WorldWideScience

Sample records for sites vulnerability analysis

  1. Assessment of prey vulnerability through analysis of wolf movements and kill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Eric J; Garrott, Robert A; Creel, Scott; Borkowski, John J; Jaffe, Rosemary; Watson, E G R

    2006-02-01

    Within predator-prey systems behavior can heavily influence spatial dynamics, and accordingly, the theoretical study of how spatial dynamics relate to stability within these systems has a rich history. However, our understanding of these behaviors in large mammalian systems is poorly developed. To address the relationship between predator selection patterns, prey density, and prey vulnerability, we quantified selection patterns for two fine-scale behaviors of a recovering wolf (Canis lupus) population in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Wolf spatial data were collected between November and May from 1998-1999 until 2001-2002. Over four winters, 244 aerial locations, 522 ground-based telemetry locations, 1287 km of movement data from snow tracking, and the locations of 279 wolf kill sites were recorded. There was evidence that elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) densities had a weak effect on the sites where wolves traveled and made kills. Wolf movements showed a strong selection for geothermal areas, meadows, and areas near various types of habitat edges. Proximity to edge and habitat class also had a strong influence on the locations where elk were most vulnerable to predation. There was little evidence that wolf kill sites differed from the places where wolves traveled, indicating that elk vulnerability influenced where wolves selected to travel. Our results indicate that elk are more vulnerable to wolves under certain conditions and that wolves are capable of selecting for these conditions. As such, vulnerability plays a central role in predator-prey behavioral games and can potentially impact the systems to which they relate.

  2. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems.

  3. Automated Software Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Emre C.; Kil, Chongkyung; Ning, Peng

    Despite decades of research, software continues to have vulnerabilities. Successful exploitations of these vulnerabilities by attackers cost millions of dollars to businesses and individuals. Unfortunately, most effective defensive measures, such as patching and intrusion prevention systems, require an intimate knowledge of the vulnerabilities. Many systems for detecting attacks have been proposed. However, the analysis of the exploited vulnerabilities is left to security experts and programmers. Both the human effortinvolved and the slow analysis process are unfavorable for timely defensive measure to be deployed. The problem is exacerbated by zero-day attacks.

  4. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.M.; Dittmore, M.H.; Orvis, W.J.; Wahler, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information

  5. Decision Vulnerability Analysis (DVA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    31 14 Graphical Representation of the Summary Judgments of the Effectiveness, Vulnerability, and Understanding of the Subsystems’ as Judged by...posed several challenges. Numerous organizational typologies have been suggested over the years ( Robbins , 1994), and these typologies are often based...structure and functioning from a typology perspective ( Robbins , 1994), excerpts from a task analysis that described how the analysts currently performed

  6. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  7. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  8. DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.; Nichols, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements

  9. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access

  10. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  11. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...

  12. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  13. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  14. Principles of Security Vulnerability Analysis of stationary industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Security and safety have been key priorities at facilities that manufacture, store, use, or handle hazardous chemicals, after the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Security improvements may be needed, especially at sites that pose a more attractive target to terrorists due to their economic importance, perceived level of consequences, and other factors. The first step in the process of managing security risks is to identify and analyze the threats and the vulnerabilities facing a facility by conducting a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA). The SVA is a systematic process that evaluates the likelihood that a threat against a facility will be successful. It considers the potential severity of consequences to the facility itself, to the surrounding community and on the energy supply chain. The objective of conducting a SVA is to identify security hazards, threats, and vulnerabilities facing a facility, and to evaluate the countermeasures to provide for the protection of the public, workers, national interests, the environment, and the company. With this information security risks can be assessed and strategies can be formed to reduce vulnerabilities as required. SVA is a tool to assist management in making decisions on the need for countermeasures to address the threats and vulnerabilities. The paper provides an overview of fundamental steps of SVA for stationary industrial installations. (author)

  15. The SAVI Vulnerability Analysis Software Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Aniff, R.J.; Paulus, W.K.; Key, B.; Simpkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    SAVI (Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion) is a new PC-based software package for modeling Physical Protection Systems (PPS). SAVI utilizes a path analysis approach based on the Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) methodology. A highly interactive interface allows the user to accurately model complex facilities, maintain a library of these models on disk, and calculate the most vulnerable paths through any facility. Recommendations are provided to help the user choose facility upgrades which should reduce identified path vulnerabilities. Pop-up windows throughout SAVI are used for the input and display of information. A menu at the top of the screen presents all options to the user. These options are further explained on a message line directly below the menu. A diagram on the screen graphically represents the current protection system model. All input is checked for errors, and data are presented in a logical and clear manner. Print utilities provide the user with hard copies of all information and calculated results

  16. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  17. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  18. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  19. Integrated methodology for the evaluation of the vulnerability of archaeological sites: the Roman Theater of Verona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cescatti, Elvis; Lorenzoni, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Modena, Claudio; Da Porto, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge-based methodologies for assessing the structural safety and vulnerability of historical buildings are based on the application of an operational approach that is divided into several phases including historical research, the execution of non-destructive or moderately destructive investigations, monitoring and structural analysis. Monitoring is a useful tool to be used throughout the whole process of knowledge not only in the preliminary diagnosis, but also for the control of the quality and effectiveness of the interventions, in the context of appropriate conservation programs e protection of the object being studied. From this point of view, monitoring becomes essential for: (i) the evaluation of the real structural behavior and the identification of vulnerabilities, prior to the execution of any intervention; (ii) minimization and optimization of interventions, firstly by providing indications regarding those that are not necessary and / or invasive. This methodology has been recently applied and valid from the authors to an archaeological site of particular relevance: the Roman Theater of Verona. The deepening of the knowledge phase (historical analysis, survey, study of the subsoil, properties of materials), combined with the installation of a permanent monitoring system and the structural modeling, allowed to obtain a reliable assessment of the site's vulnerabilities with the aim of guaranteeing in an effective and careful protection and enhancement.

  20. A pragmatic analysis of vulnerability in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Identifying which subjects are vulnerable, and implementing safeguards to protect them, is widely regarded as essential to clinical research. Commentators have endorsed a number of responses to these challenges and have thereby made significant progress in understanding vulnerability in clinical research. At the same time, this literature points to a central contradiction which calls into question its potential to protect vulnerable subjects in practice. Specifically, analysis suggests that all human subjects are vulnerable and vulnerability in clinical research is comparative and context dependent, in the sense that individuals are vulnerable relative to others and in some contexts only. Yet, if everyone is vulnerable, there seems to be no point in citing the vulnerability of some individuals. Moreover, the conclusion that everyone is vulnerable seems inconsistent with the claims that vulnerability is comparative and context dependent, raising concern over whether it will be possible to develop a comprehensive account of vulnerability that is internally consistent. The solution to this dilemma lies in recognition of the fact that the practical significance of claims regarding vulnerability depends on the context in which they are used. The claims that appear to lead to the central contradiction are in fact accurate conclusions that follow from different uses of the term 'vulnerability'. The present manuscript describes this 'pragmatic' approach to vulnerability in clinical research and considers its implications for ensuring that subjects receive appropriate protection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Vulnerability Analysis of Physical Protection System at Hypothetical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Moog; Lee, Ho Jin; Yu, Dong Han; Min, Gyung Sik

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 event in the U.S.A, International terror possibilities has been increasing for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants(NPPs). It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an existing physical protection system(PPS) at nuclear facilities based on such malevolent acts. A PPS is a complex configuration of detection, delay, and response elements. Detection, delay, and response elements are all important to the analysis and evaluation of a PPS and its effectiveness. Methods are available to analyze a PPS and evaluate its effectiveness. Sandia National Laboratory(SNL) in the U.S.A was developed a System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) computer code for evaluating the effectiveness of PPS against outsider threats. This study presents the vulnerability analysis of the PPS at hypothetical facility using SAVI code that the basic input parameters are from PPS of Hanaro Research Reactor at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institution. It is understand that PPS of research reactor and critical assemblies are deficient that that of NPP and nuclear materials of RRCAS are compact to transport For analysis, first, the site-specific Adversary Sequence Diagrams(ASDs) of the PPS is constructed. It helps to understand the functions of the existing PPS composed of physical areas and Protection Elements(PEs). Then, the most vulnerable path of an ASD as a measure of effectiveness is determined. The results in the analysis can used to suggest the possible PPS upgrades to the most vulnerable paths for the system like research reactor

  2. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  3. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Albuquerque, NM; Phillips, Cynthia A [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  4. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  5. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blohm, Andrew [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Delgado, Alison [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henriques, Justin J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Malone, Elizabeth L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Departments of Energy and Defense. The paper provides a framework of steps for climate vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change.

  6. User Vulnerability and its Reduction on a Social Networking Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Watts and Strogatz 1998]. Thus, it is essential to consider the social utility of vulnerable friends before unfriending them in order to reduce...and Kleinberg 2010] of the social network and the user’s clustering coefficient [Watts and Strogatz 1998]. Thus, it is essential to consider the...Oxford University Press, USA. WATTS, D. AND STROGATZ , S. 1998. Collective Dynamics of Small-world Networks. Nature 393, 6684, 440–442. WONDRACEK, G

  7. A Critical Analysis of Vulnerability Taxonomies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bishop, Matt; Bailey, David

    1996-01-01

    Computer vulnerabilities seem to be omnipresent. In every system fielded programming errors configuration errors and operation errors have allowed unauthorized users to enter systems or authorized users to take unauthorized actions...

  8. Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of Baluran National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Harjadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every ecosystem has a different level of susceptibility to environmental disturbances it receives, both from natural factors or anthropogenic disturbance. National Park (NP Baluran is one national park that has a representation of a complete ecosystem that includes upland forest ecosystems, lowland forests, coastal forests, mangroves, savanna and evergreen forest. The objective of this study is to get a formula calculation of vulnerability analysis of constant and dynamic factors. Baluran NP vulnerability assessment to climate change done by looking at the dynamic and fixed factors. Vulnerability remains a vulnerability factor to the condition of the original (control, whereas vulnerability is the vulnerability of the dynamic change factors which affected the condition from the outside. Constant Vulnerability (CV in  Baluran NP dominated resistant conditions (61%, meaning that the geomorphology and other fixed factors (slope and slope direction/aspect, then the condition in Baluran NP sufficiently resilient to climate change. Dynamic Vulnerability (DV is the vulnerability of an area or areas that change because of pressure from external factors. DV is influenced by climatic factors (WI = Wetness Index, soil (SBI = Soil Brightness Index, and vegetation (GI = Greenness Index. DV in  Baluran NP from 1999 to 2010 shifted from the original category of being (84.76% and shifted to the susceptible (59.88%.  The role of remote sensing for the analysis of raster digital system, while the geographic information system to display the results of cartographic maps.

  9. Spatial Analysis of Human Exposure and Vulnerability to Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disasters in coastal cities have shown an ever-increasing frequency of occurrence. Population growth and urbanisation have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in coastal flood-prone areas. Analysis of human exposure and vulnerability is one of the main strategies used to determine the necessary ...

  10. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  11. Department of Energy Plutonium ES ampersand H Vulnerability Assessment Savannah River Site interim compensatory measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recently completed a self-assessment of potential vulnerabilities associated with plutonium and other transuranic materials stored at the site. An independent Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) appointed by DOE/ES ampersand H also performed an independent assessment, and reviewed and validated the site self-assessment. The purpose of this report is to provide a status of interim compensatory measures at SRS to address hazards in advance of any corrective actions. ES ampersand H has requested this status for all vulnerabilities ranked medium or higher with respect to potential consequences to workers, environment, and the public

  12. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padowski, Julie C; Gorelick, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy. (letter)

  13. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  14. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  15. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  16. Aren't we all vulnerable: why do vulnerability analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, Marcus

    2011-11-15

    The idea of 'vulnerability' is widely-used shorthand for the disproportionate impacts that climate change will have on high-risk groups and fragile ecosystems. Decision makers increasingly want to target adaptation funding to those people and environments most affected by climate change. They must also be able to monitor the effectiveness of their investments. Vulnerability analysis is sometimes presented as the solution to these wants and needs — but existing approaches are often of little use: at best, they reiterate what we already know; at worst, they are used to justify entrenched agendas. To be truly useful as a basis for dialogue, action and accountability, the meaning of 'vulnerability' must be clarified and the methods for analysing it greatly strengthened. This means establishing standard, replicable approaches that differentiate between the roles and exposure of stakeholders, systems and institutions.

  17. Assessing Climate Vulnerabilities of Food Distribution Center Sites in Greater Boston and Their Regional Implications: Climate Adaptation Planning in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, A.; Watson, C.; Douglas, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Metro Boston region, an area whose civic leaders have been at the forefront of climate resilience initiatives in recent years, is finalizing a flood vulnerability assessment of food distribution center sites located north of Boston, with the support of the University of Massachusetts Boston and the American Geophysical Union's Thriving Earth Exchange program. The community-scientist collaboration emerged because of the need for more local analyses of the area to inform climate resiliency policy and planning actions for the region. A significant amount of the metro region's food supply passes through two major distribution centers in the cities of Everett and Chelsea, just north of the Mystic River. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), on behalf of the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce, is working with Chris Watson and Ellen Douglas of UMass Boston to build on existing analyses of the region's food system and climate vulnerabilities and to develop a report identifying flood risk exposure to the sites. The analysis brings in dynamic modeling techniques that incorporate storm surge and sea level rise projections under different climate scenarios, and aims to align methodologies with those of other regional analyses, such as Climate Ready Boston and the City of Cambridge's Vulnerability Assessment. The study is helping to inform MAPC's and the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce's understanding of this critical food distribution infrastructure, illustrate the larger regional implications of climate impacts on food distribution in the Greater Boston area, and guide the development of site-specific strategies for addressing identified vulnerabilities.

  18. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  19. Atmospheric Environment Vulnerability Cause Analysis for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-01-13

    Assessing and quantifying atmospheric vulnerability is a key issue in urban environmental protection and management. This paper integrated the Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy synthesis evaluation and Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis into an Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptive capacity (ESA) framework to quantitatively assess atmospheric environment vulnerability in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region with spatial and temporal comparisons. The elaboration of the relationships between atmospheric environment vulnerability and indices of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity supports enable analysis of the atmospheric environment vulnerability. Our findings indicate that the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the BTH region exhibits obvious spatial heterogeneity, which is caused by regional diversity in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indices. The results of atmospheric environment vulnerability assessment and the cause analysis can provide guidance to pick out key control regions and recognize vulnerable indicators for study sites. The framework developed in this paper can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to support environmental management.

  20. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

  1. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities.

  2. Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

  3. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Drainage Systems: Tree vs. Loop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of urban drainage networks plays an important role in urban flood management. This study analyzes and compares the vulnerability of tree and loop systems under various rainfall events to structural failure represented by pipe blockage. Different pipe blockage scenarios, in which one of the pipes in an urban drainage network is assumed to be blocked individually, are constructed and their impacts on the network are simulated under different storm events. Furthermore, a vulnerability index is defined to measure the vulnerability of the drainage systems before and after the implementation of adaptation measures. The results obtained indicate that the tree systems have a relatively larger proportion of critical hydraulic pipes than the loop systems, thus the vulnerability of tree systems is substantially greater than that of the loop systems. Furthermore, the vulnerability index of tree systems is reduced after they are converted into a loop system with the implementation of adaptation measures. This paper provides an insight into the differences in the vulnerability of tree and loop systems, and provides more evidence for development of adaptation measures (e.g., tanks to reduce urban flooding.

  4. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of

  5. Vulnerability analysis of a PWR to an external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruety, S.; Ilberg, D.; Hertz, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The Vulnerability of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to external events is affected by several factors such as: the degree of redundancy of the reactor systems, subsystems and components; the separation of systems provided in the general layout; the extent of the vulnerable area, i.e., the area which upon being affected by an external event will result in system failure; and the time required to repair or replace the systems, when allowed. The present study offers a methodology, using Probabilistic Safety Analysis, to evaluate the relative importance of the above parameters in reducing the vulnerability of reactor safety systems. Several safety systems of typical PWR's are analyzed as examples. It was found that the degree of redundancy and physical separation of the systems has the most prominent effect on the vulnerability of the NPP

  6. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.

  7. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. Challenges in the vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic view on the problem of vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures. Reflections are made on the inherent complexities of these systems, related challenges are identified and possible ways forward for their analysis and management are indicated. Specifically: the framework of vulnerability and risk analysis is examined in relation to its application for the protection and resilience of critical infrastructures; it is argued that the complexity of these systems is a challenging characteristic, which calls for the integration of different modeling perspectives and new approaches of analysis; examples of are given in relation to the Internet and, particularly, the electric power grid, as representative of critical infrastructures and the associated complexity; the integration of different types of analyses and methods of system modeling is put forward for capturing the inherent structural and dynamic complexities of critical infrastructures and eventually evaluating their vulnerability and risk characteristics, so that decisions on protections and resilience actions can be taken with the required confidence. - Highlights: • The problem of the protection and resilience of CIs is the focus of the work. • The vulnerability and risk analysis framework for this is critically examined. • The complexity of CIs is presented as a challenge for system modeling and analysis. • The integration of different modeling perspectives of analysis is put forward as a solution. • The extension of the analysis framework to new methods for dealing with surprises and black swans is advocated.

  9. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  10. Vulnerability assessment of archaeological sites to earthquake hazard: An indicator based method integrating spatial and temporal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Minos-Minopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, numerous sites of cultural heritage value are at risk from a variety of human-induced and natural hazards such as war and earthquakes. Here we present and test a novel indicator-based method for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to earthquakes. Vulnerability is approached as a dynamic element assessed through a combination of spatial and temporal parameters. The spatial parameters examine the susceptibility of the sites to the secondary Earthquake Environmental Effects of ground liquefaction, landslides and tsunami and are expressed through the Spatial Susceptibility Index (SSi. Parameters of physical vulnerability, economic importance and visitors density examine the temporal vulnerability of the sites expressed through the Temporal Vulnerability Index (TVi. The equally weighted sum of the spatial and temporal indexes represents the total Archaeological Site Vulnerability Index (A.S.V.I.. The A.S.V.I method is applied at 16 archaeological sites across Greece, allowing an assessment of their vulnerability. This then allows the establishment of a regional and national priority list for considering future risk mitigation. Results indicate that i the majority of the sites have low to moderate vulnerability to earthquake hazard, ii Neratzia Fortress on Kos and Heraion on Samos are characterised as highly vulnerable and should be prioritised for further studies and mitigation measures, and iii the majority of the sites are susceptible to at least one Earthquake Environmental Effect and present relatively high physical vulnerability attributed to the existing limited conservation works. This approach highlights the necessity for an effective vulnerability assessment methodology within the existing framework of disaster risk management for cultural heritage.

  11. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation

  12. Knowledge-Base Semantic Gap Analysis for the Vulnerability Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Raymond; Seki, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Ryusuke; Hisada, Masayuki

    Web security became an alert in internet computing. To cope with ever-rising security complexity, semantic analysis is proposed to fill-in the gap that the current approaches fail to commit. Conventional methods limit their focus to the physical source codes instead of the abstraction of semantics. It bypasses new types of vulnerability and causes tremendous business loss.

  13. Vulnerability analysis of process plants subject to domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik; Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Khan, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    In the context of domino effects, vulnerability analysis of chemical and process plants aims to identify and protect installations which are relatively more susceptible to damage and thus contribute more to the initiation or propagation of domino effects. In the present study, we have developed a methodology based on graph theory for domino vulnerability analysis of hazardous installations within process plants, where owning to the large number of installations or complex interdependencies, the application of sophisticated reasoning approaches such as Bayesian network is limited. We have taken advantage of a hypothetical chemical storage plant to develop the methodology and validated the results using a dynamic Bayesian network approach. The efficacy and out-performance of the developed methodology have been demonstrated via a real-life complex case study. - Highlights: • Graph theory is a reliable tool for vulnerability analysis of chemical plants as to domino effects. • All-closeness centrality score can be used to identify most vulnerable installations. • As for complex chemical plants, the methodology outperforms Bayesian network.

  14. Regional energy facility siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, R.C.; Eagles, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the energy facility siting analysis portion of a regional pilot study performed for the anticipated National Energy Siting and Facility Report are presented. The question of cell analysis versus site-specific analysis is explored, including an evaluation of the difference in depth between the two approaches. A discussion of the possible accomplishments of regional analysis is presented. It is concluded that regional sitting analysis could be of use in a national siting study, if its inherent limits are recognized

  15. Vulnerability Analysis for Physical Protection System at Hypothetical Facility of a Different Type Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won-Moog; Kim, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Kwak, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung-Soon

    2007-01-01

    Since the 9/11 event in the U.S.A, International terror possibilities has been increased for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants(NPPs). It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an existing physical protection system(PPS) at nuclear facilities based on such malevolent acts. Detection, delay, and response elements are all important to PPS. They are used for the analysis and evaluation of a PPS and its effectiveness. Methods are available to analyze a PPS and evaluate its effectiveness. Sandia National Laboratory(SNL) in the U.S.A developed a System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) computer code for evaluating the effectiveness of PPS against outsider threats. This study presents the vulnerability analysis of the PPS at hypothetical facility of a different type using SAVI code that the basic input parameters are from PPS of a different type. For analysis, first, the site-specific Adversary Sequence Diagrams(ASDs) of the PPS is designed. It helps to understand the functions of the existing PPS composed of physical areas and Protection Elements(PEs). Then, the most vulnerable path of an ASD as a measure of effectiveness is determined. The results in the analysis can compare with the most vulnerable paths at a different type

  16. A Preliminary Tsunami vulnerability analysis for Bakirkoy district in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, M.; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis has major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas under extreme events has major importance for preparedness and development of mitigation strategies. The Sea of Marmara has experienced numerous earthquakes as well as associated tsunamis. There are variety of coastal facilities such as ports, small craft harbors, and terminals for maritime transportation, water front roads and business centers mainly at North Coast of Marmara Sea in megacity Istanbul. A detailed vulnerability analysis for Yenikapi region and a detailed resilience analysis for Haydarpasa port in Istanbul have been studied in previously by Cankaya et al., (2015) and Aytore et al., (2015) in SATREPS project. In this study, the methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack given in Cankaya et al., (2015) is modified and applied to Bakirkoy district of Istanbul. Bakirkoy district is located at western part of Istanbul and faces to the North Coast of Marmara Sea from 28.77oE to 28.89oE. High resolution spatial dataset of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed. The bathymetry and topography database and the spatial dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the district are collated and utilized for tsunami numerical modeling and following vulnerability analysis. The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability assessment parameters in the district according to vulnerability and resilience are defined; and scored by implementation of a GIS based TVA with appropriate MCDA methods. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and TVA results at every location in Bakirkoy district. The preliminary results are presented and discussed

  17. Department of Energy, highly enriched uranium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In accordance with the February 22, 1996 directive issued by Secretary of Energy O'Leary on the Vulnerability Assessment of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conducted an assessment of the site's HEU holdings and any associated vulnerabilities. The assessment was conducted between April 25 and May 24, 1996. The scope of this assessment, as defined in the Assessment Plan, included all HEU, and any spent fuel not evaluated in the Spent Fuel Vulnerability Assessment. Addressed in this assessment were all of the holdings at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) except any located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) and the Naval Reactors Facility. Excluded from the assessment were those HEU holdings previously assessed in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory and Vulnerability Site Assessment Report and any HEU holdings evaluated in the Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment Report

  18. Urban Heat Wave Vulnerability Analysis Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    JE, M.; KIM, H.; Jung, S.

    2017-12-01

    Much attention has been paid to thermal environments in Seoul City in South Korea since 2016 when the worst heatwave in 22 years. It is necessary to provide a selective measure by singling out vulnerable regions in advance to cope with the heat wave-related damage. This study aims to analyze and categorize vulnerable regions of thermal environments in the Seoul and analyzes and discusses the factors and risk factors for each type. To do this, this study conducted the following processes: first, based on the analyzed various literature reviews, indices that can evaluate vulnerable regions of thermal environment are collated. The indices were divided into climate exposure index related to temperature, sensitivity index including demographic, social, and economic indices, and adaptation index related to urban environment and climate adaptation policy status. Second, significant variables were derived to evaluate a vulnerable region of thermal environment based on the summarized indices in the above. this study analyzed a relationship between the number of heat-related patients in Seoul and variables that affected the number using multi-variate statistical analysis to derive significant variables. Third, the importance of each variable was calculated quantitatively by integrating the statistical analysis results and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Fourth, a distribution of data for each index was identified based on the selected variables and indices were normalized and overlapped. Fifth, For the climate exposure index, evaluations were conducted as same as the current vulnerability evaluation method by selecting future temperature of Seoul predicted through the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) climate change scenarios as an evaluation variable. The results of this study can be utilized as foundational data to establish a countermeasure against heatwave in Seoul. Although it is limited to control heatwave occurrences itself completely, improvements

  19. Complexity and Vulnerability Analysis of Critical Infrastructures: A Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of network models has been widely adopted to explore the potential impacts of random disturbances, deliberate attacks, and natural disasters. However, almost all these models are based on a fixed topological structure, in which the physical properties of infrastructure components and their interrelationships are not well captured. In this paper, a new research framework is put forward to quantitatively explore and assess the complexity and vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. Then, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed framework. After constructing metro physical network (MPN, Pajek is employed to analyze its corresponding topological properties, including degree, betweenness, average path length, network diameter, and clustering coefficient. With a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of MPN, it would be beneficial for metro system to restrain original near-miss or accidents and support decision-making in emergency situations. Moreover, through the analysis of two simulation protocols for system component failure, it is found that the MPN turned to be vulnerable under the condition that the high-degree nodes or high-betweenness edges are attacked. These findings will be conductive to offer recommendations and proposals for robust design, risk-based decision-making, and prioritization of risk reduction investment.

  20. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  1. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispen Murungweni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of both direct and indirect feedbacks and can be used to explore the vulnerabilities of livelihoods to identified hazards. We studied characteristics and drivers of rural livelihoods in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southern Africa to assess the vulnerability of inhabitants to the different hazards they face. The process involved four steps: (1 surveys and interviews to identify the major livelihood types; (2 description of specific livelihood types in a system format using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs, a semi-quantitative tool that models systems based on people's knowledge; (3 linking variables and drivers in FCMs by attaching weights; and (4 defining and applying scenarios to visualize the effects of drought and changing park boundaries on cash and household food security. FCMs successfully gave information concerning the nature (increase or decrease and magnitude by which a livelihood system changed under different scenarios. However, they did not explain the recovery path in relation to time and pattern (e.g., how long it takes for cattle to return to desired numbers after a drought. Using FCMs revealed that issues of policy, such as changing situations at borders, can strongly aggravate effects of climate change such as drought. FCMs revealed hidden knowledge and gave insights that improved the understanding of the complexity of livelihood systems in a way that is better appreciated by stakeholders.

  2. A Connection Entropy Approach to Water Resources Vulnerability Analysis in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a water resources vulnerability framework based on sensitivity, natural resilience and artificial adaptation, through the analyses of the four states of the water system and its accompanying transformation processes. Furthermore, it proposes an analysis method for water resources vulnerability based on connection entropy, which extends the concept of contact entropy. An example is given of the water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province of China, which analysis illustrates that, overall, vulnerability levels fluctuated and showed apparent improvement trends from 2001 to 2015. Some suggestions are also provided for the improvement of the level of water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province, considering the viewpoint of the vulnerability index.

  3. Efficient Web Vulnerability Detection Tool for Sleeping Giant-Cross Site Request Forgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, G.; Sangeetha, M.; AndalPriyadharsini, R.

    2018-04-01

    Now day’s web applications are very high in the rate of usage due to their user friendly environment and getting any information via internet but these web applications are affected by lot of threats. CSRF attack is one of the serious threats to web applications which is based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal web request and response of HTTP protocol. It is hard to detect but hence still it is present in most of the existing web applications. In CSRF attack, without user knowledge the unwanted actions on a reliable websites are forced to happen. So it is placed in OWASP’s top 10 Web Application attacks list. My proposed work is to do a real time scan of CSRF vulnerability attack in given URL of the web applications as well as local host address for any organization using python language. Client side detection of CSRF is depended on Form count which is presented in that given web site.

  4. Analysis of Zero-Day Vulnerabilities in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Popa

    2013-01-01

    The zero-day vulnerability is a security lack of the computer system that is unknown to software vendor. This kind of vulnerability permits building attack strategies for gaining the access to the resources and data of a computer system. The main issue of the topic is how a computer system can be protected by zero-day vulnerabilities using the actual security procedures and tools for identifying the potential attacks that exploit the vulnerabilities unknown to computer users and software prov...

  5. Rethinking vulnerability analysis and governance with emphasis on a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Delvenne, Pierre; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability for nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a three-fold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability from unleashing the full range of its potential, as it constrains appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Multi-scale location analysis of vulnerabilities and their link to disturbances within digital ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    As computer networks evolve, so too does the techniques used by attackers to exploit new vulnerabilities. Natural ecosystems already have resistant and resilient properties that help protect them from unwanted disturbances despite the existence of different vulnerabilities. Computer networks and their environments can be considered as digital ecosystems with different vulnerabilities, and security attacks can be considered as unwanted disturbances. Analysis of vulnerabilities and attacks from...

  7. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  8. A preliminary analysis of quantifying computer security vulnerability data in "the wild"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; McNamara, Sean R.; Goldstein, Adam; Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    A system of computers, networks and software has some level of vulnerability exposure that puts it at risk to criminal hackers. Presently, most vulnerability research uses data from software vendors, and the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). We propose an alternative path forward through grounding our analysis in data from the operational information security community, i.e. vulnerability data from "the wild". In this paper, we propose a vulnerability data parsing algorithm and an in-depth univariate and multivariate analysis of the vulnerability arrival and deletion process (also referred to as the vulnerability birth-death process). We find that vulnerability arrivals are best characterized by the log-normal distribution and vulnerability deletions are best characterized by the exponential distribution. These distributions can serve as prior probabilities for future Bayesian analysis. We also find that over 22% of the deleted vulnerability data have a rate of zero, and that the arrival vulnerability data is always greater than zero. Finally, we quantify and visualize the dependencies between vulnerability arrivals and deletions through a bivariate scatterplot and statistical observations.

  9. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 4: Savannah River Site working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The assessment at SRS is part of a broader plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment being made by the DOE, encompassing all DOE sites with plutonium holdings. Vulnerabilities across all the sites will be identified and prioritized as a basis for determining the necessity and schedule for taking corrective action

  10. Single Point Vulnerability Analysis of Automatic Seismic Trip System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Chung, Soon Il; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Pil [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) analysis is a process used to identify individual equipment whose failure alone will result in a reactor trip, turbine generator failure, or power reduction of more than 50%. Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) is a newly installed system to ensure the safety of plant when earthquake occurs. Since this system directly shuts down the reactor, the failure or malfunction of its system component can cause a reactor trip more frequently than other systems. Therefore, an SPV analysis of ASTS is necessary to maintain its essential performance. To analyze SPV for ASTS, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed. In this study, FMEA and FTA methods were performed to select SPV equipment of ASTS. D/O, D/I, A/I card, seismic sensor, and trip relay had an effect on the reactor trip but their single failure will not cause reactor trip. In conclusion, ASTS is excluded as SPV. These results can be utilized as the basis data for ways to enhance facility reliability such as design modification and improvement of preventive maintenance procedure.

  11. Single Point Vulnerability Analysis of Automatic Seismic Trip System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Chung, Soon Il; Lee, Yong Suk; Choi, Byung Pil

    2016-01-01

    Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) analysis is a process used to identify individual equipment whose failure alone will result in a reactor trip, turbine generator failure, or power reduction of more than 50%. Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) is a newly installed system to ensure the safety of plant when earthquake occurs. Since this system directly shuts down the reactor, the failure or malfunction of its system component can cause a reactor trip more frequently than other systems. Therefore, an SPV analysis of ASTS is necessary to maintain its essential performance. To analyze SPV for ASTS, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed. In this study, FMEA and FTA methods were performed to select SPV equipment of ASTS. D/O, D/I, A/I card, seismic sensor, and trip relay had an effect on the reactor trip but their single failure will not cause reactor trip. In conclusion, ASTS is excluded as SPV. These results can be utilized as the basis data for ways to enhance facility reliability such as design modification and improvement of preventive maintenance procedure

  12. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 9, Oak Ridge Site working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Plutonium Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Vulnerability Assessment at the Oak Ridge (OR) Site was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the ES ampersand H vulnerabilities arising from the storage and handling of its current plutonium holdings. The term open-quotes ES ampersand H Vulnerabilityclose quotes is defined for the purpose of this project to mean conditions or weaknesses that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure to the public. This assessment was intended to take a open-quotes snap-shotclose quotes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 Plant's plutonium holdings and associated ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the time frame of June 1 994. This vulnerability assessment process began with the OR Site Assessment Team (SAT) generating a self-assessment report including proposed vulnerabilities. The SAT identified 55 facilities which contain plutonium and other transuranics they considered might be in-scope for purposes of this study. The Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT), however, determined that 37 of the facilities actually contained only out-of-scope material (e.g., transuranic material not colocated with plutonium or transuranic (TRU) waste). The WGAT performed an independent assessment of the SATs report, conducted facility walkdowns, and reviewed reference documents such as Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), emergency preparedness plans, and procedures. The results of the WGAT review and open-quotes walkdownsclose quotes (a term as used here incorporating tours, document reviews, and detailed discussions with cognizant personnel) are discussed in Section 3.0. The ES ampersand H vulnerabilities that were identified are documented in Appendix A

  13. Analysis of child poverty and vulnerability in Zambia | Moonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability is increasingly becoming synonymous with poverty in the social policy literature. There are three age-groups that are more likely to be vulnerable and in poverty at any given time although with variations. These are children, adults with children and the elderly. This study focused on the children due to their ...

  14. Structures of protective antibodies reveal sites of vulnerability on Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murin, Charles D; Fusco, Marnie L; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Qiu, Xiangguo; Olinger, Gene G; Zeitlin, Larry; Kobinger, Gary P; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2014-12-02

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and related filoviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever, with up to 90% lethality, and no treatments are approved for human use. Multiple recent outbreaks of EBOV and the likelihood of future human exposure highlight the need for pre- and postexposure treatments. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails are particularly attractive candidates due to their proven postexposure efficacy in nonhuman primate models of EBOV infection. Two candidate cocktails, MB-003 and ZMAb, have been extensively evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, these two therapeutics have been combined into a new cocktail named ZMapp, which showed increased efficacy and has been given compassionately to some human patients. Epitope information and mechanism of action are currently unknown for most of the component mAbs. Here we provide single-particle EM reconstructions of every mAb in the ZMapp cocktail, as well as additional antibodies from MB-003 and ZMAb. Our results illuminate key and recurring sites of vulnerability on the EBOV glycoprotein and provide a structural rationale for the efficacy of ZMapp. Interestingly, two of its components recognize overlapping epitopes and compete with each other for binding. Going forward, this work now provides a basis for strategic selection of next-generation antibody cocktails against Ebola and related viruses and a model for predicting the impact of ZMapp on potential escape mutations in ongoing or future Ebola outbreaks.

  15. A situational analysis of priority disaster hazards in Uganda: findings from a hazard and vulnerability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Kiguli, J; Orach, G C; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not conducted a disaster risk analysis. Hazards and vulnerability analyses provide vital information that can be used for development of risk reduction and disaster response plans. The purpose of this study was to rank disaster hazards for Uganda, as a basis for identifying the priority hazards to guide disaster management planning. The study as conducted in Uganda, as part of a multi-country assessment. A hazard, vulnerability and capacity analysis was conducted in a focus group discussion of 7 experts representing key stakeholder agencies in disaster management in Uganda. A simple ranking method was used to rank the probability of occurance of 11 top hazards, their potential impact and the level vulnerability of people and infrastructure. In-terms of likelihood of occurance and potential impact, the top ranked disaster hazards in Uganda are: 1) Epidemics of infectious diseases, 2) Drought/famine, 3) Conflict and environmental degradation in that order. In terms of vulnerability, the top priority hazards to which people and infrastructure were vulnerable were: 1) Conflicts, 2) Epidemics, 3) Drought/famine and, 4) Environmental degradation in that order. Poverty, gender, lack of information, and lack of resilience measures were some of the factors promoting vulnerability to disasters. As Uganda develops a disaster risk reduction and response plan, it ought to prioritize epidemics of infectious diseases, drought/famine, conflics and environmental degradation as the priority disaster hazards.

