 to 27%. The plan has envisaged replacement of combustion parts of the boilers, withdrawal and replacement of the turbine generation systems, new installation of electric dust collectors, modification of the ash treatment system, additional installation of the re-circulation system, new installation of waste water treatment facilities, and modification of the waste water treatment equipment in the plant premises. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving quantity was found to be 62,936 tons of crude oil equivalent for the case where only one turbine is renewed, and 93,298 tons for the case where both of the two turbines are renewed. The annual reduction quantity of the greenhouse gas emission was found to be 251,215 tons and 372,402 t-CO2, respectively. (NEDO)

  18. Dynamic genetic conservation in the presence of invasive insect and pathogen threats to forest tree species of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Koch; R.A. Sniezko

    2017-01-01

    Ex-situ genetic conservation focused on collection and storage of seed can play an important role in conserving the genetic diversity of species under grave threat by biotic organisms or a changing climate. However, ex-situ genetic conservation is primarily a static activity and does not allow for evolution of the species under a continuing,...

  19. In-situ Monitoring of Plant-microbe Communication to Understand the Influence of Soil Properties on Symbiotic Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T.; Del Valle, I.; Cheng, H. Y.; Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant-microbe signaling is important for many symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. While this signaling often occurs in soils, very little research has evaluated the role that the soil mineral and organic matter matrix plays in plant-microbe communication. One hurdle to these studies is the lack of simple tools for evaluating how soil mineral phases and organic matter influence the availability of plant-produced flavonoids that initiate the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. Because of their range of hydrophobic and electrostatic properties, flavonoids represent an informative class of signaling molecules. In this presentation, we will describe studies examining the bioavailable concentrations of flavonoids in soils using traditional techniques, such as high-pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescent microbial biosensors. Additionally, we will describe our progress developing a Rhizobium leguminosarum reporter that can be deployed into soils to report on flavonoid levels. This new microbial reporter is designed so that Rhizobium only generates a volatile gas signal when it encounters a defined concentration of flavonoids. By monitoring the output of this biosensor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during real time during soil incubations, we are working to establish the impact of soil organic matter, pH, and mineral phases on the reception of these signaling molecules. We expect that the findings from these studies will be useful for recommending soil management strategies that can enhance the communication between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria. This research highlights the importance of studying the role of soil as a mediator of plant-microbe communication.

  20. Determination of the Sites with Conservation Priority in Research Forests of Yasouj University Based on Physiographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zolfaghari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding high economic and conservative values of Zagros forests, and livelihood dependency of local people these recourses, determination of sites with higher conservation index can help us to maintain biodiversity of these forests more efficiently. Therefore, 49 plots with 450 m2 in area accompanied by 1, 10 and 45 m2 subplots were taken as systematic random design in research forests of Yasouj University. The number of species in each plot and subplot was recorded. The conservation values for different physiographic regions of forest were calculated using integrative parameters such as the number of species per plot, number of rare species per plot, number of tree species per plot, Jaccards similarity coefficient and slope of species-log(area. Comparing the conservation index in different physiographic sites revealed that the areas located in the north, hills and lower altitudes can be considered for in situ conservation due to higher number of trees, rare species and total plant species, species-log (area slope and lower amount of Jaccard similarity coefficient. But, vegetative sites located in lower slopes and south, because of lower conservation index, can be used for other multipurpose forestry activities. Using this index for different forest areas can be potentially conducted for better conservation and management of Zagros forests.

  1. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  2. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  3. Identification and characterization of putative conserved IAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available putative AMI sequences from a wide array of monocot and dicot plants were identified and the phylogenetic tree was constructed and analyzed. We identified in this tree, a clade that contained sequences from species across the plant kingdom suggesting that AMI is conserved and may have a primary role in plant ...

  4. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  6. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Michaels

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas. We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research.

  7. MIIT: International in-situ testing of nuclear waste glasses-performance of SRS simulated waste glass after 5 years of burial at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Clark, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    In July of 1986, the first in-situ test involving burial of simulated high-level waste [HLW] forms conducted in the United States was started. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest, most cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by seven nations. Also included are about 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are almost 2000 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which has been conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program represents a joint effort managed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in Aiken, S.C., and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, N.M.. and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Involved in MIIT are participants from national and federal laboratories, universities, and representatives from laboratories in France, Germany, Canada, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-year MIIT study was completed on schedule. During this time interval, many in-situ measurements were performed, thousands of brine analyses conducted, and hundreds of waste glass and package components exhumed and evaluated after 6 mo., 1 yr., 2 yr. and 5 yr. burial periods. Although analyses are still in progress, the performance of SRS waste glass based on all data currently available has been seen to be excellent thus far. Initial analyses and assessment of Savannah River (SR) waste glass after burial in WIPP at 90 degrees C for 5 years is presented

  8. In situ determination of the dynamic properties of thinly-layered rock to evaluate rock-structure inte