  16. Adapting the capacities and vulnerabilities approach: a gender analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Lauren; Powell, Christopher; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Gender analysis methodology is increasingly being considered as essential to health research because 'women's social, economic and political status undermine their ability to protect and promote their own physical, emotional and mental health, including their effective use of health information and services' {World Health Organization [Gender Analysis in Health: a review of selected tools. 2003; www.who.int/gender/documents/en/Gender. pdf (20 February 2008, date last accessed)]}. By examining gendered roles, responsibilities and norms through the lens of gender analysis, we can develop an in-depth understanding of social power differentials, and be better able to address gender inequalities and inequities within institutions and between men and women. When conducting gender analysis, tools and frameworks may help to aid community engagement and to provide a framework to ensure that relevant gendered nuances are assessed. The capacities and vulnerabilities approach (CVA) is one such gender analysis framework that critically considers gender and its associated roles, responsibilities and power dynamics in a particular community and seeks to meet a social need of that particular community. Although the original intent of the CVA was to guide humanitarian intervention and disaster preparedness, we adapted this framework to a different context, which focuses on identifying and addressing emerging problems and social issues in a particular community or area that affect their specific needs, such as an infectious disease outbreak or difficulty accessing health information and resources. We provide an example of our CVA adaptation, which served to facilitate a better understanding of how health-related disparities affect Maasai women in a remote, resource-poor setting in Northern Tanzania. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ecologically least vulnerable sites for exploration drilling in the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; De Gee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch Oil Company (NAM, abbreviated in Dutch) applied for a number of exploration drilling in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area. NAM is obliged to draft a so-called MER (environmental impact report) to indicate the most environment-friendly alternative for the test drilling. By order of NAM, NIOZ and the IBN-DLO (Institute for Research on Forests and Nature) analyzed samples of the animal life in all the potential sites. Based on the results of the analyses, literature and expert knowledge the ecologically least vulnerable sites and the ecologically least vulnerable season were selected during a workshop. In this report the results are given of the workshop, the field sample analyses and a sailing trip along the sites

  18. Analysis of Network Vulnerability Under Joint Node and Link Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting

    2018-03-01

    The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.

  19. Vulnerability analysis in a pwr nuclear power plant containment building

    OpenAIRE

    Musolas Otaño, Antoni Maria

    2013-01-01

    When supervising a nuclear power plant, the containment building is crucial. Its functions are guaranteeing structural integrity and avoiding leaks in case of accident. Both events are considered of high risk. Once a given overpressure is registered inside the containment building, three possible outputs are considered: serviceability, breakdown, and collapse. The aim is the study of vulnerability. The vulnerability of the containment building under an overpressure is described by the conditi...

  20. Real Option Cost Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Knight, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Critical infrastructure such as electricity substations are vulnerable to various geo-hazards that arise from climate change. These geo-hazards range from increased vegetation growth to increased temperatures and flood inundation. Of all the identified geo-hazards, coastal flooding has the greatest impact, but to date has had a low probability of occurring. However, in the face of climate change, coastal flooding is likely to occur more often due to extreme water levels being experienced more frequently due to sea-level rise (SLR). Knowing what impact coastal flooding will have now and in the future on critical infrastructure such as electrical substations is important for long-term management. Using a flood inundation model, present day and future flood events have been simulated, from 1 in 1 year events up to 1 in 10,000 year events. The modelling makes an integrated assessment of impact by using sea-level and surge to simulate a storm tide. The geographical area the model covers is part of the Northwest UK coastline with a range of urban and rural areas. The ensemble of flood maps generated allows the identification of critical infrastructure exposed to coastal flooding. Vulnerability has be assessed using an Estimated Annual Damage (EAD) value. Sampling SLR annual probability distributions produces a projected "pathway" for SLR up to 2100. EAD is then calculated using a relationship derived from the flood model. Repeating the sampling process allows a distribution of EAD up to 2100 to be produced. These values are discounted to present day values using an appropriate discount rate. If the cost of building and maintain defences is also removed from this a Net Present Value (NPV) of building the defences can be calculated. This distribution of NPV can be used as part of a cost modelling process involving Real Options, A real option is the right but not obligation to undertake investment decisions. In terms of investment in critical infrastructure resilience this

  1. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  2. Analysis of the NIST database towards the composition of vulnerabilities in attack scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; van Keulen, Maurice

    The composition of vulnerabilities in attack scenarios has been traditionally performed based on detailed pre- and post-conditions. Although very precise, this approach is dependent on human analysis, is time consuming, and not at all scalable. We investigate the NIST National Vulnerability Database

  3. analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, to determine the degree of climate risk and the relative vulnerability of the districts, to climate .... widely used index for quantifying drought, was extracted from ... semivariogram/Covariance model) in ArcGIS 9.3.

  4. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 9: Oak Ridge site site team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides the input to and results of the Department of Energy (DOE) - Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) DOE Plutonium Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Vulnerability Assessment (VA) self-assessment performed by the Site Assessment Team (SAT) for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL or X-10) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) sites that are managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). As initiated (March 15, 1994) by the Secretary of Energy, the objective of the VA is to identify and rank-order DOE-ES ampersand H vulnerabilities associated for the purpose of decision making on the interim safe management and ultimate disposition of fissile materials. This assessment is directed at plutonium and other co-located transuranics in various forms

  5. Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a

  6. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity and the selective vulnerability of nervous system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laura L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the structure, function, and cellular composition of the nervous system confers extraordinary complexity and a multiplicity of mechanisms of chemical neurotoxicity. Because of its relatively high metabolic demands and functional dependence on postmitotic neurons, the nervous system is vulnerable to a variety of xenobiotics that affect essential homeostatic mechanisms that support function. Despite protection from the neuroglia and blood-brain barrier, the central nervous system is prone to attack from lipophilic toxicants and those that hijack endogenous transport, receptor, metabolic, and other biochemical systems. The inherent predilection of chemicals for highly conserved biochemical systems confers selective vulnerability of the nervous system to neurotoxicants. This chapter discusses selective vulnerability of the nervous system in the context of neuron-specific decrements (axonopathy, myelinopathy, disruption of neurotransmission), and the degree to which neuronal damage is facilitated or ameliorated by surrounding nonneural cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  8. Security Vulnerability Profiles of Mission Critical Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    While some prior research work exists on characteristics of software faults (i.e., bugs) and failures, very little work has been published on analysis of software applications vulnerabilities. This paper aims to contribute towards filling that gap by presenting an empirical investigation of application vulnerabilities. The results are based on data extracted from issue tracking systems of two NASA missions. These data were organized in three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified security related software bugs and classified them in specific vulnerability classes. Then, we created the security vulnerability profiles, i.e., determined where and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced and what were the dominating vulnerabilities classes. Our main findings include: (1) In IVV issues datasets the majority of vulnerabilities were code related and were introduced in the Implementation phase. (2) For all datasets, around 90 of the vulnerabilities were located in two to four subsystems. (3) Out of 21 primary classes, five dominated: Exception Management, Memory Access, Other, Risky Values, and Unused Entities. Together, they contributed from 80 to 90 of vulnerabilities in each dataset.

  9. Department of Energy HEU ES and H vulnerability assessment, Savannah River Site, Site Assessment Team report. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, R.L.; Barone, A.; Shook, H.E. Varner, C.E.; Rollins, R.

    1996-01-01

    This report fulfills the directive issued by the Secretary of Energy on February 22, 1996 to complete a comprehensive assessment of potential vulnerabilities associated with the management of highly enriched uranium (HEU) throughout the DOE complex. In a subsequent letter instruction, the DOE-SR Field Office formally directed WSRC to conduct an assessment of the HEU materials at SRS. The term ''ES and H vulnerabilities'' is defined for the purpose of this assessment to mean conditions or weaknesses that could lead to unnecessary or increased exposure of workers or the public to radiation or to HEU-associated chemical hazards, or to the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The assessment will identify and prioritize ES and H vulnerabilities, and will serve as an information base for identifying corrective actions for the safe management of HEU. Primary facilities that hold HEU at SRS are H-Canyon, K-Reactor assembly area, K, L, and P-Reactor disassembly basins, and the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF)

  10. Asymmetrical sabotage tactics, nuclear facilities/materials, and vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emerging paradigm of a global community wherein post-modern political violence is a fact of life that must be dealt with by safety and security planners is discussed. This paradigm shift in the philosophy of terrorism is documented by analysis of the emerging pattern of asymmetrical tactics being employed by terrorists. Such philosophical developments in violent political movements suggest a shift in the risks that security and safety personnel must account for in their planning for physical protection of fixed site nuclear source facilities like power generation stations and the eventual storage and transportation of the by-products of these facilities like spent nuclear fuel and other high level wastes. This paper presents a framework for identifying these new political realities and related threat profiles, suggests ways in which security planners and administrators can design physical protection practices to meet these emerging threats, and argues for global adoption of standards for the protection of nuclear facilities that could be used as a source site from which terrorists could inflict a mass contamination event and for standards related to the protection of the waste materials that can be used in the production of radiological weapons of mass victimization. (author)

  11. Regional probabilistic nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment by integration of mathematical modelling land GIS-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigina, O.; Baklanov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula, Russian Arctic exceeds all other regions in the world in the number of nuclear reactors. The study was aimed at estimating possible radiation risks to the population in the Nordic countries in case of a severe accident in the Kola Peninsula. A new approach based on probabilistic analysis of modelled possible pathways of radionuclide transport and precipitation was developed. For the general population, Finland is at most risk with respect to the Kola NPP, because of: high population density or proximity to the radiation-risk sites and relatively high probability of an airflow trajectory there, and precipitation. After considering the critical group, northern counties in Norway, Finland and Sweden appear to be most vulnerable. (au)

  12. Fish and fisher behaviour influence the vulnerability of groupers (Epinephelidae) to fishing at a multispecies spawning aggregation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Graham, N. A. J.; Cinner, J. E.; Almany, G. R.; Waldie, P.

    2015-06-01

    Targeted fishing of spawning aggregations is a major contributor to extinction risk in numerous species of grouper (Epinephelidae). Marine reserves are often used to protect spawning aggregation sites, including multispecies sites shared by several species of grouper. However, marine reserves may be biologically, socioeconomically or culturally unviable in some fisheries, and alternative management actions must be explored. Implementing effective management actions that control rather than prohibit fishing requires an improved understanding of how species vary in their vulnerability to fishing gears and respond to changes in fishing effort. To estimate sources of variability in vulnerability to fishing (i.e. catchability), catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and other fisheries data were collected in parallel with underwater visual census-derived estimates of aggregation size at a multispecies spawning site of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion. Despite having similar abundances, E. polyphekadion was eightfold more vulnerable to capture by hook-and-line gear, clearly outcompeting its congener for bait. Contrasting with the common assumption of a proportional relationship, the CPUE of both species was unrelated to the size of their respective aggregations. Moreover, the CPUE of each species was unrelated to hook size and depth fished. However, E. polyphekadion CPUE declined as the density of fishing effort increased at the site, with gear saturation identified as the likely mechanism for this effect. E. fuscoguttatus CPUE was negatively related to the size of aggregations formed by its congener, stemming from the superior competitiveness and therefore higher selectivity of the gear for E. polyphekadion. Our findings demonstrate that CPUE is an unreliable indicator of spawning aggregation status. The other sources of variation in CPUE that we identify have implications for gear-based management, which must be based on understanding of gear selectivity for

  13. Vulnerabilities, Influences and Interaction Paths: Failure Data for Integrated System Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2006-01-01

    We describe graph-based analysis methods for identifying and analyzing cross-subsystem interaction risks from subsystem connectivity information. By discovering external and remote influences that would be otherwise unexpected, these methods can support better communication among subsystem designers at points of potential conflict and to support design of more dependable and diagnosable systems. These methods identify hazard causes that can impact vulnerable functions or entities if propagated across interaction paths from the hazard source to the vulnerable target. The analysis can also assess combined impacts of And-Or trees of disabling influences. The analysis can use ratings of hazards and vulnerabilities to calculate cumulative measures of the severity and importance. Identification of cross-subsystem hazard-vulnerability pairs and propagation paths across subsystems will increase coverage of hazard and risk analysis and can indicate risk control and protection strategies.

  14. A user exposure based approach for non-structural road network vulnerability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    Full Text Available Aiming at the dense urban road network vulnerability without structural negative consequences, this paper proposes a novel non-structural road network vulnerability analysis framework. Three aspects of the framework are mainly described: (i the rationality of non-structural road network vulnerability, (ii the metrics for negative consequences accounting for variant road conditions, and (iii the introduction of a new vulnerability index based on user exposure. Based on the proposed methodology, a case study in the Sioux Falls network which was usually threatened by regular heavy snow during wintertime is detailedly discussed. The vulnerability ranking of links of Sioux Falls network with respect to heavy snow scenario is identified. As a result of non-structural consequences accompanied by conceivable degeneration of network, there are significant increases in generalized travel time costs which are measurements for "emotionally hurt" of topological road network.

  15. Cybersecurity Vulnerability Analysis of the PLC PRIME Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Seijo Simó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in critical infrastructures such as the power grid is of vital importance. The Smart Grid puts power grid classical security approach on the ropes, since it introduces cyberphysical systems where devices, communications, and information systems must be protected. PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME is a Narrowband Power-Line Communications (NB-PLC protocol widely used in the last mile of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI deployments, playing a key role in the Smart Grid. Therefore, this work aims to unveil the cybersecurity vulnerabilities present in PRIME standard, proposing solutions and validating and discussing the results obtained.

  16. Spatial-temporal analysis of dengue deaths: identifying social vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in Brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. METHODS: This was a descriptive and ecological study of dengue deaths occurring from 2002 to 2013 in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Geoprocessing software was used to draw maps, linking the geo-referenced deaths with urban/social data at census tract level. RESULTS: There were 74 deaths, concentrated in areas of social vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: The use of geo-technology tools pointed to a concentration of dengue deaths in specific intra-urban areas.

  17. Spatial-temporal analysis of dengue deaths: identifying social vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria do Socorro da; Branco, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Aquino, José; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Bani, Emanuele; Moreira, Emnielle Pinto Borges; Medeiros, Maria Nilza Lima; Rodrigues, Zulimar Márita Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in Brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This was a descriptive and ecological study of dengue deaths occurring from 2002 to 2013 in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Geoprocessing software was used to draw maps, linking the geo-referenced deaths with urban/social data at census tract level. There were 74 deaths, concentrated in areas of social vulnerability. The use of geo-technology tools pointed to a concentration of dengue deaths in specific intra-urban areas.

  18. PSA based vulnerability and protectability analysis for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopika, V.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the generation of location sets and protection sets. ► Vulnerability and protectability used to rank location sets and protection sets. ► Ranking helps in adequacy of protection measures employed in various locations. ► The procedure for PSA based vital area identification is demonstrated. ► This method has found practical applicability for Indian NPP. -- Abstract: Identification of vital areas in a facility involves assessing the facility and the locations, whose sabotage can result in undesirable (radiological) consequences. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique can find the component failures leading to core damage (a surrogate for radiological consequence) in a systematic manner, which can be extended to identification of vital areas. This paper describes the procedure for the generation of location sets (set of locations whose sabotage can lead to possible core damage) and protection sets (set of locations that must be protected to prevent possible core damage). In addition, measures such as vulnerability and protectability have been introduced, which can be used to rank location sets and protection sets.

  19. Non-timber Forest Products, Their Vulnerability and Conservation in a Designated UNESCO Heritage Site of Arunanchal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Apatani, non-nomadic tribe, have evolved an ecologically sustainable system of rural forestry in Ziro Valley, a proposed heritage site of UNESCO. They have been using non-timber forest products (NTFPs grown in homestead and nearby forests for a very long period. The present study was aimed at identification of priority NTFPs and uses, their availability status and availability trend, conservation need, and sustainability interventions. Qualitative methods of research like, exploratory survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key informants, etc. were employed for data collection. The Apatani used 112 priority NTFPs for food supplement, herbal medicine, house building material and other purposes. However, on the basis of ecological importance such NTFPs were categorized as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high vulnerable species. Twenty vulnerable species like Antiitari ayi (Actinidia callosa, Biiling (Choerospondias axillaris, Henchi (Rubus niveus, Jojuru ayi (Coccinia grandis, Ngiilyang Khiiko (Centella asiatica etc. should be conserved and seventeen not vulnerable species at this stage like, Padii hamang (Cardamine hirsute, Sankhe (Quercus griffithii, Bije (Phyllostachys manii, Hiigu hamang (Oenanthe javanica, Kiira (Quercus dealbata , etc. could be commercialized. However, a balance needed to be struck between commercialization and conservation by adopting a comprehensive policy based on scientific and traditional Apatani knowledge for harvesting and regeneration of NTFPs. Homegardening or community farming is recommended for sustainable supply of commercially important species to be domasticated.

  20. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  1. Managing a User’s Vulnerability on a Social Networking Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    aid not only the cyberbullying of teenagers but also the cyberstalking and cyberharassment of adults3. On a social networking site, an individual user...news/2011-07-23-facebook-stalker- sentenced_n.htm 3en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Cyberbullying 1 posts and subsequent interactions. The owner of the site

  2. The Promise, Practice, and State of Planning Tools to Assess Site Vulnerability to Runoff Phosphorus Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, P J A; Sharpley, A N; Buda, A R; Easton, Z M; Lory, J A; Osmond, D L; Radcliffe, D E; Nelson, N O; Veith, T L; Doody, D G

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 20 yr, there has been a proliferation of phosphorus (P) site assessment tools for nutrient management planning, particularly in the United States. The 19 papers that make up this special section on P site assessment include decision support tools ranging from the P Index to fate-and-transport models to weather-forecast-based risk calculators. All require objective evaluation to ensure that they are effective in achieving intended benefits to protecting water quality. In the United States, efforts have been underway to compare, evaluate, and advance an array of P site assessment tools. Efforts to corroborate their performance using water quality monitoring data confirms previously documented discrepancies between different P site assessment tools but also highlights a surprisingly strong performance of many versions of the P Index as a predictor of water quality. At the same time, fate-and-transport models, often considered to be superior in their prediction of hydrology and water quality due to their complexity, reveal limitations when applied to site assessment. Indeed, one consistent theme from recent experience is the need to calibrate highly parameterized models. As P site assessment evolves, so too do routines representing important aspects of P cycling and transport. New classes of P site assessment tools are an opportunity to move P site assessment from general, strategic goals to web-based tools supporting daily, operational decisions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of DRASTIC Model in Vulnerability Assessment of Shahrood Alluvial Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Abolhasan Almasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment is typically accomplished as a management tool to protect groundwater resources. In this research, the DRASTIC model which is an empirical one used for evaluating the potential of an aquifer for pollution was employed to evaluate the vulnerability of Shahrood alluvial aquifer. Moreover, the sensitivity of the model paramneters was assessed to identify the ones with greatest effect on vulnerability. The model layers including depth to groundwater table level, recharge, aquifer media, topography, impact of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity were prepared and classified in the ArcGIS software based on analyses of both the available data and the layer of surface soil texture using Aster satellite images. Once the vulnerability index was calculated, the sensitivity map of Shahroud aquifer vulnerability was analyzed using the two parameter removal and single parameter sensitivity methods. These were further verified by textural analysis of soil samples from different parts of the region. The layers with appropriate weights were overlaid and the DRASTIC index of the aquifer was estimated at 28 to 148. The highest vulnerability was detected in the northern margins and southwestern parts of the aquifer while other parts were characterized by medium to low vulnerability. The low nitrogen concentration observed in the farm areas and its rise to 45 mg/l in the northern stretches of the aquifer bear witness to the accuracy of the zoning rendered by the DRASTIC model. Based on the vulnerability map of Sharoud aquifer, it was found that 1.6% of the aquifer’s area has a very high vulnerability or potential for pollution followed by 10%, 28.8%, and 18.9% of the area were identified as having high, medium and low potentials for pollution, respecytively. The remaining (i.e., 40.5% was found to have no risk of pollution.

  4. Analysis of ILRS Site Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

    2001-12-01

    By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION PROTECTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS BASED ON VULNERABILITY DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Krotiuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodological approach to an analysis and estimation of information security in the information systems which is based on the analysis of vulnerabilities and an extent of their hazard. By vulnerability hazard it is meant a complexity of its operation as a part of an information system. The required and sufficient vulnerability operational conditions  have  been  determined in the paper. The paper proposes a generalized model for attack realization which is used as a basis for construction of an attack realization model for an operation of a particular vulnerability. A criterion for estimation of information protection in the information systems which is based on the estimation of vulnerability hazard is formulated in the paper. The proposed approach allows to obtain a quantitative estimation of the information system security on the basis of the proposed schemes on realization of typical attacks for the distinguished classes of vulnerabilities.The methodical approach is used for choosing variants to be applied for realization of protection mechanisms in the information systems as well as for estimation of information safety in the operating information systems.

  6. An Exploitability Analysis Technique for Binary Vulnerability Based on Automatic Exception Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To quickly verify and fix vulnerabilities, it is necessary to judge the exploitability of the massive crash generated by the automated vulnerability mining tool. While the current manual analysis of the crash process is inefficient and time-consuming, the existing automated tools can only handle execute exceptions and some write exceptions but cannot handle common read exceptions. To address this problem, we propose a method of determining the exploitability based on the exception type suppression. This method enables the program to continue to execute until an exploitable exception is triggered. The method performs a symbolic replay of the crash sample, constructing and reusing data gadget, to bypass the complex exception, thereby improving the efficiency and accuracy of vulnerability exploitability analysis. The testing of typical CGC/RHG binary software shows that this method can automatically convert a crash that cannot be judged by existing analysis tools into a different crash type and judge the exploitability successfully.

  7. Lightning vulnerability of nuclear explosive test systems at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A task force chartered to evaluate the effects of lightning on nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site has made several recommendations intended to provide lightning-invulnerable test device systems. When these recommendations have been implemented, the systems will be tested using full-threat-level simulated lightning

  8. Shallow Aquifer Vulnerability From Subsurface Fluid Injection at a Proposed Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. P.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Hart, A.

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater flow resulting from a proposed hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operation was numerically modeled using 91 scenarios. Scenarios were chosen to be a combination of hydrogeological factors that a priori would control the long-term migration of fracking fluids to the shallow subsurface. These factors were induced fracture extent, cross-basin groundwater flow, deep low hydraulic conductivity strata, deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, fault hydraulic conductivity, and overpressure. The study considered the Bowland Basin, northwest England, with fracking of the Bowland Shale at ˜2,000 m depth and the shallow aquifer being the Sherwood Sandstone at ˜300-500 m depth. Of the 91 scenarios, 73 scenarios resulted in tracked particles not reaching the shallow aquifer within 10,000 years and 18 resulted in travel times less than 10,000 years. Four factors proved to have a statistically significant impact on reducing travel time to the aquifer: increased induced fracture extent, absence of deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, relatively low fault hydraulic conductivity, and magnitude of overpressure. Modeling suggests that high hydraulic conductivity formations can be more effective barriers to vertical flow than low hydraulic conductivity formations. Furthermore, low hydraulic conductivity faults can result in subsurface pressure compartmentalization, reducing horizontal groundwater flow, and encouraging vertical fluid migration. The modeled worst-case scenario, using unlikely geology and induced fracture lengths, maximum values for strata hydraulic conductivity and with conservative tracer behavior had a particle travel time of 130 years to the base of the shallow aquifer. This study has identified hydrogeological factors which lead to aquifer vulnerability from shale exploitation.

  9. Vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous climate and socioeconomic changes: a double exposure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpenchan, R.

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous exposure by climate and socioeconomic change -- so-called "double exposure." Both processes influence Thailand's rice production system, but the vulnerabilities associated with their interactions are unknown. To understand this double exposure, I adopts a mixed-method, qualitative-quantitative analytical approach consisting of three phases of analysis involving a Vulnerability Scoping Diagram, a Principal Component Analysis, and the EPIC crop model using proxy datasets collected from secondary data sources at provincial scales.The first and second phases identify key variables representing each of the three dimensions of vulnerability -- exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicating that the greatest vulnerability in the rice production system occurs in households and areas with high exposure to climate change, high sensitivity to climate and socioeconomic stress, and low adaptive capacity. In the third phase, the EPIC crop model simulates rice yields associated with future climate change projected by CSIRO and MIROC climate models. Climate change-only scenarios project the decrease in yields by 10% from the current productivity during 2016-2025 and 30% during 2045-2054. Scenarios applying both climate change and improved technology and management practices show that a 50% increase in rice production is possible, but requires strong collaboration between sectors to advance agricultural research and technology and requires strong adaptive capacity in the rice production system characterized by well-developed social capital, social networks, financial capacity, and infrastructure and household mobility at the local scale. The vulnerability assessment and climate and crop adaptation simulations used here provide useful information to decision makers developing vulnerability reduction plans in the face of concurrent climate and socioeconomic change.

  10. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  11. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model) - a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Gavriş, A.

    2013-06-01

    In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model) and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model). Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  12. Vulnerability analysis of complementary transportation systems with applications to railway and airline systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Pan, ZheZhe; Hong, Liu; He, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Most of existing studies on vulnerability analysis of multiple infrastructure systems mainly focus on negative effects of interdependencies, which mean that failures in one system can propagate to other systems and aggravate the initial damage. In reality, there also exist positive effects of interdependencies, which are shown in complementary systems and mean that if one system fails another system can provide alternative services to satisfy customers' demands. Different types of transportation systems in a city or country are typical complementary systems. Taking railway and airline systems in China as an example, this paper proposes a network-based approach to model the vulnerability of complementary transportation systems, and based on this model, this paper further introduces a dynamic complementary strength metric, which can help decision makers design or select better complementary topologies from the vulnerability perspective. Also, based on a simple genetic algorithm, this paper analyzes whether critical components for single systems are still important when taking two systems as a whole for analysis. Results show that a protection strategy of hardening a few critical components is also good strategy for the combined system. In addition, the findings and several assumptions are further discussed to close the gap between theory and practice. - Highlights: • We propose a method to model and analyze complementary system vulnerability. • We study vulnerability of complementary railway and airline systems in China. • We propose an approach to quantify dynamic complementary strength. • A few critical components for single systems are important for combined system

  13. Developing Vulnerability Analysis Method for Climate Change Adaptation on Agropolitan Region in Malang District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, Y.; Perdinan; Atmaja, T.; Wibowo, A.

    2017-03-01

    Agriculture plays a strategic role in strengthening sustainable development. Based on agropolitan concept, the village becomes the center of economic activities by combining agriculture, agro-industry, agribusiness and tourism that able to create high value-added economy. The impact of climate change on agriculture and water resources may increase the pressure on agropolitan development. The assessment method is required to measure the vulnerability of area-based communities in the agropolitan to climate change impact. An analysis of agropolitan vulnerability was conducted in Malang district based on four aspects and considering the availability and distribution of water as the problem. The indicators used to measure was vulnerability component which consisted of sensitivity and adaptive capacity and exposure component. The studies earned 21 indicators derived from the 115 village-based data. The results of vulnerability assessments showed that most of the villages were categorised at a moderate level. Around 20% of 388 villages were categorized at high to very high level of vulnerability due to low level of agricultural economic. In agropolitan region within the sub-district of Poncokusumo, the vulnerability of the villages varies between very low to very high. The most villages were vulnerable due to lower adaptive capacity, eventhough the level of sensitivity and exposure of all villages were relatively similar. The existence of water resources was the biggest contributor to the high exposure of the villages in Malang district, while the reception of credit facilities and source of family income were among the indicators that lead to high sensitivity component.

  14. Vulnerabilities in Bytecode Removed by Analysis, Nuanced Confinement and Diversification (VIBRANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0019 VULNERABILITIES IN BYTECODE REMOVED BY ANALYSIS, NUANCED CONFINEMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION (VIBRANCE) Alessandro...REMOVED BY ANALYSIS, NUANCED CONFINEMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION (VIBRANCE) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-C-7026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...in Bytecode Removed by Analysis, Nuanced Confinement, and Diversification ), is to track the provenance of each piece of data, and defer the

  15. Cyber Threat and vulnerability Analysis for Digital Assets of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Eun Se; Seo, In Yong; Kim, See Hong

    2009-01-01

    Today's computer and communication technology breakthrough make increase plant floor replacement from analog instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants to a full-fledged digital system . The rich functionality and crisp accuracy are one of big advantages of digital technology adaptation, but use of open networks and inherited shared system resources (memory, network, etc.) are well known weak points of digital system. Intended or un-intended cyber attack throughout power plant digital control system's weak point may result to wide area of system failures and that easily defeats system operation and multiple protection safeguards. Well organized cyber security analysis for nuclear plant digital control systems (digital assets) are required

  16. Assessing Vulnerability to Heat: A Geospatial Analysis for the City of Philadelphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barron

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island (UHI effect is an increasingly prominent health and environmental hazard that is linked to urbanization and climate change. Greening reduces the negative impacts of UHI; trees specifically are the most effective in ambient temperature reduction. This paper investigates vulnerability to heat in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and identifies where street trees can be planted as a public intervention. We used geospatial information systems (GIS software to map a validated Heat Vulnerability Index to identify vulnerability at the block level. Using a high-low geospatial cluster analysis, we assessed where the City of Philadelphia can most effectively plant street trees to address UHI. This information was then aggregated to the neighborhood level for more effective citizen communication and policymaking. We identified that 26 of 48 (54% neighborhoods that were vulnerable to heat also lacked street trees. Of 158 Philadelphia neighborhoods, 63 (40% contained block groups of high vulnerability to either heat or street tree infrastructure. Neighborhoods that were ranked highest in both classifications were identified in two adjacent West Philadelphia neighborhoods. Planting street trees is a public service a city can potentially reduce the negative health impacts of UHI. GIS can be used to identify and recommend street tree plantings to reduce urban heat.

  17. An approach for modelling interdependent infrastructures in the context of vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Jonas; Hassel, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Technical infrastructures of the society are becoming more and more interconnected and interdependent, i.e. the function of an infrastructure influences the function of other infrastructures. Disturbances in one infrastructure therefore often traverse to other dependent infrastructures and possibly even back to the infrastructure where the failure originated. It is becoming increasingly important to take these interdependencies into account when assessing the vulnerability of technical infrastructures. In the present paper, an approach for modelling interdependent technical infrastructures is proposed. The modelling approach considers structural properties, as employed in graph theory, as well as functional properties to increase its fidelity and usefulness. By modelling a fictional electrified railway network that consists of five systems and interdependencies between the systems, it is shown how the model can be employed in a vulnerability analysis. The model aims to capture both functional and geographic interdependencies. It is concluded that the proposed modelling approach is promising and suitable in the context of vulnerability analyses of interdependent systems.

  18. Why friendships end up? An analysis from the Goffman sense of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Koury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the friendship through the vulnerabilities that relations between friends are exposed indaily life. Therefore, in the analysis of vulnerabilities in the relationship between friends aims to understand whysome come to an end. At first, try to establish an approximate relationship between falling in love, love and friendship,to then discuss the social and moral relations produced in a process of friendship and love between friends,and vulnerabilities that discuss, complicate and tighten some relationships and lead others to a close. The analysisis full of comments taken from interviews conducted over several years in all Brazilian state capitals, and who claimthe existence of friendships so intense that felt as eternal, or so that desired look. I try to understand the startlesome interviewees when they having experienced long friendships, suddenly, one day, these relational if it strangeand everything built together lost or seems to lose meaning, and comes to an end.

  19. A unified framework for risk and vulnerability analysis covering both safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we have seen several attempts to establish adequate risk and vulnerability analyses tools and related management frameworks dealing not only with accidental events but also security problems. These attempts have been based on different analysis approaches and using alternative building blocks. In this paper, we discuss some of these and show how a unified framework for such analyses and management tasks can be developed. The framework is based on the use of probability as a measure of uncertainty, as seen through the eyes of the assessor, and define risk as the combination of possible consequences and related uncertainties. Risk and vulnerability characterizations are introduced incorporating ideas both from vulnerability analyses literature as well as from the risk classification scheme introduced by Renn and Klinke

  20. Cyber Threat and vulnerability Analysis for Digital Assets of NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eun Se; Seo, In Yong [Korea Electric Power research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, See Hong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Today's computer and communication technology breakthrough make increase plant floor replacement from analog instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants to a full-fledged digital system . The rich functionality and crisp accuracy are one of big advantages of digital technology adaptation, but use of open networks and inherited shared system resources (memory, network, etc.) are well known weak points of digital system. Intended or un-intended cyber attack throughout power plant digital control system's weak point may result to wide area of system failures and that easily defeats system operation and multiple protection safeguards. Well organized cyber security analysis for nuclear plant digital control systems (digital assets) are required.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  2. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Site-Vicinity Infrastructure for Supporting the Accident Management of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Katona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants shall be designed to resist the effects of large earthquakes. The design basis earthquake affects large area around the plant site and can cause serious consequences that will affect the logistical support of the emergency actions at the plant, influence the psychological condition of the plant personnel, and determine the workload of the country’s disaster management personnel. In this paper the main qualitative findings of a study are presented that have been performed for the case of a hypothetical 10−4/a probability design basis earthquake for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. The study covers the qualitative assessment of the postearthquake conditions at the settlements around the plant site including quantitative evaluation of the condition of dwellings. The main goal of the recent phase of the study was to identify public utility vulnerabilities that define the outside support conditions of the nuclear power plant accident management. The results of the study can be used for the planning of logistical support of the plant accident management staff. The study also contributes to better understanding of the working conditions of the disaster management services in the region around the nuclear power plant.

  3. Social vulnerability analysis of the event flood puddle (case study in Lamongan regency, East Java province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soegiyanto; Rindawati

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted in the flood plain Bonorowo in Lamongan East Java Province. The area was inundated almost every year, but people still survive and remain settled at the sites. This research is to identify and analyze the social vulnerability in the flood plains on the characteristics puddle Bonorowo This research method is the study of the characteristics and livelihood strategies of the communities living on marginal lands (floodplains Bonorowo) are regions prone to flooding / inundation. Based on the object of this study is a survey research method mix / mix method, which merge or combination of methods of quantitative and qualitative methods, so it will be obtained a description of a more comprehensive and holistic. The results obtained in this study are; Social vulnerability is not affected by the heightened puddles. Social capital is abundant making society safer and more comfortable to keep their activities and settle in the region

  4. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  5. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  6. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  7. Health adaptation policy for climate vulnerable groups: a 'critical computational linguistics' analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Bell, Erica

    2014-11-28

    Many countries are developing or reviewing national adaptation policy for climate change but the extent to which these meet the health needs of vulnerable groups has not been assessed. This study examines the adequacy of such policies for nine known climate-vulnerable groups: people with mental health conditions, Aboriginal people, culturally and linguistically diverse groups, aged people, people with disabilities, rural communities, children, women, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The study analyses an exhaustive sample of national adaptation policy documents from Annex 1 ('developed') countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 20 documents from 12 countries. A 'critical computational linguistics' method was used involving novel software-driven quantitative mapping and traditional critical discourse analysis. The study finds that references to vulnerable groups are relatively little present or non-existent, as well as poorly connected to language about practical strategies and socio-economic contexts, both also little present. The conclusions offer strategies for developing policy that is better informed by a 'social determinants of health' definition of climate vulnerability, consistent with best practice in the literature and global policy prescriptions.

  8. Critical location identification and vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure systems under spatially localized attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure systems are usually spatially distributed in a wide area and are subject to many types of hazards. For each type of hazards, modeling their direct impact on infrastructure components and analyzing their induced system-level vulnerability are important for identifying mitigation strategies. This paper mainly studies spatially localized attacks that a set of infrastructure components located within or crossing a circle shaped spatially localized area is subject to damage while other components do not directly fail. For this type of attacks, taking interdependent power and gas systems in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, this paper proposes an approach to exactly identify critical locations in interdependent infrastructure systems and make pertinent vulnerability analysis. Results show that (a) infrastructure interdependencies and attack radius largely affect the position of critical locations; (b) spatially localized attacks cause less vulnerability than equivalent random failures; (c) in most values of attack radius critical locations identified by considering only node failures do not change when considering both node and edge failures in the attack area; (d) for many values of attack radius critical locations identified by topology-based model are also critical from the flow-based perspective. - Highlights: • We propose a method to identify critical locations in interdependent infrastructures. • Geographical interdependencies and attack radius largely affect critical locations. • Localized attacks cause less vulnerability than equivalent random failures. • Whether considering both node and edge failures affects critical locations. • Topology-based critical locations are also critical from flow-based perspective.

  9. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  10. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  11. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  12. Structured Assessment Approach: a microcomputer-based insider-vulnerability analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Structured Assessment Approach (SAA) was developed to help assess the vulnerability of safeguards systems to insiders in a staged manner. For physical security systems, the SAA identifies possible diversion paths which are not safeguarded under various facility operating conditions and insiders who could defeat the system via direct access, collusion or indirect tampering. For material control and accounting systems, the SAA identifies those who could block the detection of a material loss or diversion via data falsification or equipment tampering. The SAA, originally desinged to run on a mainframe computer, has been converted to run on a personal computer. Many features have been added to simplify and facilitate its use for conducting vulnerability analysis. For example, the SAA input, which is a text-like data file, is easily readable and can provide documentation of facility safeguards and assumptions used for the analysis

  13. An exploratory spatial analysis of social vulnerability and smoke plum dispersion in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Scott Goodrick; Bryn Elise Murphy; Neelam Poudyal

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the spatial association between social vulnerability and smoke plume dispersion at the census block group level for the 13 southern states in the USDA Forest Service’s Region 8. Using environmental justice as a conceptual basis, we use Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to identify clusters or “hot spots” for the incidence of both higher than average...

  14. Economic Recession, Job Vulnerability, and Tourism Decision Making: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Papatheodorou, A.; Pappas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Occupational uncertainty has a considerable effect upon consumer decisions during a recession, especially with respect to discretionary products and services such as tourism. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), the study examines the complex relations among job vulnerability, disposable income for tourism, marketing activities, and price and quality issues for Greek holiday makers returning from their vacations. The article also compares QCA with the two dominant linear methods of a...

  15. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  16. Large-scale experiments for the vulnerability analysis of buildings impacted and intruded by fluviatile torrential hazard processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Michael; Gems, Bernhard; Fuchs, Sven; Mazzorana, Bruno; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In European mountain regions, losses due to torrential hazards are still considerable high despite the ongoing debate on an overall increasing or decreasing trend. Recent events in Austria severely revealed that due to technical and economic reasons, an overall protection of settlements in the alpine environment against torrential hazards is not feasible. On the side of the hazard process, events with unpredictable intensities may represent overload scenarios for existent protection structures in the torrent catchments. They bear a particular risk of significant losses in the living space. Although the importance of vulnerability is widely recognised, there is still a research gap concerning its assessment. Currently, potential losses at buildings due to torrential hazards and their comparison with reinstatement costs are determined by the use of empirical functions. Hence, relations of process intensities and the extent of losses, gathered by the analysis of historic hazard events and the information of object-specific restoration values, are used. This approach does not represent a physics-based and integral concept since relevant and often crucial processes, as the intrusion of the fluid-sediment-mixture into elements at risk, are not considered. Based on these findings, our work is targeted at extending these findings and models of present risk research in the context of an integral, more physics-based vulnerability analysis concept. Fluviatile torrential hazard processes and their impacts on the building envelope are experimentally modelled. Material intrusion processes are thereby explicitly considered. Dynamic impacts are gathered quantitatively and spatially distributed by the use of a large set of force transducers. The experimental tests are accomplished with artificial, vertical and skewed plates, including also openings for material intrusion. Further, the impacts on specific buildings within the test site of the work, the fan apex of the Schnannerbach

  17. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 2: Hanford site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Site Self Assessment of Plutonium Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) Vulnerabilities was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary's directive of February 1994. The implementation plans to carry out this directive are contained in the Project Plan and the Assessment Plan. For this assessment, vulnerabilities are defined as conditions or weaknesses that may lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of the workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The purpose for the Assessment is to evaluate environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities from plutonium operations and storage activities. Acts of sabotage or diversion of plutonium which obviously may have ES and H implications are excluded from this study because separate DOE programs evaluate those issues on a continuing basis. Security and safeguards activities which may have negative impacts on safety are included in the evaluation

  18. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  19. Analysis of site-specific dispersion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesler-Sauer, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents an analysis of atmospheric dispersion conditions in the environs of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The analysis is based on meteorological data measured on the power station sites (KFUe = nuclear reactor remote control records) and by neighbouring stations operated by the German Weather Service. The data are series of hourly mean values of wind and temperature gradient or stability class over the period of one or more years. The aim of the data analysis is to find types of dispersion conditions characterized by the flow field and stratification, and to assess the feasibility of calculating these quantities in the case of an emergency. Influences of terrain structures in the environs of the site are considered. The annual frequencies of types of dispersion situations are assessed, the capability to recognize the dispersion situation from meteorological data measured on the site and the applicability of dispersion models are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Guidebook for territories' support in the analysis of their socio-economical vulnerability to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The work of the inter-ministerial group 'Impacts of Climate Change, Adaptation and Associated Costs for France', which met between March 2007 and October 2009, led to a sector-based assessment of all climate change related impacts and of associated adaptation measures. The aim was to obtain quantified elements that could underpin public policy decision-making and especially development of the National Adaptation Plan. While the sectoral analyses focused on quantifying the costs of adaptation, the approach of the 'Territories' group, co-steered by the Datar (regional development delegation) and Ademe (agency for energy management and environment), addressed the subject of interactions between players and activities, both spatial (sharing of resources between different uses, etc.) and temporal (transition from one situation to another, etc.) and the corresponding means for adjustment. It was in this context that the SOeS proposed a methodology for diagnosis of the socio-economic vulnerability of a given sub-national territory in the face of climate change. This document provides a broad-brush outline of the accompanying guidelines developed by Sogreah Consultants SAS for use by local players. A three step approach is followed to draw up the vulnerability profile of a territory: 1 - characterising the territory by the identification of the priority activities and physical features; 2 - using the analysis tools to produce a matrix of indices of vulnerability to climate change per hazard; 3 - drawing up an initial vulnerability profile by bringing together the information from the matrix and that from feedback, either by activity or group of activities, or by environment, depending on aims. The profile leads to identification of the important issues as well as allowing identification of potential impacts to be studied in more depth. Guidelines were tested in three pilot territories facing different climate change issues: Wateringues, in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais region

  1. GIS-Mapping and Statistical Analyses to Identify Climate-Vulnerable Communities and Populations Exposed to Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change-related cumulative health risks are expected to be disproportionately greater for overburdened communities, due to differential proximity and exposures to chemical sources and flood zones. Communities and populations vulnerable to climate change-associated impacts ...

  2. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic–ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity. Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region

  3. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.-H.; Li, N.; Wu, L.-C.; Hu, A.-J.

    2013-07-01

    The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic-ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity). Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region. On a temporal

  4. The SAVI vulnerability assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winblad, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The assessment model ''Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion'' (SAVI) presented in this report is a PC-based path analysis model. It can provide estimates of protection system effectiveness (or vulnerability) against a spectrum of outsider threats including collusion with an insider adversary. It calculates one measure of system effectiveness, the probability of interruption P(I), for all potential adversary paths. SAVI can perform both theft and sabotage vulnerability analyses. For theft, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted either before they can accomplish removal of the target material from its normal location or removal from the site boundary. For sabotage, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted before completion of their sabotage task

  5. Summary Analysis: Hanford Site Composite Analysis Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The Hanford Site’s currently maintained Composite Analysis, originally completed in 1998, requires an update. A previous update effort was undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2001-2005, but was ended before completion to allow the Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM EIS) (DOE/EIS-0391) to be prepared without potential for conflicting sitewide models. This EIS was issued in 2012, and the deferral was ended with guidance in memorandum “Modeling to Support Regulatory Decision Making at Hanford” (Williams, 2012) provided with the aim of ensuring subsequent modeling is consistent with the EIS.

  6. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  7. A novel method of sensitivity analysis testing by applying the DRASTIC and fuzzy optimization methods to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution: the case of the Senegal River basin in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, Keita; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability to groundwater pollution in the Senegal River basin was studied by two different but complementary methods: the DRASTIC method (which evaluates the intrinsic vulnerability) and the fuzzy method (which assesses the specific vulnerability by taking into account the continuity of the parameters). The validation of this application has been tested by comparing the connection in groundwater and distribution of different established classes of vulnerabilities as well as the nitrate distribution in the study area. Three vulnerability classes (low, medium and high) have been identified by both the DRASTIC method and the fuzzy method (between which the normalized model was used). An integrated analysis reveals that high classes with 14.64 % (for the DRASTIC method), 21.68 % (for the normalized DRASTIC method) and 18.92 % (for the fuzzy method) are not the most dominant. In addition, a new method for sensitivity analysis was used to identify (and confirm) the main parameters which impact the vulnerability to pollution with fuzzy membership. The results showed that the vadose zone is the main parameter which impacts groundwater vulnerability to pollution while net recharge contributes least to pollution in the study area. It was also found that the fuzzy method better assesses the vulnerability to pollution with a coincidence rate of 81.13 % versus that of 77.35 % for the DRASTIC method. These results serve as a guide for policymakers to identify areas sensitive to pollution before such sites are used for socioeconomic infrastructures.

  8. Security Vulnerability and Patch Management in Electric Utilities: A Data-Driven Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Zhang, Fengli [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2018-01-18

    This paper explores a real security vulnerability and patch management dataset from an electric utility in order to shed light on characteristics of the vulnerabilities that electric utility assets have and how they are remediated in practice. Specifically, it first analyzes the distribution of vulnerabilities over software, assets, and other metric. Then it analyzes how vulnerability features affect remediate actions.

  9. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 4: Savannah River Site site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Plutonium Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Vulnerability Assessment is being conducted by the DOE Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (DOE-EH) to evaluate the ES and H vulnerabilities arising from the Department's storage and handling of its holdings of plutonium and other transuranic isotopes. This report on Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities and materials provides the results of a self-assessment for the purpose of identifying issues as potential vulnerabilities. The report provides data and analyses for the DOE-EH and independent Working Group Assessment Team, which will make the final determination as to ES and H vulnerabilities at SRS. The term ES and H vulnerabilities is defined for the purpose of this assessment to mean conditions that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The self-assessment identifies and prioritizes candidate or potential vulnerabilities and issues for consideration by the Working Group Assessment Team, and will serve as an information base for identifying interim corrective actions and options for the safe management of fissile materials. It will also establish a foundation for decision making regarding the safe management and disposition of DOE plutonium

  10. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Modern world based on relations more than on causalities, so communicative, socio-economic, and socio-cultural issues are important to understand nature of risks and to make correct, ethical decisions. Today major part of risk analysts declared new nature of modern risks. We faced coherent or systemic risks, realization of which leads to domino effect, unexpected growing of losses and fatalities. This type of risks originated by complicated nature of heterogeneous environment, close interconnection of engineering networks, and changing structure of society. Heterogeneous multi-agent environment generates systemic risks, which requires analyze multi-source data with sophisticated tools. Formal basis for analysis of this type of risks is developed during last 5-7 years. But issues of social fairness, ethics, and education require further development. One aspect of analysis of social issues of risk management is studied in this paper. Formal algorithm for quantitative analysis of multi-source data analysis is proposed. As it was demonstrated, using proposed methodological base and the algorithm, it is possible to obtain regularized spatial-temporal distribution of investigated parameters over whole observation period with rectified reliability and controlled uncertainty. The result of disaster data analysis demonstrates that about half of direct disaster damage might be caused by social factors: education, experience and social behaviour. Using data presented also possible to estimate quantitative parameters of the losses distributions: a relation between education, age, experience, and losses; as well as vulnerability (in terms of probable damage) toward financial status in current social density. It is demonstrated that on wide-scale range an education determines risk perception and so vulnerability of societies. But on the local level there are important heterogeneities. Land-use and urbanization structure influencing to vulnerability essentially. The way to

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, Benjamin

    2016-03-14

    % to the disaster environment, 20% to the economic environment, 13% to the built environment, 6% to the natural environment and 3% were other indices. However variables specifically measuring action to mitigate or prepare for disasters only comprised 12%, on average, of the total number of variables in each index. Only 19% of methodologies employed any sensitivity or uncertainty analysis and in only a single case was this comprehensive. A number of potential limitations of the present state of practice and how these might impact on decision makers are discussed. In particular the limited deployment of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis and the low use of direct measures of disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience could significantly limit the quality and reliability of existing methodologies. Recommendations for improvements to indicator development and use are made, as well as suggested future research directions to enhance the theoretical and empirical knowledge base for composite indicator development.

  12. Modeling and Vulnerability Analysis of Cyber-Physical Power Systems Considering Network Topology and Power Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional power systems are developing into cyber-physical power systems (CPPS with wide applications of communication, computer and control technologies. However, multiple practical cases show that the failure of cyber layers is a major factor leading to blackouts. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the cascading failure process considering cyber layer failures and analyze the vulnerability of CPPS. In this paper, a CPPS model, which consists of cyber layer, physical layer and cyber-physical interface, is presented using complex network theory. Considering power flow properties, the impacts of cyber node failures on the cascading failure propagation process are studied. Moreover, two vulnerability indices are established from the perspective of both network structure and power flow properties. A vulnerability analysis method is proposed, and the CPPS performance before and after cascading failures is analyzed by the proposed method to calculate vulnerability indices. In the case study, three typical scenarios are analyzed to illustrate the method, and vulnerabilities under different interface strategies and attack strategies are compared. Two thresholds are proposed to value the CPPS vulnerability roughly. The results show that CPPS is more vulnerable under malicious attacks and cyber nodes with high indices are vulnerable points which should be reinforced.

  13. Systems analysis of apoptotic priming in ovarian cancer identifies vulnerabilities and predictors of drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Iavarone, Claudia; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Selfors, Laura M; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Liu, Joyce F; Drapkin, Ronny; Matulonis, Ursula; Leverson, Joel D; Sampath, Deepak; Mills, Gordon B; Brugge, Joan S

    2017-08-28

    The lack of effective chemotherapies for high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCa) has motivated a search for alternative treatment strategies. Here, we present an unbiased systems-approach to interrogate a panel of 14 well-annotated HGS-OvCa patient-derived xenografts for sensitivity to PI3K and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors and uncover cell death vulnerabilities. Proteomic analysis reveals that PI3K/mTOR inhibition in HGS-OvCa patient-derived xenografts induces both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling responses that limit cell killing, but also primes cells for inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins. In-depth quantitative analysis of BCL-2 family proteins and other apoptotic regulators, together with computational modeling and selective anti-apoptotic protein inhibitors, uncovers new mechanistic details about apoptotic regulators that are predictive of drug sensitivity (BIM, caspase-3, BCL-X L ) and resistance (MCL-1, XIAP). Our systems-approach presents a strategy for systematic analysis of the mechanisms that limit effective tumor cell killing and the identification of apoptotic vulnerabilities to overcome drug resistance in ovarian and other cancers.High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCa) frequently develop chemotherapy resistance. Here, the authors through a systematic analysis of proteomic and drug response data of 14 HGS-OvCa PDXs demonstrate that targeting apoptosis regulators can improve response of these tumors to inhibitors of the PI3K/mTOR pathway.

  14. Optimization Strategies for the Vulnerability Analysis of the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, A.; Meza, J.; Donde, V.; Lesieutre, B.

    2007-11-13

    Identifying small groups of lines, whose removal would cause a severe blackout, is critical for the secure operation of the electric power grid. We show how power grid vulnerability analysis can be studied as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Our analysis reveals a special structure in the formulation that can be exploited to avoid nonlinearity and approximate the original problem as a pure combinatorial problem. The key new observation behind our analysis is the correspondence between the Jacobian matrix (a representation of the feasibility boundary of the equations that describe the flow of power in the network) and the Laplacian matrix in spectral graph theory (a representation of the graph of the power grid). The reduced combinatorial problem is known as the network inhibition problem, for which we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Our experiments on benchmark power grids show that the reduced combinatorial model provides an accurate approximation, to enable vulnerability analyses of real-sized problems with more than 10,000 power lines.

  15. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  16. Preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracke, G.; Fischer-Appelt, K.

    2014-01-01

    The safety requirements governing the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in Germany were implemented by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Natural Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in 2010. The Ministry considers as a fundamental objective the protection of man and the environment against the hazards of radioactive waste. Unreasonable burdens and obligation for future generations shall be avoided. The main safety principles are concentration and inclusion of radioactive and other pollutants in a containment-providing rock zone. Any release of radioactive nuclides may increase the risk for men and the environment only negligibly compared to natural radiation exposure. No intervention or maintenance work shall be necessary in the post-closure phase. Retrieval/recovery of the waste shall be possible up to 500 years after closure. The Gorleben salt dome has been discussed since the 1970's as a possible repository site for heat-generating radioactive waste in Germany. The objective of the project preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site (VSG) was to assess if repository concepts at the Gorleben site or other sites with a comparable geology could comply with these requirements based on currently available knowledge (Fischer-Appelt, 2013; Bracke, 2013). In addition to this it was assessed if methodological approaches can be used for a future site selection procedure and which technological and conceptual considerations can be transferred to other geological situations. The objective included the compilation and review of the available exploration data of the Gorleben site and on disposal in salt rock, the development of repository designs, and the identification of the needs for future R and D work and further site investigations. (authors)

  17. A Comprehensive Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Vulnerability of China’s Provincial Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqiang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability theory is a fundamental scientific knowledge system in sustainable development, and vulnerability assessment is important in vulnerability studies. Economic vulnerability affects economic growth sustainability. Comprehensive assessment of economic vulnerability in the process of economic growth under the theoretical framework of vulnerability will provide a new perspective for vulnerability studies. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram assessment model, this study selected 22 economic sensitivity indexes and 25 economic adaptability indexes from the economic, social, and nature–resource–environmental subsystems to comprehensively assess and spatially analyse the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies since the year 2000, while applying the entropy method, multilevel extension assessment, spatial measurement method, and geographic information system technology. The results showed the following: (1 There are great differences in the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies. Western China’s vulnerability is higher and the fluctuation range of economic vulnerability is larger. The vulnerability increased significantly based on spatial differential features; (2 Regional differences in economic vulnerability, mainly caused by differences within a region, increased gradually. Eastern and Western China showed the spatial pattern characteristics of prominent and reinforcing regional imbalance, while Central and Northeast China showed declining regional imbalance. The spatial structure evolution of economic vulnerability is characterized by a volatility curve, and regional separation and divergence are strengthened; (3 Growth of China’s provincial economies and economic vulnerability are related negatively. In Eastern, Central, and Northeast China, vulnerability of the provincial economies has a negative spillover effect on neighbouring provinces’ economic growth, while in Western China it has a slight positive

  18. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

  19. Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael F; McLellan, Bruce N; Strobeck, Curtis; Barclay, Robert M R

    2005-11-22

    Ecosystem conservation requires the presence of native carnivores, yet in North America, the distributions of many larger carnivores have contracted. Large carnivores live at low densities and require large areas to thrive at the population level. Therefore, if human-dominated landscapes fragment remaining carnivore populations, small and demographically vulnerable populations may result. Grizzly bear range contraction in the conterminous USA has left four fragmented populations, three of which remain along the Canada-USA border. A tenet of grizzly bear conservation is that the viability of these populations requires demographic linkage (i.e. inter-population movement of both sexes) to Canadian bears. Using individual-based genetic analysis, our results suggest this demographic connection has been severed across their entire range in southern Canada by a highway and associated settlements, limiting female and reducing male movement. Two resulting populations are vulnerably small (bear populations may be more threatened than previously thought and that conservation efforts must expand to include international connectivity management. They also demonstrate the ability of genetic analysis to detect gender-specific demographic population fragmentation in recently disturbed systems, a traditionally intractable yet increasingly important ecological measurement worldwide.

  20. Using wavefront coding technique as an optical encryption system: reliability analysis and vulnerabilities assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.

    2012-04-01

    Wavefront coding paradigm can be used not only for compensation of aberrations and depth-of-field improvement but also for an optical encryption. An optical convolution of the image with the PSF occurs when a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a known point spread function (PSF) is placed in the optical path. In this case, an optically encoded image is registered instead of the true image. Decoding of the registered image can be performed using standard digital deconvolution methods. In such class of optical-digital systems, the PSF of the DOE is used as an encryption key. Therefore, a reliability and cryptographic resistance of such an encryption method depends on the size and complexity of the PSF used for optical encoding. This paper gives a preliminary analysis on reliability and possible vulnerabilities of such an encryption method. Experimental results on brute-force attack on the optically encrypted images are presented. Reliability estimation of optical coding based on wavefront coding paradigm is evaluated. An analysis of possible vulnerabilities is provided.

  1. Flood vulnerability analysis for inland medium-sized cities: Guang’an as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability studies look into the impact of hazard events on socio-ecological systems. Socio-ecological vulnerability is a very complex subject because it is not only a technical matter but also a social problem. Precise assessment of socio-ecological vulnerability can help people successfully reduce potential losses caused by disasters as well as provide decision support for decision makers to take different urban planning strategies in areas of different vulnerability levels when making d...

  2. The experience of nuclear objects of the national nuclear center of the republic of Kazakhstan vulnerability analysis conducting with the help of assess analytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, D.V.; Kozlov, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    ASSESS which was developed in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, was used as a mean of modeling and analyzing. All the input data of the program and the finding of the analysis passed expert estimation by the NNC RK scientists. Vulnerability analysis resulted in getting the optimal schemes of the movement routes of eventual violators and the value of probability of their detection in the sites, buildings and IGR, 'Baikal-1' and VVR-K reactor complexes premises. Especially important result of the modeling was rather a demonstrable idea of the eventual violators route sectors where additional measures and means of their most possible detecting, safety provision and protection of the IAE nuclear objects protection must be taken. The experience of ASSESS application acquired by NNC RK scientists gives way to state confidently that at adaptation the ASSESS program can be successfully used in estimating of any protected nuclear objects vulnerability from any unauthorized acts. It also includes working out of measures aimed at these objects protection improvement both in the countries of the European Union and in the countries of the CIS. In this case adaptation is a specific database accumulation where all the used protecting systems and database integration with ASSESS system have been taken into account. The creation of specified database of the ASSESS program would give opportunity to increase considerably the effectiveness of vulnerability and nuclear objects risk analysis at low financial expenditure. Adapted ASSESS program would also make it possible to conduct qualified working out of measures on guarded objects protection at short terms. So, the adaptation and the application of the analytical ASSESS system can be of great benefit in solution of problems concerning nuclear objects protection improvement which are exclusively important in the present situation. (author)

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  4. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  5. Core damage vulnerability due to the loss of ESW [essential service water] systems at multiplant sites: An assessment and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish the core damage vulnerability caused by the failure of the ESW systems in multiplant units that have only two sw pumps per unit with crosstie capability. Design and operating data have been surveyed to derive system failure frequency. A core damage model is constructed including operating configurations, specific recovery actions, and time and leak rate dependent RCP seal LOCA model. The estimated CDF SW = 2.55 x 10 -4 /yr is significant indicating the potential vulnerability of this particular SW design arrangement. A number of different potential improvements have been considered. The addition of a swing pump serving both units is shown to have the most significant CDF reduction potential (∼50%) combined with advantageous cost/benefit aspects. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-04

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized.

  7. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department`s plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 9: Oak Ridge site site team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report provides the input to and results of the Department of Energy (DOE) - Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) DOE Plutonium Environment, Safety and Health (ES & H) Vulnerability Assessment (VA) self-assessment performed by the Site Assessment Team (SAT) for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL or X-10) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) sites that are managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). As initiated (March 15, 1994) by the Secretary of Energy, the objective of the VA is to identify and rank-order DOE-ES&H vulnerabilities associated for the purpose of decision making on the interim safe management and ultimate disposition of fissile materials. This assessment is directed at plutonium and other co-located transuranics in various forms.

  8. Spatial analysis and modeling to assess and map current vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez L, D

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns over a potential change in climate is that it will cause an increase in extreme weather events. In Mexico, the exposure factors as well as the vulnerability to the extreme weather events have increased during the last three or four decades. In this study spatial analysis and modeling were used to assess and map settlement and crop systems vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed. Sensitivity and coping adaptive capacity maps were constructed using decision models; these maps were then combined to produce vulnerability maps. The most vulnerable area in terms of both settlement and crop systems is the highlands, where the sensitivity is high and the adaptive capacity is low. In lowlands, despite the very high sensitivity, the higher adaptive capacity produces only moderate vulnerability. I conclude that spatial analysis and modeling are powerful tools to assess and map vulnerability. These preliminary results can guide the formulation of adaptation policies to an increasing risk of extreme weather events.

  9. Spatial analysis and modeling to assess and map current vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez L, D, E-mail: dlopez@centrogeo.org.m [Centro de Investigacion en GeografIa y Geomatica, Ing. Jorge L. Tamayo A.C., Contoy 137, col. Lomas de Padierna, del Tlalpan, Maxico D.F (Mexico)

    2009-11-01

    One of the major concerns over a potential change in climate is that it will cause an increase in extreme weather events. In Mexico, the exposure factors as well as the vulnerability to the extreme weather events have increased during the last three or four decades. In this study spatial analysis and modeling were used to assess and map settlement and crop systems vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed. Sensitivity and coping adaptive capacity maps were constructed using decision models; these maps were then combined to produce vulnerability maps. The most vulnerable area in terms of both settlement and crop systems is the highlands, where the sensitivity is high and the adaptive capacity is low. In lowlands, despite the very high sensitivity, the higher adaptive capacity produces only moderate vulnerability. I conclude that spatial analysis and modeling are powerful tools to assess and map vulnerability. These preliminary results can guide the formulation of adaptation policies to an increasing risk of extreme weather events.

  10. Tracking socioeconomic vulnerability using network analysis: insights from an avian influenza outbreak in an ostrich production network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The focus of management in many complex systems is shifting towards facilitation, adaptation, building resilience, and reducing vulnerability. Resilience management requires the development and application of general heuristics and methods for tracking changes in both resilience and vulnerability. We explored the emergence of vulnerability in the South African domestic ostrich industry, an animal production system which typically involves 3-4 movements of each bird during its lifetime. This system has experienced several disease outbreaks, and the aim of this study was to investigate whether these movements have contributed to the vulnerability of this system to large disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ostrich production system requires numerous movements of birds between different farm types associated with growth (i.e. Hatchery to juvenile rearing farm to adult rearing farm. We used 5 years of movement records between 2005 and 2011 prior to an outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. These data were analyzed using a network analysis in which the farms were represented as nodes and the movements of birds as links. We tested the hypothesis that increasing economic efficiency in the domestic ostrich industry in South Africa made the system more vulnerable to outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. Our results indicated that as time progressed, the network became increasingly vulnerable to pathogen outbreaks. The farms that became infected during the outbreak displayed network qualities, such as significantly higher connectivity and centrality, which predisposed them to be more vulnerable to disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken in the context of previous research, our results provide strong support for the application of network analysis to track vulnerability, while also providing useful practical implications for system monitoring and management.

  11. Tsunami vulnerability analysis in the coastal town of Catania, Sicily: methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Sara; Tonini, Roberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Catania lies on the eastern coast of Sicily and is one of the most important towns in Sicily as regards history, tourism and industry. Recent analyses conducted in the frame of the project TRANSFER have shown that it is exposed not only to tsunamis generated locally, but also to distant tsunamis generated in the western Hellenic arc. In the frame of the European project SCHEMA different scenarios covering local sources such as the 11 January 1693 event and the 1908 case as well as remote sources such as the 365 AD tsunami have been explored through numerical modelling in order to assess the vulnerability of the area to tsunami attacks. One of the primary outcomes of the scenario analysis is the quantification of the inundation zones (location, extension along the coast and landward). Taking the modelling results on flooding as input data, the analysis has focussed on the geomorphological characteristics of the coasts and on the buildings and infrastructure typology to make evaluation of the vulnerability level of the Catania area. The coast to the south of the harbour of Catania is low and characterized by a mild slope: topography reaches the altitude of 10 m between 300-750 m distance from the shoreline. Building density is low, and generally tourist structures prevail on residential houses. The zone north of the harbour is high-coast, with 10 m isoline usually close to the coastline, and little possibility for flood to penetrate deep inland. Here there are three small marinas with the corresponding services and infrastructure around, and the city quarters consists of residential buildings. Vulnerability assessment has been carried out by following the methodology developed by the SCHEMA consortium, distinguishing between primary (type and material) and secondary criteria (e.g. ground, age, foundation, orientation, etc.) for buildings, and by adopting a building damage matrix, basically depending on building type and water inundation depth. Data needed for such

  12. Mission analysis for cross-site transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesenweber, S.D.; Fritz, R.L.; Shipley, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Mission Analysis Report describes the requirements and constraints associated with the Transfer Waste Function as necessary to support the Manage Tank Waste, Retrieve Waste, and Process Tank Waste Functions described in WHC-SD-WM-FRD-020, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document and DOE/RL-92-60, Revision 1, TWRS Functions and Requirements Document, March 1994. It further assesses the ability of the ''initial state'' (or current cross-site transfer system) to meet the requirements and constraints

  13. Vulnerability analysis of DT fusion diagnostics for laser Megajoule facility. A new tool: Diacad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'hose, C.; Baggio, J.; Musseau, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project is a major component of the French simulation program to study inertial confinement. This new facility will provide an energy 60 times greater than the largest lasers presently available (Phebus, Nova, Omega). Many diagnostic links will have to be developed in order to acquire complementary knowledge in this domain. A computer based tool has been defined. This paper presents the most recent developments of this new CAD (computer assisted diagnosis) tool. We first describe LMJ context, and then the analysis methodology developed to address the sensitivity to transient radiation of nuclear diagnosis links. This tool takes into account the vulnerability of individual parts and the global structure of the link. (A.C.)

  14. Operationalizing analysis of micro-level climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Moinuddin, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rural communities in Southern Laos, where households are highly dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources and vulnerable to seasonal weather fluctuations. The speed and magnitude of climate-induced changes may seriously challenge...... their ability to adapt. Participatory group discussions and 271 household surveys in three villages highlight the current level of vulnerability and adaptive capacity towards climatic variability and risks. This paper visualizes three dimensions of the vulnerability framework at two levels using the Community...... Climate Vulnerability Index and household climate vulnerability cube. Results show that not only poor households are most at risk from climate change challenges, but also those better-off households highly dependent on specialized agricultural production are locally exposed to climate change risks...

  15. Comparison analysis on vulnerability of metro networks based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2018-04-01

    This paper analyzes the networked characteristics of three metro networks, and two malicious attacks are employed to investigate the vulnerability of metro networks based on connectivity vulnerability and functionality vulnerability. Meanwhile, the networked characteristics and vulnerability of three metro networks are compared with each other. The results show that Shanghai metro network has the largest transport capacity, Beijing metro network has the best local connectivity and Guangzhou metro network has the best global connectivity, moreover Beijing metro network has the best homogeneous degree distribution. Furthermore, we find that metro networks are very vulnerable subjected to malicious attacks, and Guangzhou metro network has the best topological structure and reliability among three metro networks. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to investigate the vulnerability and to explore better topological structure of metro networks.

  16. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a post-exercise analysis of decontamination options for the NUWAX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of NUWAX-83 was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to an accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program, called DECON, was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and used to conduct the decontamination analysis in November 1983. DECON was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: 1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; 2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; 3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; 4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; 5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and 6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  17. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of decontamination options at the NUWAZX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to a radiological accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory was used to conduct the decontamination analysis. The program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  18. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  19. Vulnerability of Karangkates dams area by means of zero crossing analysis of data magnetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo,, E-mail: sunaryo@ub.ac.id, E-mail: sunaryo.geofis.ub@gmail.com; Susilo, Adi [Geophysics Program Study, Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty, University of Brawijaya, Malang (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Study with entitled Vulnerability Karangkates Dam Area By Means of Zero Crossing Analysis of Data Magnetic has been done. The study was aimed to obtain information on the vulnerability of two parts area of Karangkates dams, i.e. Lahor dam which was inaugurated in 1977 and Sutami dam inaugurated in 1981. Three important things reasons for this study are: 1). The dam age was 36 years old for Lahor dam and 32 years old for Sutami dam, 2). Geologically, the location of the dams are closed together to the Pohgajih local shear fault, Selorejo local fault, and Selorejo limestone-andesite rocks contact plane, and 3). Karangkates dams is one of the important Hydro Power Plant PLTA with the generating power of about 400 million KWH per year from a total of about 29.373MW installed in Indonesia. Geographically, the magnetic data acquisition was conducted at coordinates (112.4149oE;-8.2028oS) to (112.4839oE;-8.0989oS) by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Magnetic Data acquisition was conducted in the radial direction from the dams with diameter of about 10 km and the distance between the measurements about 500m. The magnetic data acquisition obtained the distribution of total magnetic field value in the range of 45800 nT to 44450 nT. Residual anomalies obtained by doing some corrections, including diurnal correction, International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction, and reductions so carried out the distribution of the total magnetic field value in the range of -650 nT to 700 nT. Based on the residual anomalies, indicate the presence of 2 zones of closed closures dipole pairs at located in the west of the Sutami dam and the northwest of the Lahor dam from 5 total zones. Overlapping on the local geological map indicated the lineament of zero crossing patterns in the contour of residual anomaly contour with the Pohgajih shear fault where located at about 4 km to the west of the Sutami dam approximately and andesite-limestone rocks contact where located

  20. GPR surveys for the characterization of foundation plinths within a seismic vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Domenico, Domenica; Teramo, Antonio; Campo, Davide

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of GPR surveys performed to identify the foundation plinths of 12 buildings of a school, whose presence is uncertain since the structural drawings were not available. Their effective characterization is an essential element within a study aimed at assessing the seismic vulnerability of the buildings, which are non-seismically designed structures, located in an area classified as a seismic zone after their construction. Through GPR profiles acquired by two 250 MHz antennas, both in reflection mode and in a WARR configuration, the actual geometry and depth of the building plinths were successfully identified, limiting the number of invasive tests necessary to validate the GPR data interpretation, thus enabling the choice of the most suitable sites that would not alter the serviceability of the structure. The collected data were also critically analysed with reference to local environmental noise that, if causing reflections superimposed on those of the subsoil, could undermine the success of the investigation. Due to the homogeneity of the ground, the processing and results relative to each pair of profiles carried out for all of these buildings is very similar, so the results concerning only two of them are reported. (paper)

  1. Realization of Earthquake Vulnerability Analysis in Structure Scale with Fuzzy Logic Method in GIS: Kadikoy, Maltepe and Prince Islands Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Şen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate evaluation of geologic factors and unqualified and unplanned structuring play effective role in giant damage and loss of lives created by the earthquakes and faulty areas choice and structure construction cause building damages during the earthquake, thus it also causes giant loss of lives. Istanbul province and its immediate environment are located in north of North Anatolian Fault Zone having 1500 km length. Hence, it causes that the settlement’s Sea of Marmara coastal region is located in 1st seismic belt. The earthquake risk in Istanbul and related risk factors should be determined besides vulnerability and earthquake risk. A mathematical model has been created in geographic information systems for Kadıkoy, Maltepe and Prince Islands sub-provinces by using Fuzzy Logic method which is one of the artificial intelligence methods by considering 4 vulnerability parameters and earthquake vulnerability analysis have been made in this study. The used parameters are the location by fault line, geologic structure, building structure and the number of floors. The vulnerability grades emerged as a result of analysis have been studied and the distribution of buildings according to those levels have been presented via a thematic map. The pre-earthquake precautions should be determined for the study field by considering the vulnerability grades in case of any earthquake and the loss of life and property should be minimized.

  2. Performance-based seismic assessment of vulnerability of dam using time history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmrabet Oumnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current performance-based seismic assessment procedure can be computationally intensive as it requires many time history analyses (THA each requiring time intensive post-processing of results. Time history analysis is a part of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a structure to any earthquake. It is one of the main processes of structural design in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of embankment dam located on the Oued RHISS in the Province of AL HOCEIMA using the THA method. To monitor structural behavior, the seismic vulnerability of structure is evaluated under real earthquake records with considering the soil-structure-fluide interaction. In this study, a simple assistant program is developed for implementing earthquake analyses of structure with ANSYS, ground acceleration–time history data are used for seismic analysis and dynamic numerical simulations were conducted to study and identify the total response of the soil-structure system.

  3. GIS Analysis of Flood Vulnerable Areas In Benin- Owena River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Oluwasegun Hezekiah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses;  putting the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments, multilateral agencies and NGOs. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the areas with higher risk levels and fashion out appropriate preventive and response mechanisms. This research paper explored the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS in data capture, processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster mitigation and preparedness, using Benin-Owena river basin of Nigeria as a unit of analysis. The data used in this study were obtained from FORMECU and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. Analysis and capability of the developed system was illustrated and shown graphically. The research showed that over one thousand settlements harbouring over ten million people located in the study area are at grave risk of flooding.   Key words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS, River -Basin

  4. Vulnerability analysis in terms of food insecurity and poverty using GIS and remote sensing technology applied to Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Pervez M.; Ramachandran, Mahadevan; Mutuwatte, Lal

    2003-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analyzing a geographical area in terms of it's hazards vulnerability, Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. The measurement and analysis of poverty, inequality and vulnerability are crucial for cognitive purposes (to know what the situation is), for analytical purposes (to understand the factors determining this situation), for policy making purposes (to design interventions best adapted to the issues), and for monitoring and evaluation purposes (to assess whether current policies are effective, and whether the situation is changing). Here vulnerability defined as the probability or risk today of being in poverty - or falling deeper into poverty - in the future. Vulnerability is a key dimension of well being since it affects individuals' behavior (in terms of investment, production patterns, coping strategies) and their perception of their own situation. This study has been conducted with the joint collaboration of World Food Programme (WFP) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka for identifying regions and population which are food insecure, for analyzing the reasons for vulnerability to food insecurity in order to provide decision-makers with information to identify possible sectors of intervention and for identifying where and for whom food aid can be best utilized in Sri Lanka. This new approach integrates GIS and Remote sensing with other statistical packages to allow consideration of more spatial/physical parameters like accessibility to economic resources, particularly land and the assets of the built environment, creating employment, and attracting investment in order to improve the quality and quantity of goods and services for the analysis which leads the analysis to represent the real scenario. For this study a detailed topographic data are being used

  5. Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity Mapping for Landslides Risk Analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. A. P.; Innaqa, S.; Safrilah

    2017-06-01

    This research analyzed the levels of disaster risk in the Citeureup sub-District, Bogor Regency, West Java, based on its potential hazard, vulnerability and capacity, using map to represent the results, then Miles and Huberman analytical techniques was used to analyze the qualitative interviews. The analysis conducted in this study is based on the concept of disaster risk by Wisner. The result shows that the Citeureup sub-District has medium-low risk of landslides. Of the 14 villages, three villages have a moderate risk level, namely Hambalang, Tajur, and Tangkil, or 49.58% of the total land area. Eleven villages have a low level of risk, namely Pasir Mukti, Sanja, Tarikolot, Gunung Sari, Puspasari, East Karang Asem, Citeureup, Leuwinutug, Sukahati, West Karang Asem West and Puspanegara, or 48.68% of the total land area, for high-risk areas only around 1.74%, which is part of Hambalang village. The analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) prove that areas with a high risk potential does not necessarily have a high level of risk. The capacity of the community plays an important role to minimize the risk of a region. Disaster risk reduction strategy is done by creating a safe condition, which intensified the movement of disaster risk reduction.

  6. GENDER AND POVERTY: SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FEMALE ROLE MODELS AND VULNERABILITY PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella RISSOTTO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution regards an analysis of gender-related role models and their relevance for poverty. Data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Poverty as a function of gender is interpreted in the present case in the light of the interrelation between economic disadvantages, inherent in the sy stems of integration, an d social exclusion, with special reference to the family and the labour market. From this point of view, the concept of dependence represents a strategic concept that may be broken down into the dimensions of: - economic (income source; - material (non economic help in the management of the family. It will be shown how gender models have a statistically significant weight in the distribution of a greater or lesser degree of dependence. Economic dependence and material dependence may be related back to two empirical typological indexes, wh ich summarize a set of semantically relevant indicators. Also an additional index of economic hardship has been constructed, which also summarizes specific indicators. In addition to gender profiles, the analysis takes into account specific categories of women, focusing attention on subjects that are potentially vulnerable to poverty (elderly women, women with precarious jobs and divorcees defining their specific profiles.

  7. Holistic uncertainty analysis in river basin modeling for climate vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, M. U.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    The challenges posed by uncertain future climate are a prominent concern for water resources managers. A number of frameworks exist for assessing the impacts of climate-related uncertainty, including internal climate variability and anthropogenic climate change, such as scenario-based approaches and vulnerability-based approaches. While in many cases climate uncertainty may be dominant, other factors such as future evolution of the river basin, hydrologic response and reservoir operations are potentially significant sources of uncertainty. While uncertainty associated with modeling hydrologic response has received attention, very little attention has focused on the range of uncertainty and possible effects of the water resources infrastructure and management. This work presents a holistic framework that allows analysis of climate, hydrologic and water management uncertainty in water resources systems analysis with the aid of a water system model designed to integrate component models for hydrology processes and water management activities. The uncertainties explored include those associated with climate variability and change, hydrologic model parameters, and water system operation rules. A Bayesian framework is used to quantify and model the uncertainties at each modeling steps in integrated fashion, including prior and the likelihood information about model parameters. The framework is demonstrated in a case study for the St. Croix Basin located at border of United States and Canada.

  8. Vulnerability Identification and Design-Improvement-Feedback using Failure Analysis of Digital Control System Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunchan; Bae, Yeonkyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Fault tree analyses let analysts establish the failure sequences of components as a logical model and confirm the result at the plant level. These two analyses provide insights regarding what improvements are needed to increase availability because it expresses the quantified design attribute of the system as minimal cut sets and availability value interfaced with component reliability data in the fault trees. This combined failure analysis method helps system users understand system characteristics including its weakness and strength in relation to faults in the design stage before system operation. This study explained why a digital system could have weaknesses in methods to transfer control signals or data and how those vulnerabilities could cause unexpected outputs. In particular, the result of the analysis confirmed that complex optical communication was not recommended for digital data transmission in the critical systems of nuclear power plants. Regarding loop controllers in Design A, a logic configuration should be changed to prevent spurious actuation due to a single failure, using hardware or software improvements such as cross checking between redundant modules, or diagnosis of the output signal integrity. Unavailability calculations support these insights from the failure analyses of the systems. In the near future, KHNP will perform failure mode and effect analyses in the design stage before purchasing non-safety-related digital system packages. In addition, the design requirements of the system will be confirmed based on evaluation of overall system availability or unavailability.

  9. Safe Spaces, Support, Social Capital: A Critical Analysis of Artists Working with Vulnerable Young People in Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a critical and thematic analysis of three research projects involving artists working with vulnerable young people in educational contexts. It argues that artists create safe spaces in contrast to traditional educational activities but it will also raise questions about what constitutes such a space for participants. It will…

  10. The role of network theory and object-oriented modeling within a framework for the vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusgeld, Irene; Kroeger, Wolfgang; Sansavini, Giovanni; Schlaepfer, Markus; Zio, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures has been proposed by some of the authors. The framework basically consists of two successive stages: (i) a screening analysis for identifying the parts of the critical infrastructure most relevant with respect to its vulnerability and (ii) a detailed modeling of the operational dynamics of the identified parts for gaining insights on the causes and mechanisms responsible for the vulnerability. In this paper, a critical presentation is offered of the results of a set of investigations aimed at evaluating the potentials of (i) using network analysis based on measures of topological interconnection and reliability efficiency, for the screening task; (ii) using object-oriented modeling as the simulation framework to capture the detailed dynamics of the operational scenarios involving the most vulnerable parts of the critical infrastructure as identified by the preceding network analysis. A case study based on the Swiss high-voltage transmission system is considered. The results are cross-compared and evaluated; the needs of further research are defined

  11. Quantitative risk analysis using vulnerability indicators to assess food insecurity in the Niayes agricultural region of West Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateugue Diack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to develop indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity to determine the robustness of response strategies over time and better understand the underlying processes. This study aimed to determine levels of risk of food insecurity using defined vulnerability indicators. For the purpose of this study, factors influencing food insecurity and different vulnerable indicators were examined using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Observations made on the physical environment (using tools for spatial analysis and socio-economic surveys conducted with local populations have quantified vulnerability indicators in the Niayes agricultural region. Application of the Classification and Regression Tree (CART model has enabled us to quantify the level of vulnerability of the zone. The results show that the decrease in agricultural surface areas is the most discriminant one in this study. The speed of reduction of the agricultural areas has specially increased between 2009 and 2014, with a loss of 65% of these areas. Therefore, a decision-making system, centred on the need for reinforcing the resilience of local populations, by preserving the agricultural vocation of the Niayes region and even in the Sahelian regions requires support and extension services for the farmers in order to promote sustainable agricultural practices.

  12. Assessing the vulnerability of Brazilian municipalities to the vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi using multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Márcio Costa; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Reis, Priscilleyne Ouverney; de Lacerda Sousa, Ana Carolina; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; da Costa, Veruska Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Despite the dramatic reduction in Trypanosoma cruzi vectorial transmission in Brazil, acute cases of Chagas disease (CD) continue to be recorded. The identification of areas with greater vulnerability to the occurrence of vector-borne CD is essential to prevention, control, and surveillance activities. In the current study, data on the occurrence of domiciliated triatomines in Brazil (non-Amazonian regions) between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed. Municipalities' vulnerability was assessed based on socioeconomic, demographic, entomological, and environmental indicators using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Overall, 2275 municipalities were positive for at least one of the six triatomine species analyzed (Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma infestans, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma rubrovaria, and Triatoma sordida). The municipalities that were most vulnerable to vector-borne CD were mainly in the northeast region and exhibited a higher occurrence of domiciliated triatomines, lower socioeconomic levels, and more extensive anthropized areas. Most of the 39 new vector-borne CD cases confirmed between 2001 and 2012 in non-Amazonian regions occurred within the more vulnerable municipalities. Thus, MCDA can help to identify the states and municipalities that are most vulnerable to the transmission of T. cruzi by domiciliated triatomines, which is critical for directing adequate surveillance, prevention, and control activities. The methodological approach and results presented here can be used to enhance CD surveillance in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A methodological proposal for quantifying environmental compensation through the spatial analysis of vulnerability indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Enrique Torresan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to propose a methodology for quantifying the environmental compensation through the spatial analysis of vulnerability indicators. A case study was applied for the analysis of sand extraction enterprises, in the region of Descalvado and Analândia, inland of São Paulo State, Brazil. Environmental vulnerability scores were attributed for the indicators related to erosion, hydrological resources and biodiversity loss. This methodological proposal allowed analyzing the local alternatives of certain enterprise with the objective of reducing impacts and at the same time reducing the costs of environmental compensation. The application of the methodology significantly reduced the subjectivity degree usually associated to the most of the methodologies of impact evaluation.O termo compensação ambiental refere-se à obrigação do empreendedor em apoiar a implantação e manutenção de Unidades de Conservação, aplicável a empreendimentos de significativo impacto ambiental, de acordo com a Lei 9.986/2000. Esta lei estabelece que o volume de recursos a ser aplicado pelo empreendedor deve ser de no mínimo 0,5% dos custos totais previstos para a implantação do empreendimento, sendo que este percentual deve ser fixado pelo órgão ambiental competente, de acordo com o grau de impacto ambiental. Sendo assim, o presente artigo tem o objetivo de propor uma metodologia para quantificação da compensação ambiental através da análise espacial de indicadores de vulnerabilidade ambiental. A proposta foi aplicada através de um estudo de caso em empreendimentos de mineração de areia, na região de Descalvado/Analândia, interior do Estado de São Paulo. Índices de vulnerabilidade ambiental foram atribuídos a indicadores de impactos relacionados à erosão, recursos hídricos e perda de biodiversidade. Esta metodologia representa importante instrumento de planejamento ambiental e econômico, podendo ser adaptada a diversos

  14. Research Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerability in the Xianshui River basin based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Li, Xiao Ju; Wang, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    The Xianshui River basin is an important ecological barrier and water conservation area of Qinghai-Tibet plateau. To master the spatial and temporal differentiation of ecological environment is beneficial to the realization of the protection of regional ecological environment and the development of restoration measures. In this paper, the evaluation index system of ecological environment vulnerability was constructed from topography, climate, soil, land use and social economy. In this study, GIS and information entropy theory are combined to complete the analysis of spatial and temporal variation of vulnerability of ecological environment vulnerability in 2000-2015 years, and the main results are as follows: The ecological vulnerability of the watershed is characterized by the obvious vertical distribution, which is characterized by the gradual increase of the vulnerability of the south to the north. The evaluation results were classified as potential, micro, mild, moderate and severe, with the proportion of each grade being Micro > mild > potential > moderate > severity. The proportion of light and below accounts for more than 80% of the whole area, and the whole basin is at a medium vulnerable level. The change of overall trend indicates that the overall ecological environment of the basin has improved obviously in 15 years. The driving force factor analysis shows that the national environmental protection and restoration project is playing a significant role and plays a major driving role in the obvious improvement of the ecological environment in the basin area. However, there are still a few parts of the region that are deteriorating. This is mainly due to the special natural environment and over exploitation of hydropower resources.

  15. Uncertainty analysis in vulnerability estimations for elements at risk- a review of concepts and some examples on landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurean, R. L.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    Decision under uncertainty is a constant of everyday life and an important component of risk management and governance. Recently, experts have emphasized the importance of quantifying uncertainty in all phases of landslide risk analysis. Due to its multi-dimensional and dynamic nature, (physical) vulnerability is inherently complex and the "degree of loss" estimates imprecise and to some extent even subjective. Uncertainty analysis introduces quantitative modeling approaches that allow for a more explicitly objective output, improving the risk management process as well as enhancing communication between various stakeholders for better risk governance. This study presents a review of concepts for uncertainty analysis in vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides. Different semi-quantitative and quantitative methods are compared based on their feasibility in real-world situations, hazard dependency, process stage in vulnerability assessment (i.e. input data, model, output), and applicability within an integrated landslide hazard and risk framework. The resulted observations will help to identify current gaps and future needs in vulnerability assessment, including estimation of uncertainty propagation, transferability of the methods, development of visualization tools, but also address basic questions like what is uncertainty and how uncertainty can be quantified or treated in a reliable and reproducible way.

  16. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  17. Vulnerability of advanced encryption standard algorithm to differential power analysis attacks implemented on ATmega-128 microcontroller

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpalane, Kealeboga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of cryptographic embedded devices including smartcards, ASICs and FPGAs must be secure against breaking in. However, these devices are vulnerable to side channel attacks. A side channel attack uses physical attributes...

  18. Watershed reliability, resilience and vulnerability analysis under uncertainty using water quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Yamen M; Tripathi, Shivam; Hantush, Mohamed M; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2012-10-30

    A method for assessment of watershed health is developed by employing measures of reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) using stream water quality data. Observed water quality data are usually sparse, so that a water quality time-series is often reconstructed using surrogate variables (streamflow). A Bayesian algorithm based on relevance vector machine (RVM) was employed to quantify the error in the reconstructed series, and a probabilistic assessment of watershed status was conducted based on established thresholds for various constituents. As an application example, observed water quality data for several constituents at different monitoring points within the Cedar Creek watershed in north-east Indiana (USA) were utilized. Considering uncertainty in the data for the period 2002-2007, the R-R-V analysis revealed that the Cedar Creek watershed tends to be in compliance with respect to selected pesticides, ammonia and total phosphorus. However, the watershed was found to be prone to violations of sediment standards. Ignoring uncertainty in the water quality time-series led to misleading results especially in the case of sediments. Results indicate that the methods presented in this study may be used for assessing the effects of different stressors over a watershed. The method shows promise as a management tool for assessing watershed health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression in Young Adults: An ROC Curves Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Imperatori, Claudio; Sergi, Maria Rita; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Continisio, Massimo; Tamburello, Antonino; Innamorati, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and Methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, whether cognitive vulnerabilities (CV), as measured by three well-known instruments (the Beck Hopelessness Scale, BHS; the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R; and the Attitudes Toward Self-Revised, ATS-R), independently discriminate between subjects with different severities of depression. Participants were 467 young adults (336 females and 131 males), recruited from the general population. The subjects were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results. Four first-order (BHS Optimism/Low Standard; BHS Pessimism; Generalized Self-Criticism; and LOT Optimism) and two higher-order factors (Pessimism/Negative Attitudes Toward Self, Optimism) were extracted using Principal Axis Factoring analysis. Although all first-order and second-order factors were able to discriminate individuals with different depression severities, the Pessimism factor had the best performance in discriminating individuals with moderate to severe depression from those with lower depression severity. Conclusion. In the screening of young adults at risk of depression, clinicians have to pay particular attention to the expression of pessimism about the future.

  20. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Colleen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Sterbentz, Dane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Wright, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  1. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrandiz, Javier; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David; Gunsolley, John; Best, Al

    2014-01-01

    Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL) in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01). MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity); whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity), with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7). MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  3. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  4. Seismic Failure Mechanism of Reinforced Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall System Based on Structural Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Ye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear wall adopts rigid beam-column joints and continuous concrete-filled CFS tube end studs rather than coupled-C section end studs that are used in traditional CFS shear walls, to achieve the rigid connections in both beam-column joints and column bases. The results show that: the RCFS and traditional CFS shear wall systems both exhibit the maximum vulnerability index associated with the failure mode in the first story. Therefore, the first story is likely to be a weakness of the CFS shear wall system. Once the wall is damaged, the traditional CFS shear wall system would collapse because the shear wall is the only lateral-resisting component. However, the collapse resistance of the RCFS shear wall system is effectively enhanced by the second defense, which is provided by a framework integrated by rigid beam-column joints and fixed column bases. The predicted collapse mode with maximum vulnerability index that was obtained by structural vulnerability analysis agrees well with the experimental result, and the structural vulnerability method is thereby verified to be reasonable to identify the weaknesses of framed structures and predict their collapse modes. Additionally, the quantitative vulnerability index indicates that the RCFS shear wall system exhibits better robustness compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the “strong frame weak wallboard” and the “strong column weak beam” are proposed in this study as conceptional designations for the RCFS shear wall systems.

  5. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    This document was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) under its Technical Guidance and Assistance and Project Financing Programs. The purpose was to provide an estimate of the national potential for combined heat and power (also known as CHP; cogeneration; or cooling, heating, and power) applications at federal facilities and the associated costs and benefits including energy and emission savings. The report provides a broad overview for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on when and where CHP systems are most likely to serve the government's best interest. FEMP's mission is to reduce the cost to and environmental impact of the federal government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP programs are driven by its customers: federal agency sites. FEMP monitors energy efficiency and renewable energy technology developments and mounts ''technology-specific'' programs to make technologies that are in strong demand by agencies more accessible. FEMP's role is often one of helping the federal government ''lead by example'' through the use of advanced energy efficiency/renewable energy (EERE) technologies in its own buildings and facilities. CHP was highlighted in the Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Report as a commercially available technology offering extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiencies and emission reductions. FEMP's criteria for emphasizing a technology are that it must be commercially available; be proven but underutilized; have a strong constituency and momentum; offer large energy savings and other benefits of interest to federal sites and FEMP mission; be in demand; and carry sufficient federal market potential. As discussed in the report, CHP meets all

  6. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  7. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF ORDERED WEIGHTED AVERAGING OPERATOR IN EARTHQUAKE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to find the extent to which the minimal variability Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA model of seismic vulnerability assessment is sensitive to variation of optimism degree. There are a variety of models proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment. In order to examine the efficiency of seismic vulnerability assessment models, the stability of results could be analysed. Seismic vulnerability assessment is done to estimate the probable losses in the future earthquake. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods have been applied by a number of researchers to estimate the human, physical and financial losses in urban areas. The study area of this research is Tehran Metropolitan Area (TMA which has more than eight million inhabitants. In addition, this paper assumes that North Tehran Fault (NTF is activated and caused an earthquake in TMA. 1996 census data is used to extract the attribute values for six effective criteria in seismic vulnerability assessment. The results demonstrate that minimal variability OWA model of Seismic Loss Estimation (SLE is more stable where the aggregated seismic vulnerability degree has a lower value. Moreover, minimal variability OWA is very sensitive to optimism degree in northern areas of Tehran. A number of statistical units in southern areas of the city also indicate considerable sensitivity to optimism degree due to numerous non-standard buildings. In addition, the change of seismic vulnerability degree caused by variation of optimism degree does not exceed 25 % of the original value which means that the overall accuracy of the model is acceptable.

  8. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change. Part I: Laboratory incubations of Swiss forest soils and radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Hagedorn, Frank; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the key role of soil organic carbon (SOC) on climate and greenhouse gas regulation, there is an increasing need to incorporate the carbon (C) feedback between SOC and the atmosphere into earth system models. The evaluation of these models points towards uncertainties on the response of CO2-C fluxes, derived from the decomposition of SOC, to the influence of controls/drivers. SOC vulnerability refers to the likelihood of losing previously stabilized soil organic matter, by the effect of environmental factors. The objective of this study is to produce a SOC vulnerability ranking of soils and to provide new insights into the influence of environmental and soil properties controls. Research on SOC vulnerability tends to focus on climatic controls and neglect the effect of other factors, such as soil geochemistry and mineralogy, on C stabilization/de-stabilization processes. In this work, we hypothesized that climate (mean annual temperature and soil moisture status proxy at the research sites in the period 1981-2010), soil (pH and % clay) and terrain (slope gradient and orientation) characteristics are the main controls of the CO2-C fluxes from SOC. Following a statistics-based approach, we selected 54 forest sites across Switzerland, which cover a broad spectrum of values for the hypothesized controls. Then, we selected the study sites so that the controls are orthogonal to each other; thus, their effect was not confounded. At each site, we collected three non-overlapping topsoil (i.e. 20 cm) composites within 40 x 40 m2 plots. In the laboratory, we sieved fresh soils at 2 mm and run a 2-weeks pre-incubation, before beginning a 6-months aerobic soil incubation under controlled conditions of moisture and temperature. Periodically, we collected NaOH (1M) traps containing the CO2-C derived from microbial heterotrophic respiration. We calculated the cumulative CO2-C respired and the one-pool SOC decomposition rates from the 54 forest sites, and linked these data to

  9. Vulnerability Analysis of Soft Caving Tunnel Support System and Surrounding Rock Optimal Control Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability assessment model, composed by 11 vulnerability factors, is established with the introduction of the concept of “vulnerability” into the assessment of tunnel support system. Analytic hierarchy process is utilized to divide these 11 factors into human attributes and natural attributes, and define the weight of these factors for the model. The “vulnerability” applied io the assessment of the tunnel support system model is reached. The vulnerability assessment model was used for evaluating and modifying the haulage tunnel #3207 of Bo-fang mine panel #2. The results decreased the vulnerability of the tunnel support system and demonstrated acceptable effects. Furthermore, the results show that the impact of human attributes on tunnel support systems is dramatic under the condition that natural attributes are permanent, and the “vulnerability” is exactly a notable factor to manifest the transformation during this process. The results also indicate that optimizing human attributes can attenuate vulnerability in tunnel support systems. As a result, enhancement of stability of tunnel support systems can be achieved.

  10. Threat and vulnerability analysis and conceptual design of countermeasures for a computer center under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.; Musacchio, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This project involved the assessment of a new computer center to be used as the main national data processing facility of a large European bank. This building serves as the principal facility in the country with all other branches utilizing the data processing center. As such, the building is a crucial target which may attract terrorist attacks. Threat and vulnerability assessments were performed as a basis to define and overall fully-integrated security system of passive and active countermeasures for the facility. After separately assessing the range of threats and vulnerabilities, a combined matrix of threats and vulnerabilities was used to identify the crucial combinations. A set of architectural-structural passive measures was added to the active components of the security system

  11. The Detection and Analysis of Chromosome Fragile Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Özer, Özgün; Hickson, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    A fragile site is a chromosomal locus that is prone to form a gap or constriction visible within a condensed metaphase chromosome, particularly following exposure of cells to DNA replication stress. Based on their frequency, fragile sites are classified as either common (CFSs; present in all...... for detection and analysis of chromosome fragile sites....

  12. Inequity and vulnerability to dropout symptoms : An exploratory causal analysis among highly skilled youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    This study investigated whether the perception of disadvantageous inequity makes athletes more vulnerable to dropping out. Sixty five talented youth male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years), attending a prestigious soccer school, completed a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the

  13. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Networks: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel (Jian Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit is developing rapidly in major cities of China and has become a key component of urban transport. Nevertheless, the security and reliability in operation are significant issues that cannot be neglected. In this paper, the network and station vulnerabilities of the urban rail transit system were analyzed based on complex network and graph theories. A vulnerability evaluation model was proposed by accounting metro interchange and passenger flow and further validated by a case study of Shanghai Metro with full-scale network and real-world traffic data. It is identified that the urban rail transit network is rather robust to random attacks, but is vulnerable to the largest degree node-based attacks and the highest betweenness node-based attacks. Metro stations with a large node degree are more important in maintaining the network size, while stations with a high node betweenness are critical to network efficiency and origin-destination (OD connectivity. The most crucial stations in maintaining network serviceability do not necessarily have the highest passenger throughput or the largest structural connectivity. A comprehensive evaluation model as proposed is therefore essential to assess station vulnerability, so that attention can be placed on appropriate nodes within the metro system. The findings of this research are of both theoretical and practical significance for urban rail transit network design and performance evaluation.

  14. Martial Arts and Socially Vulnerable Youth. An Analysis of Flemish Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeboom, Marc; De Knop, Paul; Wylleman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Notwithstanding the lack of empirical support for its positive socio-psychological effects, numerous educators and welfare workers make use of martial arts in their work with socially vulnerable youth. Using qualitative methodology, the aims, approaches and personal experiences were analysed of teachers and co-ordinators involved in specific…

  15. Virtual Analysis and Reduction of Side-Channel Vulnerabilities of Smartcards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Jeremy; De Vink, E.P.; Dimitrakos, T.; Martinelli, F.

    This paper focuses on the usability of the PINPAS tool. The PINPAS tool is an instruction-level interpreter for smartcard assembler languages, augmented with facilities to study side-channel vulnerabilities. The tool can simulate side-channel leakage and has a suite of utilities to analyze this. The

  16. A rainfall risk analysis thanks to an GIS based estimation of urban vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Pierre-Marie, Chapon

    2010-05-01

    The urban community of Lyon, situated in France in the north of the Rhône valley, comprises 1.2 million inhabitants within 515 km ². With such a concentration of issues, policy makers and local elected officials therefore attach great importance to the management of hydrological risks, particularly due to the inherent characteristics of the territory. If the hazards associated with these risks in the territory of Lyon have been the subject of numerous analyses, studies on the vulnerability of greater Lyon are rare and have common shortcomings that impair their validity. We recall that the risk is seen as the classic relationship between the probability of occurrence of hazards and vulnerability. In this article, this vulnerability will be composed of two parts. The first one is the sensitivity of the stakes facing hydrological hazards as urban runoff, that is to say, their propensity to suffer damage during a flood (Gleize and Reghezza, 2007). The second factor is their relative importance in the functioning of the community. Indeed, not all the stakes could provide the same role and contribution to the Greater Lyon. For example, damage to the urban furniture such as bus shelter seems less harmful to the activities of the urban area than that of transport infrastructure (Renard and Chapon, 2010). This communication proposes to assess the vulnerability of Lyon urban area facing to hydrological hazards. This territory is composed of human, environmental and material stakes. The first part of this work is to identify all these issues so as to completeness. Then, is it required to build a "vulnerability index" (Tixier et al, 2006). Thus, it is necessary to use methods of multicriteria decision aid to evaluate the two components of vulnerability: the sensitivity and the contribution to the functioning of the community. Finally, the results of the overall vulnerability are presented, and then coupled to various hazards related to water such as runoff associated with

  17. Adaptation to Climate Change in Risk and Vulnerability Analysis on a Municipal Level, a basis for further work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin; Lindberg, Anna; Lindgren, Johan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of Risk and Vulnerability Analysis (RVA) at local authority level in Sweden is to increase the capacity of local authorities to handle crises and to reduce vulnerability in the community. RVA processes could be an appropriate starting-point for discussions on how the community is influenced by climate change and how its effects could be reduced using various adjustment measures. In the report we present four methods: ROSA, MVA, IBERO and the Car Dun AB method. These have all been developed to support Swedish local authority RVA processes. We also present five international frameworks that have been developed by the organisations UNDP, USAID, UKCIP, C-CIARN and CSIRO to help decision-makers and stakeholders to adapt to climate change. Together, these descriptions form a foundation for continuing the work being done within the project Climatools, in which tools are being produced to be used by local authorities in adapting to climate change. In the report, we also discuss the concepts 'risk', 'vulnerability' and 'adaptation' and how analysis of adaptation to climate change has changed in recent years

  18. Seismic Hazard Analysis based on Earthquake Vulnerability and Peak Ground Acceleration using Microseismic Method at Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiawan, H.; Supriyadi; Yulianti, I.

    2017-02-01

    Microseismic is a harmonic vibration of land that occurs continuously at a low frequency. The characteristics of microseismic represents the characteristics of the soil layer based on the value of its natural frequency. This paper presents the analysis of seismic hazard at Universitas Negeri Semarang using microseismic method. The data acquisition was done at 20 points with distance between points 300 m by using three component’s seismometer. The data was processed using Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method to obtain the natural frequency and amplification value. The value of the natural frequency and amplification used to determine the value of the earthquake vulnerability and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The result shows then the earthquake vulnerability value range from 0.2 to 7.5, while the value of the average peak ground acceleration (PGA) is in the range 10-24 gal. Therefore, the average peak ground acceleration equal to earthquake intensity IV MMI scale.

  19. Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Integrating the Spatial Analysis Technology with Algorithms: A Case of the Wood-Grass Ecotone of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates ecological vulnerability of the wood-grass ecotone of northeast China integrating the spatial analysis technology with algorithms. An assessment model of ecological vulnerability is developed applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The composite evaluation index system is established on the basis of the analysis of contemporary status and potential problems in the study area. By the application of the evaluation model, ecological vulnerability index is calculated between 1990 and 2005. The results show that ecological vulnerability was mostly at a medium level in the study area, however the ecological quality was deteriorating. Through the standard deviational ellipse, the variation of ecological vulnerability can be spatially explicated. It is extremely significative for the prediction of the regions that will easily deteriorate. The deterioration zone was concentrating in the area of Da Hinggan Ling Mountain, including Xingan League, Chifeng, Tongliao, and Chengde, whereas the improvement zone was distributing in the north-central of Hulunbeier.

  20. Rings and sector : intrasite spatial analysis of stone age sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Durk

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with intrasite spatial analysis: the analysis of spatial patterns on site level. My main concern has been to develop a simple method for analysing Stone Age sites of a special type: those characterised by the presence of a hearth closely associated in space with an artefact

  1. A Bottom-up Vulnerability Analysis of Water Systems with Decentralized Decision Making and Demographic Shifts- the Case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaut, T.; Yoon, J.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Talozi, S.; Mustafa, D.; Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Haddad, Y.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.

    2016-12-01

    Probabilistic approaches to uncertainty in water systems management can face challenges of several types: non stationary climate, sudden shocks such as conflict-driven migrations, or the internal complexity and dynamics of large systems. There has been a rising trend in the development of bottom-up methods that place focus on the decision side instead of probability distributions and climate scenarios. These approaches are based on defining acceptability thresholds for the decision makers and considering the entire range of possibilities over which such thresholds are crossed. We aim at improving the knowledge on the applicability and relevance of this approach by enlarging its scope beyond climate uncertainty and single decision makers; thus including demographic shifts, internal system dynamics, and multiple stakeholders at different scales. This vulnerability analysis is part of the Jordan Water Project and makes use of an ambitious multi-agent model developed by its teams with the extensive cooperation of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation of Jordan. The case of Jordan is a relevant example for migration spikes, rapid social changes, resource depletion and climate change impacts. The multi-agent modeling framework used provides a consistent structure to assess the vulnerability of complex water resources systems with distributed acceptability thresholds and stakeholder interaction. A proof of concept and preliminary results are presented for a non-probabilistic vulnerability analysis that involves different types of stakeholders, uncertainties other than climatic and the integration of threshold-based indicators. For each stakeholder (agent) a vulnerability matrix is constructed over a multi-dimensional domain, which includes various hydrologic and/or demographic variables.

  2. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments. Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, Anne; Bizikova, Livia; Dekens, Julie; McCandless, Matthew

    2013-03-15

    Vulnerability assessments (VAs) are central to shaping climate change adaptation decisions. They help to define the nature and extent of the threat that may harm a given human or ecological system, providing a basis for devising measures that will minimize or avoid this harm. Yet the wide variety of VA approaches can be confusing for practitioners, creating uncertainty about the ''right'' way to assess vulnerability. In an effort to provide some guidance on designing and conducting VAs, this paper reviews and compares VAs undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to distill key approaches, components and lessons. It begins with a general overview of definitions, approaches and challenges with conducting VAs, and then proposes a framework for analyzing and comparing them. The framework looks at four components of VAs: (1) Framing: where do we come from? (2) Process of conducting the VAs: how does it work? (3) Inputs: what is needed? (4) Outputs: what does it tell us? The framework is then applied to analyze the assessments carried out in Tunisia and Indonesia, from their respective framings of vulnerability to the outputs of the process. The report then concludes with observations on differences and similarities between the VAs, as well as lessons learned that can inform the design and execution of future assessments.

  3. Vulnerability analysis and passenger source prediction in urban rail transit networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    Full Text Available Based on large-scale human mobility data collected in San Francisco and Boston, the morning peak urban rail transit (URT ODs (origin-destination matrix were estimated and the most vulnerable URT segments, those capable of causing the largest service interruptions, were identified. In both URT networks, a few highly vulnerable segments were observed. For this small group of vital segments, the impact of failure must be carefully evaluated. A bipartite URT usage network was developed and used to determine the inherent connections between urban rail transits and their passengers' travel demands. Although passengers' origins and destinations were easy to locate for a large number of URT segments, a few show very complicated spatial distributions. Based on the bipartite URT usage network, a new layer of the understanding of a URT segment's vulnerability can be achieved by taking the difficulty of addressing the failure of a given segment into account. Two proof-of-concept cases are described here: Possible transfer of passenger flow to the road network is here predicted in the cases of failures of two representative URT segments in San Francisco.

  4. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments. Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammill, Anne; Bizikova, Livia; Dekens, Julie; McCandless, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Vulnerability assessments (VAs) are central to shaping climate change adaptation decisions. They help to define the nature and extent of the threat that may harm a given human or ecological system, providing a basis for devising measures that will minimize or avoid this harm. Yet the wide variety of VA approaches can be confusing for practitioners, creating uncertainty about the ''right'' way to assess vulnerability. In an effort to provide some guidance on designing and conducting VAs, this paper reviews and compares VAs undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to distill key approaches, components and lessons. It begins with a general overview of definitions, approaches and challenges with conducting VAs, and then proposes a framework for analyzing and comparing them. The framework looks at four components of VAs: (1) Framing: where do we come from? (2) Process of conducting the VAs: how does it work? (3) Inputs: what is needed? (4) Outputs: what does it tell us? The framework is then applied to analyze the assessments carried out in Tunisia and Indonesia, from their respective framings of vulnerability to the outputs of the process. The report then concludes with observations on differences and similarities between the VAs, as well as lessons learned that can inform the design and execution of future assessments.

  5. Analysis of inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Thomas M; Di Bianca, Paisly; Krysa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although coastal oil spills tend to be highly publicized, crude oil spills in the United States affect inland areas relatively often. Spills to inland areas often affect sensitive environments and can have greater impacts to health and welfare than spills to coastal areas. For these reasons, the authors investigated inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwestern U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. These states work with the Region 5 Offices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region 5's geospatial data in the Inland Sensitivity Atlas were turned into metrics indicating inland crude oil spill threats and vulnerabilities among the Region's sub-watersheds. These threats and vulnerabilities were weighted using data from the National Response Center and the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Priority System. The locations of the Region's emergency responders were geocoded in GIS. The GIS calculated the emergency response times to the Region's sub-watersheds. The resulting scatter plots are connected to the sub-watersheds in the map so stakeholders can (1) see the outlying sub-watersheds of concern and (2) better understand how reducing threats and better response time can reduce the risk of inland crude oil spills. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  6. Analysis of Subjects' Vulnerability in a Touch Screen Game Using Behavioral Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsinejad, Payam; Sipahi, Rifat

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we report results on an experimental study conducted with volunteer subjects playing a touch-screen game with two unique difficulty levels. Subjects have knowledge about the rules of both game levels, but only sufficient playing experience with the easy level of the game, making them vulnerable with the difficult level. Several behavioral metrics associated with subjects' playing the game are studied in order to assess subjects' mental-workload changes induced by their vulnerability. Specifically, these metrics are calculated based on subjects' finger kinematics and decision making times, which are then compared with baseline metrics, namely, performance metrics pertaining to how well the game is played and a physiological metric called pnn50 extracted from heart rate measurements. In balanced experiments and supported by comparisons with baseline metrics, it is found that some of the studied behavioral metrics have the potential to be used to infer subjects' mental workload changes through different levels of the game. These metrics, which are decoupled from task specifics, relate to subjects' ability to develop strategies to play the game, and hence have the advantage of offering insight into subjects' task-load and vulnerability assessment across various experimental settings.

  7. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered soil deposits subjected to transient and vertically propagating shear waves through a one-dimensional-soil column. Each soil layer was assumed to be homogeneous, visco-elastic, and infinite in the horizontal extent. The results of this study were compared to other studies and forward computation of the geotechnical dynamic parameters of the investigated site. The amplification triggered by the 1997 Burra seismic event was deduced. This study reveals the amplification factor up to 3.6 at the studied site.

  8. Archaeological Site Vulnerability Modelling: The Influence of High Impact Storm Events on Models of Shoreline Erosion in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Rourke Michael J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the Inuvialuit archaeological record is situated along shorelines of the western Canadian Arctic. These coastal sites are at substantial risk of damage due to a number of geomorphological processes at work in the region. The identification of threatened heritage remains is critical in the Mackenzie Delta, where landscape changes are taking place at an increasingly rapid pace. This paper outlines some preliminary observations from a research program directed toward identifying vulnerable archaeological remains within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Coastal erosion rates have been calculated for over 280 km of the Kugmallit Bay shoreline, extending along the eastern extent of Richards Island and neighbouring areas of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. Helicopter surveys conducted during the 2014 field season confirmed that areas exposed to heavy erosive forces in the past continue to erode at alarming rates. Some of the calculated rates, however, have proven far too conservative. An extreme period of erosion at Toker Point in the autumn of 2013 has yielded a prime example of how increasingly volatile weather patterns can influence shoreline erosion models. It has also provided a case with which to demonstrate the value of using more recent, shorter time-interval imagery in assessing impacts to cultural landscapes.

  9. The Tile-map Based Vulnerability Assessment Code of a Physical Protection System: SAPE (Systematic Analysis of Protection Effectiveness)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Kwak, Sung Woo; Yoo, Ho Sik; Kim, Jung Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki

    2008-01-01

    Increasing threats on nuclear facilities demands stronger physical protection system (PPS) within the limited budget. For this reason we need an efficient physical protection system and before making an efficient PPS we need to evaluate it. This evaluation process should faithfully reflect real situation, reveal weak points and unnecessary protection elements, and give comparable quantitative values. Performance based analysis helps to build an efficient physical protection system. Instead of regulating the number of sensors and barriers, the performance based analysis evaluates a PPS fit to the situation of a facility. The analysis assesses delay (sensors) and detection (barriers) of a PPS against an intrusion, and judges whether a response force arrives before intruders complete their job. Performance based analysis needs complicated calculation and, hence, several assessment codes have been developed. A code called the estimation of adversary sequence interruption (EASI) was developed to analyze vulnerability along a single intrusion path. The systematic analysis of vulnerability to intrusion (SAVI) code investigates multi-paths to a valuable asset in an actual facility. SAVI uses adversary sequence diagram to describe multi-paths

  10. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  11. Site-specific analysis of the cobbly soils at the Grand Junction processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a recent site-specific analysis to evaluate the necessity of a recommendation to install a slurry trench around the Grand Junction processing site. The following analysis addresses the cobbly nature of the site's radiologically contaminated foundation soil, reassesses the excavation depths based on bulk radionuclide concentrations, and presents data-based arguments that support the elimination of the initially proposed slurry trench. The slurry trench around the processing site was proposed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) to minimize the amount of water encountered during excavation. The initial depths of excavation developed during conceptual design, which indicated the need for a slurry wall, were reexamined as part of this analysis. This reanalysis, based on bulk concentrations of a cobbly subsoil, supports decreasing the original excavation depth, limiting the dewatering quantities to those which can be dissipated by normal construction activities. This eliminates the need for a slurry trench andseparate water treatment prior to permitted discharge

  12. Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic

  13. High gas dependence for power generation in Thailand: The vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2007-01-01

    Thailand uses 74% of its natural gas supply for power generation and 70% of its power comes from gas-based technology. High dependence on natural gas in power generation raises concerns about security of electricity supply that could affect competitiveness of Thai manufacturing and other industries at the global level. The effect of fuel dependence on security of electricity supply has received less emphasis in the literature. Given this gap, this research examines the economic impact of high dependence on natural gas for power generation in Thailand by analyzing the effect of changes in fuel prices (including fuel oil and natural gas) on electricity tariff in Thailand. At the same time, the research quantifies the vulnerability of the Thai economy due to high gas dependence in power generation. Our research shows that for every 10% change in natural gas price, electricity tariff in Thailand would change by 3.5%. In addition, we found that the gas bill for power generation consumed between 1.94% and 3.05% of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2000 and 2004 and in terms of GDP share per unit of energy, gas dependence in power generation is almost similar to that of crude oil import dependence. We also found that the basic metal industry, being an electricity intensive industry, is the most affected industry. Additionally, we find that volatility of gas price is the main factor behind the vulnerability concern. The research accordingly simulates two mitigation options of the problem, namely reducing gas dependence and increasing efficiency of gas-fired power plants, where the results show that these methods can reduce the vulnerability of the country from high gas dependence in power generation

  14. Communication Vulnerabilities in Working-age Australians with Musculoskeletal Conditions: A Cross-sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dianne B; Taylor, Michael J; Hill, Sophie J

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of communication vulnerability (CV) and its association with various health measures among working-age Australians with musculoskeletal conditions (MSK). The various vulnerability characteristics may lead to inadequate communication between consumers and healthcare professionals. Prevalence of CV among 18-64 year olds, with or without MSK, was analyzed using the Australian Bureau of Statistics' National Health Survey 2007-08 data. Associations between CV and measures of health complexity (accumulating multimorbidity and risk factors) and health burden (poorer self-rated health, psychological distress, and pain restricting work) in the MSK population were estimated using logistic regression. Further analyses were conducted for each vulnerability characteristic to determine the degree of association (crude and adjusted) with measures of interest. CV were more prevalent in working-age Australians with MSK (65%) than those without (51%). Adjusted for age and sex among working-age Australians with at least 1 MSK, those with 1 or more CV were more likely to have multimorbidity [adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2], lifestyle risk factors (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8), poorer self-rated health (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.7-4.2), greater psychological distress (aOR = 2.9, 95% CI 2.3-3.7), and pain restricting employment (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared with those without CV. For working-age people, there is an association between MSK and CV. For those with MSK, CV were associated with increased likelihood of health complexity and burden. These findings have policy and clinical relevance. Research is needed to determine whether interventions that address these specific CV characteristics reduce the burden of disease within these populations.

  15. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  16. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ralph; Bostelmann, Jonas; Cornet, Yves; Heipke, Christian; Philippe, Christian; Poncelet, Nadia; de Rosa, Diego; Vandeloise, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk assoc...

  17. Development of a site analysis tool for distributed wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Shawn [The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham MA (United States)

    2012-02-28

    The Cadmus Group, Inc., in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Encraft, was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a site analysis tool for distributed wind technologies. As the principal investigator for this project, Mr. Shawn Shaw was responsible for overall project management, direction, and technical approach. The product resulting from this project is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT), a software tool for analyzing proposed sites for distributed wind technology (DWT) systems. This user-friendly tool supports the long-term growth and stability of the DWT market by providing reliable, realistic estimates of site and system energy output and feasibility. DSAT-which is accessible online and requires no purchase or download of software-is available in two account types; Standard: This free account allows the user to analyze a limited number of sites and to produce a system performance report for each; and Professional: For a small annual fee users can analyze an unlimited number of sites, produce system performance reports, and generate other customizable reports containing key information such as visual influence and wind resources. The tool’s interactive maps allow users to create site models that incorporate the obstructions and terrain types present. Users can generate site reports immediately after entering the requisite site information. Ideally, this tool also educates users regarding good site selection and effective evaluation practices.

  18. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    .... The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains...

  19. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  20. Analysis of Environmental Vulnerability in The Landslide Areas (Case Study: Semarang Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani'ah; Firdaus, H. S.; Nugraha, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Land conversion can increase the risk of landslide disaster in Semarang Regency caused by human activity. Remote sensing and geographic information system to be used in this study to mapping the landslide areas because satellite image data can represent the object on the earth surface in wide area coverage. Satellite image Landsat 8 is used to mapping land cover that processed by supervised classification method. The parameters to mapping landslide areas are based on land cover, rainfall, slope, geological factors and soil types. Semarang Regency have the minimum value of landslide is 1.6 and the maximum value is 4.3, which is dominated by landslide prone areas about 791.27 km2. The calculation of the environmental vulnerability index in the study area is based on Perka BNPB No. 2/2012. Accumulation score of environmental vulnerability index is moderate value, that means environment condition must be considered, such as vegetation as ground cover and many others aspects. The range of NDVI value shows that density level in conservation areas (0.030 - 0.844) and conservation forest (0.045 - 0.849), which rarely until high density level. The results of this study furthermore can be assessed to reduce disaster risks from landslide as an effort of disaster preventive.

  1. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  2. Analysis of flood vulnerability in urban area; a case study in deli watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawan, I.; Siregar, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the National Disaster Management Agency of Indonesia, the distribution of disasters and victims died until the year 2016 is the largest flood disaster. Deli River is a river that has the greatest flood potential through Medan City. In Deli Watershed, flow discharge affected by the discharge from its tributaries, the high rainfall intensity and human activity. We should anticipate reducing and preventing the occurrence of losses due to flood damage. One of the ways to anticipate flood disaster is to predict which part of urban area is would flood. The objective of this study is to analyze the flood inundation areas due to overflow of Deli River through Medan city. Two-dimensional modeling by HEC-RAS 5.0.3 is a widely used hydraulic software tool developed by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, which combined with the HEC-HMS for hydrological modeling. The result shows flood vulnerability in Medan by a map to present the spot that vulnerable about flood. The flooded area due to the overflowing of Deli River consists of seven sub districts, namely Medan Johor, Medan Selayang, Medan Kota, Medan Petisah, Medan Maimun, Medan Perjuangan and Medan Barat.

  3. Vulnerability analysis of power systems considering uncertainty in variables using fuzzy logic type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Alexander Melo Rodriguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing the vulnerability of power systems including uncertainty in some variables. Method: The methodology optimizes a Bi-level mixed integer model. Costs associated with power generation and load shedding are minimized at the lowest level whereas at the higher level the damage in the power system, represented by the load shedding, is maximized. Fuzzy logic type 2 is used to model the uncertainty in both linguistic variables and numeric variables. The linguistic variables model the factors of the geographical environment while numeric variables model parameters of the power system. Results: The methodology was validated by using a modified IEEE RTS-96 test system. The results show that by including particularities of the geographical environment different vulnerabilities are detected in the power system. Moreover, it was possible to identify that the most critical component is the line 112-123 because it had 16 attacks in 18 scenarios, and that the maximum load shedding of the system varies from 145 to 1258 MW. Conclusions: This methodology can be used to coordinate and refine protection plans of the power system infrastructure. Funding: EMC-UN research group.

  4. An improved method and data analysis for ultrasound acoustic emissions and xylem vulnerability in conifer wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkerstorfer, Silviya V; Rosner, Sabine; Hietz, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The vulnerability of the xylem to cavitation is an important trait in plant drought resistance and has been quantified by several methods. We present a modified method for the simultaneous measurement of cavitations, recorded as ultrasound acoustic emissions (UAEs), and the water potential, measured with a thermocouple psychrometer, in small samples of conifer wood. Analyzing the amplitude of the individual signals showed that a first phase, during which the mean amplitude increased, was followed by a second phase with distinctly lower signal amplitudes. We provide a method to separate the two groups of signals and show that for many samples plausible vulnerability curves require rejecting late low-energy UAEs. These very likely do not result from cavitations. This method was used to analyze the differences between juvenile wood, and early and late mature wood in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Juvenile earlywood was more resistant to cavitation than mature earlywood or latewood, which we relate to the tracheid anatomy of the samples. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. Analysis of economic vulnerability to flash floods in urban areas of Castilla y León (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque, Jose Maria; García, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2017-04-01

    The growth of exposed population to floods, the expansion in allocation of economical activities to flood-prone areas and the rise of extraordinary event frequency over the last few decades, have resulted in an increase of flash flood-related casualties and economic losses. The increase in these losses at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Vulnerability is defined as the conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the natural hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. In recent years, numerous papers have deal with the assessment of the social dimension of vulnerability. However, economic factors are often a neglected aspect in traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on structural measures and flood damage models. In this context, the aim of this research is to identify those economic characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazard, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is an Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Cluster Analysis of economic information provided by different public institutional databases. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,230 km2), placed in Central-Northern Spain. Townships included in this study meet two requirements: i) urban areas are potentially affected by flash floods (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers or streams with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01 m m-1); ii) urban areas are affected by an area with low or exceptional probability of

  6. Robust detection of discordant sites in regional frequency analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neykov, N.M.; Neytchev, P.N.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Todorov, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    The discordancy measure in terms of the sample L?moment ratios (L?CV, L?skewness, L?kurtosis) of the at?site data is widely recommended in the screening process of atypical sites in the regional frequency analysis (RFA). The sample mean and the covariance matrix of the L?moments ratios, on which the

  7. DECISION ANALYSIS OF INCINERATION COSTS IN SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the decision-making process of the remedial design (RD) phase of on-site incineration projects conducted at Superfund sites. Decisions made during RD affect the cost and schedule of remedial action (RA). Decision analysis techniques are used to determine the...

  8. [Modular risk analysis for assessing multiple waste sites]: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document contains proceedings from the Integrated Planning Workshop from Strategic Planning to Baselining and Other Objectives. Topics discussed include: stakeholder involvement; regulations; future site use planning; site integration and baseline methods; risk analysis in decision making; land uses; and economics in decision making. Individual records have been processed separately for the database

  9. Alternatives Analysis For Selecting ET 3 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.; Hamm, L.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered trenches (ETs) are considered to be a cost-effective method for disposing Low Level Waste (LLW). Based on waste forecasts from waste generators, the last engineered trench in operation (ET No.2) is anticipated to close in FY14, requiring development of a new ET. Solid Waste requested that SRNL develop an assessment report that reviews four disposal options for this new ET (ET No.3) and determine which option would provide the 'best' Performance Assessment (PA) disposal limits for LLW (Appendix A). Those four options (see option footprint locations in Figure 1-1) are: (1) Disposal at grade on TRU Pads 7-13 where soil would be mounded over waste packages; (2) Excavation at a slightly modified SLIT No.13 location - near the Used Equipment Storage Area; (3) Excavation at a modified SLIT No.12 location - near the 643-26E Naval Reactor Component Disposal Area; and (4) Excavation east of TRU Pad No.26 that replaces northeast portions of four slit trench (ST) disposal units in the eastern set of STs. The assessment consisted of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analysis captured key aspects that were readily quantifiable and had predictable impacts on limits and doses. A simplified modeling strategy stemming from current Special Analysis (SA) practices was employed. Both inventory capacity for a specific nuclide (a quasi-inventory limit) and overall performance for specified inventory mixtures (doses resulting from historical inventories) were considered. The qualitative analysis evaluated other key aspects based on engineering judgment in the form of pros and cons.

  10. Analysis of the Hazard, Vulnerability, and Exposure to the Risk of Flooding (Alba de Yeltes, Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Veleda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work has developed a method using GIS technology to evaluate the danger, vulnerability, and exposure to the risk of flooding in the Alba de Yeltes area (Salamanca, Spain. It is a non-structural measure for the prevention and mitigation of the risk of extraordinary flooding. After completing a full analysis of the physical environment (climate, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use, hydrological-hydraulic modeling was carried out using the GeoHecRas river analysis software. The results obtained from the analysis and the models have generated a danger map that facilitates the efficient evaluation of the spatial distribution of the different severity parameters (depth of the watersheet, current flow rate, and flood-prone areas. Also, map algebra and the databases associated with GIS tools, together with the vulnerability and exposure cartography, have allowed the risk to be analyzed in an integrate manner and the production of an environmental diagnostic map. The results of this study propose that there are inhabited areas close to the Yeltes-Morasverdes riverbed that have a high risk of flooding, indicating the need for proper land planning and the implementation of a series of measures that will help to reduce the risk of flooding and its impact.

  11. Social vulnerability assessment of flood risk using GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. A case study of Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, flood disasters have affected millions of people and caused massive economic losses. Social vulnerability assessment uses a combination of several factors to represent a population's differential access to resources and its ability to cope with and respond to hazards. In this paper, social vulnerability assessment to flood risk was applied to the third most populous Portuguese municipality. The study was developed at the neighbourhood level, allowing for social vulnerability analysis at inter civil parish, intra civil parish, and municipality scales. A geographic information system-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA was applied to social vulnerability and allows for an increased understanding and improved monitoring of social vulnerability over space, identifying ‘hot spots’ that require adaptation policies. Mafamude, Oliveira do Douro, Vila Nova de Gaia, and Avintes civil parishes display the greatest vulnerability to flooding. According to the most pessimistic scenario 57%–68% of the area of these civil parishes is classed at a high or very high level of social vulnerability. The GIS-MCDA helps to assess what and who is at risk, and where targeted impact-reduction strategies should be implemented. The results demonstrate the importance of an urban-scale approach instead of a river basin scale to urban flood risk management plans.

  12. Multi-criteria decision analysis and spatial statistic: an approach to determining human vulnerability to vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Montenegro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chagas disease (CD, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected human disease. It is endemic to the Americas and is estimated to have an economic impact, including lost productivity and disability, of 7 billion dollars per year on average. OBJECTIVES To assess vulnerability to vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi in domiciliary environments within an area undergoing domiciliary vector interruption of T. cruzi in Colombia. METHODS Multi-criteria decision analysis [preference ranking method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE and geometrical analysis for interactive assistance (GAIA methods] and spatial statistics were performed on data from a socio-environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey. In the construction of multi-criteria descriptors, decision-making processes and indicators of five determinants of the CD vector pathway were summarily defined, including: (1 house indicator (HI; (2 triatominae indicator (TI; (3 host/reservoir indicator (Ho/RoI; (4 ecotope indicator (EI; and (5 socio-cultural indicator (S-CI. FINDINGS Determination of vulnerability to CD is mostly influenced by TI, with 44.96% of the total weight in the model, while the lowest contribution was from S-CI, with 7.15%. The five indicators comprise 17 indices, and include 78 of the original 104 priority criteria and variables. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods proved very efficient for prioritisation and quantitative categorisation of socio-environmental determinants and for better determining which criteria should be considered for interrupting the man-T. cruzi-vector relationship in endemic areas of the Americas. Through the analysis of spatial autocorrelation it is clear that there is a spatial dependence in establishing categories of vulnerability, therefore, the effect of neighbors’ setting (border areas on local values should be incorporated into disease management for establishing programs of surveillance and control of CD via vector

  13. Multi-criteria decision analysis and spatial statistic: an approach to determining human vulnerability to vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Diego; Cunha, Ana Paula da; Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Vera, Mauricio; Pedroso, Marcel; Junqueira, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected human disease. It is endemic to the Americas and is estimated to have an economic impact, including lost productivity and disability, of 7 billion dollars per year on average. To assess vulnerability to vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi in domiciliary environments within an area undergoing domiciliary vector interruption of T. cruzi in Colombia. Multi-criteria decision analysis [preference ranking method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive assistance (GAIA) methods] and spatial statistics were performed on data from a socio-environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey. In the construction of multi-criteria descriptors, decision-making processes and indicators of five determinants of the CD vector pathway were summarily defined, including: (1) house indicator (HI); (2) triatominae indicator (TI); (3) host/reservoir indicator (Ho/RoI); (4) ecotope indicator (EI); and (5) socio-cultural indicator (S-CI). Determination of vulnerability to CD is mostly influenced by TI, with 44.96% of the total weight in the model, while the lowest contribution was from S-CI, with 7.15%. The five indicators comprise 17 indices, and include 78 of the original 104 priority criteria and variables. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods proved very efficient for prioritisation and quantitative categorisation of socio-environmental determinants and for better determining which criteria should be considered for interrupting the man-T. cruzi-vector relationship in endemic areas of the Americas. Through the analysis of spatial autocorrelation it is clear that there is a spatial dependence in establishing categories of vulnerability, therefore, the effect of neighbors' setting (border areas) on local values should be incorporated into disease management for establishing programs of surveillance and control of CD via vector. The study model proposed here is flexible and

  14. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of patients likely to have vulnerable plaques: analysis from the PROSPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourantas, Christos V; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Farooq, Vasim; Maehara, Akiko; Xu, Ke; Généreux, Philippe; Diletti, Roberto; Muramatsu, Takashi; Fahy, Martin; Weisz, Giora; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to determine the clinical and angiographic variables that would identify patients with high-risk "vulnerable" coronary plaques. In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, in patients successfully treated for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), plaque composition, plaque burden, and minimal luminal area as detected by 3-vessel radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging were associated with an increased risk of developing future events from untreated atherosclerotic lesions (vulnerable plaques). Whether baseline demographic and angiographic findings can be used to identify patients most likely to have vulnerable coronary plaques has not been examined. On the basis of 3-vessel radiofrequency IVUS imaging, patents in the PROSPECT trial were classified in 2 groups according to whether or not one or more untreated high-risk plaques were present, defined as having ≥2 high-risk features (a thin-cap fibroatheroma, plaque burden ≥70%, and/or minimal luminal area ≤4 mm(2)). The high-risk group (those with one or more high-risk lesions) had higher Framingham risk score (7.5 ± 3.4 vs. 6.9 ± 3.3; p = 0.04), more extensive coronary artery disease, and more nonculprit lesion-related cardiovascular events during the 3-year follow-up (hazard ratio: 2.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.62 to 3.66; p < 0.0001). However, demographic factors had poor discrimination in detecting high-risk patients (area under the curve 0.55), and discrimination was only slightly improved when angiographic variables were entered into the model (area under the curve 0.64). Clinical and angiographic characteristics had poor predictive accuracy in identifying patients with untreated high-risk plaques related to future adverse events. This finding highlights the potential value of comprehensive 3-vessel imaging assessment (either invasive or noninvasive) to evaluate plaque phenotype for more accurate risk

  15. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Radionuclide Inventory and Waste Site Selection Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Will E.; Mehta, Sunil

    2017-09-13

    The updated Hanford Site Composite Analysis will provide an all-pathways dose projection to a hypothetical future member of the public from all planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and potential contributions from all other projected end-state sources of radioactive material left at Hanford following site closure. Its primary purpose is to support the decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE O 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management (DOE, 2001), related to managing low-level waste disposal facilities at the Hanford Site.

  16. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  17. Vulnerability analysis of a pressurized aluminum composite vessel against hypervelocity impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hereil Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of high pressure vessels subjected to high velocity impact of space debris is analyzed with the response of pressurized vessels to hypervelocity impact of aluminum sphere. Investigated tanks are CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics overwrapped Al vessels. Explored internal pressure of nitrogen ranges from 1 bar to 300 bar and impact velocity are around 4400 m/s. Data obtained from Xrays radiographies and particle velocity measurements show the evolution of debris cloud and shock wave propagation in pressurized nitrogen. Observation of recovered vessels leads to the damage pattern and to its evolution as a function of the internal pressure. It is shown that the rupture mode is not a bursting mode but rather a catastrophic damage of the external carbon composite part of the vessel.

  18. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  19. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 3: Los Alamos National Laboratory site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Environmental safety and health (ES and H) vulnerabilities are defined as conditions or weaknesses that may lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of the workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. In response to the initiative by the Secretary of Energy, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has performed a self assessment of the ES and H vulnerabilities of plutonium inventories at the laboratory. The objective of this site-specific self assessment is to identify and report ES and H vulnerabilities associated with the storage, handling, and processing of plutonium and maintenance of plutonium-contaminated facilities. This self-assessment of ES and H vulnerabilities and validation by a peer group is not another compliance audit or fault-finding exercise. It has a fact finding mission to develop a database of potential environment, safety, and health vulnerabilities that may lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of the workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public

  20. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  1. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  2. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 1: Rocky Flats site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The most important vulnerability on a frequency basis is that liquids containing plutonium are stored in containers that are being attacked by the solutions. These containers are presently failing on a random basis. The most important vulnerability on a material at risk basis is that solid plutonium is packaged for short-term storage. These conditions are presently degrading the containers, potentially to failure, which allows release of the material in the building. This assessment comprehensively evaluated environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities resulting from the storage and handling of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Plant. The term ES and H vulnerability, for the purpose of this assessment, means any condition, other than diversion of material, that could lead to unnecessary or increased exposure of workers and the public to radiation or to the release of radioactive materials to the environment

  3. Site Response Analysis Using DeepSoil: Case Study of Bangka Site, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswanto, Eko Rudi; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indonesia government declared through Act No. 17 year 2007 on the National Long-Term Development Plant Year 2005-2025 and Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 on the National Energy Policy (Indonesia 2007; Indonesia 2006), that nuclear energy is stated as a part of the national energy system. In order to undertake the above national policy, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, as the promotor for the utilization of nuclear energy will conduct site study, which is a part of infrastructure preparation for NPP construction. Thorough preparation and steps are needed to operate an NPP and it takes between 10 to 15 years from the preliminary study (site selection, financial study, etc.) up to project implementation (manufacturing, construction, commissioning). During project implementation, it is necessary to prepare various documents relevant for permit application such as Safety Evaluation Report for site permit, Preliminary Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report for construction permit. Considering the continuously increasing electricity energy demand, it is necessary to prepare for alternative NPP sites. The safety requirements of NPP's are stringent; amongst the various requirements is the ability to safely shut down in the wake of a possible earthquake. Ground response analysis of a potential site therefore needs to be carried out, parameter that affect the resistance of an NPP to earthquakes such as peak strain profiles is analysed. The objective of this paper is to analyse the ground response of the selected site for a NPP, using The Mw 7.9 in Sikuai Island, West Sumatra on September 12, 2007 as present input motion. This analysis will be carried out using a ground response analysis program, DeepSoil. In addition to this, an attempt was made to define the site specific input motion characteristics of the selected site for use in DeepSoil (DeepSoil 5.0). A site investigation at the WB site was performed primarily on the PS

  4. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 8: Argonne National Laboratory - East and New Brunswick Laboratory site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Plutonium ES ampersand H Vulnerability Assessment Project is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the environmental, safety and health (ES ampersand H) vulnerabilities arising from the Department's storage and handling of Its current plutonium holdings. The term open-quote ES ampersand H vulnerabilitiesclose quotes is defined for the purpose of this project to mean conditions or weaknesses that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The assessment will identify and prioritize ES ampersand H vulnerabilities, and will serve as an information base for identifying corrective actions and options for the safe management of fissile materials. The Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Site Assessment Team (SAT) was formed from Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations Office-Argonne Area Office Personnel, to conduct a self-assessment of the plutonium holdings and any associated ES ampersand H vulnerabilities at the ANL-E site

  5. Combining value of information analysis and ethical argumentation in decisions on participation of vulnerable patients in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilt, Gert J; Grutters, Janneke P C; Maas, Angela H E M; Rolden, Herbert J A

    2018-02-05

    The participation of vulnerable patients in clinical research poses apparent ethical dilemmas. Depending on the nature of the vulnerability, their participation may challenge the ethical principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, or justice. On the other hand, non-participation may preclude the building of a knowledge base that is a prerequisite for defining the optimal clinical management of vulnerable patients. Such clinical uncertainty may also incur substantial economic costs. We present the participation of pre-menopausal women with atrial fibrillation in trials of novel oral anticoagulant drugs as a case study. Due to their non-participation in pivotal trials, it is uncertain whether for them, the risks that are associated with these drugs are outweighed by the advantages compared with conventional treatment. We addressed the question whether research of this new class of drugs in this subgroup would be appropriate from both, an ethical as well an economic perspective. We used the method of specifying norms as a wider framework to resolve the apparent ethical dilemma, while incorporating the question whether research of oral anticoagulants in premenopausal women with atrial fibrillation can be justified on economic grounds. For the latter, the results of a value-of-information analysis were used. Further clinical research on NOACs in premenopausal women with atrial fibrillation can be justified on both, ethical and economic grounds. Addressing apparent ethical dilemmas by invoking a method such as specifying norms can improve the quality of public practical reasoning. As such, the method should also prove valuable to committees that have formally been granted the authority to review trial protocols and proposals for scientific research.

  6. OLEM Center for Program Analysis Site Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes environmental justice-related analyses of population located within a mile of Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action sites. It characterizes...

  7. Security Vulnerability Profiles of NASA Mission Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob P.; Sizemore, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA develops, runs, and maintains software systems for which security is of vital importance. Therefore, it is becoming an imperative to develop secure systems and extend the current software assurance capabilities to cover information assurance and cybersecurity concerns of NASA missions. The results presented in this report are based on the information provided in the issue tracking systems of one ground mission and one flight mission. The extracted data were used to create three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified the software bugs that are security related and classified them in specific security classes. This information was then used to create the security vulnerability profiles (i.e., to determine how, why, where, and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced) and explore the existence of common trends. The main findings of our work include:- Code related security issues dominated both the Ground and Flight mission IVV security issues, with 95 and 92, respectively. Therefore, enforcing secure coding practices and verification and validation focused on coding errors would be cost effective ways to improve mission's security. (Flight mission Developers issues dataset did not contain data in the Issue Category.)- In both the Ground and Flight mission IVV issues datasets, the majority of security issues (i.e., 91 and 85, respectively) were introduced in the Implementation phase. In most cases, the phase in which the issues were found was the same as the phase in which they were introduced. The most security related issues of the Flight mission Developers issues dataset were found during Code Implementation, Build Integration, and Build Verification; the data on the phase in which these issues were introduced were not available for this dataset.- The location of security related issues, as the location of software issues in general, followed the Pareto

  8. Sources of vulnerability to a variable and changing climate among smallholder households in Zimbabwe: A participatory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rurinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis is essential for targeting adaptation options to impacts of climate variability and change, particularly in diverse systems with limited resources such as smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the nature and sources of vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate variability and change, we analysed long term climate data and interviewed farmers individually and in groups in Makoni and Hwedza districts in eastern Zimbabwe. Farmers’ perceptions of changes in climate characteristics matched the recorded data. Total seasonal rainfall has not changed, but variability in the rainfall distribution within seasons has increased. The mean daily minimum temperature increased by 0.2 °C per decade in both Makoni and Hwedza. The mean daily maximum temperature increased by 0.5 °C per decade in Hwedza. The number of days with temperatures >30 °C also increased in Hwedza. Farmers indicated that livestock production was sensitive to drought due to lack of feed, affecting resource-endowed farmers, who own relatively large herds of cattle. Crop production was more sensitive to increased rainfall variability, largely affecting farmers with intermediate resource endowment. Availability of wild fruits and social safety nets were affected directly and indirectly by extreme temperatures and increased rainfall variability, impacting on the livelihoods of resource-constrained farmers. There was no evidence of a simple one-to-one relationship between vulnerability and farmer resource endowment, suggesting that vulnerability to climate variability and change is complex and not simply related to assets. Alongside climate variability and change, farmers were also faced with biophysical and socioeconomic challenges such as lack of fertilizers, and these problems had strong interactions with adaptation options to climate change. Diversifying crops and cultivars, staggering planting date and managing soil fertility were

  9. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy's Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff's concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE's SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC's specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE's program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director's Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff's concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE's program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC's responsibilities with respect to DOE's SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 11: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was founded in 1931 on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. The laboratory evolved from accelerator development and related nuclear physics programs to include energy production, atomic imaging, research medicine, and life sciences. The LBL research with actinide elements, including plutonium, focuses principally to develop methods to dispose of nuclear wastes. Also, LBL uses sources of plutonium to calibrate neutron detectors used at the laboratory. All radiological work at LBL is governed by Publication 3000. In accordance with the directive of Energy Secretary O'Leary open-quote Department of Energy Plutonium ES ampersand H Vulnerability Assessment: Project Plan,close-quote April 25, 19941. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has conducted a site assessment of the SNL/NM site's plutonium environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) vulnerabilities associated with plutonium and other transuranic material. The results are presented in this report

  12. Vulnerable Hunter

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Asha Begum; Y.VishnuPriya; V.ManoranjanBabu; ,O.Srinivasu

    2016-01-01

    This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps c...

  13. Vulnerability of family livestock farming on the Livramento-Rivera border of Brazil and Uruguay: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Waquil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social, ecological, and economic sciences have all shown interest in studying the social group called family livestock farmers. The main characteristic of this group, which is present in the Pampa biome in Southern Brazil and Uruguay, is beef cattle production based on family work on small lands, expressing an autonomous way of life which is, however, highly dependent on strong relations with the physical environment and marked by risk aversion. In this study we made a comparative analysis of vulnerability factors of family livestock farming in Brazil and Uruguay. We also compared these social actors’ perceptions of risks, and the strategies built to mitigate threats. A survey was thus carried out and included 16 family livestock farmers’ interviews, eight in each country,near the cities of Santana do Livramento (Brazil and Rivera (Uruguay. Although these cities are next to each other on each side of the border and thus present environmental similarities, we chose them because family farming was not subjected to the same political and economic conditions which might (or might not have influenced farmers’ perceptions and reactions. Results showed that livestock farmers were mainly affected by vulnerabilities arising from external elements such as the climate (e.g. droughts or harsh winters, but also from internal elements (lack of land access and successors. From the family livestock farmers’ standpoint, the highest risks to their production systems and social system reproduction were more related to climate than to price and market variations.

  14. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  15. Detecting C Program Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Ermakov; Natalia, Kushik

    2011-01-01

    C/C++ language is widely used for developing tools in various applications, in particular, software tools for critical systems are often written in C language. Therefore, the security of such software should be thoroughly tested, i.e., the absence of vulnerabilities has to be confirmed. When detecting C program vulnerabilities static source code analysis can be used. In this paper, we present a short survey of existing software tools for such analysis and show that for some kinds of C code vu...

  16. Shared vision, shared vulnerability: A content analysis of corporate social responsibility information on tobacco industry websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco companies rely on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to improve their public image and advance their political objectives, which include thwarting or undermining tobacco control policies. For these reasons, implementation guidelines for the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend curtailing or prohibiting tobacco industry CSR. To understand how and where major tobacco companies focus their CSR resources, we explored CSR-related content on 4 US and 4 multinational tobacco company websites in February 2014. The websites described a range of CSR-related activities, many common across all companies, and no programs were unique to a particular company. The websites mentioned CSR activities in 58 countries, representing nearly every region of the world. Tobacco companies appear to have a shared vision about what constitutes CSR, due perhaps to shared vulnerabilities. Most countries that host tobacco company CSR programs are parties to the FCTC, highlighting the need for full implementation of the treaty, and for funding to monitor CSR activity, replace industry philanthropy, and enforce existing bans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractal simulation of urbanization for the analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Anne; Sensier, Antoine; Tannier, Cécile; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since 50 years, mountain areas are affected by important land cover/use changes characterized by the decrease of pastoral activities, reforestation and urbanization with the development of tourism activities and infrastructures. These natural and anthropogenic transformations have an impact on the socio-economic activities but also on the exposure of the communities to natural hazards. In the context of the ANR Project SAMCO which aims at enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks, the objective of this research was to help to determine where to locate new residential developments for different scenarios of land cover/use (based on the Prelude European Project) for the years 2030 and 2050. The Planning Support System (PSS), called MUP-City, based on a fractal multi-scale modeling approach is used because it allows taking into account local accessibility to some urban and rural amenities (Tannier et al., 2012). For this research, an experiment is performed on a mountain area in the French Alps (Barcelonnette Basin) to generate three scenarios of urban development with MUP-City at the scale of 1:10:000. The results are assessed by comparing the localization of residential developments with urban areas predicted by land cover and land use scenarios generated by cellular automata modelling (LCM and Dyna-clue) (Puissant et al., 2015). Based on these scenarios, the evolution of vulnerability is estimated.

  18. Cointegration analysis of vulnerability index and standardised precipitation index in Mafeteng district, Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M. Hlalele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the high poverty levels in Africa, with most countries’ economy and populations’ livelihood dependent on rain-fed agriculture, land degradation among other environmental hazards has proven to be a major threat to economic growth and food insecurity, respectively. Drought, which is on the increase at the global level and said to create over 78% of other hazards, has aggravated land degradation. Dry conditions lessen soil particles cohesion force, thereby increasing susceptibility of such soils to be lost by wind and water. The current study aimed at estimating land degradation from drought hazard index, standardised precipitation index (SPI over the drought declared district of Mafeteng Lesotho. Data were provided by Lesotho Meteorological Services for a period of 30 years (1984–2014. All missing values that existed in the collected precipitation data were filled with average values of the months with data. The computation of SPI was performed by using DrinC software in SPI-3 and SPI-Annual time step. The results revealed a constant condition of land degradation vulnerability over a 30-year period, implying a continuous loss of soil fertility, agricultural gross domestic product (GDP, water and bio-energy, malnutrition and increased poverty levels.

  19. Site-specific Probabilistic Analysis of DCGLs Using RESRAD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongju; Yoon, Suk Bon; Sohn, Wook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In general, DCGLs can be conservative (screening DCGL) if they do not take into account site specific factors. Use of such conservative DCGLs can lead to additional remediation that would not be required if the effort was made to develop site-specific DCGLs. Therefore, the objective of this work is to provide an example on the use of the RESRAD 6.0 probabilistic (site-specific) dose analysis to compare with the screening DCGL. Site release regulations state that a site will be considered acceptable for unrestricted use if the residual radioactivity that is distinguishable from background radiation results in a Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) to an average member of the critical group of less than the site release criteria, for example 0.25 mSv per year in U.S. Utilities use computer dose modeling codes to establish an acceptable level of contamination, the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) that will meet this regulatory limit. Since the DCGL value is the principal measure of residual radioactivity, it is critical to understand the technical basis of these dose modeling codes. The objective this work was to provide example on nuclear power plant decommissioning dose analysis in a probabilistic analysis framework. The focus was on the demonstration of regulatory compliance for surface soil contamination using the RESRAD 6.0 code. Both the screening and site-specific probabilistic dose analysis methodologies were examined. Example analyses performed with the screening probabilistic dose analysis confirmed the conservatism of the NRC screening values and indicated the effectiveness of probabilistic dose analysis in reducing the conservatism in DCGL derivation.

  20. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using a concentration-area fractal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modelling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modelling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi and Igarashi (1970, 1971) classification results in the Meybod city. The resulting categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  1. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using concentration-area fractal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, Central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modeling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modeling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi's classification results in the Meybod city. The resulted categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  2. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.; Hart, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We will present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48

  3. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. (author)

  4. Methods for the analysis and remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Berardi, S.; Marino, A.; Paglietti, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, in recent years, the number of contaminated sites has multiplied disproportionately. In essence, contamination is caused by accidental spills or intentional discharge of pollutants into the soils or waters from industrial activities, or non-controlled deposits of urban and/or industrial waste, mostly part toxic and harmful. Contaminated sites clearly pose risks to human health and the environment; hence the need to remediate these sites. The remediation of soil and water and the restoration of degraded areas are complex operations requiring specific technical and scientific know-how, including knowledge of the methodologies and tools required to tackle problems arising during the different phases of the remediation process. These include, in particular: - health and environmental risk assessment procedures for the quantification of risks to human health (general population and workers) and the environment from a contaminated site; - remote sensing and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which are a fundamentally important IT support for each phase of planning and management of remediation interventions; - criteria for the management of sites contaminated by asbestos, a highly carcinogenic and therefore hazardous substance that was widely used in the past due to its particular mechanical and thermal characteristics; - analysis of the issues relating to waste management in contaminated sites; - relationship between safety procedures for workers and the general population. Identification of the best available techniques for an efficient, integrated management of contaminated sites, which will also take into account the health protection of workers and of the general population living near such sites

  5. Case-crossover analysis of heat-coded deaths and vulnerable subpopulations: Oklahoma, 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brianna F.; Brooke Anderson, G.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Brown, Sheryll; Bradley, Kristy K.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2017-11-01

    The extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths, for which heat is the primary cause of death, remains largely unknown. We explored the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and potential interactions with various demographic and environmental factors. A total of 335 heat-coded deaths that occurred in Oklahoma from 1990 through 2011 were identified using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and narrative descriptions. Conditional logistic regression models examined the association between temperature and heat index on heat-coded deaths. Interaction by demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, living alone, outdoor/heavy labor occupations) and environmental factors (ozone, PM10, PM2.5) was also explored. Temperatures ≥99 °F (the median value) were associated with approximately five times higher odds of a heat-coded death as compared to temperatures effect estimates were attenuated when exposure to heat was characterized by heat index. The interaction results suggest that effect of temperature on heat-coded deaths may depend on sex and occupation. For example, the odds of a heat-coded death among outdoor/heavy labor workers exposed to temperatures ≥99 °F was greater than expected based on the sum of the individual effects (observed OR = 14.0, 95% CI 2.7, 72.0; expected OR = 4.1 [2.8 + 2.3-1.0]). Our results highlight the extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and emphasize the need for a comprehensive, multisource definition of heat-coded deaths. Furthermore, based on the interaction results, we recommend that states implement or expand heat safety programs to protect vulnerable subpopulations, such as outdoor workers.

  6. Analysis of risk reduction measures applied to shared essential service water systems at multi-unit sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes a study performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the resolution of NRC Generic Issue 130. GI-130 is concerned with the potential core damage vulnerability resulting from failure of the emergency service water (ESW) system in selected multiplant units. These multiplant units are all twin pressurized water reactor designs that have only two ESW pumps per unit (one per train) backed up by a unit crosstie capability. This generic issue applies to seven US sites (14 plants). The study established and analyzed the core damage vulnerability and identified potential improvements for the ESW system. It obtained generic estimates of the risk reduction potential and cost effectiveness of each potential improvement. The analysis also investigated the cost/benefit aspects of selected combinations of potential improvements. 4 figs., 62 tabs

  7. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  8. Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate.

  9. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to

  10. Application of systems analysis techniques to vulnerability studies of complex installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Application of reliability and risk analysis methods (particularly fault trees) to failure analysis of systems in hostile manmade environments is discussed. Methods for constructing, analyzing, and interpreting the fault trees, graphs, and diagrams are described. The application of fault-trees, directed graphs, and functional diagrams to problems in sabotage, survivability, and information protection is discussed in general terms. Special problems encountered in this type of analysis are discussed, and future research directions are considered

  11. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  12. The vulnerability of electric equipment to carbon fibers of mixed lengths: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    The susceptibility of a stereo amplifier to damage from a spectrum of lengths of graphite fibers was calculated. A simple analysis was developed by which such calculations can be based on test results with fibers of uniform lengths. A statistical analysis was applied for the conversation of data for various logical failure criteria.

  13. Information Technology Systems Vulnerabilities Detecting based on Network’s Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes traffic analysis procedure that is very effective and sometimes single countermeasure on counteracting of network attacks and information leakage channels (hidden control channels. Traffic analysis envisages certain measures to control the security of the Russian Federation information technology infrastructure and, most importantly, to establish the reasons of the occurred and predictable computer incidents.

  14. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface

  15. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  16. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  17. Analysis of a photovoltaic dwelling in remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliot, P

    1982-01-01

    This work is a design analysis of autonomous or quasi-autonomous photovolaic system suited to dwellings on remote sites in France; this study allowed to establish ''curves'' of sizing related to several performance, from which it is possible to estimate costs (under many conditions of house occupancy, of climates). The interest of a back-up generating sit for the permanent resident is studied. Then, an adaptation and an improvement of existing analysis tools are looked.

  18. FUZZY DECISION ANALYSIS FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators is developed. This is a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is capable ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumula...

  19. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  20. Mapping barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory for Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON), a multi-site implementation intervention in acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Marquez, Christine; Almaawiy, Ummukulthum; Chan, Wai-Hin; D'Souza, Jennifer; Liu, Barbara; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-10-30

    As evidence-informed implementation interventions spread, they need to be tailored to address the unique needs of each setting, and this process should be well documented to facilitate replication. To facilitate the spread of the Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON) intervention, the aim of the current study is to develop a mapping guide that links identified barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory. Focus groups were conducted with front line health-care professionals to identify perceived barriers to implementation of an early mobilization intervention targeted to hospitalized older adults. Participating units then used or adapted intervention activities from an existing menu or developed new activities to facilitate early mobilization. A thematic analysis was performed on the focus group data, emphasizing concepts related to barriers to behaviour change. A behaviour change theory, the 'capability, opportunity, motivation-behaviour (COM-B) system', was used as a taxonomy to map the identified barriers to their root causes. We also mapped the behaviour constructs and intervention activities to overcome these. A total of 46 focus groups were conducted across 26 hospital inpatient units in Ontario, Canada, with 261 participants. The barriers were conceptualized at three levels: health-care provider (HCP), patient, and unit. Commonly mentioned barriers were time constraints and workload (HCP), patient clinical acuity and their perceived 'sick role' (patient), and lack of proper equipment and human resources (unit level). Thirty intervention activities to facilitate early mobilization of older adults were implemented across hospitals; examples of unit-developed intervention activities include the 'mobility clock' communication tool and the use of staff champions. A mapping guide was created with barriers and intervention activities matched though the lens of the COM-B system. We used a systematic approach to develop a guide

  1. Rainfall frequency analysis for ungauged sites using satellite precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gado, Tamer A.; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of extreme rainfall events and their impacts on hydrologic systems and society are critical considerations in the design and management of a large number of water resources projects. As precipitation records are often limited or unavailable at many sites, it is essential to develop better methods for regional estimation of extreme rainfall at these partially-gauged or ungauged sites. In this study, an innovative method for regional rainfall frequency analysis for ungauged sites is presented. The new method (hereafter, this is called the RRFA-S) is based on corrected annual maximum series obtained from a satellite precipitation product (e.g., PERSIANN-CDR). The probability matching method (PMM) is used here for bias correction to match the CDF of satellite-based precipitation data with the gauged data. The RRFA-S method was assessed through a comparative study with the traditional index flood method using the available annual maximum series of daily rainfall in two different regions in USA (11 sites in Colorado and 18 sites in California). The leave-one-out cross-validation technique was used to represent the ungauged site condition. Results of this numerical application have found that the quantile estimates obtained from the new approach are more accurate and more robust than those given by the traditional index flood method.

  2. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.

  3. Soft error evaluation and vulnerability analysis in Xilinx Zynq-7010 system-on chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xuecheng; He, Chaohui; Liu, Shuhuan, E-mail: liushuhuan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yonghong; Xiong, Ceng; Tan, Pengkang

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-induced soft errors are an increasingly important threat to the reliability of modern electronic systems. In order to evaluate system-on chip's reliability and soft error, the fault tree analysis method was used in this work. The system fault tree was constructed based on Xilinx Zynq-7010 All Programmable SoC. Moreover, the soft error rates of different components in Zynq-7010 SoC were tested by americium-241 alpha radiation source. Furthermore, some parameters that used to evaluate the system's reliability and safety were calculated using Isograph Reliability Workbench 11.0, such as failure rate, unavailability and mean time to failure (MTTF). According to fault tree analysis for system-on chip, the critical blocks and system reliability were evaluated through the qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  4. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  5. Wildland fire risk and social vulnerability in the Southeastern United States: An exploratory spatial data analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Neelam C. Poudyal; Scott Goodrick; J. M. Bowker; Sparkle L Malone; Jianbang. Gan

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern U.S. is one of the more wildland fire prone areas of the country and also contains some of the poorest or most socially vulnerable rural communities. Our project addresses wildland fire risk in this part of the U.S and its intersection with social vulnerability. We examine spatial association between high wildland fire prone areas which also rank high...

  6. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  7. Fuzzy Decision Analysis for Integrated Environmental Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem T. Tran; C. Gregory Knight; Robert V. O' Neill; Elizabeth R. Smith; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    2002-01-01

    A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators was developed. This was a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method was capable of ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land cover, population, roads, streams,...

  8. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Assessing Chemical Vulnerability Potential in REDOX and U Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis instruction is to provide the sampling and analytical approach to be used to determine if the constituents that are present pose a threat to human health or the environment. A secondary purpose of this sampling effort is to gather analytical data that will be used to characterize the contents of each tank for waste characterization/disposal

  9. A threat-vulnerability based risk analysis model for cyber physical system security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ledwaba, Lehlogonolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available model. An analysis of the Natanz system shows that, with an actual case security-risk score at Mitigation level 5, the infested facilities barely avoided a situation worse than the one which occurred. The paper concludes with a discussion on the need...

  10. Revised analysis of in-migrating workers during site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Deaf Smith Environmental Assessment's analysis of in-migrating workers and community service impacts was predicated on the assumption that a peak of approximately 480 workers would be needed on location to conduct site characterization activities. This analysis assumed that DOE's prime contractor(s) would have a limited staff in the area; the majority of the workers would be on site for the construction of the exploratory shaft and to conduct geologic and environmental studies. Since the time when the Environmental Assessment was prepared, the prime contractors [Battelle-ISSC and the Technical Field Service Contractor (TFSC)] were requested to move their offices to the site area. Therefore, many more administrative and technical workers would be expected to relocate in the Deaf Smith County regions. A change in the expected number of in-migrants could also change the expected nature of community service impacts. It is the purpose of this analysis to evaluate the site characterization workforce and thresholds for local community services. 22 refs., 24 tabs

  11. Multi-criteria analysis for the detection of the most critical European UNESCO Heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valagussa, Andrea; Frattini, Paolo; Berta, Nadia; Spizzichino, Daniele; Leoni, Gabriele; Margottini, Claudio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    A GIS-based multi-criteria analysis has been implemented to identify and to rank the most critical UNESCO Heritage sites at the European scale in the context of PROTHEGO JPI-Project. Two multi-criteria methods have been tested and applied to more than 300 European UNESCO Sites. First, the Analytic Hierarchy Procedure (AHP) was applied to the data of the UNESCO Periodic Report, in relation to 13 natural hazards that have affected or can potentially affect the Heritage sites. According to these reports, 22% of sites are without any documented hazard and 70% of the sites have at least one hazard affecting the site. The most important hazards on the European country are: fire (wildfire), storm, flooding, earthquake and erosion. For each UNESCO site, the potential risk was calculated as a weighed sum of the hazards that affect the site. The weighs of the 13 hazards were obtained by AHP procedure, which is a technique for multi-attribute decision making that enables the decomposition of a problem into hierarchy, based on the opinion of different experts about the dominance of risks. The weights are obtained by rescaling between 0 and 1 the eigenvectors relative to the maximum eigenvalue for the matrix of the coefficients. The internal coherence of the expert's attributions is defined through the calculation of the consistency ratio (Saaty, 1990). The result of the AHP method consists in a map of the UNESCO sites ranked according to the potential risk, where the site most at risk results to be the Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord in Norway. However, the quality of these results lies in the reliability of the Period Reports, which are produced by different experts with unknown level of scientific background. To test the reliability of these results, a comparison of the information of the periodic reports with available high-quality datasets (earthquake, volcano and landslide) at the Italian scale has been performed. Sites properly classified by the Period Reports range from

  12. Accidental falls in hospitalized children: an analysis of the vulnerabilities linked to the presence of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, A; Sobrero, M; Sperlinga, L; Tibaldi, L; Sasso, L

    2010-06-01

    This study stemmed from the data gathered by a research conducted by the coordinator of the Department of Healthcare Services and a group of nurses involved in a research on accidental falls in hospitalized children at the "G. Gaslini" Children's Hospital and Scientific Research Institute in Genoa, Italy. The first retrospective study evaluated the accidental falls in hospitalized children referred to the three-year period 2003-2006, while the second perspective study, referred to the trimester March-May 2007, found that the main cause of falls in children was parent's distraction. The method adopted in the first phase of our study was a proactive risk analysis (The Basics of Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), identified in the first place by the VA National Centre for Patient Safety and applied to the "Child and parent hospital admission process". This proactive risk analysis has proven to be very effective in preventing the risk of accidental falls in hospitalized children through effective communication and educational interventions. The second phase of our study consisted of two Focus Groups for accidental traumatic events. The analysis of the results of the study showed how effective communication is instrumental, not only to have a better awareness of the children and their parents during their stay in hospital, but also to implement educational sessions on prevention to reduce the risk of accidental traumatic events. The present study contributes to improve safety and the quality of care by motivating nurses to keep their attention high on falls in hospitalized children, by monitoring and the development of new risk assessment tools.

  13. RCRA groundwater data analysis protocol for the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Jackson, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring program currently involves site-specific monitoring of 20 facilities on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The RCRA groundwater monitoring program has collected abundant data on groundwater quality. These data are used to assess the impact of a facility on groundwater quality or whether remediation efforts under RCRA corrective action programs are effective. Both evaluations rely on statistical analysis of groundwater monitoring data. The need for information on groundwater quality by regulators and environmental managers makes statistical analysis of monitoring data an important part of RCRA groundwater monitoring programs. The complexity of groundwater monitoring programs and variabilities (spatial, temporal, and analytical) exhibited in groundwater quality variables indicate the need for a data analysis protocol to guide statistical analysis. A data analysis protocol was developed from the perspective of addressing regulatory requirements, data quality, and management information needs. This data analysis protocol contains four elements: data handling methods; graphical evaluation techniques; statistical tests for trend, central tendency, and excursion analysis; and reporting procedures for presenting results to users

  14. Fast dynamics perturbation analysis for prediction of protein functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Judith D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a fast version of the dynamics perturbation analysis (DPA algorithm to predict functional sites in protein structures. The original DPA algorithm finds regions in proteins where interactions cause a large change in the protein conformational distribution, as measured using the relative entropy Dx. Such regions are associated with functional sites. Results The Fast DPA algorithm, which accelerates DPA calculations, is motivated by an empirical observation that Dx in a normal-modes model is highly correlated with an entropic term that only depends on the eigenvalues of the normal modes. The eigenvalues are accurately estimated using first-order perturbation theory, resulting in a N-fold reduction in the overall computational requirements of the algorithm, where N is the number of residues in the protein. The performance of the original and Fast DPA algorithms was compared using protein structures from a standard small-molecule docking test set. For nominal implementations of each algorithm, top-ranked Fast DPA predictions overlapped the true binding site 94% of the time, compared to 87% of the time for original DPA. In addition, per-protein recall statistics (fraction of binding-site residues that are among predicted residues were slightly better for Fast DPA. On the other hand, per-protein precision statistics (fraction of predicted residues that are among binding-site residues were slightly better using original DPA. Overall, the performance of Fast DPA in predicting ligand-binding-site residues was comparable to that of the original DPA algorithm. Conclusion Compared to the original DPA algorithm, the decreased run time with comparable performance makes Fast DPA well-suited for implementation on a web server and for high-throughput analysis.

  15. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 10: Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    On March 15, 1994, Secretary O'Leary directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health to conduct an environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) vulnerability study of plutonium at DOE sites. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories'/New Mexico (SNL/NM) response to that request. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multi-program laboratory operated for United States Department of Energy(DOE) by Martin Marietta Corporation. The primary mission of Sandia is research and development of nuclear weapons systems for concept to retirement. The laboratory also has extensive programs in nuclear reactor safety, nuclear safeguards, energy research, and microelectronics. The facilities addressed in the SNL/NM Site Assessment include the Hot Cell Facility (HCF), the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), and dedicated on-site nuclear material storage facilities. Also included in the assessment were sealed radiation sources that contain plutonium

  16. Governing Geoengineering Research: A Political and Technical Vulnerability Analysis of Potential Near-Term Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    political strategy (McCann, Marcot, and Ellis, 2006; Jackman , 2004; Marcot et al., 2001; Cain, 2001). However, using such networks does impose some...2009, pp. 635–638. Jackman , Simon, “Bayesian Analysis for Political Research,” Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 7, June 2004, pp. 483–505...Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes , Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin

  17. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  18. A systems analysis approach to nuclear facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, J.G.; Avenhaus, R.; Linnerooth, J.; Pahner, P.D.; Otway, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to demonstrate an application of the techniques of systems analysis, which have been successful in solving a variety of problems, to nuclear facility siting. Within the framework of an overall regional land-use plan, a methodology for establishing the acceptability of a combination of site and facility is discussed. The consequences (e.g. the energy produced, thermal and chemical discharges, radioactive releases, aeshetic values, etc.) of the site-facility combination are identified and compared with formalized criteria in order to ensure 'legal acceptability'. Failure of any consequences to satisfy standard requirements results in a feedback channel which works to effect design changes in the facility. When 'legal acceptability' has been assured, the project enters the public sector for consideration. The responses of individuals and of various interested groups to the external attributes of the nuclear facility gradually emerge. The criteria by which interest groups judge technological advances reflect both their rational assessment and unconscious motivations. This process operates on individual, group, societal and international levels and may result in two basic feedback loops: one which might act to change regulatory criteria; the other which might influence facility design or site selection. Such reactions and responses on these levels result in a continuing process of confrontation, collaborative interchange and possible resolution in the direction of an acceptable solution. Finally, a Paretian approach to optimizing the site-facility combination is presented for the case where there are several possible combinations of site and facility. A hypothetical example of the latter is given, based upon typical preference functions determined for four interest groups. The research effort of the IIASA Energy Systems Project and the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project in the area of nuclear siting is summarized. (author)

  19. Modular risk analysis for assessing multiple waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Nazarali, A.

    1994-06-01

    Human-health impacts, especially to the surrounding public, are extremely difficult to assess at installations that contain multiple waste sites and a variety of mixed-waste constituents (e.g., organic, inorganic, and radioactive). These assessments must address different constituents, multiple waste sites, multiple release patterns, different transport pathways (i.e., groundwater, surface water, air, and overland soil), different receptor types and locations, various times of interest, population distributions, land-use patterns, baseline assessments, a variety of exposure scenarios, etc. Although the process is complex, two of the most important difficulties to overcome are associated with (1) establishing an approach that allows for modifying the source term, transport, or exposure component as an individual module without having to re-evaluate the entire installation-wide assessment (i.e., all modules simultaneously), and (2) displaying and communicating the results in an understandable and useable maimer to interested parties. An integrated, physics-based, compartmentalized approach, which is coupled to a Geographical Information System (GIS), captures the regional health impacts associated with multiple waste sites (e.g., hundreds to thousands of waste sites) at locations within and surrounding the installation. Utilizing a modular/GIS-based approach overcomes difficulties in (1) analyzing a wide variety of scenarios for multiple waste sites, and (2) communicating results from a complex human-health-impact analysis by capturing the essence of the assessment in a relatively elegant manner, so the meaning of the results can be quickly conveyed to all who review them

  20. Analysis of correlations between sites in models of protein sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Lapedes, A.; Liu, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    A criterion based on conditional probabilities, related to the concept of algorithmic distance, is used to detect correlated mutations at noncontiguous sites on sequences. We apply this criterion to the problem of analyzing correlations between sites in protein sequences; however, the analysis applies generally to networks of interacting sites with discrete states at each site. Elementary models, where explicit results can be derived easily, are introduced. The number of states per site considered ranges from 2, illustrating the relation to familiar classical spin systems, to 20 states, suitable for representing amino acids. Numerical simulations show that the criterion remains valid even when the genetic history of the data samples (e.g., protein sequences), as represented by a phylogenetic tree, introduces nonindependence between samples. Statistical fluctuations due to finite sampling are also investigated and do not invalidate the criterion. A subsidiary result is found: The more homogeneous a population, the more easily its average properties can drift from the properties of its ancestor. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. A spatial analysis of population dynamics and climate change in Africa: potential vulnerability hot spots emerge where precipitation declines and demographic pressures coincide

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carr, David; Pricope, Narcisa G.; Aukema, Juliann E.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrative measure of exposure and sensitivity components of vulnerability to climatic and demographic change for the African continent in order to identify “hot spots” of high potential population vulnerability. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial clustering analyses reveal statistically significant locations of spatio-temporal precipitation decline coinciding with high population density and increase. Statistically significant areas are evident, particularly across central, southern, and eastern Africa. The highly populated Lake Victoria basin emerges as a particularly salient hot spot. People located in the regions highlighted in this analysis suffer exceptionally high exposure to negative climate change impacts (as populations increase on lands with decreasing rainfall). Results may help inform further hot spot mapping and related research on demographic vulnerabilities to climate change. Results may also inform more suitable geographical targeting of policy interventions across the continent.

  2. Development of damage control training scenarios of naval ships based on simplified vulnerability analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ki Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing interest in damage control training for the naval ships and their organizations, expectations for a new concept of training program have also increased. The existing training programs and its concept focus on training crew to be more proficient and skilled so that they can respond better to damage situations, i.e., fires and flooding. This paper suggests a development procedure of damage control training scenarios using the survivability analysis results as a new concept of damage control training programs employing advanced systems such as damage control console, automation system, and kill cards. This approach could help the decision maker not only enhance his or her capability but also improve the reacting capability of crew members for complex situations induced by a weapon hit.

  3. Use of failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis to compare the vulnerabilities of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Edoardo; Rosati, Ubaldo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Avanzini, Stefano; Pio, Luca; Ghezzi, Michele; Jasonni, Vincenzo; Mattioli, Girolamo

    2015-06-01

    To measure the feasibility of using FMECA applied to the surgery and then compare the vulnerabilities of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy by using FMECA. The FMECA study was performed on each single selected phase of appendectomy and on complication-related data during the period January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. The risk analysis phase was completed by evaluation of the criticality index (CI) of each appendectomy-related failure mode (FM). The CI is calculated by multiplying the estimated frequency of occurrence (O) of the FM, by the expected severity of the injury to the patient (S), and the detectability (D) of the FM. In the first year of analysis (2009), 177 appendectomies were performed, 110 open and 67 laparoscopic. Eleven adverse events were related to the open appendectomy: 1 bleeding (CI: 8) and 10 postoperative infections (CI: 32). Three adverse events related to the laparoscopic approach were recorded: 1 postoperative infection (CI: 8) and 2 incorrect extractions of the appendix through the umbilical port (CI: 6). In the second year of analysis (2010), 158 appendectomies were performed, 69 open and 89 laparoscopic. Four adverse events were related to the open appendectomy: 1 incorrect management of the histological specimen (CI: 2), 1 dehiscence of the surgical wound (CI: 6), and 2 infections (CI: 6). No adverse events were recorded in laparoscopic approach. FMECA helped the staff compare the 2 approaches through an accurate step-by-step analysis, highlighting that laparoscopic appendectomy is feasible and safe, associated with a lower incidence of infection and other complications, reduced length of hospital stay, and an apparent lower procedure-related risk.

  4. The LivePhoto Physics videos and video analysis site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David

    2009-09-01

    The LivePhoto site is similar to an archive of short films for video analysis. Some videos have Flash tools for analyzing the video embedded in the movie. Most of the videos address mechanics topics with titles like Rolling Pencil (check this one out for pedagogy and content knowledge—nicely done!), Juggler, Yo-yo, Puck and Bar (this one is an inelastic collision with rotation), but there are a few titles in other areas (E&M, waves, thermo, etc.).

  5. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  6. Supply Chain Vulnerability Analysis Using Scenario-Based Input-Output Modeling: Application to Port Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Santos, Joost R

    2016-05-01

    Disruptive events such as natural disasters, loss or reduction of resources, work stoppages, and emergent conditions have potential to propagate economic losses across trade networks. In particular, disruptions to the operation of container port activity can be detrimental for international trade and commerce. Risk assessment should anticipate the impact of port operation disruptions with consideration of how priorities change due to uncertain scenarios and guide investments that are effective and feasible for implementation. Priorities for protective measures and continuity of operations planning must consider the economic impact of such disruptions across a variety of scenarios. This article introduces new performance metrics to characterize resiliency in interdependency modeling and also integrates scenario-based methods to measure economic sensitivity to sudden-onset disruptions. The methods will be demonstrated on a U.S. port responsible for handling $36.1 billion of cargo annually. The methods will be useful to port management, private industry supply chain planning, and transportation infrastructure management. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Foster carer experience in Spain: Analysis of the vulnerabilities of a permanent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, Mónica; Del Valle, Jorge F

    2016-05-01

    The voice of foster families is a valuable tool in the development and improvement of foster family services. Regularly evaluating the satisfaction of foster carers can facilitate the early identification of a range of problems that might pose a risk to the placement. This article reports the experience of 200 Spanish foster families (kinship and non-kinship) with foster services in relation to motivation for becoming foster carers, sources of stress and reward, satisfaction with the services and needs. Semi-structured interviews were performed. The aims of the research are principally of a descriptive character, so each group of variables was examined using frequency analysis. The foster carers interviewed demonstrated a high degree of satisfaction with the foster programs, although some areas seem more problematic, such as financial compensation, information provided about the fostered child, contact with the birth family and the sensitivity of professionals. This study reveals several differences with regard to international literature, that are related to particularities of the Spanish child care system. The results may be extremely useful for the implementation of policy changes which could contribute to raised levels of satisfaction for the foster carers, and increased effectiveness of the programs.

  8. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  9. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  10. Investigation of atrial vulnerability by analysis of the sinus node EG from atrial fibrillation models using a phase synchronization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Zhong; Yang, Cuiwei; Shao, Jun; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2012-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) can result in life-threatening arrhythmia, and a clinically convenient means for detecting vulnerability remains elusive. We investigated atrial vulnerability by analyzing the sinus electrogram (EG) from AF animal models using a phase synchronization method. Using acetylcholine (ACh)-induced acute canine AF models (n= 4), a total of 128 electrical leads were attached to the surface of the anterior and posterior atria, and the pulmonary veins to form an electrocardiological mapping system. ACh was injected at varying concentrations with ladder-type adjustments. Sinus EGs and induced AF EGs that pertain to specific ACh concentrations were recorded.We hypothesize that the atrial vulnerability may be correlated with the Shannon entropy (SE) of the phase difference matrix that is extracted from the sinus EG. Our research suggests that the combination of SE with the synchronization method enables the sinus node EG to be analyzed and used to estimate atrial vulnerability.

  11. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg-1 and 8 μg kg-1, respectively.

  12. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  13. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  14. The Future of Risk Analysis: Operationalizing Living Vulnerability Assessments from the Cloud to the Street (and Back)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Schwarz, B.; Kuhn, C.; Pandey, B.; Schank, C.; Sullivan, J.; Mahtta, R.; Hammet, L.

    2016-12-01

    21 million people are exposed to flooding every year, and that number is expected to more than double by 2030 due to climate, land use, and demographic change. Cloud to Street, a mission driven science organization, is working to make big and real time data more meaningful to understand both biophysical and social vulnerability to flooding in this changing world. This talk will showcase the science and practice we have built of integrated social and biophysical flood vulnerability assessments based on our work in Uttarakhand, India and Senegal, in conjunction with nonprofits and development banks. We will show developments of our global historical flood database, detected from MODIS and Landsat satellites, used to power machine learning flood exposure models in Google Earth Engine's API. Demonstrating the approach, we will also showcase new approaches in social vulnerability science, from developing data-driven social vulnerability indices in India, to deriving predictive models that explain the social conditions that lead to disproportionate flood damage and fatality in the US. While this talk will draw on examples of completed vulnerability assessments, we will also discuss the possible future for place-based "living" flood vulnerability assessments that are updated each time satellites circle the earth or people add crowd-sourced observations about flood events and social conditions.

  15. Value of Information Analysis Project Gnome Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, Greg; Chapman, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The Project Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground nuclear detonation in 1961 and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test is recognized as having greater radionuclide migration potential than the nuclear test because the tracer test radionuclides (tritium, 90Sr, 131I, and 137Cs) are in direct contact with the Culebra Dolomite aquifer, whereas the nuclear test is within a bedded salt formation. The tracer test is the topic here. Recognizing previous analyses of the fate of the Gnome tracer test contaminants (Pohll and Pohlmann, 1996; Pohlmann and Andricevic, 1994), and the existence of a large body of relevant investigations and analyses associated with the nearby Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site (summarized in US DOE, 2009), the Gnome Site Characterization Work Plan (U.S. DOE, 2002) called for a Data Decision Analysis to determine whether or not additional characterization data are needed prior to evaluating existing subsurface intrusion restrictions and determining long-term monitoring for the tracer test. Specifically, the Work Plan called for the analysis to weigh the potential reduction in uncertainty from additional data collection against the cost of such field efforts.

  16. LOG FILE ANALYSIS AND CREATION OF MORE INTELLIGENT WEB SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Šimunić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To enable successful performance of any company or business system, both inthe world and in the Republic of Croatia, among many problems relating to its operationsand particularly to maximum utilization and efficiency of the Internet as a media forrunning business (especially in terms of marketing, they should make the best possible useof the present-day global trends and advantages of sophisticated technologies andapproaches to running a business. Bearing in mind the fact of daily increasing competitionand more demanding market, this paper addresses certain scientific and practicalcontribution to continuous analysis of demand market and adaptation thereto by analyzingthe log files and by retroactive effect on the web site. A log file is a carrier of numerousdata and indicators that should be used in the best possible way to improve the entirebusiness operations of a company. However, this is not always simple and easy. The websites differ in size, purpose, and technology used for designing them. For this very reason,the analytic analysis frameworks should be such that can cover any web site and at thesame time leave some space for analyzing and investigating the specific characteristicof each web site and provide for its dynamics by analyzing the log file records. Thoseconsiderations were a basis for this paper

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility In Turkey: An Analysis Through Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu EKER AKGÖZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, there is no chance for a corporation to be succeeded simply by doing profit oriented business. Corporations are the living entities along with their stakeholders therefore corporations are expected to be responsive on the cultural, environmental and economic issues of society. Socially responsible programs that corporations execute would contribute the corporate image and reputation. Furthermore, these programs benefit both corporations and society. The aim of this study is to examine the presence and organization of information on corporate responsibility present on the corporate web sites of companies which are in the Capital top 500 list. We will choose the top 100 companies on the top 500 list. By using content analysis, identified corporate responsibility issues will be analyzed. In this study, the information given in the web sites of these top 100 companies will be analyzed. We will be examining how the information is organized, presented, and related to the corporate responsibilities.

  18. Engineering, Analysis and Technology FY 1995 Site Support Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The vision of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to be recognized as the cost-effective supplier of specialized, integrated, multi-disciplined engineering teams to support Hanford missions. The mission of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to provide centralized engineering services. These services are focused on supplying technical design, analytical engineering and related support services that support Hanford's environmental restoration mission. These services include engineering analysis, design and development of systems and engineered equipment, supplying multi-disciplined engineering teams to all Hanford programs and project organizations, engineering document release, and site-wide leadership in the development and implementation of engineering standards, engineering practices, and configuration management processes

  19. The Effects of Socioeconomic Vulnerability, Psychosocial Services, and Social Service Spending on Family Reunification: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Tonino; Delaye, Ashleigh; Chabot, Martin; Trocmé, Nico; Rothwell, David; Hélie, Sonia; Robichaud, Marie-Joelle

    2017-09-09

    Socio-environmental factors such as poverty, psychosocial services, and social services spending all could influence the challenges faced by vulnerable families. This paper examines the extent to which socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial service consultations, and preventative social services spending impacts the reunification for children placed in out-of-home care. This study uses a multilevel longitudinal research design that draws data from three sources: (1) longitudinal administrative data from Quebec's child protection agencies; (2) 2006 and 2011 Canadian Census data; and, (3) intra-province health and social services data. The final data set included all children ( N = 39,882) placed in out-of-home care for the first time between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2013, and followed from their initial out-of-home placement. Multilevel hazard results indicate that socioeconomic vulnerability, controlling for psychosocial services and social services spending, contributes to the decreased likelihood of reunification. Specifically, socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial services, and social services spending account for 24.0% of the variation in jurisdictional reunification for younger children less than 5 years of age, 12.5% for children age 5 to 11 years and 21.4% for older children age 12 to 17 years. These findings have implications for decision makers, funding agencies, and child protection agencies to improve jurisdictional resources to reduce the socioeconomic vulnerabilities of reunifying families.

  20. On-site vs off-site management of environmental restoration waste: A cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.A.; Aamodt, P.L.; Cox, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project is expected to generate relatively large volumes of hazardous waste as a result of cleanup operations. These volumes will exceed the Laboratories existing waste management capacity. This paper presents four options for managing remediation wastes, including three alternatives for on-site waste management utilizing a corrective action management unit (CAMU). Costs are estimated for each of the four options based on current volumetric estimates of hazardous waste. Cost equations are derived for each of the options with the variables being waste volumes, the major unknowns in the analysis. These equations provide a means to update cost estimates as volume estimates change. This approach may be helpful to others facing similar waste management decisions

  1. Flood risk analysis of Cold Creek near the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has analyzed the flood potential at the reference repository location located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is emphasized that this work is not intended as a basis for engineering design, but rather as an initial, regional appraisal of whether detailed engineering design analysis will be required. In order to achieve the detail required for engineering design specifications, the study results should be refined using more detailed channel geometry data, and the topography of the western portion of the reference repository location should be mapped using a contour interval of not less than 2 ft. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Macro-level vulnerable road users crash analysis: A Bayesian joint modeling approach of frequency and proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers. To accommodate for the potentially different impact of exogenous factors we convert the non-motorist crash counts as the product of total crash counts and proportion of non-motorist crashes and formulate a joint model of the negative binomial (NB) model and the logit model to deal with the two parts, respectively. The formulated joint model is estimated using non-motorist crash data based on the Traffic Analysis Districts (TADs) in Florida. Meanwhile, the traditional NB model is also estimated and compared with the joint model. The result indicates that the joint model provides better data fit and can identify more significant variables. Subsequently, a novel joint screening method is suggested based on the proposed model to identify hot zones for non-motorist crashes. The hot zones of non-motorist crashes are identified and divided into three types: hot zones with more dangerous driving environment only, hot zones with more hazardous walking and cycling conditions only, and hot zones with both. It is expected that the joint model and screening method can help decision makers, transportation officials, and community planners to make more efficient treatments to proactively improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Heat waves and cold spells: an analysis of policy response and perceptions of vulnerable populations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Wolf; W Neil Adger; Irene Lorenzoni

    2010-01-01

    Heat waves and cold spells pose ongoing seasonal risks to the health and well-being of vulnerable individuals. Current attempts to address these risks in the UK are implemented through fuel-poverty strategies and heat-wave planning. This paper examines evidence from the UK on whether heat waves and cold spells are addressed differently by public policy in the UK given that risks are mediated by similar perceptions that shape behavioural responses by vulnerable individuals. It is based on a re...

  4. Assessment of chemical vulnerabilities in the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of relevant data (tank farm and laboratory) and analysis related to potential chemical vulnerabilities of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Potential chemical safety vulnerabilities examined include spontaneous runaway reactions, condensed phase waste combustibility, and tank headspace flammability. The major conclusions of the report are the following: Spontaneous runaway reactions are not credible; condensed phase combustion is not likely; and periodic releases of flammable gas can be mitigated by interim stabilization

  5. Self-monitoring as a familial vulnerability marker for psychosis: an analysis of patients, unaffected siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, J.; Krabbendam, L.; Versmissen, D.; Kircher, T.; van Os, J.; van Winkel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alterations in self-monitoring have been reported in patients with psychotic disorders, but it remains unclear to what degree they represent true indicators of familial vulnerability for psychosis.Method An error-correction action-monitoring task was used to examine self-monitoring in 42

  6. Future Directions in Vulnerability to Depression among Youth: Integrating Risk Factors and Processes across Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a developmental phenomenon. Considerable progress has been made in describing the syndrome, establishing its prevalence and features, providing clues as to its etiology, and developing evidence-based treatment and prevention options. Despite considerable headway in distinct lines of vulnerability research, there is an explanatory gap…

  7. Statistical Analysis of Environmental Tritium around Wolsong Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To find the relationship among airborne tritium, tritium in rainwater, TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) and TBT (Tissue Bound Tritium), statistical analysis is conducted based on tritium data measured at KHNP employees' house around Wolsong nuclear power plants during 10 years from 1999 to 2008. The results show that tritium in such media exhibits a strong seasonal and annual periodicity. Tritium concentration in rainwater is observed to be highly correlated with TFWT and directly transmitted to TFWT without delay. The response of environmental radioactivity of tritium around Wolsong site is analyzed using time-series technique and non-parametric trend analysis. Tritium in the atmosphere and rainwater is strongly auto-correlated by seasonal and annual periodicity. TFWT concentration in pine needle is proven to be more sensitive to rainfall phenomenon than other weather variables. Non-parametric trend analysis of TFWT concentration within pine needle shows a increasing slope in terms of confidence level of 95%. This study demonstrates a usefulness of time-series and trend analysis for the interpretation of environmental radioactivity relationship with various environmental media.

  8. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lizio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM] were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals. By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic

  9. Seismic hazard analysis of the NPP Kozloduy site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, D.; Stamatovska, S.; Arsovski, M.; Hadzievski, D.; Sokerova, D.; Solakov, D.; Vaptzarov, I.; Satchanski, S.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to define the seismic hazard for the NPP Kozloduy site. Seismic hazard is by rule defined by the probability distribution function of the peak value of the chosen ground motion parameter in a defined time interval. The overall study methodology consists of reviewing the existing geological, seismological and tectonic information to formulate this information into a mathematical model of seismic activity of the region and using this assess earthquake ground motion in terms of probability. Detailed regional and local seismological investigations have been performed. Regional investigations encompass the area within a radius of 320 km from the NPP Kozloduy site. The results of these investigations include all seismological parameters that are necessary for determination of the mathematical model of the seismicity of the region needed for the seismic hazard analysis. Regional geological and neotectonic investigations were also performed for the wider area including almost the whole territory of Bulgaria, a large part of Serbia, part of Macedonia and almost the whole south part of Romania

  10. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P.; Karhu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15±0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19±0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15{+-}0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19{+-}0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  13. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with

  14. External events analysis for the Savannah River Site K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Wingo, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The probabilistic external events analysis performed for the Savannah River Site K-reactor PRA considered many different events which are generally perceived to be ''external'' to the reactor and its systems, such as fires, floods, seismic events, and transportation accidents (as well as many others). Events which have been shown to be significant contributors to risk include seismic events, tornados, a crane failure scenario, fires and dam failures. The total contribution to the core melt frequency from external initiators has been found to be 2.2 x 10 -4 per year, from which seismic events are the major contributor (1.2 x 10 -4 per year). Fire initiated events contribute 1.4 x 10 -7 per year, tornados 5.8 x 10 -7 per year, dam failures 1.5 x 10 -6 per year and the crane failure scenario less than 10 -4 per year to the core melt frequency. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Hanford Site Disposition Baseline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Dockter, R. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The permeability of ground surfaces within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site strongly influences boundary conditions when simulating the movement of groundwater using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases model. To conduct site-wide modeling of cumulative impacts to groundwater from past, current, and future waste management activities, a site-wide assessment of the permeability of surface conditions is needed. The surface condition of the vast majority of the Hanford Site has been and continues to be native soils vegetated with dryland grasses and shrubs.

  16. Ecological restoration of Central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, K.; Rehounkova, K.; Rehounek, J.; Konvalinkova, P. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Sites disturbed by mining were surveyed in the Czech Republic, central Europe. The sites included spoil heaps from coal mining, sand and gravel pits, extracted peatlands and stone quarries. The following main conclusions emerged: I) potential for spontaneous succession to be used in restoration projects is between 95 and 100% of the total area disturbed; ii) mining sites, if mining is properly designed and then the sites are left to spontaneous succession, often act as refugia for endangered and retreating organisms, and may contribute substantially to local biodiversity.

  17. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 13: Sites with small plutonium holdings site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Appendix contains the initial responses to the Question Set received from each of the sites with small plutonium holdings. The WGAT report for sites with small plutonium holdings was then prepared, based on these initial site responses plus supplemental information obtained via telephone request with the site contractor and/or DOE Field Office personnel. These supplements serve to clarify information in the initial question set responses and/or obtain additional information. This WGAT report is published as Volume II, Part 13

  18. A spatial analysis of integrated risk: vulnerability of ecosystem services provisioning to different hazards in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David; Loučková, Blanka; Lorencová, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2017), s. 1185-1204 ISSN 0921-030X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MV VG20122015091 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Ecosystems * Ecosystem services * Czech Republic * Integrated risk assessment * Vulnerability * GIS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2016

  19. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN BANKING AND NON-FINANCIAL SECTORS' VULNERABILITY TO POSSIBLE EXTERNAL FINANCIAL SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explains to what extent currency mismatch in banking and non-financial sectors determine vulnerability of Russian economy with respect to possible external shock. The authors explain how Central Bank of Russia exchange rate policy depends on currency mismatches and to what extent currency mismatches determined the slowdown of Russian economy during the financial crisis. The article shows the dynamics of currency mismatch from 2004 to 2012 year. The authors offer the model of the relationship between capital flight and external debt of private sector. The authors present the results of stress test of Russian economy. The stress test implies external shock similar to external shock of the end of 2008. According to stress test as of end of 2012 both banking and private sectors are less vulnerable to possible external shock. Meanwhile authors made a conclusion that vulnerability of a private sector remains unacceptably high. The authors recommend 2 ways how to decelerate the currency mismatch of a private sector. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-8

  20. Design of Service Oriented Architecture(SOA)-based Software Vulnerability Analysis Method for Digital I and C System in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, C. K.; Kwon, K. C.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse cyber security issues due to the vulnerability of the digital control systems have been brought up in the existing IT environments while advancement and propagation of digital I and C systems have improved convenience through automation. The recent example of Stuxnet proved that stability in the digital I and C system could not be secured due to an air gap of physical security elements. Therefore, it is required to discover new approaches toward cyber security that will overcome the limitation on security in a closed environment. In particular, there is a rapid increase in the importance of cyber security seen in guidelines published by IAEA and U.S. NRC shows that cyber security as well as physical security draws worldwide attention as a key component for nuclear system safety. To incorporate the new guide requirement, cyber security threats are analyzed by ITbase security elements for finding best practice approaches. The vulnerabilities identified by the general security threats and defined mitigation activities can include many different methods and strategies. This research suggests a method for analyzing vulnerability and assessment the nuclear digital I and C cyber security

  1. Design of Service Oriented Architecture(SOA)-based Software Vulnerability Analysis Method for Digital I and C System in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, C. K.; Kwon, K. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. H. [Shinsegae Information and Communication Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. S. [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Diverse cyber security issues due to the vulnerability of the digital control systems have been brought up in the existing IT environments while advancement and propagation of digital I and C systems have improved convenience through automation. The recent example of Stuxnet proved that stability in the digital I and C system could not be secured due to an air gap of physical security elements. Therefore, it is required to discover new approaches toward cyber security that will overcome the limitation on security in a closed environment. In particular, there is a rapid increase in the importance of cyber security seen in guidelines published by IAEA and U.S. NRC shows that cyber security as well as physical security draws worldwide attention as a key component for nuclear system safety. To incorporate the new guide requirement, cyber security threats are analyzed by ITbase security elements for finding best practice approaches. The vulnerabilities identified by the general security threats and defined mitigation activities can include many different methods and strategies. This research suggests a method for analyzing vulnerability and assessment the nuclear digital I and C cyber security

  2. Confirmation Sampling and Analysis Plan for Spill Site Number 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... No. 1 to document the effectiveness of bioventing for the remediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and to provide data for a risk-based assessment of contaminants remaining in site soils and groundwater. Spill Site...

  3. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  4. Site-specific meteorology identification for DOE facility accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, chemical dispersion calculations performed for safety analysis of DOE facilities assume a Pasquill D-Stability Class with a 4.5 m/s windspeed. These meteorological conditions are assumed to conservatively address the source term generation mechanism as well as the dispersion mechanism thereby resulting in a net conservative downwind consequence. While choosing this Stability Class / Windspeed combination may result in an overall conservative consequence, the level of conservative can not be quantified. The intent of this paper is to document a methodology which incorporates site-specific meteorology to determine a quantifiable consequence of a chemical release. A five-year meteorological database, appropriate for the facility location, is utilized for these chemical consequence calculations, and is consistent with the approach used for radiological releases. The hourly averages of meteorological conditions have been binned into 21 groups for the chemical consequence calculations. These 21 cases each have a probability of occurrence based on the number of times each case has occurred over the five year sampling period. A code has been developed which automates the running of all the cases with a commercially available air modeling code. The 21 cases are sorted by concentration. A concentration may be selected by the user for a quantified level of conservatism. The methodology presented is intended to improve the technical accuracy and defensability of Chemical Source Term / Dispersion Safety Analysis work. The result improves the quality of safety analyses products without significantly increasing the cost

  5. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  6. Analysis of the impact of large scale seismic retrofitting strategies through the application of a vulnerability-based approach on traditional masonry buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago Miguel; Maio, Rui; Vicente, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    The buildings' capacity to maintain minimum structural safety levels during natural disasters, such as earthquakes, is recognisably one of the aspects that most influence urban resilience. Moreover, the public investment in risk mitigation strategies is fundamental, not only to promote social and urban and resilience, but also to limit consequent material, human and environmental losses. Despite the growing awareness of this issue, there is still a vast number of traditional masonry buildings spread throughout many European old city centres that lacks of adequate seismic resistance, requiring therefore urgent retrofitting interventions in order to both reduce their seismic vulnerability and to cope with the increased seismic requirements of recent code standards. Thus, this paper aims at contributing to mitigate the social and economic impacts of earthquake damage scenarios through the development of vulnerability-based comparative analysis of some of the most popular retrofitting techniques applied after the 1998 Azores earthquake. The influence of each technique individually and globally studied resorting to a seismic vulnerability index methodology integrated into a GIS tool and damage and loss scenarios are constructed and critically discussed. Finally, the economic balance resulting from the implementation of that techniques are also examined.

  7. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  8. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  9. Spatio-temporal earthquake risk assessment for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area - A contribution to improving standard methods of population exposure and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sérgio; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The recent 7.0 M earthquake that caused severe damage and destruction in parts of Haiti struck close to 5 PM (local time), at a moment when many people were not in their residences, instead being in their workplaces, schools, or churches. Community vulnerability assessment to seismic hazard relying solely on the location and density of resident-based census population, as is commonly the case, would grossly misrepresent the real situation. In particular in the context of global (climate) change, risk analysis is a research field increasingly gaining in importance whereas risk is usually defined as a function of hazard probability and vulnerability. Assessment and mapping of human vulnerability has however generally been lagging behind hazard analysis efforts. Central to the concept of vulnerability is the issue of human exposure. Analysis of exposure is often spatially tied to administrative units or reference objects such as buildings, spanning scales from the regional level to local studies for small areas. Due to human activities and mobility, the spatial distribution of population is time-dependent, especially in metropolitan areas. Accurately estimating population exposure is a key component of catastrophe loss modeling, one element of effective risk analysis and emergency management. Therefore, accounting for the spatio-temporal dynamics of human vulnerability correlates with recent recommendations to improve vulnerability analyses. Earthquakes are the prototype for a major disaster, being low-probability, rapid-onset, high-consequence events. Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to a high risk of earthquake, which can strike at any day and time, as confirmed by modern history (e.g. December 2009). The recently-approved Special Emergency and Civil Protection Plan (PEERS) is based on a Seismic Intensity map, and only contemplates resident population from the census as proxy for human exposure. In the present work we map and analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of

  10. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 12: Pantex site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. DOE Pantex Plant is located in the panhandle of Texas approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The Plant site was originally constructed in 1942 for conventional shell- and bomb-loading. In 1950, this Plant began to perform nuclear explosives operations. Today, the Pantex Plant is operated by Mason ampersand Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant functions include (1) final assembly of new nuclear explosives; (2) maintenance, modification, and quality assurance testing of nuclear explosives already in the military stockpile; (3) disassembly of nuclear explosives that are no longer required in the military stockpile; and (4) interim storage of nuclear explosives components. This report presents results of an environmental, safety, and health assessment of the Pantex Plant for the storage of plutonium

  11. From Site Data to Safety Assessment: Analysis of Present and Future Hydrological Conditions at a Coastal Site in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at the Forsmark site in Sweden, which has been proposed as the site for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Forsmark is a coastal site that changes in response to shoreline displacement. In the considered time frame (until year 10 000 ad), the hydrological system will be affected by landscape succession associated with shoreline displacement and changes in vegetation, regolith stratigraphy, and climate. Based on extensive site investigations and modeling of present hydrological conditions, the effects of different processes on future site hydrology are quantified. As expected, shoreline displacement has a strong effect on local hydrology (e.g., groundwater flow) in areas that change from sea to land. The comparison between present and future land areas emphasizes the importance of climate variables relative to other factors for main hydrological features such as water balances

  12. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    and lateral (or horizontal) vulnerability could be very useful; generally parametric vulnerability methods only take into account the protection degree offered by the overlying lithology, considering a vertical travel pathway for the contaminant. These methods normally neglect horizontal pathway (pollution transport in groundwater according to the hydraulic gradient), so we can have an underestimation of the possible vulnerability. The distinction, the analysis and the definition of different types of vulnerability might be positive to stimulate discussion and have a number of advantages, such as: - to improve the clarity of the conditions of employment of a method, benefiting above all end-users and stakeholders; - to improve the ability to compare methods for the assessment of the degree of vulnerability; - to improve the ability to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  14. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  15. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth.

  16. Draft site characterization analysis of the site characterization report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Hanford, Washington Site. Main report and Appendices A through D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    On November 12, 1982, the US Department of Energy submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission the Site Characterization Report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (DOE/RL 82-3). The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation in the State of Washington. NUREG-0960 contains the detailed analysis, by the NRC staff, of the site characterization report. Supporting technical material is contained in Appendices A through W

  17. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data.

  18. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  19. Heat integration and analysis of decarbonised IGCC sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.S.; Lopez, Y.; Campbell, G.M.; Sadhukhan, J. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science

    2010-02-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems have become of interest due to their high combined heat and power (CHP) generation efficiency and flexibility to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. However, IGCC's biggest challenge is its high cost of energy production. In this study, decarbonised coal IGCC sites integrated with CCS have been investigated for heat integration and economic value analyses. It is envisaged that the high energy production cost of an IGCC site can be offset by maximising site-wide heat recovery and thereby improving the cost of electricity (COE) of CHP generation. Strategies for designing high efficiency CHP networks have been proposed based on thermodynamic heuristics and pinch theory. Additionally, a comprehensive methodology to determine the COE from a process site has been developed. In this work, we have established thermodynamic and economic comparisons between IGCC sites with and without CCS and a trade-off between the degree of decarbonisation and the COE from the heat integrated IGCC sites. The results show that the COE from the heat integrated decarbonised IGCC sites is significantly lower compared to IGCC sites without heat integration making application of CCS in IGCC sites economically competitive.

  20. VULNERABILITY AND RISK OF CONTAMINATION KARSTIC AQUIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Aguilar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Karstic systems occupy nearly 20% of the surface of the earth and are inhabited by numerous human communities. Karstic aquifers are the most exposed to pollution from human activities. Pollution of karstic aquifers is a severe environmental problem worldwide.  In order to face the vulnerability of karstic aquifers to pollution, researchers have created a diversity of study approaches and models, each one having their own strengths and weaknesses depending on the discipline from which they were originated, thus requiring a thorough discussion within the required multidisciplinary character. The objective of this article was to analyze the theoretical and methodological approaches applied to the pollution of karstic aquifers. The European hydrogeological, land evaluation, hydropedological and a geographic approach were analyzed. The relevance of a geomorphological analysis as a cartographic basis for the analysis of vulnerability and risks were emphasized. From the analysis of models, approaches and methodologies discussed the following recommendation is made: to form an interdisciplinary work team, to elaborate a conceptual model according to the site and the working scale and to e, apply and validate the model.

  1. Hydropower Generation Vulnerability in the Yangtze River in China under Climate Change Scenarios: Analysis Based on the WEAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by human activities exacerbates the water cycle, changes precipitation features, such as precipitation amount, intensity and time, and raises uncertainties in water resources. This work uses run-off data obtained using climate change models under representative concentration pathways (RCPs and selects the Yangtze River Basin as the research boundary to evaluate and analyse the vulnerability of hydropower generation in 2016–2050 on the basis of the water evaluation and planning model. Results show that the amount of rainfall during 2016–2050 in the Yangtze River Basin is estimated to increase with fluctuations in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the RCP4.5 scenario, hydropower stations exhibit large fluctuations in generating capacity, which present the trend of an increase after a decrease; in the RCP8.5 scenario, the generating capacity of hydropower stations in the Yangtze River Basin presents a steady increase. Over 50% of the generating capacity in the Yangtze River Basin is produced from the Three Gorges Dam and 10 other hydropower stations. Over 90% is generated in eight river basins, including the Jinsha, Ya-lung and Min Rivers. Therefore, climate change may accelerate changes in the Yangtze River Basin and further lead to vulnerability of hydropower generation.

  2. Analysis of safety culture components based on site interviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Akira; Nagano, Yuko; Matsuura, Shojiro

    2002-01-01

    Safety culture of an organization is influenced by many factors such as employee's moral, safety policy of top management and questioning attitude among site staff. First this paper analyzes key factors of safety culture on the basis of site interviews. Then the paper presents a safety culture composite model and its applicability in various contexts. (author)

  3. Site and stand analysis for growth prediction of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of site information with that of tree growth is of special importance in Zululand, where sustainable supply of timber is essential for local processing and export commitments. Site prediction growth models need to be based on easily attainable input variables that are suitable for operational implementation by ...

  4. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  5. Wind resource assessment and siting analysis in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, A.; Mizzoni, G.; Rossi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the wind power industry has matured; consequently, in many countries a lot of wind energy applications have been programmed. Many of them are already realized and running. As such, there is a direct necessity to identify a sizeable number of wind power plant sites. Choosing the right sites to match specific Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) is also needed to harness this clean energy from the points of view of industrial viability and project financing. As a pre-requisite to install a wind turbine at a particular site, it is necessary to have knowledge of the theoretical available wind energy at the site, as well as, of the practicability of the design in matching the characteristics of the WECS. In this paper, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) wind siting and resource assessment activities, currently on-going in different regions in Italy, along with the present status and future prospects of the wind power industry

  6. Geoscientific long-term prognosis. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Sabine

    2011-07-01

    The preliminary safety analysis of the site Gorleben includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim and content of the geoscientific long-term prognosis for the site Gorleben; (3) Boundary conditions at the site Gorleben: climate; geomorphology; overlying rocks and adjoining rocks; hydrogeology; salt deposit Gorleben. (4) Probable future geological developments at the site Gorleben: supraregional developments with effects on the site Gorleben; glacial period developments; developments of the geomorphology, overlying and adjoining rocks; future developments of the hydrological systems at the site Gorleben; future saliniferous specific developments of the salt deposit Gorleben. (5) Commentary on the unlikely or excludable developments of the site Gorleben.

  7. Analysis of the Monitoring Network at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    The Salmon site in southern Mississippi was the location of two underground nuclear tests and two methane-oxygen gas explosion tests conducted in the Tatum Salt Dome at a depth of 2,715 feet below ground surface. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy [DOE]) and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly conducted the tests between 1964 and 1970. The testing operations resulted in surface contamination at multiple locations on the site and contamination of shallow aquifers. No radionuclides from the nuclear tests were released to the surface or to groundwater, although radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings were brought to the surface during re-entry drilling. Drilling operations generated the largest single volume of waste materials, including radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings and drilling fluids. Nonradioactive wastes were also generated as part of the testing operations. Site cleanup and decommissioning began in 1971 and officially ended in 1972. DOE conducted additional site characterization between 1992 and 1999. The historical investigations have provided a reasonable understanding of current surface and shallow subsurface conditions at the site, although some additional investigation is desirable. For example, additional hydrologic data would improve confidence in assigning groundwater gradients and flow directions in the aquifers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency monitored groundwater at the site as part of its Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program from 1972 through 2007, when DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM) assumed responsibility for site monitoring. The current monitoring network consists of 28 monitoring wells and 11 surface water locations. Multiple aquifers which underlie the site are monitored. The current analyte list includes metals, radionuclides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  8. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  9. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequence analysis data elements. 1400.5 Section 1400.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1125 - What must I include in my siting analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my siting... § 60.1125 What must I include in my siting analysis? (a) Include an analysis of how your municipal...) Vegetation. (b) Include an analysis of alternatives for controlling air pollution that minimize potential...

  11. Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup.

  12. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  13. Analysis and recognition of 5 ' UTR intron splice sites in human pre-mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, E.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of splice sites in non-coding regions of genes is one of the most challenging aspects of gene structure recognition. We perform a rigorous analysis of such splice sites embedded in human 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), and investigate correlations between this class of splice sites and...

  14. Management of radiation contaminated sites: public policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present document is interested in the management of radio-contaminated sites whom pollution comes essentially from some leftover old controlled practices and more precisely from mining activities relative to uranium and radium and thorium industries. The contaminations coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions and post accidental situations do not come into the field of this document. The management of contaminated sites is tackled in the aspect of radiation protection of populations living near or that could be there in the future. (N.C.)

  15. Pro-eating disorder communities on social networking sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarascio, Adrienne S; Shoaib, Amber; Timko, C Alix

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the number of pro-ana groups on social networking sites and to analyze their content. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the content. Two main themes emerged from the content analysis: social support and eating disorder specific content. Themes were similar across all groups; however, a linguistic analysis indicated differences between groups on the two different networking sites. There was an absence of content typically found on Internet sites. Pro-ana groups on social networking sites are focused on social interactions, and lack eating disorder specific content found on Internet sites.

  16. Marketing Research of Construction Sites based on ABC-XYZ Analysis and Relational Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konikov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC-XYZ analysis is well known in marketing. It allows identifying sites that yield maximum profits when sold, sites that enjoy stable demand, or sites have both qualities specified above. However, the methods are quite abstract and are not designed to study specific factors that impact the results of ABC-XYZ analysis. Meanwhile, for some applications, particularly for marketing research of construction sites, it is critical not only to identify high-profit and stable sites but also to find out what combination of technical parameters, factors related to their location, transport accessibility, etc. are typical of them. This work suggests an approach to address the issue.

  17. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyka G. Jayasinghe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared to missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases. : Jayasinghe et al. identify nearly 2,000 splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs from over 8,000 tumor samples across 33 cancer types. They provide a more accurate interpretation of previously mis-annotated mutations, highlighting the importance of integrating data types to understand the functional and the clinical implications of splicing mutations in human disease. Keywords: splicing, RNA, mutations of clinical relevance

  18. Analysis of vulnerability to intrusion - a software for aid in training, design, and implementation of physical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangdan

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In this paper, we discuss briefly the developed level of physical protection system (PPS) in different Chinese history stage, and the relation between PPS and society, politics, military and security. It reveals the current status of application of PPS in China, and the level of design, implementation, evaluation and products. We also discuss the developing direction and applying tendency of PPS in future China. We mainly introduce a software using the ASD to evaluate the effectiveness of the PPS at a facility. It is used for training, design, and implementation of physical system. It identifies the path which adversaries can follow to accomplish sabotage or theft. For a specific PPS and threat, the most vulnerable path can be determined. The path probability of interruption P(I) establishes of the total PPS. Especially, we introduce how to specify threat characteristics bases the situation of present Chinese society, based global and local threat development. We also introduce how to build a data base of different elements based on the level of crime at present China. (author)

  19. Effective Decision Maker-Scientist Engagement:Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of California's Water System to Using Decision Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A. M.; Ray, P.; Brown, C.; Wi, S.

    2016-12-01

    For nearly 2 years the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has been working with the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) to evaluate climate change vulnerabilities to the California State Water Project. Working cooperatively, the team has developed tools and methods to employ a decision scaling approach to CDWR's existing water system model (CalSim-II/CalLite 3.0). This presentation will discuss how and why this partnership came to be, the co-production model the team has developed to share expertise, the new understanding of the system that has been gained through the process, and current and future efforts to influence planning and investments based on the findings of the work. This cooperative decision-maker-with-scientist engagement is unique in that CDWR has not outsourced the application of the science to their systems, and instead has worked directly with UMass researchers to develop the process, produce results, and interpret findings. Further, CDWR staff has worked with UMass researchers to present results in ways that are more useable and actionable for decision-makers. As will be shown, many of these graphics allow the team to use the science differently to improve decision making.

  20. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  1. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis...

  2. Multiattribute utility analysis of alternative sites for the disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Five potential sites nominated for the Nation's first geologic repository for disposing of nuclear waste are evaluated using multiattribute utility analysis. The analysis was designed to aid the Department of Energy in its selection of 3 sites for characterization, a detailed data-gathering process that will involve the construction of exploratory shafts for underground testing and that may cost as much as $1 billion per site. The analysis produced insights into the relative advantages and disadvantages of the nominated sites and clarified current uncertainties regarding repository performance

  3. Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site, 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-08

    During the operational history of Savannah River Site, many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, as shown in this analysis, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses to the offsite public. This report is an update to the 2011 analysis, Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site. SRS-based Performance Assessments for E-Area, Saltstone, F-Tank Farm, H-Tank Farm, and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis have been completed. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in those extensive reports are also detailed and included in this analysis.

  4. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1994-01-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones. It allows natural market forces to set the level of compensation, rather than relying on close-door negotiations or theoretical calculations. Two flow charts show the pre-bid and post-bid steps of the reverse Duch auction system of Inhaber. It is assumed that a state wishes to site a waste facility somewhere in its boundaries. 22 refs., 3 figs

  5. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones

  6. Impact analysis and community development needs at the salt site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.; Boryczka, M.; Hines, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) has developed a socioeconomic program for a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt. The program is comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation, and impact monitoring. The first element, impact assessment, is the focus of ONWI's current activities. Socioeconomic data has been collected for seven salt sites in Texas, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana. Demographic, economic, community service, governmental and social structure information has been assembled into data base reports for each site area. These socioeconomic reports will be the basis for analyzing community-related impacts. Socioeconomic effects are currently being evaluated for the environmental assessment document required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The approach to evaluating socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment impact includes developing the data base necessary for evaluation; assessing impacts of baseline population projected by the states; assessing project-related impacts through the use of an inmigration model and responding to socioeconomic issues raised in public meetings and hearings. The siting, construction, and operation of nuclear repositories will involve an extended period of time and an increased workforce, which can result in some impacts similar to those of other large development projects. The communities affected by a repository site will face increased demands for housing, community services (transportation, sewer and water, schools, etc.) and land, as well as a desire to maintain the community's ''character''. The management of this expansion and other related community impacts should be structured to meet community needs and goals. The management process should include the formation of an impact management comment, a public participation program, and a technical assistance program

  7. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  8. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Reyka G; Cao, Song; Gao, Qingsong; Wendl, Michael C; Vo, Nam Sy; Reynolds, Sheila M; Zhao, Yanyan; Climente-González, Héctor; Chai, Shengjie; Wang, Fang; Varghese, Rajees; Huang, Mo; Liang, Wen-Wei; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Sengupta, Sohini; Li, Zhi; Payne, Samuel H; Fenyö, David; Miner, Jeffrey H; Walter, Matthew J; Vincent, Benjamin; Eyras, Eduardo; Chen, Ken; Shmulevich, Ilya; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2018-04-03

    For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared to missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN NAPL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  10. Applications of network analysis for adaptive management of artificial drainage systems in landscapes vulnerable to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Benjamin; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe vulnerability of coastal landscapes to sea level rise is compounded by the existence of extensive artificial drainage networks initially built to lower water tables for agriculture, forestry, and human settlements. These drainage networks are found in landscapes with little topographic relief where channel flow is characterized by bi-directional movement across multiple time-scales and related to precipitation, wind, and tidal patterns. The current configuration of many artificial drainage networks exacerbates impacts associated with sea level rise such as salt-intrusion and increased flooding. This suggests that in the short-term, drainage networks might be managed to mitigate sea level rise related impacts. The challenge, however, is that hydrologic processes in regions where channel flow direction is weakly related to slope and topography require extensive parameterization for numerical models which is limited where network size is on the order of a hundred or more kilometers in total length. Here we present an application of graph theoretic algorithms to efficiently investigate network properties relevant to the management of a large artificial drainage system in coastal North Carolina, USA. We created a digital network model representing the observation network topology and four types of drainage features (canal, collector and field ditches, and streams). We applied betweenness-centrality concepts (using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm) to determine major hydrologic flowpaths based off of hydraulic resistance. Following this, we identified sub-networks that could be managed independently using a community structure and modularity approach. Lastly, a betweenness-centrality algorithm was applied to identify major shoreline entry points to the network that disproportionately control water movement in and out of the network. We demonstrate that graph theory can be applied to solving management and monitoring problems associated with sea level rise

  11. Analysis of Discussion Board Interaction in an Online Peer Mentoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Regina; Lee, Vera J.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses Critical Discourse Analysis and Social Network Analysis to examine an online peer mentoring site created to unite first-year and third-year preservice teachers enrolled in an undergraduate teacher education program. The peer mentoring site was developed to provide both first-year preservice teachers and more experienced peers the…

  12. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Yucel

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  13. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Yucel

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  14. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  15. Territorial Vulnerability Assessment Supporting Risk Managing Coastal Areas Due to Tsunami Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leandro Barros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s coastline extends 1187 km. It is characterized by social, economic and physical conditions that differentiate it from the rest of the territory, including population density, location of infrastructure and support of tourism activities. Therefore, it has a significant exposure if a tsunami occurs. Six coastal study sites with varying characteristics were selected for evaluation in this paper, including two core beach-use areas, two residential areas and two industrial areas. These sites are located in the municipalities of Figueira da Foz, Setúbal and Vila do Bispo. The analysis began with the calculation of the potential tsunami inundation area for each site using the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Next, a methodology distinguished by its multidimensional character was applied to assess local vulnerability to tsunamis. This methodology assesses vulnerabilities associated with morphological, structural, social and tax factors. These four vulnerability components were combined to obtain a Composite Vulnerability Index (CVI, which enabled us to identify the most vulnerable areas and to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each area.

  16. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Geological Database - 13300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jan Richard; Mrugalla, Sabine; Dresbach, Christian; Hammer, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The Gorleben salt dome is 4 km wide and nearly 15 km long. It is composed of different salt rock types of the Zechstein (Upper Permian) series and extends to the Zechstein basis in a depth of more than 3 km. In the course of the salt dome formation the salt was moved several kilometers. During the uplift of the salt the initially plane-bedded strata of the Zechstein series were extensively folded. In this process anhydrite as a competent layer was broken to isolated blocks. In the core of the salt dome the Hauptsalz, which is characterized by a particularly high creeping capacity, forms a homogeneous halite body with a volume of several cubic kilometres. The Hauptsalz contains gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons in separated zones of decimeter to meter dimensions. The overall hydrocarbon content is far below 0.01 %. At the flanks the salt dome consists of salt rocks with lower creeping capacities. Brine reservoirs with fluid volumes in the range of liters to hundreds of cubic meters exist in certain regions of this part of the salt dome. The water content of the Hauptsalz is below 0.02 %. Interconnected pores do not exist in the salt rock outside of fluid bearing or fractured areas, i.e. the salt rock is impermeable. The exploration of the Gorleben site as a potential site for a HLW-repository started in 1979 and is still in progress. To date no scientific findings contest the suitability of the site for a safe HLW-repository. (authors)

  17. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršek, M. [Slovenian Museum of National History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  18. Toward Optimal Decision Making among Vulnerable Patients Referred for Cardiac Surgery: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Ryan A; Curran, Janet; Buth, Karen J; David, Jennie G; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Hirsch, Gregory M

    2017-07-01

    Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population. Focus groups were held with both providers and former patients. Three focus groups were convened for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG), Valve, or CABG +Valve patients ≥ 70 y old (2-y post-op, ≤ 8-wk post-op, complicated post-op course) (n = 15). Three focus groups were convened for Intermediate Medical Care Unit (IMCU) nurses, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists and cardiac intensivists (n = 20). We used a semi-structured interview format to ask questions surrounding the informed consent process. Transcribed audio data was analyzed to develop consistent and comprehensive themes. We identified 5 main themes that influence the decision making process: educational barriers, educational facilitators, patient autonomy and perceived autonomy, patient and family expectations of care, and decision making advocates. All themes were influenced by time constraints experienced in the current consent process. Patient groups expressed a desire to receive information earlier in their care to allow time to identify personal values and preferences in developing plans for treatment. Both groups strongly supported a formal approach for shared decision making with a decisional coach to provide information and facilitate communication with the care team. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to patient and caretaker engagement in decision making is a key step in the development of a structured, patient-centered SDM approach. Intervention

  19. Bouguer density analysis using nettleton method at Banten NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Hadi Suntoko; Yarianto SBS

    2017-01-01

    Sub-surface information become crucial in determining a feasible NPP site that safe from external hazards. Gravity survey which result as density information, is essential to understand the sub-surface structure. Nevertheless, overcorrected or under corrected will lead to a false interpretation. Therefore, density correction in term of near-surface average density or Bouguer density is necessary to be calculated. The objective of this paper is to estimate and analyze Bouguer density using Nettleton method at Banten NPP Site. Methodology used in this paper is Nettleton method that applied in three different slices (A-B, A-C and A-D) with density assumption range between 1700 and 3300 kg/m"3. Nettleton method is based on minimum correlation between gravity anomaly and topography to determine density correction. The result shows that slice A-B which covers rough topography difference, Nettleton method failed. While using the other two slices, Nettleton method yield with a different density value, 2700 kg/m"3 for A-C and 2300 kg/m"3 for A-D. A-C provides the lowest correlation value which represents the Upper Banten tuff and Gede Mt. volcanic rocks in accordance with Quartenary rocks exist in the studied area. (author)

  20. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  1. Natural and environmental vulnerability analysis through remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Evers, Mariele

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to understand natural and environmental vulnerability situation and its cause such as intensity, distribution and socio-economic effect in the Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia. This paper identifies, assess and classify natural and environmental vulnerability using landscape pattern from multidisciplinary approach, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. A model was developed by following thematic layers: land use/cover, vegetation, wetland, geology, geomorphology and soil in ArcGIS 10.2 software. According to numerical results vulnerability classified into five levels: low, sensible, moderate, high and extreme vulnerability by mean of cluster principal. Results are shows that in natural vulnerability maximum area covered by moderate (29.84%) and sensible (38.61%) vulnerability and environmental vulnerability concentrated by moderate (49.30%) vulnerability. So study area has at medial level vulnerability. The results found that the methodology applied was effective enough in the understanding of the current conservation circumstances of the river basin in relation to their environment with the help of remote sensing and GIS. This study is helpful for decision making for eco-environmental recovering and rebuilding as well as predicting the future development.

  2. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis...

  3. Pathways to HIV risk and vulnerability among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered methamphetamine users: a multi-cohort gender-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA use continues to be a major public health concern in many urban settings. We sought to assess potential relationships between MA use and individual, social, and structural HIV vulnerabilities among sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered drug users. Methods Beginning in 2005 and ending in 2008, 2109 drug users were enroled into one of three cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada. We analysed longitudinal data from all self-identified sexual minority participants (n = 248. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE was used to examine the independent correlates of MA use over time. All analyses were stratified by biological sex at birth. Results At baseline, 104 (7.5% males and 144 (20.4% females reported sexual minority status, among whom 64 (62.1% and 58 (40.3% reported MA use in the past six months, respectively. Compared to heterosexual participants, sexual minority males (odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, p p = 0.003 were more likely to report recent MA use. In multivariate analysis, MA use among sexual minority males was associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.93 per year older, p = 0.011, Aboriginal ancestry (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.019, injection drug use (AOR = 3.98, p p = 0.008, unprotected intercourse (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.048, and increased depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.67, p = 0.044. Among females, MA use was associated with injection drug use (AOR = 2.49, p = 0.002, Downtown South residency (i.e., an area known for drug use (AOR = 1.60, p = 0.047, and unprotected intercourse with sex trade clients (AOR = 2.62, p = 0.027. Conclusions Methamphetamine use was more prevalent among sexual minority males and females and was associated with different sets of HIV risks and vulnerabilities. Our findings suggest that interventions addressing MA-related harms may need to be informed by more nuanced understandings of the intersection between drug use patterns, social and

  4. Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed

  5. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostler, W. K.; Hansen, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

  6. LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE INTENSITIES AND SECONDARY COLLATERAL IMPACTS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA REGION - Application of Standardized Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods in Detecting Potentially Vulnerable Areas to Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Other Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive earthquake that struck near the Gulf of Izmit along the North Anatolian fault in Northwest Turkey on August 17, 1999, not only generated a local tsunami that was destructive at Golcuk and other coastal cities in the eastern portion of the enclosed Sea of Marmara, but was also responsible for extensive damage from collateral hazards such as subsidence, landslides, ground liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction and underwater slumping of unconsolidated sediments. This disaster brought attention in the need to identify in this highly populated region, local conditions that enhance earthquake intensities, tsunami run-up and other collateral disaster impacts. The focus of the present study is to illustrate briefly how standardized remote sensing techniques and GIS-methods can help detect areas that are potentially vulnerable, so that disaster mitigation strategies can be implemented more effectively. Apparently, local site conditions exacerbate earthquake intensities and collateral disaster destruction in the Marmara Sea region. However, using remote sensing data, the causal factors can be determined systematically. With proper evaluation of satellite imageries and digital topographic data, specific geomorphologic/topographic settings that enhance disaster impacts can be identified. With a systematic GIS approach - based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM data - geomorphometric parameters that influence the local site conditions can be determined. Digital elevation data, such as SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with 90m spatial resolution and ASTER-data with 30m resolution, interpolated up to 15 m is readily available. Areas with the steepest slopes can be identified from slope gradient maps. Areas with highest curvatures susceptible to landslides can be identified from curvature maps. Coastal areas below the 10 m elevation susceptible to tsunami inundation can be clearly delineated. Height level maps can also help locate

  7. Analysis for the siting of a repository in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Ciallella, N.; Matar, J.; Perucca, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    The first step in the selection of suitable geological formation for disposal of highly radioactive waste in Argentina was to analyse all the country's known occurrences of granite rock, on the basis of bibliographic material. For each occurrence, a determination was made of its petrographic and structural characteristics, the dimensions and specifications of the rock bodies, the seismic and hydrogeological characteristics of the region, its mining and oil-bearing potential, and the demographic, agricultural, cattle-breeding and industrial features of the areas under study. In this way, it was possible to identify something like 200 granite occurrences. In the second stage the following elimination criteria having been applied: (a) bodies located within seismic zones or areas in which mining or oil-drilling operations are carried on; (b) petrographic characteristics of rock indicating significant alterations, such as an advanced state of erosion or decomposition; and (c) bodies located in areas whose hydrogeological characteristics are known to be unfavourable. As a further selection criterion, account was taken of certain unfavourable characteristics from the point of view of the construction and operation of the storage facility. Sites within zones of dense population, tourism or difficult access were considered to be unfavourable. As a result of this second stage, seven formations were identified. A third stage, based on a survey of the preselected granite bodies led to the identificaton of the massifs of La Esperanza and Chasico in Rio Negro province and the Calcatapul and Medio ranges in Chubut province as the most suitable sites for continuing the detailed studies

  8. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Jones, J.; Spielman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunami waves that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community vulnerability to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, include demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. Population distributions also are characterized by a function of travel time to safety, based on anisotropic, path-distance, geospatial modeling. We used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. We selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the vulnerability classification is to provide emergency managers with a general sense of the types of communities in tsunami hazard zones based on similar characteristics instead of only providing an exhaustive list of attributes for individual communities. This classification scheme can be then used to target and prioritize risk-reduction efforts that address common issues across multiple communities. The presentation will include a discussion of the utility of proposed place classifications to support regional preparedness and outreach efforts.

  9. Building vulnerability to hydro-geomorphic hazards: Estimating damage probability from qualitative vulnerability assessment using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Susanne; Mounaud, Loïc; Magill, Christina; Yao-Lafourcade, Anne-Françoise; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Manville, Vern; Negulescu, Caterina; Zuccaro, Giulio; De Gregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Uchuchoque, Juan Alexis Luque; Arguedas, Anita; Macedo, Luisa; Manrique Llerena, Nélida

    2016-10-01

    The focus of this study is an analysis of building vulnerability through investigating impacts from the 8 February 2013 flash flood event along the Avenida Venezuela channel in the city of Arequipa, Peru. On this day, 124.5 mm of rain fell within 3 h (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggering a flash flood that inundated at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel, affecting more than 280 buildings, 23 of a total of 53 bridges (pedestrian, vehicle and railway), and leading to the partial collapse of sections of the main road, paralyzing central parts of the city for more than one week. This study assesses the aspects of building design and site specific environmental characteristics that render a building vulnerable by considering the example of a flash flood event in February 2013. A statistical methodology is developed that enables estimation of damage probability for buildings. The applied method uses observed inundation height as a hazard proxy in areas where more detailed hydrodynamic modeling data is not available. Building design and site-specific environmental conditions determine the physical vulnerability. The mathematical approach considers both physical vulnerability and hazard related parameters and helps to reduce uncertainty in the determination of descriptive parameters, parameter interdependency and respective contributions to damage. This study aims to (1) enable the estimation of damage probability for a certain hazard intensity, and (2) obtain data to visualize variations in damage susceptibility for buildings in flood prone areas. Data collection is based on a post-flood event field survey and the analysis of high (sub-metric) spatial resolution images (Pléiades 2012, 2013). An inventory of 30 city blocks was collated in a GIS database in order to estimate the physical vulnerability of buildings. As many as 1103 buildings were surveyed along the affected drainage and 898 buildings were included in the statistical analysis. Univariate and

  10. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  11. 40 CFR 60.1115 - What is a siting analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unit affects ambient air quality, visibility, soils, vegetation, and other relevant factors. The... Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which... environmental and social costs resulting from its location and construction. The analysis must also consider...

  12. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  13. Text in social networking Web sites: A word frequency analysis of Live Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Thelwall, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites are owned by a wide section of society and seem to dominate Web usage. Despite much research into this phenomenon, little systematic data is available. This article partially fills this gap with a pilot text analysis of one social networking site, Live Spaces. The text in 3,071 English language Live Spaces sites was monitored daily for six months and word frequency statistics calculated and compared with those from the British National Corpus. The results confirmed the...

  14. Mass spectrometry analysis of tank wastes at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington are being watched closely because of the possibility that flammable gas mixtures may be produced from the mixed wastes contained in the storage tanks. One tank in particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas mixtures since its final filling in the early 1980s. It has been postulated that the organic compounds present in the waste may be precursors to the production of hydrogen. Mass spectrometry has proven to be an invaluable tool for the identification of organic components in wastes from Tank 101-SY and C-103. A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unresolved Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for organic components

  15. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  16. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budge, T. J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The groundwater facet of the revised CA is responsible for generating predicted contaminant concentration values over the entire analysis spatial and temporal domain. These estimates will be used as part of the groundwater pathway dose calculation facet to estimate dose for exposure scenarios. Based on the analysis of existing models and available information, the P2R Model was selected as the numerical simulator to provide these estimates over the 10,000-year temporal domain of the CA. The P2R Model will use inputs from initial plume distributions, updated for a start date of 1/1/2017, and inputs from the vadose zone facet, created by a tool under development as part of the ICF, to produce estimates of hydraulic head, transmissivity, and contaminant concentration over time. A recommendation of acquiring 12 computer processors and 2 TB of hard drive space is made to ensure that the work can be completed within the anticipated schedule of the revised CA.

  17. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  18. Neutron activation analysis to the profile surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Gonzalez, H.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  19. Illuminating the Vulnerability of Hegemonic Masculinity through a Performance Analysis of Physically Disabled Men’s Personal Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This performance analysis traces the emergence of masculinity in the open-ended narratives of 14 men who self identify as “physically disabled.” The participants range in physical ability, age, relationship status, build, and socioeconomic status. They also range in their responses to the interaction of their ability and gender: mourning, resisting, accepting, and/or embracing their daily performances of physically disabled masculinity. Through bodies defined as the negation of ‘normal,’ they attend to and expose the nuances of the interacting cultural components of hegemonic masculinity that all human beings negotiate, interpret, create and re-create through our interactions. Their stories and insights offer opportunities for us to understand the impossibilities of ideal gender performance all humans co-imagine, reiterate, and pursue but can never realize.   Keywords: Performance Analysis, Masculinity, Physical Disability, Personal Narrative

  20. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Integrated Computational Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K. J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions, or assessment needs if potential problems are identified.

  1. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Waste Form Release.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Paris, B. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  2. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Atmospheric Transport Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  3. Use of safety analysis to site comfirmation procedure in case of hard rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.K.

    1984-02-01

    The role of safety analysis in a confirmation procedure of a candidate disposal site of radioactive wastes is discussed. Items dealt with include principle reasons and practical goals of the use of safety analysis, methodology of safety analysis and assessment, as well as usefulness and adequacy of the present safety analysis. Safety analysis is a tool, which enables one to estimate quantitatively the possible radiological impacts from the disposal. The results can be compared with the criteria and the suitability conclusions drawn. Because of its systems analytical nature safety analysis is an effective method to reveal, what are the most important factors of the disposal system and the most critical site characteristics inside the lumped parameters often provided by the experimental site investigation methods. Furthermore it gives information on the accuracy needs of different site properties. This can be utilized to judge whether the quality and quantity of the measurements for the characterization are sufficient as well as to guide the further site investigations. A more practical discussion regarding the applicability of the use of safety analysis is presented by an example concerning the assessment of a Finnish candidate site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. (author)

  4. Introduction to emerging threats and vulnerabilities to create user awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available around the world [4]. 3.3 Web Application Vulnerabilities SQL injection takes place when there is improper validation of user input. According to IBM, SQL injection vulnerabilities increased a staggering 134% from 2007 [1]. This indicates that even... though this vulnerability is not a new exploit, its application is still wide-spread. With SQL injection, access to sensitive information in databases can be gained and thus the integrity of information on web sites and in transactions could...

  5. On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for the Analysis of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    The on-site implementation of a sampling and analysis plan for the determination of explosives residues exposed a large uncertainty in our ability to quickly obtain representative subsamples from either large (>500 g...

  6. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. D. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M, Richland, WA (United States); Ali, A. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Allena, P. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Teague, G. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Hammond, T. B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE M 435.1 Chg 1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions, or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  7. GIS Analysis of Available Data to Identify regions in the U.S. Where Shallow Ground Water Supplies are Particularly Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases to Biofuels from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIS analysis of available data to identify regions in the U.S. where shallow ground water supplies are particularly vulnerable to contamination by releases of biofuels from underground storage tanks. In this slide presentation, GIS was used to perform a simple numerical and ...

  8. Environmental-pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental-pathways analysis. The environmental-pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose-to-man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modeled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose-to-man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development

  9. Environmental pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental pathways analysis. The environmental pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose to man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio, and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modelled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose to man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development. (author)

  10. NPP Siting in Western Part of Java Island Indonesia: Regional Analysis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastratenaya, A.S.; Yuliastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Considering that Banten and West Java Provinces are dense regions of industry, therefore they require a large amount of electricity. Nuclear power plant is one option to be considered to anticipate the future electricity demand. To support the program, it is needed to look for some potential locations through NPP siting. The siting should meet the requirement of safety, safety aspects of the natural external events, human induced external events, public and environmental safety. Site selection is performed in several stages, where each stage has specific assessment criteria. Siting is commenced with pre-survey activity to obtain several interest areas, the activity covers a wide area but the used data is very limited and only apply general criteria. The following activities after pre survey are site survey consisting of (1) regional analysis, (2) site screening, and (3) comparison and ranking stages. The objective of regional analysis is to obtain potential sites in the study area of 150 km radius from each interest area by using both general and specific criteria. The potential sites then screened to obtain selected candidate sites by using more detailed secondary data as well as survey activities such as geophysical investigation, a few of drilling, etc., within the radius of 50 km from each potential site. All the selected candidate sites are then compared and ranked to obtain preferred candidate site. Site evaluation is the next step to evaluate all site-specific parameter to obtain design basis parameters and as the basis for preparing site permit document. This paper presents the methodology and result of regional analysis stage. The objective of the activity is to obtain potential sites in the north coast of West Java and Banten Provinces by considering fourteen study aspects which could be categorize into safety related aspects, non-safety related aspect and public education. However, this paper only considers the safety

  11. Systems Analysis, Scenario Construction and Consequence Analysis Definition for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, N A; Robinson, P [Intera Information Technologies Ltd (United Kingdom); Andersson, Johan; Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K; Wiborgh, M [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wene, C O [Chalmers Inst. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This report uses scenario definition work as a vehicle to introduce the systems approach to performance assessment which has been developed and tested in SITE-94 and which constitutes one of the main advances made during the project. The results of the application of the methodology are presented separately, in the SITE-94 Summary Report. 40 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs.

  12. Systems Analysis, Scenario Construction and Consequence Analysis Definition for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Robinson, P.; Andersson, Johan; Wingefors, S.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Wene, C.O.

    1995-06-01

    SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This report uses scenario definition work as a vehicle to introduce the systems approach to performance assessment which has been developed and tested in SITE-94 and which constitutes one of the main advances made during the project. The results of the application of the methodology are presented separately, in the SITE-94 Summary Report. 40 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  13. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  14. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  15. Development of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for international sites, challenges and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Ares, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.fernandez@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., 500 Penn Center Boulevard, Penn Center East, Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Fatehi, Ali, E-mail: ali.fatehi@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., 500 Penn Center Boulevard, Penn Center East, Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Research highlights: ► Site-specific seismic hazard study and suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. ► Main aspects of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). ► Regional and site geology in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), including state-of-the-art ground motion estimation methods, and geophysical conditions. ► Senior seismic hazard analysis (SSHAC) as a mean to incorporate the opinions and contributions of the informed scientific community. -- Abstract: This article provides guidance to conduct a site-specific seismic hazard study, giving suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. The text follows the general process of a seismic hazard study, describing both the deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Key and controversial items are identified in the areas of recorded seismicity, seismic sources, magnitude, ground motion models, and local site effects. A case history corresponding to a seismic hazard study in the Middle East for a Greenfield site in a remote location is incorporated along the development of the recommendations. Other examples of analysis case histories throughout the World are presented as well.

  16. The Vulnerable Subject of Negligence Law

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach taken by English courts to the duty of care question in negligence has been subject to harsh criticism in recent years. This article examines this fundamental issue in tort law, drawing upon Canadian and Australian jurisprudence by way of comparison. From this analysis, the concept of vulnerability is developed as a productive means of understanding the duty of care. Vulnerability is of increasing interest in legal and political theory and it is of particular relevance to the law...

  17. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A measure of vulnerability and damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present probabilistic definitions of 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance'. A new measure of damage is also proposed. Disastrous failures, such as of the Titanic or the Chernobyl reactor, have revealed that some systems can be highly vulnerable. A seemingly insignificant damage can reduce such a system's resistance severely. Attempts to write design code requirements for damage tolerance or structural integrity have not been successful so far. One reason is that these ideas have not been defined with the necessary precision. The suggested definitions aim to be general, applicable to all engineered systems, and readily specializable to particular system types. Vulnerability is defined as the ratio of the failure probability of the damaged system to the failure probability of the undamaged system. It is argued that 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance' are complementary concepts. Damage tolerance is defined as the reciprocal of vulnerability. Vulnerability and damage tolerance both concern hypothetical future damage. A damage factor, applicable for the analysis of an existing structure in an assessed state of damage, is defined analogous to vulnerability. Application is illustrated by examples

  19. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of the Gorleben site characteristics. Report on the working package 2. Preliminary safety analysis Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, Peter; Pechnig, Renate; Urai, Janos

    2011-10-01

    The report on analysis and evaluation of the Gorleben site characteristics covers the following chapters: Site characteristics on the hydrology of the cover rock: hydrology and hydraulic properties, geothermal studies, ground water properties and motion, model calculations. Site characteristics on geology of the cover and adjoining rock: borehole explorations, geologic development, 3D geometry of the salt dome Gorleben, geologic development of the salt structure Gorleben. Site characteristics on the saliniferous formation: geophysical exploration, modeling of the internal structure of the salt dome Gorleben, fluids in the salt dome Gorleben. Geotechnical studies at the site: geothermal studies, hydraulic data on the saliniferous formation, thermal model calculations, geomechanical in-situ measurements, mechanical and transport properties, thermo-mechanical modeling. Summarized evaluation of the site characteristics and further research requirement.

  1. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis

  2. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-12-01

    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameter Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Urban Surface Energy Balance Parameterization at a Tropical Suburban Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, S.; Roth, M.; Velasco, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of the urban weather and climate is of great importance as our cities become more populated and considering the combined effects of global warming and local land use changes which make urban inhabitants more vulnerable to e.g. heat waves and flash floods. In meso/global scale models, urban parameterization schemes are used to represent the urban effects. However, these schemes require a large set of input parameters related to urban morphological and thermal properties. Obtaining all these parameters through direct measurements are usually not feasible. A number of studies have reported on parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis to adjust and determine the most influential parameters for land surface schemes in non-urban areas. Similar work for urban areas is scarce, in particular studies on urban parameterization schemes in tropical cities have so far not been reported. In order to address above issues, the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization scheme (part of the SURFEX land surface modeling system) was subjected to a sensitivity and optimization/parameter estimation experiment at a suburban site in, tropical Singapore. The sensitivity analysis was carried out as a screening test to identify the most sensitive or influential parameters. Thereafter, an optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed to calibrate the input parameter. The sensitivity experiment was based on the "improved Sobol's global variance decomposition method" . The analysis showed that parameters related to road, roof and soil moisture have significant influence on the performance of the model. The optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed using the AMALGM (a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective method) evolutionary algorithm. The experiment showed a remarkable improvement compared to the simulations using the default parameter set. The calibrated parameters from this optimization experiment can be used for further model

  4. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  5. An approach to siting nuclear power plants: the relevance of earthquakes, faults and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.; Brogan, G.E.; Cluff, L.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Mao, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    The regional approach to nuclear power plant siting described in this paper identifies candidate sites within the region and ranks these sites by using decision-analysis concepts. The approach uses exclusionary criteria to eliminate areas from consideration and to identify those areas which are most likely to contain candidate sites. These areas are then examined in greater detail to identify candidate sites, and the number of sites under consideration is reduced to a reasonably manageable number, approximately 15. These sites are then ranked using concepts of decision analysis. The exclusionary criteria applied relate primarily to regulatory-agency safety requirements and essential functional requirements. Examples of such criteria include proximity to population centres, presence of active faults, and the availability of cooling water. In many areas of the world, the presence of active faults and potential negative effects of earthquakes are dominant exclusionary criteria. To apply the 'active fault' criterion the region must be studied to locate and assess the activity of all potentially active faults. This requires complementary geologic (including geomorphic), historical, seismological, geodetic and geophysical investigations of the entire region. Site response studies or empirical attenuation correlations can be used to determine the relevant parameters of anticipated shaking from postulated earthquakes, and analytical testing and evaluation can be used to assess the potential extent of ground failure during an earthquake. After candidate sites are identified, an approach based on decision analysis is used to rank them. This approach uses the preferences and judgements of consumers, utility companies, the government, and other groups concerned with siting and licensing issues in the ranking process. Both subjective and objective factors are processed in a logical manner, as are the monetary and non-monetary factors and achievement of competing environmental

  6. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.3 Public access to...

  7. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  8. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  9. Sentiment Analysis of Web Sites Related to Vaginal Mesh Use in Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Meriwether, Kate V; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Stewart, J Ryan

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to utilize sentiment analysis to describe online opinions toward vaginal mesh. We hypothesized that sentiment in legal Web sites would be more negative than that in medical and reference Web sites. We generated a list of relevant key words related to vaginal mesh and searched Web sites using the Google search engine. Each unique uniform resource locator (URL) was sorted into 1 of 6 categories: "medical", "legal", "news/media", "patient generated", "reference", or "unrelated". Sentiment of relevant Web sites, the primary outcome, was scored on a scale of -1 to +1, and mean sentiment was compared across all categories using 1-way analysis of variance. Tukey test evaluated differences between category pairs. Google searches of 464 unique key words resulted in 11,405 URLs. Sentiment analysis was performed on 8029 relevant URLs (3472 legal, 1625 "medical", 1774 "reference", 666 "news media", 492 "patient generated"). The mean sentiment for all relevant Web sites was +0.01 ± 0.16; analysis of variance revealed significant differences between categories (P Web sites categorized as "legal" and "news/media" had a slightly negative mean sentiment, whereas those categorized as "medical," "reference," and "patient generated" had slightly positive mean sentiments. Tukey test showed differences between all category pairs except the "medical" versus "reference" in comparison with the largest mean difference (-0.13) seen in the "legal" versus "reference" comparison. Web sites related to vaginal mesh have an overall mean neutral sentiment, and Web sites categorized as "medical," "reference," and "patient generated" have significantly higher sentiment scores than related Web sites in "legal" and "news/media" categories.

  10. Replacement tunnelled dialysis catheters for haemodialysis access: Same site, new site, or exchange — A multivariate analysis and risk score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, C.R.; Scott, P.M.; Lakshminarayan, R.; Ettles, D.F.; Robinson, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify variables related to complications following tunnelled dialysis catheter (TDC) replacement and stratifying the risk to reduce morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty TDCs (Split Cath, medCOMP) were replaced in 140 patients over a 5 year period. Multiple variables were retrospectively collected and analysed to stratify the risk and to predict patients who were more likely to suffer from complications. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify variables predictive of complications. Results: There were six immediate complications, 42 early complications, and 37 late complications. Multivariate analysis revealed that variables significantly associated to complications were: female sex (p = 0.003; OR 2.9); previous TDC in the same anatomical position in the past (p = 0.014; OR 4.1); catheter exchange (p = 0.038; OR 3.8); haemoglobin 15 s (p = 0.002; OR 4.1); and C-reactive protein >50 mg/l (p = 0.007; OR 4.6). A high-risk score, which used the values from the multivariate analysis, predicted 100% of the immediate complications, 95% of the early complications, and 68% of the late complications. Conclusion: Patients can now be scored prior to TDC replacement. A patient with a high-risk score can be optimized to reduce the chance of complications. Further prospective studies to confirm that rotating the site of TDC reduces complications are warranted as this has implications for current guidelines.

  11. Risk analysis of NPP in multi-unit site for configuration of AAC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ki

    2000-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in finding new sites for nuclear power plants, more units are being added to the existing sites. In these multi-unit sites, appropriate countermeasures should be established to cope with the potential station blackout (SBO) accident. Currently, installation of additional diesel generator (DG) is considered to ensure an alternative AC power source, but it has not been decided yet how many DGs should be installed in a multi-unit site. In this paper, risk informed decision making method, which evaluates reliability of electrical system, core damage frequency, and site average core damage frequency, is introduced to draw up the suitable number of DG in multi-unit site. The analysis results show that installing two DGs lowered the site average core damage frequency by 1.4% compared to one DG in six unit site. In the light of risk-informed decisions in regulatory guide 1.174, there is no difference of safety between two alternatives. It is concluded that one emergency diesel generator sufficiently guarantees safety against station blackout of nuclear power plants in multi-unit site. (author)

  12. A method for the automated detection phishing websites through both site characteristics and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua S.; Matthews, Jeanna N.; Stacy, John L.

    2012-06-01

    Phishing website analysis is largely still a time-consuming manual process of discovering potential phishing sites, verifying if suspicious sites truly are malicious spoofs and if so, distributing their URLs to the appropriate blacklisting services. Attackers increasingly use sophisticated systems for bringing phishing sites up and down rapidly at new locations, making automated response essential. In this paper, we present a method for rapid, automated detection and analysis of phishing websites. Our method relies on near real-time gathering and analysis of URLs posted on social media sites. We fetch the pages pointed to by each URL and characterize each page with a set of easily computed values such as number of images and links. We also capture a screen-shot of the rendered page image, compute a hash of the image and use the Hamming distance between these image hashes as a form of visual comparison. We provide initial results demonstrate the feasibility of our techniques by comparing legitimate sites to known fraudulent versions from Phishtank.com, by actively introducing a series of minor changes to a phishing toolkit captured in a local honeypot and by performing some initial analysis on a set of over 2.8 million URLs posted to Twitter over a 4 days in August 2011. We discuss the issues encountered during our testing such as resolvability and legitimacy of URL's posted on Twitter, the data sets used, the characteristics of the phishing sites we discovered, and our plans for future work.

  13. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  14. Examination of a Social-Networking Site Activities Scale (SNSAS) Using Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaythami, Hassan; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul; Bolden, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a social-networking site (SNS) activities scale (SNSAS) using Rasch Analysis. Items were also examined with Rasch Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across groups of university students (i.e., males and females from the United States [US] and Europe; N =…

  15. High resolution or optimum resolution? Spatial analysis of the Federmesser site at Andernach, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, D; Street, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial analysis at site level. It is suggested that spatial analysis has to proceed in several levels, from global to more detailed questions, and that optimum resolution should be established when applying any quantitative methods in this field. As an example, the ring and

  16. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the 120-F-1 Glass Dump Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis instruction has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed to develop the basis for surveillance and maintenance of the 120-F-1 Glass Dumpsite. The purpose of this investigation is to augment historical information and obtain data to establish a technical basis for surveillance and maintenance at the site

  17. Time Spent on Social Network Sites and Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2017-06-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being factors, namely self-esteem, life satisfaction, loneliness, and depression. Sixty-one studies consisting of 67 independent samples involving 19,652 participants were identified. The mean correlation between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being was low at r = -0.07. The correlations between time spent on social networking sites and positive indicators (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were close to 0, whereas those between time spent on social networking sites and negative indicators (depression and loneliness) were weak. The effects of publication outlet, site on which users spent time, scale of time spent, and participant age and gender were not significant. As most included studies used student samples, future research should be conducted to examine this relationship for adults.

  18. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  19. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  20. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  1. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  2. Large-scale analysis of phosphorylation site occupancy in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    in proteins is currently lacking. We have therefore analyzed the occurrence and occupancy of phosphorylated sites (~ 100,281) in a large set of eukaryotic proteins (~ 22,995). Phosphorylation probability was found to be much higher in both the  termini of protein sequences and this is much pronounced...... maximum randomness. An analysis of phosphorylation motifs indicated that just 40 motifs and a much lower number of associated kinases might account for nearly 50% of the known phosphorylations in eukaryotic proteins. Our results provide a broad picture of the phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins.......Many recent high throughput technologies have enabled large-scale discoveries of new phosphorylation sites and phosphoproteins. Although they have provided a number of insights into protein phosphorylation and the related processes, an inclusive analysis on the nature of phosphorylated sites...

  3. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  4. Computer analysis of protein functional sites projection on exon structure of genes in Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Irina V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Study of the relationship between the structural and functional organization of proteins and their coding genes is necessary for an understanding of the evolution of molecular systems and can provide new knowledge for many applications for designing proteins with improved medical and biological properties. It is well known that the functional properties of proteins are determined by their functional sites. Functional sites are usually represented by a small number of amino acid residues that are distantly located from each other in the amino acid sequence. They are highly conserved within their functional group and vary significantly in structure between such groups. According to this facts analysis of the general properties of the structural organization of the functional sites at the protein level and, at the level of exon-intron structure of the coding gene is still an actual problem. One approach to this analysis is the projection of amino acid residue positions of the functional sites along with the exon boundaries to the gene structure. In this paper, we examined the discontinuity of the functional sites in the exon-intron structure of genes and the distribution of lengths and phases of the functional site encoding exons in vertebrate genes. We have shown that the DNA fragments coding the functional sites were in the same exons, or in close exons. The observed tendency to cluster the exons that code functional sites which could be considered as the unit of protein evolution. We studied the characteristics of the structure of the exon boundaries that code, and do not code, functional sites in 11 Metazoa species. This is accompanied by a reduced frequency of intercodon gaps (phase 0) in exons encoding the amino acid residue functional site, which may be evidence of the existence of evolutionary limitations to the exon shuffling. These results characterize the features of the coding exon-intron structure that affect the functionality of the encoded protein and

  5. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  6. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell disorders and the concurrent use of some medications such as beta adrenergic ...

  7. GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Landfill Site Selection in AL-HashimyahQadaa

    OpenAIRE

    Alanbari, Mohammad Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Jasim, Hadeel Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing lan...

  8. Approaches to the process of measuring and analysis of web site visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankić Rade M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How to learn more about your Web-site's visitors by using Web-traffic statistics? One of the principal methods used by online advertisers, online communities and online businesses to keep track of their visitors' behavior is to employ tracking devices. Data gathered through log-file analysis customer registration, cookies and other tracking devices can be used to personalize each visitor's experience, find trends in customer use and measure the effectiveness of a Web site over time.

  9. Different damage observed in the villages of Pescara del Tronto and Vezzano after the M6.0 August 24, 2016 central Italy earthquake and site effects analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Masi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have surveyed many damaged villages located at the epicentre of the ML=6.0 earthquake which occurred on August 24, 2016 in central Italy. Some unexpected anomalies were discovered such as very different levels of damage in Vezzano and Pescara del Tronto villages (Arquata del Tronto Municipality, Ascoli Piceno province. The two villages are situated just 1300 meters from each other. Pescara del Tronto suffered very heavy damage with many masonry building collapses and 48 fatalities, while Vezzano suffered only light damage to few buildings. This paper provides a preliminar analysis from an engineering and geophysics perspective. Particularly, rapid visual surveys were carried out in the two villages in order to detect possible significant differences in the vulnerability of their building stocks and site geophysical investigations were performed to detect possible local amplification effects.

  10. Analysis of the portfolio of sites to characterize for selecting a nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has selected three sites, from five nominated, to characterize for a nuclear repository to permanently dispose of nuclear waste. This decision was made without the benefit of an analysis of this portfolio problem. This paper analyzes different portfolios of three sites for simultaneous characterization and strategies for sequential characterization. Characterization of each site, which involves significant subsurface excavation, is now estimated to cost $1 billion. Mainly because of the high characterization costs, sequential characterization strategies are identified which are the equivalent of $1.7-2.0 billion less expensive than the selected DOE simultaneous characterization of the three sites. If three sites are simultaneously characterized, one portfolio is estimated to be the equivalent of $100-400 million better than the selected DOE portfolio. Because of these potential savings and several other complicating factors that may influence the relative desirability of characterization strategies, a thorough analysis of characterization strategies that addresses the likelihood of finding disqualifying conditions during site characterization, uncertainties, and dependencies in forecast site repository costs, preclosure and postclosure health and safety impacts, potential delays of both sequential and simultaneous characterization strategies, and the environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety impacts of characterization activities is recommended

  11. A preliminary analysis of the risk of transporting nuclear waste to potential candidate commercial repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, environmental assessments for potential candidate sites are required to provide a basis for selection of the first site for disposal of commercial radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. A preliminary analysis of the impacts of transportation for each of the five potential sites will be described. Transportation was assumed to be entirely by truck or entirely by rail in order to obtain bounding impacts. This paper presents both radiological and nonradiological risks for the once-through fuel cycle

  12. Uncertainty Analysis Framework - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Rogers, Phillip M.

    2001-11-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of the predictions being made with a site-wide groundwater flow and transport model at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. In FY 2000, the focus of the initiative was on the characterization of major uncertainties in the current conceptual model that would affect model predictions. The long-term goals of the initiative are the development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology in future assessments and analyses using the site-wide model. This report focuses on the development and implementation of an uncertainty analysis framework.

  13. Chronic institutional failure and enhanced vulnerability to flash-floods in the Cuenca Altadel Río Lerma, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiza, Frida; Simmons, Peter; Burgess, Jacquie; McCall, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    The dominant paradigm in disaster risk reduction (DRR) policies has been seriously contested because of its reliance on interventions based on technocratic expertise. In the Mexican context, the influence of informal practices such as clientelism and cartelisation of the political system produces environmental degradation and vulnerability to disasters within the communities in the study site. This paper contributes to understanding of failed institutional processes and parallel practices that intensify vulnerability to disasters by contrasting the discourses of agents within a peri-urban community in central Mexico. Employing the Situational Analysis Approach as a methodological framework, the study identifies divergent views and practices within the community, leading to different responses to disasters and to different perceptions regarding institutional performance. In addition, it finds that institutional decision-making, based only on scientific and technical expertise, has resulted in unintended consequences that influence ongoing vulnerability to floods in the site under review. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  14. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, Giovanni; Salzano, Ernesto; Santucci de Magistris, Filippo; Fabbrocino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  15. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  16. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

  17. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  18. Environmental analysis of the operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10 site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.W.; Blumberg, R.; Cotter, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    An environmental analysis of the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley was conducted to present to the public information concerning the extent to which recognizable effects, or potential effects, on the environment may occur. The analysis addresses current operations of the ORNL X-10 site and completed operations that may continue to have residual effects. Solid wastes from ORNL operations at the Y-12 site which are transported to the X-10 site for burial (e.g., Biology Division animal wastes) are included as part of X-10 site operation. Socioeconomic effects are associated primarily with the communities where employees live and with the Knoxville Bureau of Economic Analysis economic area as a whole. Therefore, ORNL employees at both Y-12 and X-10 sites are included in the ORNL socioeconomic impact analysis. An extensive base of environmental data was accumulated for this report. Over 80 reports related to ORNL facilities and/or operations are cited as well as many open-literature citations. Environmental effects of the operation of ORNL result from operational discharges from the onsite facilities; construction and/or modification of facilities, transportation to and from the site of persons, goods and services; socioeconomic impacts to the local, regional, and general population; and accidental discharges if they should occur. Operational discharges to the environnment are constrained by federal, state, and local regulations and by criteria established by the US Department of Energy to minimize adverse impacts. It is the purpose of this document to evaluate the operation of the ORNL insofar as impacts beyond the site boundary may occur or have the potential for occurrence.

  19. Environmental analysis of closure options for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Stephenson, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Previously acceptable waste management practices (e.g., the use of unlined seepage basins) for discarding of wastes from nuclear materials production has resulted in occasional cases of groundwater contamination beneath some disposal sites, mainly in water-table aquifers. Groundwater contaminants include volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other chemicals. The closure of active and inactive waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive materials at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is planned as part of an overall program to protect groundwater quality. DOE developed and submitted to Congress a groundwater protection plan for SRP. This initial plan and subsequent revisions provide the basis for closure of SRP waste sites to comply with applicable groundwater protection requirements. An environmental analysis of the closure options for the criteria waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive wastes was conducted to provide technical support. The several parts of this environmental analysis include description of geohydrologic conditions; determination of waste inventories; definition of closure options; modeling of environmental pathways; assessment of risk; and analysis of project costs. Each of these components of the overall analysis is described in turn in the following paragraphs. Production operations at SRP have generated a variety of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive waste materials. Several locations onplant have been used as waste disposal sites for solid and liquid wastes. Seventy-six individual waste sites at 45 distinct geographical locations on SRP have received hazardous, low-level radioactive, or mixed wastes. These waste sites can be categorized into 26 groupings according to the function of the waste disposed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Environmental analysis of the operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10 site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Blumberg, R.; Cotter, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    An environmental analysis of the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley was conducted to present to the public information concerning the extent to which recognizable effects, or potential effects, on the environment may occur. The analysis addresses current operations of the ORNL X-10 site and completed operations that may continue to have residual effects. Solid wastes from ORNL operations at the Y-12 site which are transported to the X-10 site for burial (e.g., Biology Division animal wastes) are included as part of X-10 site operation. Socioeconomic effects are associated primarily with the communities where employees live and with the Knoxville Bureau of Economic Analysis economic area as a whole. Therefore, ORNL employees at both Y-12 and X-10 sites are included in the ORNL socioeconomic impact analysis. An extensive base of environmental data was accumulated for this report. Over 80 reports related to ORNL facilities and/or operations are cited as well as many open-literature citations. Environmental effects of the operation of ORNL result from operational discharges from the onsite facilities; construction and/or modification of facilities, transportation to and from the site of persons, goods and services; socioeconomic impacts to the local, regional, and general population; and accidental discharges if they should occur. Operational discharges to the environnment are constrained by federal, state, and local regulations and by criteria established by the US Department of Energy to minimize adverse impacts. It is the purpose of this document to evaluate the operation of the ORNL insofar as impacts beyond the site boundary may occur or have the potential for occurrence